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Encyclopedia > Constitution of Turkey
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The current Constitution of Turkey, ratified in 1982, establishes the organization of the government of the Republic of Turkey and sets out the principles and rules of the state's conduct along with its responsibilities towards its citizens. The Constitution also establishes the rights and responsibilities of the latter while setting the guidelines for the delegation and exercise of sovereignty that belongs to the Turkish Nation. Turkey is a secular, republican parliamentary democracy. ... There have been ten Presidents of the Republic of Turkey since its inception. ... There have been ten Presidents of the Republic of Turkey since its inception. ... Ahmet Necdet Sezers mom (born September 13, 1941 in Afyonkarahisar) is the tenth and current President of the Republic of Turkey. ... This is a chronological list of every government formed by the Prime Ministers of the Republic of Turkey. ... Recep Tayyip Erdoğan (born February 26, 1954), became Prime Minister of Turkey on March 14, 2003. ... The Grand National Assembly (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi in Turkish) is the unicameral parliament of Turkey which carries out legislative functions. ... Bülent Arınç (1948) is a Turkish politician and the 22nd Speaker of the Parliament of Turkey. ... Political parties in Turkey lists political parties in Turkey. ... Elections in Turkey gives information on election and election results in Turkey. ... The next Turkish president will be elected by parliament in May 2007. ... Turkeys 16th general election is scheduled to be held on 4 November 2007, at the end of a full five-year term. ... Foreign relations of the Republic of Turkey are primarily with the Western world and its neigboring countries. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The National Security Council (Milli Güvenlik Kurulu (MGK) in Turkish) is a powerful body that unites the top civilian and military leaders, and issues ‘recommendations’ to the government upon all matters vaguely defined as touching on the security of the state of the Turkish Republic. ... Turkey is a signatory to the European Convention on Human Rights and the Turkish Constitution guarantees basic human rights to all Turkish citizens. ... // Since the establishment of the republic in 1923, there has been a strong tradition of secularism in Turkey. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Provinces of Turkey are called iller in Turkish (singular is il, see Turkish alphabet for capitalization of i). ... The provinces of Turkey are divided into 923 districts (ilçeler; sing. ... The districts of Turkey are subdivided into villages (köyler). ... The villages of Turkey are subdivided into neighbourhoods (mahalleler) Subdivisions of Turkey Regions of Turkey Provinces of Turkey Districts of Turkey Villages of Turkey Categories: | | | ... Below each region you will find associated Cities with the region. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A state is a set of institutions that possess the authority to make the rules that govern the people in one or more societies, having internal and external sovereignty over a definite territory. ... The word citizen may refer to: A person with a citizenship Citizen Watch Co. ... A right is the power or privilege to which one is justly entitled or a thing to which one has a just claim. ... Languages Turkish Religions Muslim or nominally Muslim, predominantly Sunni Islam, followed by Alevis. ...


Article Five of the Constitution sets out the raison d'être of the Turkish state, namely "to provide the conditions required for the development of the individual’s material and spiritual existence".

Contents

History

The current Constitution of Turkey was ratified in 1982 by popular referendum during the military junta of 1980-1983. // Overview Over the centuries, Turkey has had many constitutions and can be caracterized by the steady establishment of a nation-state, democratization and internationalisation. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ballots of the Argentine plebiscite of 1984 on the border treaty with Chile A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... The Military coup in Turkey, 1980 was a coup detat made on September 12, 1980 by General Kenan Evren, head of the general staff and also chief of Counter-Guerrilla, the Turkish branch of Gladio. ...


It is the fourth constitution of the Republic of Turkey: The first Turkish Constitution was the Constitution of 1921, followed by the Constitution of 1924 and the Constitution of 1961. It was last amended in 2004. 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Overview

Founding principles

The Constitution asserts that Turkey is a secular and democratic republic, deriving its sovereignty from the people. The sovereignty rests with the Turkish Nation, who delegates its exercise to an elected unicameral parliament, the Turkish Grand National Assembly. Moreover, Article 4 declares the immovability the founding principles of the Republic defined in the first three Articles, "laïcité, social equality, equality before law, the Republican form of government, the indivisibility of the Republic and of the Turkish Nation", and bans any proposals for their modification. The preamble also invokes the principles of nationalism, defined as the "material and spiritual well-being of the Republic". Thus, it sets out to found a unitary nation-state based on the principles of secular democracy. This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... Democracy (literally rule by the people, from the Greek demos, people, and kratos, rule[1]) is a form of government. ... For other uses, see Republic (disambiguation). ... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme political (e. ... The Grand National Assembly (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi in Turkish) is the unicameral parliament of Turkey which carries out legislative functions. ... Motto of the French republic on the tympanum of a church, in Aups (Var département) which was installed after the 1905 law on the Separation of the State and the Church. ... Social equality is a social state of affairs in which certain different people have the same status in a certain respect, minimally at least in voting rights, freedom of speech and assembly, and property rights. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... For other uses, see Republic (disambiguation). ... Look up Preamble in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution. ... A map showing the unitary states. ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ...


It also establishes a separation of powers between the three main powers of the state. The separation of powers between the legislative and the executive is a loose one, whereas the one between the executive and the legislative with the judiciary is a strict one. The separation of powers (or trias politica, a term coined by French political Enlightenment thinker Montesquieu) is a model for the governance of democratic states. ... A state is a set of institutions that possess the authority to make the rules that govern the people in one or more societies, having internal and external sovereignty over a definite territory. ... A legislature is a governmental deliberative body with the power to adopt laws. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      In law, the judiciary or judicial is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ...


Delegation and exercise of sovereignty

Article Seven provides for the establishment of a unicameral parliament as the sole organ of expression of sovereign people. Article Six of the Constitution affirms that "sovereignty is vested fully and unconditionally in the nation" and that "the Turkish Nation shall exercise its sovereignty through the authorised organs as prescribed by the principles laid down in the Constitution". The same article also rules out the delegation of sovereignty "to any individual, group or class" and affirms that "no person or agency shall exercise any state authority which does not emanate from the Constitution". Article 80 (A80) affirms the principle of national sovereignty: "members of the Turkish Grand National Assembly represent, not merely their own constituencies or constituents, but the Nation as a whole". For unicameral alphabets, see the article letter case. Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme authority over a geographic region or group of people, such as a nation or a tribe. ... A constituency is any cohesive corporate unit or body bound by shared structures, goals or loyalty. ... A constituent is someone who can or does appoint or elect (and often by implication can also remove or recall) another as his agent or representative. ... One of the most influential doctrines in history is that all humans are divided into groups called nations. ...


Part Three, Chapter One (Articles 75-100) sets the rules for the election and functioning of the Turkish Grand National Assembly as the legislative organ, as well as the conditions of eligibility (A76), parliamentary immunity (A83) and general legislative procudures to be followed. Per Articles 87 and 88, both the government and the parliament can propose laws, however it is only the parliament that has the power to enact laws (A87) and ratify treaties of the Republic with other sovereign states (A90). Per Article Eight, the executive power is vested in the President of the Republic and the Council of Ministers. Part Three, Chapter One, Section Two (Articles 109-116) lays out the rules for the confirmation and functioning of the government as the executive comprising the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers (A109). Elections in Turkey gives information on election and election results in Turkey. ... Parliamentary immunity is a system in which members of the parliament are granted partial immunity from prosecution. ... Single European Act A treaty is a binding agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely states and international organizations. ... This is a chronological list of every government formed by the Prime Ministers of the Republic of Turkey. ...


The President of the Republic is elected by the parliament and has a largely ceremonial role as the Head of State, "representing the Republic of Turkey and the unity of the Turkish Nation" (A104). There have been ten Presidents of the Republic of Turkey since its inception. ... Queen Elizabeth II, is the Head of State of 16 countries including: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand and the Bahamas, as well as crown colonies and overseas territories of the United Kingdom. ...

See also: Politics of Turkey, Grand National Assembly of Turkey, President of Turkey, Prime Minister of Turkey, and Council of Ministers of Turkey

Turkey is a secular, republican parliamentary democracy. ... The Grand National Assembly (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi in Turkish) is the unicameral parliament of Turkey which carries out legislative functions. ... There have been ten Presidents of the Republic of Turkey since its inception. ... This is a chronological list of every government formed by the Prime Ministers of the Republic of Turkey. ...

Judiciary

Article Nine affirms that the "judicial power shall be exercised by independent courts on behalf of the Turkish Nation". Part Four provides the rules relating to its functioning and guarantees full independence (A137-140). The judiciary obeys the modern separation of powers among its ranks: It is divided into two entities, Administrative Justice and Judicial Justice, with the Danıştay (The Council of State) the highest court for the former (A155) and Yargıtay (High Court of Appeals) the highest court for the latter (154). The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      In law, the judiciary or judicial is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... A trial at the Old Bailey in London as drawn by Thomas Rowlandson and Augustus Pugin for Ackermanns Microcosm of London (1808-11). ... Administrative law (or regulatory law) is the body of law that arises from the activities of administrative agencies of government. ... The Turkish Council of State is the highest administrative court in the Republic of Turkey and is based in Ankara. ... The supreme court in some countries, provinces, and states, is the highest court in that jurisdiction and functions as a court of last resort whose rulings cannot be appealed. ... The High Court of Appeals (Turkish: Yargıtay) is the last instance for reviewing decisions and judgements given by courts of justice and which are not referred by law to other judicial authority. ...


Part Four, Section Two allows for a Constitutional Court that statutes on the conformity of laws and governmental decrees to the Constitution, and it can be seized by the President of the Republic, the government, the members of Parliament (A150) or any judge before whom an exception of unconstitutionality has been raised by a defendant or a plaintiff (A152). The Constitutional Court has the right to both a priori and a posteriori review, and it can invalidate whole laws or decrees and ban their application for all future cases (A153). Turkish Constitutional Court is a lower level civilian court that reviews the constitutionality of laws and decrees. ... Lady Justice is a personification of the law. ... Decree is an order that has the force of law. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A defendant or defender is any party who is required to answer the complaint of a plaintiff or pursuer in a civil lawsuit before a court, or any party who has been formally charged or accused of violating a criminal statute. ... A plaintiff, also known as a claimant or complainer, is the party who initiates a lawsuit (also known as an action) before a court. ... A Posteriori is the title of the musical project Enigmas sixth studio album, released in September 2006. ...


International treaties and aggrements are ratified by parliament as laws. No appeal to the Constitutional Court shall be made with regard to these agreements, on the grounds that they are unconstitutional. And , International Aggrements about fundamental rights and freedoms have a presidence over laws and even constitution. (A90).

See also: Legal System in the Republic of Turkey and Constitutional Court of Turkey

The Turkish court structure consists of civilian and military courts: // Judicial Courts The judicial courts form the largest part of the system; they handle most civil and criminal cases involving ordinary citizens. ... // Overview Part Four, Section Two of the Turkish Constitution has established the Constitutional Court of Turkey that statutes on the conformity of laws and decrees to the Constitution, and it can be seized by the President of the Republic, the government, the members of Parliament or any judge before whom...

Administrative organization

Part Three, Chapter Two, Section Four organizes the functioning of the central administration and certain important institutions of the Republic such as its universities (A130-132), local administrations (A127), fundamental public services (A128) and national security (A117-118). Article 123 stipulates that "the organisation and functions of the administration are based on the principles of centralization and local administration". Representation of a university class, 1350s. ... Generally, a local administrative unit (LAU) is an area of governmental administration below a province, region, state or other major national subdivision. ... Public services is a term usually used to mean services provided by government to its citizens, either directly (through the public sector) or by financing private provision of services. ... Security measures taken to protect the Houses of Parliament in London, England. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Centralization (or centralisation) is the process by which the activities of an organization, particularly those regarding decision-making, become concentrated within a particular location and/or group. ...


National security

The Turkish Armed Forces (TAF) is subordinated to civilian rule and is under the command of the Commander-in-Chief, the President of the Republic. The Chief of General Staff of the TAF is responsible to the Prime Minister in the exercise of his functions, and the latter is responsible, along with the rest of the Council of Ministers, before the parliament (A117). Turkish Armed Forces (TAF) (Turkish: Türk Silahlı Kuvvetleri (TSK)) consists of the Army, the Navy (includes Naval Air and Naval Infantry) and the Air Force. ... Ahmet Necdet Sezers mom (born September 13, 1941 in Afyonkarahisar) is the tenth and current President of the Republic of Turkey. ... The Chief of the Turkish General Staff is a military person of rank general, who presides the general staff of the armed forces - army, navy, air force - of Turkey. ...


National Security Council is set up as an advisory organ, comprising the Chief of General Staff and the four main Commanders of the TAF and select members of the Council of Ministers, to develop the "national security policy of the state" (A118). The National Security Council (Milli Güvenlik Kurulu (MGK) in Turkish) is a powerful body that unites the top civilian and military leaders, and issues ‘recommendations’ to the government upon all matters vaguely defined as touching on the security of the state of the Turkish Republic. ... The Chief of the Turkish General Staff is a military person of rank general, who presides the general staff of the armed forces - army, navy, air force - of Turkey. ...

See also: Turkish Armed Forces and National Security Council (Turkey)

Turkish Armed Forces (TAF) (Turkish: Türk Silahlı Kuvvetleri (TSK)) consists of the Army, the Navy (includes Naval Air and Naval Infantry) and the Air Force. ... The National Security Council (Milli Güvenlik Kurulu (MGK) in Turkish) is a powerful body that unites the top civilian and military leaders, and issues ‘recommendations’ to the government upon all matters vaguely defined as touching on the security of the state of the Turkish Republic. ...

Revision

In Article 175, it also sets out the procudure of its own revision and amendment by either referendum or a qualified majority vote of 2/3 in the National Assembly. It does not recognize the right to popular initiatives: Only the members of Parliament can propose modifications to the Constitution. A constitution is a system, often codified in a written document, which establishes the rules and principles by which an organization is governed. ... Ballots of the Argentine plebiscite of 1984 on the border treaty with Chile A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... A supermajority or a qualified majority is a requirement for a proposal to gain a specified level or type of support which exceeds a simple majority in order to have effect. ...


Individual and Group Rights

Part Two of the constitution is entitled the Fundamental Rights and Duties and is its bill of rights. Article Twelve guarantees "fundamental rights and freedoms", which are defined as including the right to life, security of person and right to property in Articles 17, 19 and 35, respectively. Many of these entrenched rights have their basis in international bills of rights, such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which Turkey was one of the first nations to ratify in April 1949 [1]. This article is about the general concept of a bill of rights. ... The term right to life is a political term used in controversies over various issues that involve the taking of a life (or what is perceived to be a life). ... Security of person is a right guaranteed by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the United Nations in 1948. ... // Use of the term The concept of property or ownership has no single or universally accepted definition. ... This article is about the general concept of a bill of rights. ... Eleanor Roosevelt with the Spanish version of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. ...


Equality of citizens

Besides the provisions establishing Turkey as a secular state, Article Ten goes further with regards to equality of its citizens by prohibiting any discrimination based on their "language, race, color, sex, political opinion, philosophical convictions or religious beliefs" and guaranteeing their equality in the eyes of the law. Borrowing from the French Revolutionary ideals of the nation and the Republic, Article 3 affirms that "The Turkish State, with its territory and nation, is an indivisible entity. Its language is Turkish". Most importantly, as far as citizenship is concerned, ethnic divisions are irrelevant since "everyone bound to the Turkish state through the bond of citizenship is a Turk" (A66). The term race serves to distinguish between populations or groups of people based on different sets of characteristics which is commonly determined through social conventions. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Freedom of thought (also called freedom of conscience and freedom of ideas) is the freedom of an individual to hold or consider a fact, viewpoint, or thought, regardless of anyone elses view. ... Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Freedom of expression

Article 26 establishes freedom of expression and Articles 27 and 28 the freedom of the press, while Articles 33 and 34 affirm the freedom of association and freedom of assembly, respectively. Freedom of speech is the right to freely say what one pleases, as well as the related right to hear what others have stated. ...


Group rights

Classes are considered irrelevant in legal terms (A10). The Constitution affirms the right of workers to form labor unions "without obtaining permission" and "to possess the right to become a member of a union and to freely withdraw from membership" (A51). Articles 53 and 54 affirm the right of workers to bargain collectively and to strike, respectively. Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... In classical economics and all micro-economics labour is one of three factors of production, the others being land and capital. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers... A collective agreement is a labor contract between an employer and one or more unions. ...


Critique

For a full overview and review of the Turkish Constitution with regards to its guarantee of human rights and fulfillment of obligations towards the international human rights law, please see the review Report of State Party - Turkey by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner of Human Rights, dated September 17, 2001 [2]. Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... International human rights law codifies legal provisions governing human rights in various international human rights instruments. ... 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Ethnic rights

The Constitution of 1982 has been criticized as limiting individual cultural and political liberties in comparison with the previous constitution of 1961. Critics claim that the constitution denies the fundamental rights of the Kurdish and Assyrian minorities of Turkey, even though the minorities recognized legally are Greeks, Armenians and Jews per the Treaty of Lausanne, although there have also been similar claims by the Armenian and Greek communities in Turkey even though, according to the same treaty, they have certain privileges not recognized to other ethnic communities. Nevertheless it must be remembered that Article Three, implicitly, and Article Ten, explicitly, ban (in the spirit of Article 66 mentioned above) the division of the Turkish Nation into sub-entities and the referral to ethnic groups in law as being separate from the rest of the Turkish Nation because of the principle of indivisibility of the nation (an exact transliteration of the principle of indivisibility contained in the Article One of the current version of the Constitution of France (ratified in 1958) that also bans such divisions of the French Nation into sub-divisions). Liberty is generally considered a concept of political philosophy and identifies the condition in which an individual has immunity from the arbitrary exercise of authority. ... About half of all Kurds live in Turkey, numbering some 15 million where they comprise an estimated 20%[1] of the total population of Turkey and are predominantly distributed in the southeastern corner of the country. ... Languages Assyrian, Chaldean, Turoyo Religions Christianity Related ethnic groups other Semitic peoples Assyrians are an ethnic group whose origins lie in what is today Iraq, Iran, Turkey and Syria, but who have migrated to the Caucasus, North America and Western Europe during the past century. ... A minority or subordinate group is a sociological group that does not constitute a politically dominant plurality of the total population of a given society. ... Borders as shaped by the treaty The Treaty of Lausanne (July 24, 1923) was a peace treaty that settle a part of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire that reflected the consequences of the Turkish Independence War between Allies of World War I and Turkish national movement, (Grand National Assembly... The current Constitution of France was adopted on October 4, 1958, and has been amended 17 times, most recently on March 28, 2003. ...


The Council of Europe’s European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI) third report on Turkey, published in February 2005, has taken the position that the parliament should revise Article 42 of the Constitution, which prohibits the teaching of any language other than Turkish as a first language in schools [3]. However, such an amendment seems improbable considering that the Article Three clearly states that the official language of the Republic of Turkey is Turkish and it is considered that allowing the teaching of another language as the first language in schools would go against the spirit of this article. The Turkish constitutional principle of not allowing the teaching of other languages as first languages in schools to its citizens, other than the official one, is similar to the policies of Germany, France and Austria, all members of the European Union. On the other hand, since 2004, private courses of local languages can be opened and function with neither an a priori nor an a posteriori oversight by the state. The Palais de lEurope in Strasbourg Council of Europe Flag: used by the Council of Europe The Council of Europe (French: , German: ) is an international organization of 46 member states in the European region (with Azerbaijan, Armenia, Turkey, Georgia and Cyprus also extending into Southwest Asia and Russia into... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... First language (native language, mother tongue, or vernacular) is the language a person learns first. ... A principle (not principal) is something, usually a rule or norm, that is part of the basis for something else. ... Citizenship is membership in a political community (originally a city or town but now usually a country) and carries with it rights to political participation; a person having such membership is a citizen. ... An official language is a language that is given a privileged legal status in a state, or other legally-defined territory. ...


Freedom of expression

The trial in 2005 of a well-known Turkish novelist, Orhan Pamuk, because of his remarks on the Armenian genocide and the Kurdish/Turkish conflict was considered by some to be a violation of Article 10 of the Constitution. The complaint against Orhan Pamuk was made by a group of ultra-nationalist lawyers and charges filed by a district prosecutor under the Article 301 of the Turkish Penal Code that criminalizes "insults to Turkishness". Nevertheless it must be noted, however, that he was later relaxed and charges annulled by the competent Turkish court of first instance. On the other hand, the same group of lawyers have repeatedly filed complaints against many other less-known authors for the same reasons. The outcome of the cases are still unclear pending the completion of legal proceedings [4]. A novel is an extended work of written, narrative, prose fiction, usually in story form; the writer of a novel is a novelist. ... Ferit Orhan Pamuk (born on June 7, 1952 in Istanbul) is a Nobel Prize-winning Turkish novelist. ... Armenian Genocide photo. ... Ultra-nationalists are extreme nationalists or patriots. ... English barrister 16th century painting of a civil law notary, by Flemish painter Quentin Massys. ... Article 301 is a controversial article of the Turkish penal code, taking effect on June 1, 2005, and introduced as part of a package of penal-law reform in the process preceding the opening of negotiations for Turkish membership of the European Union (EU), in order to bring Turkey up...


Influence of the military

The constitution is also criticised for giving the military, who see themselves as the guardians of the secular and unitary nature of the Republic along with Atatürk's legacy, too much influence in political affairs via the National Security Council [5]. Atatürk’s reforms are a series of legal changes concerning the Turkish society initiated between 1922 and 1938 by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder and the first president of the Republic of Turkey. ... The National Security Council (Milli Güvenlik Kurulu (MGK) in Turkish) is a powerful body that unites the top civilian and military leaders, and issues ‘recommendations’ to the government upon all matters vaguely defined as touching on the security of the state of the Turkish Republic. ...

See also: Human rights in Turkey

Turkey is a signatory to the European Convention on Human Rights and the Turkish Constitution guarantees basic human rights to all Turkish citizens. ...

Timeline

Since its ratification in 1982, the Constitution of 1982 has overseen many important events and changes in the Republic of Turkey, and it has been modified many times to keep up with global and regional geopolitical conjectures. Image File history File links Wiki_letter_w. ...

  • Ratification on 1982

References

  • [1] The current constitution in English from the Office of the Prime Minister, Directorate General of Press and Information
  1. ^ http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/0/e00415d0170ee8a5c1256b3a0051eb22/$FILE/G0144925.pdf Office of UN High Commissioner of Human Rights Report - See section no. 84
  2. ^ http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/0/e00415d0170ee8a5c1256b3a0051eb22/$FILE/G0144925.pdf Report of State Party - Turkey by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner of Human Rights, 2001
  3. ^ http://europa.eu.int/comm/enlargement/report_2005/pdf/package/sec_1426_final_en_progress_report_tr.pdf
  4. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/4637886.stm
  5. ^ http://www.turkishpress.com/news.asp?id=144705

See also

The Turkish court structure consists of civilian and military courts: // Judicial Courts The judicial courts form the largest part of the system; they handle most civil and criminal cases involving ordinary citizens. ... Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881 – November 10, 1938), until November 24, 1934 Gazi Mustafa Kemal Pasha, Turkish army officer and revolutionary statesman, was the founder and the first President of the Republic of Turkey. ... Atatürk’s reforms are a series of legal changes concerning the Turkish society initiated between 1922 and 1938 by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder and the first president of the Republic of Turkey. ...

External links

  • The current Constitution in English
  • [2] The current constitution in Turkish from the National Assembly
  • [3] The Turkish Constitution of 1961 in English

 
 

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