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Encyclopedia > Constitution of Fiji


Constitution of Fiji: Main article
Preamble
Chapter 1: The State
Chapter 2: Compact
Chapter 3: Citizenship
Chapter 4: Bill of Rights
Chapter 5: Social Justice
Chapter 6: The Parliament
Chapter 7: Executive Government
Chapter 8: Great Council of Chiefs
Chapter 9: Judiciary
Chapter 10: State Services
Chapter 11: Accountability
Chapter 12: Revenue and Expenditure
Chapter 13: Group Rights
Chapter 14: Emergency Powers
Chapter 15: Amendment of Constitution
Chapter 16: Commencement, Interpretation and Repeals
Chapter 17: Schedule Oaths and Affirmations

This article is a commentary on the Preamble to the Fijian constitution. ... Chapter 1: The State. ... Chapter 2: Compact. ... Chapter 3: Citizenship. ... Chapter 4: Bill of Rights. ... Chapter 5: Social Justice. ... Chapter 6: The Parliament. ... Chapter 7: Executive Government. ... Chapter 8 Great Council of Chiefs (Bose Levu Vakaturaga) Chapter 8: Executive Government. ... Chapter 9 Judiciary Section 117 Judicial power (1) The judicial power of the State vests in the High Court, the Court of Appeal and the Supreme Court and in such other courts as are created by law. ... Chapter 10 State Services Section 140 Recruitment and promotion policy The recruitment of persons to a state service, the promotion of persons within a state service and the management of a state service must be based on the following principles: (a) government policies should be carried out effectively and efficiently... Chapter 11 Accountability Part 1 Code of Conduct Section 156 Code of Conduct (1) This section applies to the President, Vice-President, Ministers, members of Parliament, holders of offices established by or continued in existence under this Constitution, members of commissions, Secretaries of departments, the Secretary to the Cabinet and... Chapter 12 Revenue and Expenditure Section 175 Raising of revenue The raising by the Government of revenue or moneys, whether through the imposition of taxation or otherwise, must be authorised by or under an Act. ... Chapter 13 Group Rights Section 185 Alteration of certain Acts (1) A bill alters any of the following Acts, namely: (a) Fijian Affairs Act; (b) Fijian Development Fund Act; (c) Native Lands Act; (d) Native Land Trust Act; (e) Rotuman Act; (f) Rotuman Lands Act; (g) Banaban Lands Act; or... Chapter 14 Emergency Powers Section 187 Emergency powers (1) The Parliament may make a law conferring power on the President, acting an the advice of the Cabinet, to proclaim a state of emergency in Fiji, or in a part of Fiji, in such circumstances as the law prescribes. ... Chapter 15 Amendment of Constitution Section 190 Alteration of Constitution This Constitution maybe altered in the way set out in this Chapter and may not be altered in any other way. ... Chapter 16 Commencement, Interpretation and Repeals Section 193 Short title and commencement (1) This Act maybe cited as the Constitution Amendment Act 1997. ... [Chapter 17] Schedule Oaths and Affirmations [Part 1] A. Oath or Affirmation of Allegiance Oath: I, A.B., do swear that I will be faithful and bear true allegiance to Republic of the Fiji Islands, according to law. ...

Background

The Constitution of the Republic of the Fiji Islands dates from 1997. It is Fiji's third Constitution. The first, adopted in 1970 upon independence, was abrogated following two military coups in 1987. A second constitution was adopted in 1990. Its discriminatory provisions, which reserved the office of Prime Minister and a built-in majority in the House of Representatives for indigenous Fijians (although they were at that time a minority of the population) proved very unpopular with the Indo-Fijian community, which comprised almost half the country's population, and in the mid 1990s the government agreed that it should be rewritten. 1997 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1970 was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Fiji Coups of 1987 refers to the 1987 overthrow of the government of Fiji by Lieutenant Colonel Sitiveni Rabuka, then third in command of the Royal Fiji Military Forces. ... 1987 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1990 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Fiji received its independence in 1970. ... Overview The House of Representatives is the lower chamber of Fijis Parliament. ... Fijians are the major indigenous people of the Fiji Islands. ... Indo-Fijian - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... // Events and trends The 1990s are generally classified as having moved slightly away from the more conservative 1980s, but otherwise retaining the same mindset. ...


The constitutional process

In 1995, President Ratu Sir Kamisese Mara appointed a three-member Constitutional Review Commission. The commissioners were Tomasi Vakatora, an ethnic Fijian, and Brij Lal, an Indo-Fijian, with Sir Paul Reeves, a former Governor-General of New Zealand, as chairman. Fourteen months of consultations followed. The Commission finally presented its report, containing 697 recommendations, to the President on 6 September 1996. The report was subsequently tabled in Parliament, at a joint sitting of the Senate and the House of Representatives, on September 11. A parliamentary committee, composed of members of both chambers, was established to study the report. 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Fiji became a republic in 1987, when Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom formally abdicated as Queen of Fiji, following two military coups led by Lieutenant Colonel Sitiveni Rabuka. ... Ratu Sir Kamisese Mara (May 6, 1920 – April 18, 2004) is considered the founding father of the modern nation of Fiji. ... Tomasi Vakatora Tomasi Vakatora is a Fijian statesman who has held Cabinet office and served as Speaker of the House of Representatives. ... The Most Reverend Sir Paul Alfred Reeves GCMG GCVO QSO (December 6, 1932–) was Archbishop and Primate of New Zealand and Bishop of Auckland from 1980 to 1985 and Governor-General of New Zealand from 1985 to 1990. ... Flag of the Governor General of New Zealand The Governor-General of New Zealand is the local representative of the Queen of New Zealand, Queen Elizabeth II, and as such is the highest office in the Government of New Zealand. ... September 6 is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years). ... 1996 is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... Fijis Parliament is bicameral. ... The Senate of Fiji is the upper chamber of Parliament. ... Overview The House of Representatives is the lower chamber of Fijis Parliament. ... September 11 is the 254th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (255th in leap years). ...


Eight months later, the committee tabled its response in Parliament on 14 May 1997, endorsing most of the recommendations. The Great Council of Chiefs, a powerful gathering of mainly high chiefs which, among other prerogatives, elects the President of Fiji, also endorsed the report in June. The Constitution (Amendment) Bill 1997 was passed by the House of Representatives on 3 July that year, and by the Senate on 10 July. President Mara signed it into law on 25 July 1997. It took effect from 27 July. Under its provisions, ethnic Fijians agreed to give up their guaranteed majority in the House of Representatives and their monopoly on the Prime Minister's office, but in return, their ownership of most of the land was written into the constitution. Their rights were also protected by institutionalizing of the Great Council of Chiefs, which retained its power to elect the President and 14 of the 32 Senators. May 14 is the 134th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (135th in leap years). ... 1997 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Great Council of Chiefs (Bose Levu Vakaturaga in Fijian) is a constitutional body in the Republic of the Fiji Islands. ... Ratu is a title inherited by Fijians of chiefly rank. ... July 3 is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 181 days remaining. ... July 10 is the 191st day (192nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 174 days remaining. ... July 25 is the 206th day (207th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 159 days remaining. ... 1997 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 27 is the 208th day (209th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 157 days remaining. ...

Politics of Fiji

Main article

Constitution of Fiji
Main article - Preamble
Chapters 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
::9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Executive government
President - Vice-President
Prime Minister - Cabinet
Leader of the Opposition

Legislative government
Parliament
Senate
House of Representatives
Speaker

Judicial government
Main article
High Court
Court of Appeals
Supreme Court
Chief Justice

Other political institutions
Great Council of Chiefs
Chairman, G.C.C.
Local government
Political parties

Historical institutions
Governor
Governor-General
Chief Minister
Legislative Council

File links The following pages link to this file: Foreign relations of Fiji Fiji Suva Freedom House Atu Ratu-mai-mbula Samulayo Burotu Degei Murimuria Cibaciba and Drakulu Dakuwanga Lewalevu Lingadua Nabangatai Ndauthina Ndengei Ngendi Ngurai Tui Delai Gau Vitu OFC Nations Cup List of national flags Fijian language 1995... Constitutional Structure See main article: Constitution of Fiji and linked articles. ... This article is a commentary on the Preamble to the Fijian constitution. ... Chapter 1: The State. ... Chapter 2: Compact. ... Chapter 3: Citizenship. ... Chapter 4: Bill of Rights. ... Chapter 5: Social Justice. ... Chapter 6: The Parliament. ... Chapter 7: Executive Government. ... Chapter 8 Great Council of Chiefs (Bose Levu Vakaturaga) Chapter 8: Executive Government. ... Chapter 9 Judiciary Section 117 Judicial power (1) The judicial power of the State vests in the High Court, the Court of Appeal and the Supreme Court and in such other courts as are created by law. ... Chapter 10 State Services Section 140 Recruitment and promotion policy The recruitment of persons to a state service, the promotion of persons within a state service and the management of a state service must be based on the following principles: (a) government policies should be carried out effectively and efficiently... Chapter 11 Accountability Part 1 Code of Conduct Section 156 Code of Conduct (1) This section applies to the President, Vice-President, Ministers, members of Parliament, holders of offices established by or continued in existence under this Constitution, members of commissions, Secretaries of departments, the Secretary to the Cabinet and... Chapter 12 Revenue and Expenditure Section 175 Raising of revenue The raising by the Government of revenue or moneys, whether through the imposition of taxation or otherwise, must be authorised by or under an Act. ... Chapter 13 Group Rights Section 185 Alteration of certain Acts (1) A bill alters any of the following Acts, namely: (a) Fijian Affairs Act; (b) Fijian Development Fund Act; (c) Native Lands Act; (d) Native Land Trust Act; (e) Rotuman Act; (f) Rotuman Lands Act; (g) Banaban Lands Act; or... Chapter 14 Emergency Powers Section 187 Emergency powers (1) The Parliament may make a law conferring power on the President, acting an the advice of the Cabinet, to proclaim a state of emergency in Fiji, or in a part of Fiji, in such circumstances as the law prescribes. ... Chapter 15 Amendment of Constitution Section 190 Alteration of Constitution This Constitution maybe altered in the way set out in this Chapter and may not be altered in any other way. ... Chapter 16 Commencement, Interpretation and Repeals Section 193 Short title and commencement (1) This Act maybe cited as the Constitution Amendment Act 1997. ... [Chapter 17] Schedule Oaths and Affirmations [Part 1] A. Oath or Affirmation of Allegiance Oath: I, A.B., do swear that I will be faithful and bear true allegiance to Republic of the Fiji Islands, according to law. ... Fiji became a republic in 1987, when Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom formally abdicated as Queen of Fiji, following two military coups led by Lieutenant Colonel Sitiveni Rabuka. ... The Fijian vice-presidency is a mostly ceremonial office. ... Fiji received its independence in 1970. ... Fiji has the Westminster system - executive authority is vested nominally in a President, but exercised in practice by a Cabinet of Ministers, presided over by the Prime Minister. ... The post of Leader of the Opposition is a political office common in countries that are part of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... Fijis Parliament is bicameral. ... The Senate of Fiji is the upper chamber of Parliament. ... Overview The House of Representatives is the lower chamber of Fijis Parliament. ... The Speaker is the presiding officer of the Fijian House of Representatives. ... The High Court of Fiji is independent of the legislative and executive branches of the acting government. ... The Chief Justice is Fijis highest judicial officer. ... The Great Council of Chiefs (Bose Levu Vakaturaga in Fijian) is a constitutional body in the Republic of the Fiji Islands. ... The Great Council of Chiefs The Great Council of Chiefs (Bose Levu Vakaturaga in Fijian) is a formal assembly of Fijis senior hereditary chiefs, along with some representatives of the national government and provincial councils, who may or may not be hereditary chiefs themselves. ... Fiji is divided administratively into four divisions, which are further subdivided into fourteen provinces. ... A political party is a political organization subscribing to a certain ideology or formed around very special issues with the aim to participate in power, usually by participating in elections. ... Fiji was a British Crown Colony from 1874 to 1970, and an independent dominion in the British Commonwealth from 1970 to 1987. ... Fiji became a British Crown Colony in 1874, and an independent dominion in the British Commonwealth in 1970; the British Monarch (Queen Elizabeth II remained the Head of State until 1987, when she formally abdicated following two military coups). ... Fijis British colonial rulers established the office of Chief Minister in October 1967, along with the Cabinet system of government. ... The Fijian Legislative Council was the colonial precursor to the present-day Parliament, which came into existence when Fiji became independent on 10 October 1970. ...


Electoral system
Main article
Open constituencies
Communal constituencies
National constituencies

// Historical overview Fijis electoral system is the result of complex negotiations, compromises, and experiments conducted over the years leading up to and following independence from British colonial rule in 1970. ... Open constituencies represent one of several electoral models employed in the past and present in the Fijian electoral system. ... Communal constituencies have been the most durable feature of the Fijian electoral system. ... National constituencies are a former feature of the Fijian electoral system. ...


Elections in Fiji
Main article
1966 - 1972
March 1977 - September 1977
1982 - 1987 - 1992
1994 - 1999 - 2001

Foreign affairs
Foreign relations of Fiji Elections in Fiji gives information on election and election results in Fiji. ... The general election to the Fijian Legislative Council in 1966 was the last to be held before independence from the United Kingdom was granted in 1970. ... Politics of Fiji Categories: Stub | Elections in Fiji | Fiji-related stubs ... Fijis election for the House of Representatives held in March 1977 was the second since independence from the United Kingdom in 1970. ... A general election to Fijis House of Representatives was held in September 1977, to resolve the impasse of an earlier election that had been held in March. ... Politics of Fiji Categories: Stub | Elections in Fiji | Fiji-related stubs ... The general election of April 1987 was Fijis fifth since the country had gained its independence from the United Kingdom seventeen years earlier. ... A general election was held to restore Fiji to democracy in 1992. ... Fiji held a general election in 1994, three years earlier than scheduled. ... The general election to the Fijian House of Representatives, held in May 1999, was historic. ... The Constitution of Fiji was restored by a Supreme Court decision, following the failure of the Fiji coup of 2000. ... Fiji maintains an independent, but generally pro-Western, foreign policy. ...

The 2000 coup

The present constitution was abrogated by Commodore Frank Bainimarama, who organized a counter-coup to neutralize a civilian coup d'├ętat led by George Speight, and subsequently formed an Interim Military Government. A Supreme Court decision in November, however, reinstated the constitution, and new parliamentary elections under it were held in September 2001. The military rank of Commodore is used in some navies for officers whose position exceeds that of a Captain, but is less than that of a flag officer. ... Josaia Voreqe Bainimarama, popularly known as Frank Bainimarama, (born 27 April 1954), is the Commander of the Fijian military, who served as Head of the Interim Military Government from 29 May to 13 July 2000, when he handed power over to the newly-appointed President Ratu Josefa Iloilo. ... Timeline (2000) May: 19, 20, 26, 27, 29, 30. ... George Speight George Speight, occasionally known as Ilikimi Naitini (born 1957), was the principal instigator of the Fiji coup of 2000, in which he kidnapped thirty-six government officials and held them from May 19, 2000 to July 13, 2000. ... The Constitution of Fiji was restored by a Supreme Court decision, following the failure of the Fiji coup of 2000. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
FIJI FACTS AND INFORMATION (1894 words)
The Republic of the Fiji Islands, or Fiji, is an island_nation in the South Pacific_Ocean, east of Vanuatu, west of Tonga and south of Tuvalu.
Fiji's Head of State is the President, who is elected by the ''Great Council of Chiefs'' for a five-year term.
Fiji, endowed with forest, mineral, and fish resources, is one of the most developed of the Pacific island economies, though still with a large subsistence sector.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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