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Encyclopedia > Constantinopolis
Map of Constantinople. More detailed map.
Map of Constantinople. More detailed map.

Constantinople1 (Greek: Κωνσταντινούπολις) was the earlier name of the modern city of İstanbul in Turkey in its role over more than a millennium as capital of the Eastern Roman Empire, sometimes referred to also as the Byzantine Empire. The last imperial designation reveals the city's even more ancient Greek name: Byzantium. Constantinople was located strategically between the Golden Horn and the Sea of Marmara at the point where Europe met Asia, and was highly significant as the successor to ancient Rome and the largest and wealthiest city in Europe throughout the Middle Ages, known as the "Queen of Cities". Download high resolution version (800x650, 54 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (800x650, 54 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The location of Istanbul Province Maiden Tower and Historical Peninsula of Istanbul Istanbul (Turkish: Ä°stanbul) (the former Constantinople, Greek: Κωνσταντινούπολις) is the largest city in Turkey, and arguably the most important. ... A millennium is a period of time, literally equal to one thousand years (from Latin mille, thousand, and annum, year). ... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ... Byzantine Empire (Greek: Βασιλεία Ῥωμαίων) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Byzantium was an ancient Greek city-state, founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas. ... The Golden Horn from the southern or Constantinople shore, with the skyline of modern Istanbul on the far shore The Golden Horn (in Turkish Haliç, in Greek Khrysokeras or Chrysoceras or Χρυσοκερας) is an estuary dividing the city of Istanbul. ... Map of the Sea of Marmara Satellite view of the Sea of Marmara The Sea of Marmara (Turkish: Marmara Denizi, Modern Greek: Θάλασσα του Μαρμαρά or Προποντίδα) (also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea) is an inland sea that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating the... World map showing Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiogeographic one. ... See also: Asian and Eurasian World map showing Asia. ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC mythical, 1st millennium BC Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni (Left-Wing Democrats) Area  - City Proper  1285 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2. ...

Contents


Names

The name of Constantinople is an honorific eponym referencing its founder, the Roman emperor Constantine the Great. Constantine established the Greek city of Byzantium as the second capital of the Roman Empire on May 11, AD 330, naming the city Nova Roma (New Rome). That particular name, however, enjoyed little common use, and it was as the 'City of Constantine' (Constantinopolis) that it lived through the subsequent centuries. An eponym is a person, whether real or fictitious, whose name has (or is thought to have) given rise to the name of a particular place, tribe, discovery, or other item. ... Constantine. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... May 11 is the 131st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (132nd in leap years). ... Events May 11 - Constantine I refounds Byzantium, renames it New Rome, and moves the capital of the Roman Empire there from Rome. ...


A historical Slavic name for the city was Tsargrad. The word is an Old Church Slavonic translation of the Greek, presumably of Βασιλέως Πόλις, "the city of the emperor [king]": combining the Slavonic words tsar for "Caesar" and grad for "city", it stood for "the City of the Emperor [Caesar]". As fashions have changed the term has faded, and the word Tsargrad is now an archaic term in Russian, but is still used occasionally in Bulgarian. The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup of Indo-European languages, have speakers in most of Eastern Europe, in much of the Balkans, in parts of Central Europe, and in the northern part of Asia. ... Tsargrad (Old Church Slavonic: Цѣсарьградъ, Church Slavonic: Царьгра̀дъ, Russian: Царьгра́д, Bulgarian: Ца̀риград, Serbian: Цариград (Carigrad), also rendered as Czargrad and Tzargrad; see Tsar) is a historic Slavic name for the city of Constantinople, which is modern-day Istanbul in Turkey. ... Old Church Slavonic (also called Old Church Slavic or Old Bulgarian, incorrectly Old Slavic ) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Solun (Thessaloniki) by 9th century Byzantine missionaries, Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius. ... Look up Tsar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary For the US community of Czar, see Czar, West Virginia. ... Caesar (p. ...


The Ottoman Turks called the city Stamboul or İstanbul, adopting a usage in Greek "eis tin Poli" (to or at the City). But they still used "Konstantiniyye" ("Constantine's City", or Constantinople) as the official name. When the Republic of Turkey was founded in 1923, the capital was moved to Ankara. Constantinople was officially renamed İstanbul by the Republic of Turkey on March 28, 1930. The location of Istanbul Province Maiden Tower and Historical Peninsula of Istanbul Istanbul (Turkish: Ä°stanbul) (the former Constantinople, Greek: Κωνσταντινούπολις) is the largest city in Turkey, and arguably the most important. ... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Ankara from the Atakule Tower, looking N-NE. Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Ä°stanbul. ... March 28 is the 87th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (88th in Leap years). ... 1930 (MCMXXX) is a common year starting on Wednesday. ...


Byzantium

Constantine's foundation of New Rome on this site reflected its strategic and commercial importance from the earliest times, lying as it does astride both the land route from Europe to Asia and the seaway from the Black or Euxine Sea to the Mediterranean, whilst also being possessed of an excellent and spacious harbour in the Golden Horn. No doubt for these reasons, a city was first founded on the site in the early days of Greek colonial expansion, when in 667 BC the legendary Byzas established it with a group of citizens from the town of Megara. This city was named Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον), after its founder. Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 710s BC 700s BC 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC - 660s BC - 650s BC 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC Events and trends 668 BC - Egypt revolts against Assyria 668 BC - Assurbanipal succeeds Esarhaddon as king of... According to a Greek legend, Byzas was a Greek colonist (reported by some to be a leader or even a king) from the Doric colony of Megara in Ancient Greece, who consulted the oracle of Apollo at Delphi. ... Megara (Greek: Μέγαρα; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is an ancient city in Attica, Greece. ... Byzantium was an ancient Greek city-state, founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas. ...


Constantine's Foundation

Emperor Constantine I of the Roman Empire with a model of the city Constantinople ( the church Hagia Sophia, ca. 1000)
Emperor Constantine I of the Roman Empire with a model of the city Constantinople ( the church Hagia Sophia, ca. 1000)

Constantine had altogether more ambitious plans. Having restored the unity of the empire, now overseeing the progress of major governmental reforms and sponsoring the consolidation of the Christian church, Constantine was well aware that Rome had become an unsatisfactory capital for several reasons. Located in central Italy, Rome lay too far from the eastern imperial frontiers, and hence also from the legions and the Imperial courts. Moreover, Rome offered an undesirable playground for disaffected politicians; it also suffered regularly from flooding and from malaria. It seemed impossible to many that the capital could be moved. Nevertheless, Constantine identified the site of Byzantium as the correct place: a city where an emperor could sit, readily defended, with easy access to the Danube or the Euphrates frontiers, his court supplied from the rich gardens and sophisticated workshops of Roman Asia, his treasuries filled by the wealthiest provinces of the empire. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1576x2027, 490 KB) Description: Title: de: Mosaiken in der Hagia Sophia, Szene: Maria als Stadtheilige Istanbuls, Detail: Kaiser Konstantin der Große mit dem Stadtmodell Technique: de: Mosaik Dimensions: Country of origin: de: Türkei Current location (city): de: Istanbul Current... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1576x2027, 490 KB) Description: Title: de: Mosaiken in der Hagia Sophia, Szene: Maria als Stadtheilige Istanbuls, Detail: Kaiser Konstantin der Große mit dem Stadtmodell Technique: de: Mosaik Dimensions: Country of origin: de: Türkei Current location (city): de: Istanbul Current... Constantine. ... Hagia Sophia as it appears today A section of the original architecture of Hagia Sophia The Church of the Holy Wisdom, commonly known as Hagia Sophia in English, is a former Eastern Orthodox church converted to a mosque, now converted into a museum, in Istanbul (Constantinople). ... // Events World Population 300 million. ... Legion can refer to several encyclopedic topics, including: In military history, an organization or military unit: A Roman legion. ... Red blood cell infected with Malaria, derived from mala aria (Italian: bad air) and formerly called ague or marsh fever in English, is an infectious disease which causes about 350-500 million infections with humans and approximately 1. ... The Danube (German: , Slovak: Dunaj, Hungarian: , Croatian: Dunav, Serbian: Дунав/Dunav, Bulgarian: Дунав, Romanian: , Ukrainian: , Latin: Danuvius) is Europes second-longest river (after the Volga). ... The Euphrates (the traditional Greek name for the river, which is in Old Persian Ufrat, Aramaic Prâth/Frot, in Arabic Al-Furat الفرات, in Turkish Fırat and in ancient Assyrian language Pu-rat-tu) is the westernmost of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (Bethnahrin in Aramaic), the...


Constantine laid out the expanded city, dividing it into 14 regions, and ornamenting it with great public works worthy of a great imperial city. Yet initially Constantinople did not have all the dignities of Rome, possessing a proconsul, rather than a prefect of the city. Furthermore, it had no praetors, tribunes or quaestors. Although Constantinople did have senators, they held the title clarus, not clarissimus, like those of Rome. Nor did it have the panoply of other administrative offices regulating the food-supply, the police, the statues, the temples, the sewers, the aqueducts and other public works. The new program of building was carried out in great haste: columns, marbles, doors and tiles were taken wholesale from the temples of the empire and removed to the new city. By the same token, however, many of the greatest works of Greek and Roman art were soon to be seen in its squares and streets. The emperor stimulated private building by promising householders gifts of land from the imperial estates in Asiana and Pontica, and on 18 May 332 he announced that, as in Rome, free distributions of food would be made to citizens. At the time the amount is said to have been 80,000 rations a day, doled out from 117 distribution points around the city. For the Miocene ape, see Proconsul (genus) Under the Roman Empire a proconsul was a promagistrate filling the office of a consul. ... A prefect (from the Latin praefectus, perfect participle of praeficio, to make in front, i. ... Definition According to Cicero, Praetor was a title which designated the consuls as the leaders of the armies of the state. ... The Roman office of tribune of the people (tribunus plebis) was established in 494 BC, about 15 years after the foundation of the Roman Republic in 509. ... Quaestors were elected officials of the Roman Republic who supervised the treasury and financial affairs of the state, its armies and its officers. ... The Dogcow The Dogcow is a bitmapped image first introduced by Apple Computer. ... Asiana Airlines is one of South Koreas two major airlines. ... Pontus was a name applied in ancient times to extensive tracts of country in the northeast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) bordering on the Euxine (Black Sea), which was often called simply Pontos (the Main), by the Greeks. ... May 18 is the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (139th in leap years). ... Events Constantine the Great emperor of the Roman Empire, engaged the Visigoths in battle and was victorious. ...


Public buildings

Medieval Constantinople
Medieval Constantinople

Constantinople was a Christian city, lying in the most Christianised part of the Empire. Justinian made the temples of Byzantium into ruins, and erected the splendid Church of the Holy Wisdom, Sancta Sophia (also known as Hagia Sophia in Greek), as the centrepiece of his Christian capital. He oversaw also the building of the Church of the Holy Apostles, and that of St Irene. Image File history File links Constantinople_medieval. ... Image File history File links Constantinople_medieval. ... Hagia Sophia as it appears today A plan of the original architecture of Hagia_Sophia, the great church Part of the interior of Hagia Sophi as it was when built. ... Hagia Sophia as it appears today A section of the original architecture of Hagia Sophia The Church of the Holy Wisdom, commonly known as Hagia Sophia in English, is a former Eastern Orthodox church converted to a mosque, now converted into a museum, in Istanbul (Constantinople). ...


Constantine laid out anew the square at the centre of old Byzantium, naming it the Augusteum in honour of his mother, Helena. Sancta Sophia lay on the north side of the Augusteum. The new senate-house (or Curia) was housed in a basilica on the east side. On the south side of the great square was erected the Great Palace of the emperor with its imposing entrance, the Chalke, and its ceremonial suite known as the Palace of Daphne. Located immediately nearby was the vast Hippodrome for chariot-races, seating over 80,000 spectators, and the Baths of Zeuxippus (both originally built in the time of Severus). At the entrance at the western end of the Augusteum was the Milestone, a vaulted monument from which distances were measured across the Eastern Empire. Helena, Ἑλένη is a Greek female name, first attested in the Iliad (Helen of Troy). ... A Hippodrome (Gr. ... Emperor Septimius Severus Lucius Septimius Severus, (April 11, 146 - February 4, 211) was Roman emperor from April 9, 193 to 211. ...


From the Augusteum a great street, the Mese, led, lined with colonnades. As it descended the First Hill of the city and climbed the Second Hill, it passed on the left the Praetorium or law-court. Then it passed through the oval Forum of Constantine where there was a second senate-house, then on and through the Forum of Taurus and then the Forum of Bous, and finally up the Sixth Hill and through to the Golden Gate on the Propontis. The Mese would be seven Roman miles long to the Golden Gate of the Walls of Theodosius. The Sea of Marmara (Turkish: Marmara denizi, Modern Greek: Μαρμαρα̃ Θάλασσα or Προποντίδα) (also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea) is an inland sea that separates the Black Sea from the Aegean Sea (thus the Asian part of Turkey from its European part) by Bosporus and... The Walls of Constantinople surrounded the Roman and Byzantine city of Constantinople (today Istanbul in Turkey). ...


Constantine erected a high column in the centre of the Forum, on the Second Hill, with a statue of himself at the top, crowned with a halo of seven rays and looking towards the rising sun.


Constantinople in the Divided Empire

Emperor Theodosius I with a halo, on a contemporary silver plate (Royal Academy of History, Madrid)
Emperor Theodosius I with a halo, on a contemporary silver plate (Royal Academy of History, Madrid)

The first known Prefect of the City of Constantinople was Honoratus, who took office on 11 December 359 and held it until 361. The emperor Valens built the Palace of Hebdomon on the shore of the Propontis near the Golden Gate, probably for use when reviewing troops. All the emperors, up to Zeno and Basiliscus, who were elevated at Constantinople, were crowned and acclaimed at the Hebdomon. Theodosius I founded the church of John the Baptist to house a relic of the saint, put up a memorial pillar to himself in the Forum of Taurus, and turned the ruined temple of Aphrodite into a coachhouse for the Praetorian Prefect; Arcadius built a new forum named after himself on the Mese, near the walls of Constantine. Emperor Theodosius File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Emperor Theodosius File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... On the reverse of this coin minted under Valentinian II, both Valentinian and Theodosius are depicted with halos, holding a globus cruciger. ... Halo around the sun at the South Pole (NOAA) A halo (also known as a nimbus or Gloriole) is a ring of light that surrounds an object. ... Madrid is the capital and largest city in Spain, as well as in the province and the autonomous community of the same name. ... December 11 is the 345th day (346th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Battle of Amida: Shapur II of Persia conquers Amida from the Romans. ... Events Emperor Ai succeeds Emperor Mu as emperor of China. ... Flavius Julius Valens (Latin: IMP·CAESAR·FLAVIVS·IVLIVS·VALENS·AVGVSTVS) (328 – August 9, 378) was Roman emperor from 364 until his death, after he was given the Eastern part of the empire by his brother Valentinian I. His father was the general Gratian the Elder. ... Zeno on a coin celebrating his victories. ... Flavius Basiliscus was a rival Byzantine Emperor 475 _ 476. ... On the reverse of this coin minted under Valentinian II, both Valentinian and Theodosius are depicted with halos, holding a globus cruciger. ... Aphrodite, Greek goddess of love and beauty,and the patroness of physical love. ... Praetorian prefect (Latin Praefectus praetorio) was the constant title of a high office in the Roman state that changed fundamentally in nature. ... Arcadius, holding a labarum, defeating an enemy. ...


Gradually the importance of the city increased. Following the shock of the Battle of Adrianople in 376, when the emperor Valens with the flower of the Roman armies was destroyed by the Goths within a few days' march of the city, Constantinople looked to its defences, and Theodosius II built in 413-414 the 60-foot tall walls which were never to be breached until the coming of gunpowder. Theodosius also founded a University at the Capitolium near the Forum of Taurus, on 27 February 425. The second Battle of Adrianople (August 9, 378) was fought between a Roman army led by the Emperor Valens and Germanic tribes (mainly Visigoths and Ostrogoths, assisted by some non-Germanic Alans) commanded by Fritigern. ... Events Visigoths appear on the Danube and request entry into the Roman Empire in their flight from the Huns Births Cyril of Alexandria, theologian Deaths Categories: 376 ... Flavius Julius Valens (Latin: IMP·CAESAR·FLAVIVS·IVLIVS·VALENS·AVGVSTVS) (328 – August 9, 378) was Roman emperor from 364 until his death, after he was given the Eastern part of the empire by his brother Valentinian I. His father was the general Gratian the Elder. ... Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche portrays the Goths as cavalrymen. ... Theodosius II Flavius Theodosius II (April, 401 - July 28, 450 ). The eldest son of Eudoxia and Arcadius who at the age of 7 became the Roman Emperor of the East. ... Events May 8 - Honorius signs an edict providing tax relief for the provinces of Italy that have been plundered by the Visigoths. ... Events Ataulf, king of the Visigoths, marries Galla Placidia, the sister of Roman Emperor Honorius. ... University of Constantinople (medieval times) The University of Constantinople was an academic institution founded in the 5th century by the emperor Theodosius II. The University included the Schools of Medicine, Philosophy, Law and Forest Studies. ... February 27 is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events October 23 -Valentinian III becomes western Roman emperor. ...


In the 5th century, when the barbarians overran the Western Empire, its emperors retreated to Ravenna before it collapsed altogether. Thereafter, Constantinople became in truth the largest city of the Empire and of the world. Emperors were no longer peripatetic between various court capitals and palaces. They remained in their palace in the Great City, and sent generals to command their armies. The wealth of the Eastern Mediterranean and Western Asia flowed into Constantinople. // Overview Events Romulus Augustus, Last Western Roman Emperor 410: Rome sacked by Visigoths 452: Pope Leo I allegedly meets personally with Attila the Hun and convinces him not to sack Rome 439: Vandals conquer Carthage At some point after 440, the Anglo-Saxons settle in Britain. ... // Greek origin of the term Barbarian comes the French barbarien or Medieval Latin barbarinus, from Latin barbaria, from Latin barbarus, from the ancient Greek word βάρβαρος (barbaros) which meant a non-Greek, someone whose (first) language was not Greek. ... Ravenna is a city in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ...


The City under Justinian

The emperor Justinian (527-565) was known for his successes in war, for his legal reforms and for his public works. It was from Constantinople that his expedition for the reconquest of Africa set sail on or about 21 June 533. Before their departure the ship of the commander, Belisarius, anchored in front of the Imperial palace, and the Patriarch offered prayers for the success of the enterprise. Justinian I depicted on one of the famous mosaics of the St. ... This article is about the year. ... Events January 22 - Eutychius is deposed as Patriarch of Constantinople by John Scholasticus. ... A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most populous continent, after Asia. ... June 21 is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 193 days remaining. ... Events February 1 - John becomes Pope, succeeding Pope Boniface II, who had died in 532. ... Belisarius, by Jacques-Louis David (1781); as depicted in a popular legend that may be apocryphal. ...


Chariot-racing had been important in Rome for centuries. In Constantinople, the hippodrome became over time increasingly a place of political significance. It was where (as a shadow of the popular elections of old Rome) the people by acclamation showed their approval of a new emperor; and also where they openly criticised the government, or clamoured for the removal of unpopular ministers. In the time of Justinian, public order in Constantinople became a critical political issue. The entire late Roman and early Byzantine period was one where Christianity was resolving fundamental questions of identity, and the dispute between the orthodox and the monophysites became the cause of serious disorder, expressed through allegiance to the horse-racing parties of the Blues and the Greens, and in the form of a major rebellion in the capital of 532 AD, known as the "Nika" riots (from the battle-cry of "Victory!" of those involved). Separate articles treat Eastern Orthodox Christianity and Orthodox Judaism. ... Monophysitism (from the Greek monos meaning one and physis meaning nature) is the christological position that Christ has only one nature, as opposed to the Chalcedonian position which holds that Christ has two natures, one divine and one human. ... Events First year in which Anno Domini calendar is actually used for numbering (in Dionysius Exiguuss treatise) January 11 - Nika riots in Constantinople; the cathedral is destroyed. ... The Nika riots (Greek: Στάση του Νίκα), or Nika revolt, took place over the course of a week in Constantinople in 532. ...


Fires started by the Nika rioters consumed the basilica of St Sophia, the city's principal church. Justinian commissioned Anthemius of Tralles and Isidore of Miletus to replace it with the incomparable St Sophia, the great cathedral of the Orthodox Church, whose dome was said to be held aloft by God alone, and which was directly connected to the palace so that the imperial family could attend services without passing through the streets (St Sophia was converted into a mosque after the Ottoman conquest of the city, and is now a museum). The dedication took place on Christmas Day of 537 AD in the presence of the Emperor, who exclaimed, "O Solomon, I have outdone thee!"2 Anthemius of Tralles (c. ... Isidore of Miletus was an architect with Anthemius of Tralles of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople. ... Hagia Sophia as it appears today A section of the original architecture of Hagia Sophia The Church of the Holy Wisdom, commonly known as Hagia Sophia in English, is a former Eastern Orthodox church converted to a mosque, now converted into a museum, in Istanbul (Constantinople). ... Events Pope Silverius deposed by Belisarius at the order of Justinian, who appoints as his successor Pope Vigilius. ... Solomon (Hebrew, Shlomo from Shalom for peace, also Arabic as Suleiman or Sulyaman meaning peace) can mean any of the following: 1. ...


Justinian also had Anthemius and Isidore demolish and replace the original Church of the Holy Apostles, built by Constantine, with a new church under the same dedication. This was designed in the form of an equally-armed cross with five domes, and ornamented with beautiful mosaics. This church was to remain the burial place of the emperors from Constantine himself until the eleventh century. When the city fell to the Turks in 1453, the church was demolished to make room for the tomb of Mehmet II the Conqueror. Events May 29 - Fall of Constantinople to Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II the Conqueror, marking the end of the Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire). ... Mehmed II Mehmed II (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481; nicknamed el-Fatih, the Conqueror) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. ...


The City after Justinian

Justinian was succeeded in turn by Justin II, Tiberius II and Maurice, able emperors who had to deal with a deteriorating military situation, especially on the eastern frontier. Subsequently there was a period of near-anarchy, which was exploited by the enemies of the Empire. After the Avars came to threaten Constantinople from the west and simultaneously the Persians from the East, Heraclius, the exarch of Africa, set sail for the city and assumed the purple. He found the situation so dire that at first he contemplated moving the imperial capital to Carthage, but with military genius he succeeded in expelling the invaders. No sooner had he carried war into their own territories, however, and achieved an advantageous peace with Persia, than he was faced with the Arab expansion. Constantinople was besieged twice by the Arabs, once in a long blockade between 674 and 678, and once again in 717. Flavius Iustinus Iunior Augustus Flavius Iustinus Iunior Augustus or Justin II (c. ... Flavius Tiberius Constantinus Augustus or Tiberius II Constantine (c. ... A solidus of Maurices reign Flavius Mauricius Tiberius Augustus or Maurice I (539 - November, 602) was the emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 582 to 602. ... The Eurasian Avars were a nomadic people of Eurasia who migrated into central and eastern Europe in the 6th century. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Heraclius and his sons Heraclius Constantine and Heraclonas. ... In the Byzantine Empire, an exarch was an essentially military viceroy who governed a part of the empire at some remove from the central (oriental) authorities, the Emperor and the Patriarch of Constantinople. ... A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most populous continent, after Asia. ... A map of the central Mediterranean Sea, showing the location of Carthage (near modern Tunis). ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Events Dagobert II and Theuderic I succeed Childeric II as king(s) of the Franks First glass windows placed in English Churches Arabic siege of Constantinople begins Cenfus and then Aescwine succeed to the throne of Wessex Births Deaths Wulfhere, king of Mercia Seaxburh, queen of Japan - Temmu Emperor of... Events Pope Agatho succeeds Pope Donus. ... Combatants Umayyad Caliphate Byzantine Empire, Bulgarians Commanders Maslama Leo III Strength 160,000-200,000 men, 2,000 ships Unkown Casualties 130,000-170,000 men, 2,000 ships Unknown The Second Arab siege of Constantinople (717-718), was a combined land and sea effort by the Arabs to take... Events March 25 - Leo III usurps the throne of Byzantium August 15 - Muslama begins the Second Arab siege of Constantinople. ...


Importance of the City in its prime

Constantinople was historically important for a number of reasons.

Eagle and Snake, 6th century AD Mosaic Flooring ­Costantinople, Grand Imperial Palace
Eagle and Snake, 6th century AD Mosaic Flooring ­Costantinople, Grand Imperial Palace

Constantinople was one of the larger and richer urban centers in the Eastern Mediterranean during the late Roman Empire, mostly due to its strategic position commanding the trade routes between the Aegean and the Black Sea. During the Fourth Century AD the Emperor Constantine relocated his eastern capital to Byzantium, hence the name Constantinople (Constantine's City), in an attempt to reinvigorate the Empire. It would remain the capital of the eastern, Greek speaking empire, short several interregnums, for over a thousand years. As the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire (now commonly known as the Byzantine Empire), the Greeks called Constantinople simply "the City", while throughout Europe it was known as the "Queen of Cities." In its heyday, roughly corresponding to what is now known as the Middle Ages, it was the richest and largest European city, exerting a powerful cultural pull and dominating economic life in the Mediterranean. Visitors and merchants were especially struck by the beautiful monasteries and churches of the city, particularly the Hagia Sophia, or the Church of Holy Wisdom. A Russian 14th-century traveller, Stephen of Novgorod, wrote, "As for St Sofia, the human mind can neither tell it nor make description of it". The influence of Byzantine architecture and art can be seen in its extensive copying throughout Europe, particular examples include St. Mark's in Venice, the basilica of Ravenna and many churches throughout the Slavic East. Also, alone in Europe until the 13th century Italian florin, the Empire continued to produce sound gold coinage, the solidus of Diocletian becoming the bezant prized throughout the Middle Ages. Its city walls (the Theodosian Walls) and urban infrastructure was moreover a marvel throughout the Middle Ages, keeping a memory alive of the skill and technical expertise of the Roman Empire. The city, also provided a defence for the eastern provinces of the Roman Empire against the invasions of the 5th century, for Europe against the Arabs, and for European Christendom against Islam. Constantine assured the position of the Bishop or Patriarch of Constantinople as pre-eminent in the Eastern Empire. This action placed Constantinople at the religious heart of Orthodoxy. The Patriarch of Constantinople is still considered first among equals in the Orthodox Church along with the Patriarchs of Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem, and the later Slavic Patriarchs. This position is largely ceremonial but still carries emotional weight. Image File history File links Byzantine_eagle2. ... Image File history File links Byzantine_eagle2. ... Byzantine Empire (Greek: Βασιλεία Ῥωμαίων) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Florin may be any of these modern coins: Netherlands Antilles florin. ... A solidus (the Latin word for solid) was originally a gold coin issued by the Romans. ... Emperor Diocletian Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (245?–312?), born Diocles, was Roman Emperor as Diocletian from November 20, 284 to May 1, 305. ... Bezants is a medieval name for gold coins. ... The Patriarch of Constantinople is the Ecumenical Patriarch, ranking as the first among equals in the Eastern Orthodox communion. ...


The Isaurians

In the eighth and ninth centuries the iconoclast movement caused serious political unrest throughout the Empire. The emperor Leo III issued a decree in 726 against images, and ordered the destruction of a statue of Christ over one of the doors of the Chalke, an act which was fiercely resisted by the citizens. Constantine V convoked a church council in 754 which condemned the worship of images, after which many treasures were broken, burned, or painted over. Following the death of his son Leo IV in 780, the empress Irene restored the veneration of images through the agency of the Second Council of Nicaea in 787. This article belongs in one or more categories. ... Leo III (disambiguation). ... Events City of Jarash (in present-day Jordan) suffers a major earthquake First annual Sumo tournament held by Emperor Seibu. ... Constantine V Copronymus (The Dung-named) was Byzantine emperor from 741 to 775. ... Events Pope Stephen III crowns Pepin the short King of the Franks at St. ... Leo IV, called Chozar or the Khazar (c. ... Events Constantine VI becomes Byzantine Emperor with Irene as guardian. ... The wife of Emperor Constantine V. See Tzitzak. ... The Second Council of Nicaea was the seventh ecumenical council of Christianity; it met in 787 AD in Nicaea (site of the First Council of Nicaea) to restore the honoring of icons (or, holy images), which had been suppressed by imperial edict inside the Byzantine Empire during the reign of... This article is about the year 787. ...


The Comneni and Palaeologi

The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople, by Eugène Delacroix, 1840.
The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople, by Eugène Delacroix, 1840.

Following the catastrophic defeat in 1071 of the emperor Romanus IV Diogenes by the Seljuk Turks at Manzikert in Armenia, his successor Michael VII pleaded for assistance from the West. In due course this was to lead to the First Crusade, which assembled at Constantinople in 1096 in the reign of Alexius I Comnenus, and moved on towards Jerusalem. Much of this is documented by the writer and historian Anna Comnena in her work The Alexiad. The Crusades were, however, to lead in time to the disastrous capture and sack of Constantinople by soldiers of the Fourth Crusade on April 12, 1204. For the subsequent half-century or more, Constantinople remained the centre of the Roman Catholic crusader state, set up after the city's capture under Baldwin IX, and which became known as the Latin Kingdom. During this time, the Byzantine emperors made their capital at nearby Nicaea, which acted as the capital of the temporary, short-lived Empire of Nicaea and a refuge for refugees from the sacked city of Constantinople. From this base, Constantinople was eventually recaptured from its last Latin ruler, Baldwin II, by Byzantine forces under Michael VIII Palaeologus in 1261. After the reconquest by the Palaeologi, the imperial palace of Blachernae in the north-west of the city became the main imperial residence, the old Great Palace upon the shores of the Bosporus going into decline. Download high resolution version (751x629, 48 KB)The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople by Eugene Delacroix, 1840 The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author... Download high resolution version (751x629, 48 KB)The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople by Eugene Delacroix, 1840 The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Eugène Delacroix (portrait by Nadar) Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (April 26, 1798 - August 13, 1863) was an important painter from the French romantic period. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Events Byzantine Empire loses Battle of Manzikert to Turkish army under Alp Arslan. ... Romanus IV Romanus IV (Diogenes), Byzantine emperor from 1068 to 1071, was a member of a distinguished Cappadocian family, and had risen to distinction in the army, until he was convicted of treason against the sons of Constantine X. While waiting for his execution he was summoned into the presence... The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in Turkish Selçuklu; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks... Manzikert (in Turkish Malazgirt) is a town in MuÅŸ in eastern Turkey, with a population of 23 697 (year 2000) (??of 68 990). ... Michael VII Ducas or Parapinakes, was the eldest son of Constantine X Ducas and Eudocia Macrembolitissa. ... The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II to regain control of the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Christian Holy Land from Muslims. ... Events Bernhard becomes Bishop of Brandenburg First documented teaching at the University of Oxford Beginning of the Peoples Crusade, the German Crusade, and the First Crusade Vital I Michele is Doge of Venice Peter I, King of Aragon, conquers Huesca Phayao, now a province of Thailand, is founded as... Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus Alexius I (1048–August 15, 1118), Byzantine emperor (1081–1118), was the third son of John Comnenus, nephew of Isaac I Comnenus (emperor 1057–1059). ... Jerusalem (31°46′N 35°14′E; Hebrew: (help· info) Yerushalayim; Arabic: (help· info) al-Quds; (alternative Arabic found in Bible translations: أُورْشَلِيم Urshalim)) is an ancient Middle Eastern city on the watershed between the Mediterranean Sea and the Dead Sea at an elevation of 650-840 meter. ... Anna Comnena (December 1, 1083 - 1153) was a daughter of the Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus, and is the first known female historian. ... The Alexiad is a book written around the year 1148 by the Byzantine historian Anna Comnena, the daughter of Emperor Alexius I. She describe the political and military history Byzantine Empire during the reign of her father (1081-1118), making it one of the most important sources of information on... The Fourth Crusade (1202–1204), originally designed to conquer Jerusalem by taking Egypt first, instead, in 1204, conquered and sacked the Orthodox Christian city of Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire. ... April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... // Events February - Byzantine emperor Alexius IV is overthrown in a revolution, and Alexius V is proclaimed emperor. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The Crusader states, c. ... Iznik (formerly Nicaea) is a city in Anatolia (now part of Turkey) which is known primarily as the site of two major meetings (or Ecumenical councils) in the early history of the Christian church. ... The Empire of Nicaea was the largest of the states founded by refugees from the Byzantine Empire after Constantinople was conquered during the Fourth Crusade. ... Baldwin II (1217—1273) was the last emperor of the Latin Empire of Constantinople. ... The Empire of Nicaea was the largest of the states founded by refugees from the Byzantine Empire after Constantinople was conquered during the Fourth Crusade. ... The Byzantine Empire in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) Michael VIII (1225 – December 11, 1282) was the founder of the Palaeologos dynasty that would rule the Byzantine Empire to the Fall of Constantinople in 1453. ... Events July 25 - Constantinople re-captured by Nicaean forces under the command of Michael VIII Palaeologus, Byzantine Empire re-formed August 29 - Urban IV becomes Pope, the last man to do so without being a Cardinal first Bela IV of Hungary repels Tatar invasion Charles of Anjou given rule of... Blachernae is a suburb in the northeastern section of Constantinople. ...


The Ottomans

Constantinople and the Empire finally fell to the Ottoman Empire on Tuesday May 29, 1453, during the reign of Constantine XI Paleologus (see Fall of Constantinople). Although the Turks overthrew the Byzantines, Fatih Sultan Mehmed the Second (the Ottoman Sultan at the time) let the Orthodox Patriarchy continue to conduct their own affairs, having stated that they did not want to join the Vatican. The Fall of Constantinople, 1453 Source: http://www. ... The Fall of Constantinople, 1453 Source: http://www. ... Events May 29 - Fall of Constantinople to Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II the Conqueror, marking the end of the Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire). ... The 1453 Siege of Constantinople (painted 1499) The Fall of Constantinople was the conquest of that Greek city by the Ottoman Empire under the command of Sultan Mehmed II, on Tuesday, May 29, 1453. ... 1499 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (the Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Bursa (1335-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Ä°stanbul (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40... May 29 is the 149th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (150th in leap years). ... Events May 29 - Fall of Constantinople to Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II the Conqueror, marking the end of the Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire). ... Constantine XI Dragases Palaeologus, the last reigning emperor of the East Roman (Byzantine) Empire. ... The Siege of Constantinople (painted 1499). ... Mehmed II Mehmed II (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481; nicknamed el-Fatih, the Conqueror) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. ...


Constantinople in popular culture

W.B. Yeats in Dublin on January 24, 1908. ... 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Four Lads, in a 50s nostalgia concert which aired on PBS. The Four Lads were a singing group. ... They Might Be Giants (commonly abbreviated to TMBG) are an American pop/rock duo consisting of John Linnell and John Flansburgh, collectively known as the two Johns or John and John. Known for their experimental / pop music, they have been popular on college campuses and earned a reputation as intellectual... Istanbul (Not Constantinople) was the title to a song originally performed by The Four Lads in 1953, and was written by Jimmy Kennedy and Nat Simon. ... The Residents The Residents are an avant garde music and visual arts group. ... An extended play or EP, is the name given to vinyl records or CDs which are too long to be called singles but too short to qualify as albums. ... The Residents album Duck Stab/Buster and Glen was another stop-gap effort released due to delays with the Eskimo album. ... Link title 1978 (MCMLXXVIII in Roman) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ...

Further reading

  • Jonathan Phillips, The Fourth Crusade and the Sack of Constantinople, Pimlico, 2005. ISBN 1844130800
  • Steven Runciman, The Fall of Constantinople, 1453, Cambridge University Press, 1990. ISBN 0521398320
  • Philip Mansell, Constantinople: City of the World's Desire

The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ...

Notes

  • Note 1: Constantinople is derived from the Greek Κωνσταντινούπολη. Other names for the city:
    • Turkish name: İstanbul.
    • Modern Greek name: Κωνσταντινούπολη, older name: Κωνσταντινούπολις (Konstantinoupolis; see also List of traditional Greek place names)
    • Roman name: Constantinopolis;
    • Latin name: Constantinopolis, Nova Roma
    • Arabic name: قسطنطينية (Kostantiniyya)
    • Armenian name: Konstaninopolis / Gonstantinobolis
    • Scandinavian viking name: Miklagård, from Old Norse Miklagarð (mikill + garð = "big city" or "grand city").
    • The Angles and Saxons called the city "Micklegard," meaning "Great Fortress."
    • Jews often called it "Costa," a shortening of its offcial name.
    • Ottoman Turkish name: Konstantiniyye.
    • Slavonic name: Tsargrad (Царьград).
    • Stamboul (used by British and other diplomatic corps in "The City")
    • The Sublime Porte - the Ottoman Foreign Ministry, so-called for its gate-location within the Topkapi and often used as a synonym for "Constantinople" in diplomatic notes (the same way "Whitehall" would be used in the case of the British Foreign Office, or "No. 10 Downing" to refer to the PMO)
  • Note 2: Source for quote: Scriptores originum Constantinopolitanarum, ed T Preger I 105 (see A A Vasiliev, History of the Byzantine Empire, 1952, vol I p 188).

Modern Greek (Νεοελληνική, lit. ... This is a list of traditional Greek place names. ... The Roman Forum was the central area around which ancient Rome developed. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Arabic (; , less formally, ) is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... The North Germanic languages (also Scandinavian languages or Nordic languages) is a branch of the Germanic languages spoken in Scandinavia, parts of Finland and on the Faroe Islands and Iceland. ... The name Viking is a loanword from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, the British Isles, and other parts of Europe from the late 8th century to the 11th century. ... Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... Angles (German: Angeln, Old English: Englas, Latin: singular Anglus, plural Anglii) were Germanic people, from Angeln in Schleswig, who settled in East Anglia, Mercia and Northumbria in the 5th century. ... This article is about the Saxons, a Germanic people. ... Ottoman Turkish is the variant of the Turkish language which was used as the administrative and literary language of the Ottoman Empire, containing extensive borrowings from Persian, which in turn had been permeated with Arabic borrowings. ... Page from the Spiridon Psalter in Church Slavonic. ... Tsargrad (Old Church Slavonic: Цѣсарьградъ, Church Slavonic: Царьгра̀дъ, Russian: Царьгра́д, Bulgarian: Ца̀риград, Serbian: Цариград (Carigrad), also rendered as Czargrad and Tzargrad; see Tsar) is a historic Slavic name for the city of Constantinople, which is modern-day Istanbul in Turkey. ... Synonym of the government of the Ottoman Empire often confusing the Sublime Porte and the High Porte. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

See also

The location of Istanbul Province Maiden Tower and Historical Peninsula of Istanbul Istanbul (Turkish: İstanbul) (the former Constantinople, Greek: Κωνσταντινούπολις) is the largest city in Turkey, and arguably the most important. ... The Patriarch of Constantinople is the Ecumenical Patriarch, ranking as the first among equals in the Eastern Orthodox communion. ... The Golden Horn from the southern or Constantinople shore, with the skyline of modern Istanbul on the far shore The Golden Horn (in Turkish Haliç, in Greek Khrysokeras or Chrysoceras or Χρυσοκερας) is an estuary dividing the city of Istanbul. ... Hagia Sophia as it appears today A section of the original architecture of Hagia Sophia The Church of the Holy Wisdom, commonly known as Hagia Sophia in English, is a former Eastern Orthodox church converted to a mosque, now converted into a museum, in Istanbul (Constantinople). ... // Historical Information Bucoleon Palace, the present day Bucoleon Palace was one of the Byzantine palaces in Constantinople. ... The Hippodrome today The Hippodrome of Constantinople was a horse-racing track that was the sporting and social centre of Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire and the largest city in Europe. ... University of Constantinople (medieval times) The University of Constantinople was an academic institution founded in the 5th century by the emperor Theodosius II. The University included the Schools of Medicine, Philosophy, Law and Forest Studies. ... This article is about the strait; Bosphorus is also a university in Turkey. ...

External links

  • Info on the name change from the Foundation for the Advancement of Sephardic Studies and Culture
  • Welcome to Constantinople, documenting the monuments of Byzantine Constantinople, compiled by Robert Ousterhout, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
  • Constantinople, from History of the Later Roman Empire, by J.B. Bury
  • History of Constantinople from the "New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia."
  • Byzantium 1200, A project aimed at creating computer reconstructions of the Byzantine Monuments located in Istanbul, Turkey as of year 1200 AD.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Constantinopolis - NSwiki (7299 words)
Constantinopolis first achieved political unity in the 15th century, when the voivod Vladimir Ivanov defeated 8 rival warlords in quick succession and conquered what was then considered an immense territory.
Constantinopolis was forced to pay some light war reparations to the Entente, but, most importantly, it was stripped of all its overseas colonies (which were turned into mandates of the League of Nations).
The Constitution of Constantinopolis recognizes the separation of church and state, and stipulates that the free exercise of religion (or the lack thereof) is a basic human right guaranteed to all persons living within the borders of Constantinopolis.
Basileus - NSwiki (773 words)
While this article only concerns the Constantian use of the title "Basileus", it should be noted that the same title is also used by the Emperors of Pantocratoria, who claim direct descent from the Byzantine monarchy, as well as a number of other states with Byzantine cultural heritage.
Despite the designation of Constantinopolis as a "Holy Empire", modern Basileis were, for all practical purposes, identical to republican heads of state.
A referendum was held in 1986, regarding the question of whether the Treaty of Krasnygrad should be preserved or nullified, and whether Constantinopolis should remain an empire or become a republic (a detailed proposal for the organization of the new republic was given).
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