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Encyclopedia > Constantinople
Map of Constantinople. Detailed map.
Map of Constantinople. Detailed map.

Constantinople (Greek: Κωνσταντινούπολις, Konstantinoúpolis, or Πόλις, Polis) was the capital of the Roman Empire (330-395), the Byzantine/East Roman Empire (395-1204 and 1261-1453), the Latin Empire (1204-1261), and the Ottoman Empire (1453-1922). It was officially renamed to its modern Turkish name Istanbul in 1930[1][2][3] as part of Atatürk's Turkish national reforms. This name was already in common use among the city's Turkish inhabitants for nearly five centuries. Strategically located between the Golden Horn and the Sea of Marmara at the point where Europe meets Asia, Byzantine Constantinople had been the capital of a Christian empire, successor to ancient Greece and Rome. Throughout the Middle Ages Constantinople was Europe's largest and wealthiest city, known as the Queen of Cities (Vasileuousa Polis). Combatants  Byzantine Empire Ottoman Sultanate Commanders Constantine XI †, Loukas Notaras, Giovanni Giustiniani †[1] Mehmed II, ZaÄŸanos Pasha Strength 7,000[2] 80,000[1]-200,000[1][3] Casualties 4,000 dead[4] 10,000 civilian dead[5][6] unknown The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... Constantinople may refer to: Constantinople, historic city name of present-day Istanbul in Turkey. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1500x1113, 253 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Constantinople Walls of Constantinople ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1500x1113, 253 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Constantinople Walls of Constantinople ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... “Byzantine” redirects here. ... The Latin Empire, Empire of Nicaea, Empire of Trebizond and the Despotate of Epirus. ... “Ottoman” redirects here. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... “Mustafa Kemal” redirects here. ... View of Golden Horn from Eyup Sultan Cemetery The Golden Horn (in Turkish Haliç, in Greek Khrysokeras or Chrysoceras or Χρυσοκερας) is an estuary dividing the city of Istanbul. ... Map of the Sea of Marmara Satellite view of the Sea of Marmara The Sea of Marmara (Turkish: Marmara Denizi, Modern Greek: Θάλασσα του Μαρμαρά or Προποντίδα) (also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea) is an inland sea that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating the... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


Depending on the background of its rulers, it often had several different names at any given time; among the most common were Byzantium (Greek: Byzantion), New Rome (Greek: Νέα Ῥώμη, Latin: Nova Roma), although this was an ecclesiastical rather than an official name, Constantinople and Stamboul (see etymology). Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek city, which, according to legend, was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ... New Rome has been used for: It was a common name applied to Constantinople, the city founded by emperor Constantine I the Great in 324 (known as Byzantium before that date; renamed Istanbul in modern times). ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... The city of Istanbul has been known through the ages under a large number of different names. ...


HI

Contents

Importance

Eagle and Snake, 6th century mosaic flooring ­Costantinople, Grand Imperial Palace
Eagle and Snake, 6th century mosaic flooring ­Costantinople, Grand Imperial Palace

Image File history File links Byzantine_eagle2. ... Image File history File links Byzantine_eagle2. ... One of floor mosaics excavated at the Great Palace and dated to the reign of Justinian I. It is presumed to represent a conquered Gothic king. ...

Culture

Constantinople was the largest and richest urban centre in the Eastern Mediterranean during the late Roman Empire, mostly due to its strategic position commanding the trade routes between the Aegean and the Black Sea. After the fourth century, when Emperor Constantine I relocated his eastern capital to Byzantium, it would remain the capital of the eastern, Greek speaking empire for over a thousand years. As the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire (now commonly known as the Byzantine Empire), the Greeks called Constantinople simply "the City", while throughout Europe it was known as the "Queen of Cities." In its heyday, roughly corresponding to what are now known as the Middle Ages, it was the richest and largest European city, exerting a powerful cultural pull and dominating economic life in the Mediterranean. Visitors and merchants were especially struck by the beautiful monasteries and churches of the city, particularly Hagia Sophia, or the Church of Holy Wisdom. A Russian 14th-century traveller, Stephen of Novgorod, wrote, "As for St Sophia, the human mind can neither tell it nor make description of it". The cumulative influence of the city on the west, over the many centuries of its existence, is incalculable. In terms of technology, art and culture, as well as sheer size, Constantinople was without parallel anywhere in Europe for a thousand years. The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Constantine I (disambiguation). ... “Byzantine” redirects here. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Hagia Sophia The patriarchal basilica Hagia Sophia (Greek: ; Holy Wisdom), now known as the Ayasofya Museum, was the culmination of early Christian architecture. ...


Politics

Photo of a 15th Century map showing Constantinople in the upper left corner.
Photo of a 15th Century map showing Constantinople in the upper left corner.

The city provided a defence for the eastern provinces of the old Roman Empire against the barbarian invasions of the 5th century. The 18 metre (60 feet) tall walls built by Theodosius II (413-414) were essentially invincible to the barbarians who, coming from the Lower Danube, found easier targets to the west than the richer provinces to the east in Asia. From the 5th century the city was also protected by the Long Walls, a 60 kilometre chain of walls across the Thracian peninsula. Many scholars argue that these sophisticated fortifications allowed the east to develop relatively unmolested, while Rome and the west collapsed. With the emergence of Christianity and the rise of Islam, Constantinople became the veritable gates to Christian Europe that stood at the fore of Islamic expansion. As the Byzantine Empire was situated in-between the Islamic world and the Christian west, so did Constantinople act as Europe’s first line-of-defense against Arab advances in the 7th and 8th centuries. The city, and the empire, would ultimately fall to the Ottomans by 1453, but its enduring legacy had provided Europe centuries of resurgence following the collapse of Rome. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 883 KB) Picture of a map of the region of what is now Turkey from the 15th Century. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 883 KB) Picture of a map of the region of what is now Turkey from the 15th Century. ... Theodosius II Flavius Theodosius II (April, 401 - July 28, 450 ). The eldest son of Eudoxia and Arcadius who at the age of 7 became the Roman Emperor of the East. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... Anastasian Wall The Anastasian Wall (Turkish: Anastasius Suru) or the Long Walls of Thrace (Uzun Duvar) is an ancient, stone and turf fortification located 65 km west of Istanbul, Turkey built by the Byzantines during the late 5th century. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... A peninsula in Croatia A peninsula is a piece of land that is bordered on three or more sides by water. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5...


Architecture

Constantinople's monumental center.
Constantinople's monumental center.

The influence of Byzantine architecture and art can be seen in the copies taken from it throughout Europe. Particular examples include St. Mark's in Venice, the basilicas of Ravenna, and many churches throughout the Slavic East. Also, alone in Europe until the 13th century Italian florin, the Empire continued to produce sound gold coinage, the solidus of Diocletian becoming the bezant prized throughout the Middle Ages. Its city walls were much imitated (for example, see Caernarfon Castle) and its urban infrastructure was moreover a marvel throughout the Middle Ages, keeping alive the art, skill and technical expertise of the Roman Empire. Image File history File links Constantinople_center. ... Image File history File links Constantinople_center. ... St. ... Province of Ravenna Ravenna is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ... The back of an Italian florin coin The front of an Italian florin coin The florin was struck from 1252 to 1523 with no significant change in its design or metal content standard. ... Julian solidus, ca. ... Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (c. ... Bezants is a medieval name for gold coins. ... Sections of the Theodosian walls of Constantinople as they appear today in suburban Istanbul The Walls of Constantinople surrounded the Roman and Byzantine city of Constantinople (today Istanbul in Turkey). ... The ward of Caernarfon Castle, showing (from left to right) the Black Tower, the Chamberlains Tower, and the Eagle Tower. ...


Religious

Constantine's foundation gave prestige to the Bishop of Constantinople, who eventually came to be known as the Ecumenical Patriarch, vying for honour with the Pope.[4] They were often regarded as "first among equals", a situation which contributed to the Great Schism that divided Christianity into Western Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy from 1054 onwards (although the anathemas that each religious leader pronounced against the other have been withdrawn in recent times). The Patriarch of Constantinople is still today considered outstanding in the Orthodox Church, along with the Patriarchs of Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem, Moscow and the later Slavic Patriarchs. This position is largely ceremonial but still today carries great weight, particularly since by tradition Constantinople carries the administrative burden of the orthodox churches in 'barbarian lands'. The Patriarch of Constantinople is the Ecumenical Patriarch, ranking as the first among equals in the Eastern Orthodox communion. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Pope. ... First among Equals could refer to Primus inter pares, a political concept or First Among Equals, a novel by Jeffrey Archer ... For the later Papal Schism in Avignon, see Western Schism. ... “Catholic Church” redirects here. ... ...


Popular

  • Constantinople appears as a city of wondrous majesty, beauty, remoteness and nostalgia in William Butler Yeats' 1926 poem Sailing to Byzantium.
  • Robert Graves, author of I, Claudius, also wrote Count Belisarius, a historical novel about Belisarius, much of which is set in Constantinople under Justinian I.
  • Constantinople's change of name was the theme for a song made famous by The Four Lads and later covered by They Might Be Giants and many others entitled "Istanbul (Not Constantinople)". "Constantinople" was also the title of the opening track of The Residents' EP Duck Stab!, released in 1978.
  • Constantinople under Justinian is the scene of "A Flame in Byzantium" by Chelsea Quinn Yarbro released in 1987.
  • "Constantinople" is the title of a song by The Decemberists.
  • Stephen Lawhead's novel "Byzantium" (1996) is set in 9th Century Constantinople.
  • Filmmaker Peter Jackson said he wanted images of Minas Tirith in his The Lord of the Rings trilogy to look like "Constantinople in the morning."
  • "Constantinople 1453 (On the Eve of the Fall)" is a song by American heavy metal band Phoenix Reign.
  • Folk/Symphonic Metal band Turisas have a song on their latest album The Varangian Way called Miklagard Overture.

William Butler Yeats, 1933. ... Sailing to Byzantium is a poem by William Butler Yeats, first published in the 1928 collection The Tower. ... Robert von Ranke Graves (24 July 1895 – 7 December 1985) was an English poet, scholar, and novelist. ... The Four Lads, in a 50s nostalgia concert which aired on PBS. The Four Lads were a singing group. ... This article is about the musical group. ... Istanbul (Not Constantinople) is a swing-style song, written by Jimmy Kennedy and Nat Simon. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... // Extended play (EP) is the name typically given to vinyl records or CDs which contain more than one single but are too short to qualify as albums. ... The Residents album Duck Stab/Buster and Glen was another stop-gap effort released due to delays with the Eskimo album. ... Chelsea Quinn Yarbo is one of only two women ever to be named as Grand Master of the World Horror Convention (2003). ... Stephen R. Lawhead (born July 2, 1950) is an American writer known for novels, both fantasy and science fiction and more recently his works of historical fiction. ... For other persons named Peter Jackson, see Peter Jackson (disambiguation). ... Minas Tirith (IPA: ), originally named Minas Anor, is a heavily fortified city in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth writings, which was the capital of Gondor in the second half of the Third Age. ... Turisas is a Finnish folk metal band founded in 1997 by Mathias Nygård and Jussi Wickström and named after an ancient Finnish god of war. ... The Varangian Way is the 2nd full-length album from Finnish Viking metal band, Turisas and is to be released in Europe in June 2007. ...

Further reading

  • Crowley, Roger (2005). Constantinople: Their Last Great Siege, 1453. Faber and Faber. ISBN 978-0-571-22185-1. 
  • Freely, John; Ahmet S. Cakmak (2004). The Byzantine Monuments of Istanbul. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-77257-0. 
  • Harris, Jonathan (2003). Byzantium and the Crusades. Hambledon and London. ISBN 978-1-85285-501-7. 
  • Freely, John (1998). Istanbul: The Imperial City. Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-024461-8. 
  • Mansel, Philip (1998). Constantinople: City of the World's Desire, 1453-1924. St. Martin's Griffin. ISBN 978-0-312-18708-8. 
  • Phillips, Jonathan (2005). The Fourth Crusade and the Sack of Constantinople. Pimlico. ISBN 978-1-84413-080-1. 
  • Runciman, Steven (1990). The Fall of Constantinople, 1453. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-84413-080-1. 
  • Treadgold, Warren (1997). A History of the Byzantine State and Society. Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-2630-6. 
  • Bury, J. B. (1958). History of the Later Roman Empire: From the Death of Theodosius I to the Death of Justinian. Dover Publications. 
  • Gibbon, Edward (2005). The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Phoenix Press. ISBN 978-0-7538-1881-7. 

The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... The Stanford University Press is a publishing house, a division of Stanford University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ... Dover Publications is a book publisher founded in 1941. ... Edward Gibbon (1737–1794). ...

Notes

  1. ^ BBC - Timeline: Turkey
  2. ^ Britannica, Istanbul
  3. ^ Lexicorient, Istanbul
  4. ^ The Fourth Canon of the First Council of Constantinople: http://www.ccel.org/fathers2/NPNF2-14/Npnf2-14-61.htm#P3914_689786

The First Council of Constantinople (second ecumenical council) was called by Theodosius I in 381 to confirm the Nicene Creed and deal with other matters of the Arian controversy . ...

See also

Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek city, which, according to legend, was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ... One of floor mosaics excavated at the Great Palace and dated to the reign of Justinian I. It is presumed to represent a conquered Gothic king. ... The Hippodrome today, with the Walled Obelisk in the foreground Obelisk of Thutmosis III The base of the Obelisk of Thutmosis III showing Theodosius the Great as he offers a laurel wreath to the victor from the Kathisma (emperors box) at the Hippodrome The Delphi Tripod known as the... // Historical Information Bucoleon Palace, the present day Bucoleon Palace was one of the Byzantine palaces in Constantinople. ... The Palace of Porphyrogenitus, seen in the background, with the Theodosian Walls in front The Palace of Porphyrogenitus, seen from the interior of the walls, as in August 2006 The so-called Palace of Constantine Porphyrogenitus (Turkish: Tekfur Sarayı, Palace of the Emperor) is a 13th century Byzantine palace in... Hagia Sophia The patriarchal basilica Hagia Sophia (Greek: ; Holy Wisdom), now known as the Ayasofya Museum, was the culmination of early Christian architecture. ... The Church of St. ... The Apse of the former Church with the Mihrab. ... Byzantine miniature depicting the Stoudios monastery. ... The Church of the Holy Apostles (Greek: Aghioi Apostoloi), also known as the Imperial Polyandreion, was a Christian basilica built in Constantinople (then the capital of the Byzantine Empire) in 550 AD. It was second only to the Church of the Holy Wisdom (Hagia Sophia) among the great churches of... Chora Church The Chora Church (Turkish Kariye Müzesi, Kariye Camii, or Kariye Kilisesi — the Chora Museum, Mosque or Church) is considered to be one of the most beautiful examples of a Byzantine church. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Mosque viewed from north east. ... Throne inside the Patriarchade of Constantinople. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants  Byzantine Empire Ottoman Sultanate Commanders Constantine XI †, Loukas Notaras, Giovanni Giustiniani †[1] Mehmed II, ZaÄŸanos Pasha Strength 7,000[2] 80,000[1]-200,000[1][3] Casualties 4,000 dead[4] 10,000 civilian dead[5][6] unknown The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of... View of Golden Horn from Eyup Sultan Cemetery The Golden Horn (in Turkish Haliç, in Greek Khrysokeras or Chrysoceras or Χρυσοκερας) is an estuary dividing the city of Istanbul. ... Coat of arms of the last imperial dynasty of the Eastern Roman Empire. ...

External links

  • Istanbul pictures
  • Monuments of Byzantium - Pantokrator Monastery of Constantinople
  • Mosaics of Hagia Sophia - The Deesis Mosaic from Hagia Sophia
  • Constantinoupolis on the web Select internet resources on the history and culture of Constantinople
  • Info on the name change from the Foundation for the Advancement of Sephardic Studies and Culture
  • Welcome to Constantinople, documenting the monuments of Byzantine Constantinople, compiled by Robert Ousterhout, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
  • Constantinople, from History of the Later Roman Empire, by J.B. Bury
  • History of Constantinople from the "New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia."
  • Byzantium 1200, A project aimed at creating computer reconstructions of the Byzantine Monuments located in Constantinople as of year 1200.
  • Istanbul - Constantinople - Byzantium 67 pictures of Constantinople or Istanbul

  Results from FactBites:
 
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: First Council of Constantinople (666 words)
Constantinople is New Rome the bishop of that city should have a pre-eminence of honour after the Bishop of Old Rome.
Greeks maintained (an equally erroneous thesis) that it declared the bishop of the royal city in all things the equal of the pope.
Constantinople and other important Oriental prelates whom he named.
Constantinople - LoveToKnow 1911 (7242 words)
Byzantium, out of which Constantinople sprang, was a small, well-fortified town, occupying most of the territory comprised in the two hills nearest the head of the promontory, and in the level ground at their base.
On the 29th of May 1453 Constantinople ceased to be the capital of the Roman empire in the East, and became the capital of the Ottoman dominion.
As the seat of the chief prelate of Eastern Christendom, Constantinople was characterized by a strong theological and ecclesiastical temperament.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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