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Encyclopedia > Constantine V
Constantine V with his father Leo III the Isaurian.
Constantine V with his father Leo III the Isaurian.

Constantine V Kopronymos or Copronymus (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Ε΄, Kōnstantinos V; 718September 14, 775) was Byzantine emperor from 741 to 775. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Leo the Isaurian and his son Constantine V. Leo III the Isaurian or the Syrian (Greek: Λέων Γ΄, Leōn III ), (c. ... Events Pelayo established the Kingdom of Asturias in the Iberian peninsula (modern day Portugal and Spain). ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Estimation: Baghdad, capital of the Abbasid Empire, becomes the largest city of the world, taking the lead from Changan, capital of China. ... This is a list of the Emperors of the late Eastern Roman Empire, called Byzantine by modern historians. ...

Contents

Life

Early life

Constantine was the son and successor of Emperor Leo III and Maria. His derogatory nickname Kopronymos (i.e. the Dung-named) derives from kopros (feces, also animal dung) and onoma (name). The nickname used by the hostile iconodule sources refers to him allegedly defecating in the baptismal font or the imperial purple cloth with which he was swaddled. In August 720 he was associated on the throne by his father, who had him marry Tzitzak, daughter of the Khazar khagan Bihar. His new bride was baptized as Irene (Eirēnē, "peace") in 732. Constantine V succeeded his father as sole emperor on April 19, 741. The accession of the new emperor went as smoothly as expected, but his authority was soon to be challenged. Leo the Isaurian and his son Constantine V. Leo III the Isaurian or the Syrian (Greek: Λέων Γ΄, Leōn III ), (c. ... Horse feces Feces, faeces, or fæces (see spelling differences) is a waste product from an animals digestive tract expelled through the anus (or cloaca) during defecation. ... Dung can refer to: (what lana belchers face looks like) Look up dung in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Name (disambiguation). ... Iconodules (or Iconophile) is someone who supports or is in favour of religious images, or icons, also known as Iconography, and is in opposition to an Iconoclast (someone against Iconography). ... Anatomy of the anus and rectum Defecation is the act or process by which organisms eliminate solid or semisolid waste material (feces) from the digestive tract via the anus. ... Baptism in early Christian art. ... Khazar princess, daughter of Khagan Bihar. ... The Khazars (Hebrew Kuzari כוזרי Kuzarim כוזרים; Turkish Hazar Hazarlar; Russian Хазарин Хазары; Tatar sing Xäzär Xäzärlär; Crimean Tatar: ; Greek Χαζάροι/Χάζαροι; Persianخزر khazar; Latin Gazari or Cosri) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia, many of whom converted to Judaism. ... Khagan of the Khazars during the 730s CE. Bihar was the father of Tzitzak, the Khazar princess who married the son of Byzantine Emperor Leo III who later ruled as Constantine V. He is called Viharos in Armenian sources. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events June 18 - Constantine V succeeds Leo III as emperor of the Byzantine Empire. ...


Civil war against Artabasdos

Constantine was crossing Asia Minor to campaign against the Umayyad Caliphate under Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik on the eastern frontier in June 741 or 742. But during this course Constantine was attacked by the forces of his brother-in-law Artabasdos, the stratēgos of the Armeniac theme. Defeated, Constantine sought refuge in Amorion, while the victor advanced on Constantinople and was accepted as emperor. While Constantine now received the support of the Anatolic and Thracesian themes, Artabasdos secured that of the themes of Thrace and Opsikion, in addition to his own Armeniac soldiers. Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, or global Islamic nation. ... Archaeological remains of a palace built in Hishams honor just north of present-day Jericho Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik (691–6 February 743) (Arabic: هشام بن عبد الملك) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 723 until his death in 743. ... Artavasdos (erroneously Artabasdos or Artabasdus), (Greek: Αρταύασδος, Artauasdos, from Armenian: Ô±Ö€Õ¿Õ¡Õ¾Õ¡Õ¦Õ¤, Artavazd ), was Byzantine Emperor from June 741 or 742 until November 743. ... The term strategos (plural strategoi; Greek στρατηγός) is used in Greek to mean general. In the hellenistic and Byzantine Empires the term was also used to describe a military governor. ... The themata in 950. ... Amorium Höyük (mound) as seen from the minaret of the village of Hisarköy The site John Kallos, Bishop of Amorion Amorium, is an ancient city in Turkey that dates back at least to the Hellenistic Period in Anatolia and that had acquired particular historical significance, in several... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ...


After the rival emperors had bided their time in military preparations, Artabasdos marched against Constantine, but was defeated in May 743. Three months later Constantine defeated Artabasdos' son Niketas and headed for Constantinople. In early November Constantine was admitted into the capital and immediately turned on his opponents, having them blinded or executed. Perhaps because Artabasdos' usurpation was interconnected with the restoration of image worship, Constantine now became an even more fervent iconoclast than his father. Statues in the Cathedral of Saint Martin, Utrecht, attacked in Reformation iconoclasm in the 16th century. ...


Iconoclasm

In February 754 Constantine convened a synod at Hieria, which was attended entirely by Iconoclast bishops. The council approved of Constantine's religious policy and secured the election of a new Iconoclast patriarch, but refused to follow in all of Constantine's views. The council confirmed the status of Mary as Theotokos, or Mother of God, reinforced the use of the terms "saint" and "holy" as meet, and condemned the desecration, burning, or looting of churches in the quest to quench Iconophiles. It was followed by a campaign to remove images from the walls of churches and to purge the court and bureaucracy from Iconodules. Since monasteries tended to be strongholds of Iconophile sentiment, Constantine specifically targeted the monks, pairing them off and forcing them to marry nuns in the Hippodrome and expropriating monastic property for the benefit of the state or the army. The repressions against the monks (culminating in 766) were largely led by the emperor's general Michael Lachanodrakon, who threatened resilient monks with blinding and exile. Iconodules (or Iconophile) is someone who supports or is in favour of religious images, or icons, also known as Iconography, and is in opposition to an Iconoclast (someone against Iconography). ... The Savior Not Made By Hands (1410s, by Andrei Rublev) An icon (from Greek εικων, eikon, image) is an artistic visual representation or symbol of anything considered holy and divine, such as God, saints or deities. ... The Hippodrome today, with the Walled Obelisk in the foreground Obelisk of Thutmosis III The base of the Obelisk of Thutmosis III showing Theodosius the Great as he offers a laurel wreath to the victor from the Kathisma (emperors box) at the Hippodrome The Delphi Tripod known as the...


An iconodule abbot, Stephen Neos, was brutally lynched by a mob at the behest of the authorities. As a result many monks fled to Southern Italy and Sicily. By the end of Constantine's reign, Iconoclasm had gone as far as to brand relics and prayers to the saints as heretical. Constantine was an able general and administrator. He reorganized the themes, the military districts of the empire, and created new field army divisions called tagmata. This organization was intended to minimize the threat of conspiracies and to enhance the defensive capabilities of the Empire. With this reorganized army he embarked on campaigns on the three major frontiers. Southern Italy, often referred to in Italian as the Mezzogiorno (a term first used in 19th century in comparison with French Midi ) encompasses six of the countrys 20 regions: Basilicata Campania Calabria Puglia Sicilia Sardinia Sicilia although it is geographically and administratively included in Insular Italy, it has a... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... A relic is an object, especially a piece of the body or a personal item of someone of religious significance, carefully preserved with an air of veneration as a tangible memorial, Relics are an important aspect of Buddhism, some denominations of Christianity, Hinduism, shamanism, and many other personal belief systems. ... In traditional Christian iconography, Saints are often depicted as having halos. ... Look up Heresy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The themata in 950. ... A Tagma (plural tagmata) was a military unit in the Byzantine Empire. ...


Campaigns against the Arabs and Bulgars

In 746, profiting by the unstable conditions in the Umayyad Caliphate which was falling apart under Marwan II, Constantine invaded Syria and captured Germanikeia (Maraş, his father's birthplace). He organized the resettlement of a part the local Christian population into imperial territory in Thrace. In 747 his fleet destroyed the Arab fleet off Cyprus. In 752 Constantine led an invasion into the new Abbasid Caliphate under As-Saffah. Constantine captured Theodosioupolis and Melitene (Malatya), and again resettled some of the population in the Balkans. These campaigns failed to secure any concrete gains (apart from additional population employed to strengthen another frontier), but it is important to note that under Constantine V the Empire had gone on the offensive. The Califate in 750 From The Historical Atlas by William R. Shepherd, 1923 Courtesy of The General Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin Marwan ibn Muhammad ibn Marwan or Marwan II (750-688) (Arabic: مروان ابن محمد ابن مروان) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 744 until 750 when he was killed. ... KahramanmaraÅŸ is the capital city of KahramanmaraÅŸ Province in southeastern Turkey. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... Abu al-`Abbās `Abdullāh as-Saffāh ibn Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Abdullah ibn Abbas ibn Mutalib ibn Hashim (Arabic: أبو العباس عبد الله بن محمد السفاح, As-Saffah السفّاح literally means: the Slaughterer, in Arabic) ‎ (721 - 754) was the first Abbasid caliph. ... Malatia can also be a misspelling of the medical term Malacia. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


These successes made it possible to pursue an aggressive policy in the Balkans. With the resettlement of Christian populations from the East into Thrace, Constantine V aimed to enhance the prosperity and defense of this area. This caused concern to the Empire's northern neighbor, Bulgaria, and the two states clashed in 754. Kormisosh of Bulgaria raided as far as the Anastasian Wall, but was defeated in battle by Constantine V, who inaugurated a long series of successful campaigns against the Bulgarians. In AD 763, he sailed to Anchialus with 800 ships carrying 9,600 cavalry and some infantry. Constantine's victories, including that at the Anchialus in 763 caused considerable instablity in Bulgaria, where six monarchs lost their crowns on account of their failures. Unfortunately, his fleet of 2,600 heavy ships sinks en route to Anchialus. This lucky streak ran out in 775, when Constantine was persuaded to reveal to the Bulgarian ruler Telerig the identities of his agents in Bulgaria. These were promptly eliminated, and Constantine began preparations for a new campaign against the Bulgarians, during the course of which he died on September 14, 775. Kormisosh was Khan of Bulgaria between 753 and 756. ... Anastasian Wall The Anastasian Wall (Turkish: Anastasius Suru) or the Long Walls of Thrace (Uzun Duvar) is an ancient, stone and turf fortification located 65 km west of Istanbul, Turkey built by the Byzantines during the late 5th century. ... Combatants Bulgaria Byzantine Empire Commanders Telets Constantine V Strength Unknown 9,600 cavalrymen and unknown number of infantry Casualties Heavy Heavy The battle of Anchialus (Bulgarian: ) occurred in 763, near the town of Pomorie on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast. ... Telerig was the ruler of Bulgaria 768–777. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Estimation: Baghdad, capital of the Abbasid Empire, becomes the largest city of the world, taking the lead from Changan, capital of China. ...


Iconophiles considered his death a divine punishment. They spread the rumour that he had defecated in his baptismal font as a baby, and began to refer to him as Kopronymos. In the 9th century he was disinterred and his remains were thrown into the sea. Baptismal font in Magdeburg Cathedral, Germany A baptismal font is an article of church furniture used for the baptism of children and adults. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ...


Family

By his first wife, Tzitzak ("Irene of Khazaria"), Constantine V had one son: Khazar princess, daughter of Khagan Bihar. ...

  • Leo IV, who succeeded as emperor.

By his second wife, Maria, Constantine V is not known to have had children. Leo IV the Khazar (Greek: Λέων Δ΄, Leōn IV ), (January 25, 750 – September 8, 780), Byzantine Emperor from 775 to 780. ...


By his third wife, Eudokia Melissene, Constantine V had five sons and a daughter, including:

  • Christopher, Caesar
  • Nikephoros, Caesar
  • Niketas, Noblissimos
  • Eudokimos, Nobelissimos
  • Anthimos, Nobelissimos
  • Anthousa

References

Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium (often abbreviated to ODB) is a three volume book by the Oxford University Press. ...

External links

Constantine V
Born: 718 Died: 14 September 775
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Leo III
Byzantine Emperor
741–775
Succeeded by
Leo IV

  Results from FactBites:
 
NodeWorks - Encyclopedia: Constantine V (299 words)
Constantine V Copronymus ("The Dung-named") was Byzantine emperor from 741 to 775.
Constantine was opposed by his father's chamberlain Artabasdus, who attacked his army while they were on campaign against the Arabs in Anatolia.
Constantine, however, fled to Isauria, rallied his supporters, and besieged the capital in 742.
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Constantine the Great (5939 words)
Constantine increased the severity of the earlier law forbidding the concubinage of a free woman with a slave, and the Church did not regard this measure with disfavour.
Constantine was liberal to prodigality, was generous in almsgiving, and adorned the Christian churches magnificently.
Of Constantine's sons the eldest, Constantine II, showed decided leanings to heathenism, and his coins bear many pagan emblems; the second and favourite son, Constantius, was a more pronounced Christian, but it was Arian Christianity to which he adhered.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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