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Encyclopedia > Constantine I of the Roman Empire
Constantine.Head of the colossal statue. Musei Capitolini, Rome
Constantine.
Head of the colossal statue. Musei Capitolini, Rome

Gaius Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus (Latin: IMP·CAESAR·FLAVIVS·CONSTANTINVS·PIVS·FELIX·INVICTVS·AVGVSTVS ¹) (February 27, 272May 22, 337), commonly known as Constantine I or Constantine the Great, was proclaimed Augustus by his troops on July 25, 306 and ruled an ever-growing portion of the Roman Empire to his death. Constantine is famed for his refounding of Byzantium (modern Istanbul) as "Nova Roma" (New Rome), which was always popularly called "Constantine's City"— (Constantinopolis, Constantinople). With the "Edict of Milan" in 313, Constantine and his co-Emperor Licinius removed all onus from Christianity. By taking the personal step of convoking the Council of Nicaea (325), Constantine began the Roman Empire's unofficial sponsoring of Christianity, which was a major factor in that religion's spread. His reputation as the "first Christian Emperor" was promulgated by Lactantius and Eusebius of Caesarea, gaining ground in the succeeding generations. from the German wikipedia: http://de. ... from the German wikipedia: http://de. ... Latin is the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... February 27 is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events Roman emperor Aurelian reconquers the kingdom of Palmyra (Egypt and large parts of Asia Minor), forcing queen Zenobia to flee to Parthia. ... May 22 is the 142nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (143rd in leap years). ... Events February 6 - Julius is elected pope. ... Augustus (plural Augusti) is Latin for majestic or venerable. The greek equivalent is sebastos, or a mere grecization (by changing of the ending) augustos. ... July 25 is the 206th day (207th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 159 days remaining. ... Events July 25 - Constantine I proclaimed Roman Emperor by his troops. ... The Roman Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Ancient Roman polity in the centuries following its reorganization under the leadership of Octavian (better known as Caesar Augustus). ... Byzantium was the original name of the modern city of Istanbul. ... Shows the Location of the Province Ä°stanbul Suleymaniye Mosque seen from Tepebaşı (January 2005) Istanbul (Turkish: Ä°stanbul; contraction of the citys previous Greek name Constantinople) is the largest city in Turkey, and arguably the most important. ... New Rome is a term that can be applied to a city or a country. ... Map of Constantinople. ... The Edict of Milan (313 AD) declared that the Roman Empire would be neutral with regard to religious worship, officially ending all government-sanctioned persecution especially of Christianity. ... For other uses, see 313 (disambiguation). ... Coin of Licinius For other Romans of this name, see Licinius (gens). ... The First Council of Nicaea, which took place during the reign of the emperor Constantine in 325 AD, was the first ecumenical (from Greek oikumene, worldwide) conference of bishops of the Christian Church. ... Events May 20 - First Council of Nicaea _ first Ecumenical Council of the Christian Church: The Nicene Creed is formulated, the date of Easter is discussed. ... Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament writings of his early followers. ... Lucius Caelius (or Caecilius?) Firmianus Lactantius was an early Christian author who wrote in Latin (around A.D. 240 - around 320). ... Eusebius of Caesarea (~275 – May 30, 339) (often called Eusebius Pamphili, Eusebius [the friend] of Pamphilus) was a bishop of Caesarea in Palestine and is often referred to as the father of church history because of his work in recording the history of the early Christian church. ...

Contents


Early life

Bronze statue of Constantine I outside York Minster, near where he was acclaimed Emperor in 306
Bronze statue of Constantine I outside York Minster, near where he was acclaimed Emperor in 306

Constantine was born at Naissus, (today's Niš, Serbia, Serbia and Montenegro) in Upper Moesia, to Constantius I Chlorus, who was of Greek descent, and Flavia Iulia Helena, an innkeeper's daughter who at the time was an adolescent of only 16 years, . His father left his mother c. 292 to marry Flavia Maximiana Theodora, daughter or step-daughter of Western Roman Emperor Maximian. Theodora would give birth to six half-siblings of Constantine, including Julius Constantius. Statue of the roman emperor Constantine File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Statue of the roman emperor Constantine File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... York Minster is an imposing Gothic cathedral in York, northern England. ... Niš (Ниш, the Roman Naissus; see below) is a city in Serbia and Montenegro (formerly Yugoslavia), 43. ... Serbia and Montenegro  â€“ Serbia    â€“ Kosovo and Metohia        (UN administration)    â€“ Vojvodina  â€“ Montenegro Official language Serbian1 Capital Belgrade Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % water  88,361 km²  n/a Population  â€“ Total (2002)     (without Kosovo)  â€“ Density  7. ... In ancient geography, Moesia was a district inhabited by a Thracian people. ... Gaius Flavius Valerius Constantius (March 31, 250–July 25, 306) was an emperor of the Western Roman Empire (305–306). ... Helena on a coin. ... A separate article is about the punk band called The Adolescents. ... Events Constantius Chlorus divorces Helena, mother of Constantine the Great (approximate date). ... Flavia Maximiana Theodora (known as Theodora) was the daughter or step-daughter of Maximian. ... The Western Roman Empire is the name given to the western half of the Roman Empire after its division by Diocletian. ... Maximian on a coin (295–296 AD) Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus (c. ... Flavius Julius Constantius (d. ...


He was well educated and served at the court of Diocletian in Nicomedia as a kind of hostage, after the appointment of his father, a general, as one of the two caesares or junior emperors in the Tetrarchy in 293. In 305, the Augustus, Maximian, abdicated, and Constantius succeeded to the position. However, Constantius fell sick during an expedition against the Picts and Scots of Caledonia, and died on July 25, 306. Constantine managed to be at his deathbed in Eboracum (York) of Roman Britain, where the loyal general Crocus, of Alamanni descent, and the troops loyal to his father's memory proclaimed him an Augustus ("Emperor"). For the next 18 years, he fought a series of battles and wars that left him first the Western Roman Emperor in co-rule with an Eastern Roman Emperor, and then the supreme ruler of the Roman Empire. Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (245-313 AD), born Diocles, was Roman Emperor from November 20, 284 to May 1, 305. ... Nicomedes I of Bithynia founded the city of Nicomedia (modern Ismid), at the head of the Gulf of Astacus (which opens on the Propontis), in 264 BC The city has ever since been one of the chief towns in this part of Asia Minor. ... Caesar (p. ... The Tetrarchs, a porphyry sculpture sacked from a Byzantine palace in 1204, Treasury of St. ... Events March 1 - Diocletian and Maximian appoint Constantius Chlorus and Galerius as Caesars. ... Events May 1 - Diocletian and Maximian, emperors of Rome, retire from office. ... Augustus (plural Augusti) is Latin for majestic or venerable. The greek equivalent is sebastos, or a mere grecization (by changing of the ending) augustos. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Dalriada Scots originated from Ireland, from the north of the now-called countyAntrim. ... Caledonia is primarily a Roman Latin name for a region corresponding approximately to that part of Scotland which is north of a line between the mouths of the Forth and the Clyde. ... July 25 is the 206th day (207th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 159 days remaining. ... Events July 25 - Constantine I proclaimed Roman Emperor by his troops. ... York is a city in northern England, at the confluence of the Rivers Ouse and Foss. ... Principal sites in Roman Britain Roman Britain is the term applied to the historical period when Britain was under Roman rule, usually considered AD 44 to 410. ... The Alamanni, Allemanni or Alemanni, are a Germanic tribe, first mentioned by Dio Cassius, under the year 213. ...


Constantine and Christianity

Constantine is perhaps best known for being the first Roman Emperor to freely allow Christianity, traditionally presented as a result of an omen — a chi and rho in the sky, with the inscription "By this sign shalt thou conquer" — before his victory in the Battle of Milvian Bridge on October 28, 312, when Constantine is said to have instituted the new standard to be carried into battle, called the labarum. There are at least 3 different surviving ancient versions of this battle in greater detail. See: Of the Manner in Which the Persecutors Died, Chapter 44, by Lactantius, The Life of Constantine, Chapters 24-31, by Eusebius of Caesarea, and New History, Book 2 43,44 by Zosimus; this version seems to have numerous owls as an omen of victory. Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament writings of his early followers. ... Chi (upper case Χ, lower case χ) is the 22nd letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Rho (upper case Ρ, lower case ρ) is the 17th letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Battle of the Milvian Bridge Conflict Date October 28, 312 Place Milvian Bridge (Saxa Rubra), Rome Result Defeat of Maxentius The Battle of Milvian Bridge took place on October 28, 312 between the Roman Emperors Constantine the Great and Maxentius. ... October 28 is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 64 days remaining. ... Events October 28 - Battle of Milvian Bridge: Constantine defeats Maxentius in the fight to become emperor of Rome. ... An image of the labarum, with the letters Alpha and Omega inscribed. ... Lucius Caelius (or Caecilius?) Firmianus Lactantius was an early Christian author who wrote in Latin (around A.D. 240 - around 320). ... Eusebius of Caesarea (~275 – May 30, 339) (often called Eusebius Pamphili, Eusebius [the friend] of Pamphilus) was a bishop of Caesarea in Palestine and is often referred to as the father of church history because of his work in recording the history of the early Christian church. ... For the pope of this name see Pope Zosimus Zosimus, Greek historical writer, nourished at Constantinople during the second half of the 5th century A.D. According to Photius, he was a count, and held the office of advocate of the imperial treasury. ... Families Strigidae Tytonidae An owl is any of some 200+ species of solitary nocturnal birds of prey in the order Strigiformes. ... This article is about Omens as divinatory portents. ...


At this point it should be noted that historical sources of the 4th century Roman Empire seem to be unusually rich in omens, magic, hexes and spells, while lacking in critical inquiry. A suspicion of literacy and higher learning which began at least a century before had grown. These may have been the results of the fear and high mortality rates caused by the first and second outbreak of the Antonine Plague (165 - 180 and 251 - 266 respectively). (3rd century - 4th century - 5th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... The Roman Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Ancient Roman polity in the centuries following its reorganization under the leadership of Octavian (better known as Caesar Augustus). ... The ancient symbol of the pentagram is often used as a symbol for magic. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Look up Spell in Wiktionary, the free dictionary For spelling in linguistics, see orthography. ... The Antonine Plague AD 165-180, also known as the Plague of Galen, was an ancient pandemic, either of smallpox or measles brought back to the Roman Empire by troops returning from campaigns in the Near East. ... Events A pandemic breaks out in Rome after the Roman army returns from Parthia. ... For other uses, see number 180. ... Events Pope Cornelius succeeds Pope Fabian. ... Events Ireland - Rule of High King Cormac mac Airt ends (approximate) Births Deaths Categories: 266 ...


Christian historians ever since Lactantius have adhered to the view that Constantine "adopted" Christianity as a kind of replacement for the official Roman paganism. Though the document called the "Donation of Constantine" was proved a forgery (though not until the 15th century, when the stories of Constantine's conversion were long-established "facts") it was attributed as documenting the conversion of the Roman Empire to Christianity for centuries. Even Christian skeptics have accepted this formulation, though seeing Constantine's policy as a political one, unifying and strengthening the Empire, rather than a spiritual move. Still the Edict of Milan indicated that reverence to the Divine, as shown by past events, was for the good of the Roman Empire. The Roman Emperor has become more responsible to the Divine for giving religious guidance to its people than in the past. Within a European Christian context, paganism is a catch-all term which has come to connote a broad set of spiritual/religious beliefs and practices of a natural religion (as opposed to a revealed religion of a text). ... The Donation of Constantine (Latin, Constitutum Donatio Constantini) is a forged Roman imperial edict, purportedly issued by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in AD 324, and granting Pope Sylvester I and his successors sovereignty and spiritual authority over Rome, Italy, and the entire Western Roman Empire. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... The Edict of Milan (313 AD) declared that the Roman Empire would be neutral with regard to religious worship, officially ending all government-sanctioned persecution especially of Christianity. ... Roman Emperor is the title historians use to refer to rulers of the Roman Empire, after the epoch conventionally named the Roman Republic. ...

Coin of Constantine I, making a benediction gesture, with his sons, enthroned.
Coin of Constantine I, making a benediction gesture, with his sons, enthroned.

Under Constantine's rule, Christians for the first time were free to compete with pagan Romans of wider culture in the traditional cursus honorum for high government positions. Constantine granted various special privileges; and churches like the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem were constructed. Christian bishops took aggressive public stances that were unknown among other cult leaders, even among the Jews. Proselytism had to be publicly outlawed, simply to maintain public decorum. Medal of Emperor Constantine. ... Medal of Emperor Constantine. ... A benediction is a a short invocation for divine help, blessing and guidance, usually after a church worship service. ... Military signalmen use hand and body gestures to direct flight operations aboard aircraft carriers. ... The cursus honorum (Latin: succession of magistracies) was the sequential order of public offices held by aspiring politicians in both the Roman Republic and the early Empire. ... View of The Church of the Nativity from Manger Square The Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem is one of the oldest continuously operating churches in the world. ... This article is about the city in the West Bank. ... Main Entrance to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, called Church of the Resurrection (Anastasis) by Eastern Christians, is a Christian church now within the walled Old City of Jerusalem. ... Jerusalem (31°46′ N 35°14′ E; Hebrew: יְרוּשָׁלַיִם Yerushalayim; Arabic: القدس al-Quds; see also names of Jerusalem) is an ancient Middle Eastern city of key importance to the religions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. ...


In the essential Roman legions, however, Christianity was unpopular because it accepted women , and the soldiers followed Mithras and Isis. Since the Roman Emperors ruled by "favor from the Gods" and stayed in power through the support of the legions, it was important for them to be seen visibly aiding the cause of religion. The insolence of the Christians consisted in their public refusal to "sacrifice and build idols" which some modern writers see as an oath of allegiance. Refusal might easily bring upon all the Roman people the loss of Jupiter's and the other Gods support; protecting the Empire's borders against marauding barbarians, safety from epidemics and natural disasters, (which were thought to be Divine punishments), sorcery, the eating of children, etc. such were the usual justifications for the murder and mutilations of Christians, the fare of many martyrologies that described Christian agonies in inspiring and inflammatory detail. (See: Diocletian's Edicts against the Christians, Galerius Maximianus, and Lactantius' Of the Manner in which the Persecutors Died, Chapters 21-24). Large numbers escaped martyrdom by fleeing, complying, buying their way out, lying, dodging and communicating with each other only in secret.(MacMullen, 1990 & 1966, Wilken, 1984) The Roman legion (from the Latin legio, meaning levy) was the basic military unit of ancient Rome. ... Mithras was the central savior god of Mithraism, a syncretic Hellenistic mystery religion of male initiates that developed in the Eastern Mediterranean in the 2nd and 1st centuries BC and was practiced in the Roman Empire from the 1st century BC to the 5th century AD. Parthian coins and documents... // Isis in Egypt Early Isis Isis (Greek corruption; the Egyptian is Aset) was originally a goddess from Nubia, and was adopted into Egyptian belief very early. ... This list of deities aims to give information about deities in the different religions, cultures and mythologies of the world. ... Idolatry is a term used by many religions to describe the worship of a false deity, which is an affront to their understanding of divinity. ... An oath of allegiance is an oath whereby a subject or citizen acknowledges his duty of allegiance and swears loyalty to his Sovereign or country. ... Jupiter In Roman mythology, Jupiter (sometimes shortened to Jove) held the same role as Zeus in the Greek pantheon. ... Barbarian was originally a Greek term applied to any foreigner, one not sharing a recognized culture or degree of polish with the speaker or writer employing the term. ... A martyrology is a catalogue or list of martyrs, or, more exactly, of saints, arranged in the order of their anniversaries. ... Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (245-313 AD), born Diocles, was Roman Emperor from November 20, 284 to May 1, 305. ... Galerius on a coin Galerius Maximianus (c. ... Lucius Caelius (or Caecilius?) Firmianus Lactantius was an early Christian author who wrote in Latin (around A.D. 240 - around 320). ...


Constantine and Licinius' Edict of Milan (313) neither made paganism illegal nor made Christianity a state-sponsored religion. It gave religious freedom. It legalized Christianity, returned confiscated Church property, and established Sunday as a day of worship. Though the church prospered under Constantine's patronage, its controversies, which had been lively within the Christian communities since the mid-2nd century, now flared in public schisms accompanied by riotous violence; one of the most vehement was the African Donatist schism which began in AD 311. Donatists, Christians themselves, would not forgive or recognize other Christians who they thought had betrayed or abandoned Christ during the past persecutions. Constantine, Divinely appointed, saw quelling religious disorder as the emperor's duty. Later he called the First Council of Nicaea (May 20 - July 25, 325) to settle the problem of Arianism, a dispute about the personhood and godhood of Jesus. It produced the Nicene Creed, which favoured the position of Athanasius of Alexandria, that God and Jesus were "of one substance". Jesus was "begotten not made". This became the official doctrine defeating Arius, the major opponent. Coin of Licinius For other Romans of this name, see Licinius (gens). ... The Edict of Milan (313 AD) declared that the Roman Empire would be neutral with regard to religious worship, officially ending all government-sanctioned persecution especially of Christianity. ... For other uses, see 313 (disambiguation). ... Sunday is the day of the week between Saturday and Monday, and the second day of the weekend in some cultures. ... (1st century - 2nd century - 3rd century - other centuries) Events Roman Empire governed by the Five Good Emperors (96–180) – Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius. ... Africa is the worlds second-largest continent and 3rd most populous. ... The Donatists (founded by the Berber christian Donatus) were followers of a belief considered a heresy by the Roman Catholic Church. ... For the band, see 311 (band), for the number see 311 (number) Events June 15 - Licinius issues his own Edict of Toleration, ending persecution of Christians in his own part of the Roman Empire. ... The First Council of Nicaea, which took place during the reign of the emperor Constantine in 325 AD, was the first ecumenical (from Greek oikumene, worldwide) conference of bishops of the Christian Church. ... May 20 is the 140th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (141st in leap years). ... July 25 is the 206th day (207th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 159 days remaining. ... Events May 20 - First Council of Nicaea _ first Ecumenical Council of the Christian Church: The Nicene Creed is formulated, the date of Easter is discussed. ... Arianism was a Christological view held by followers of Arius in the early Christian Church, claiming that Jesus Christ and God the Father were not always contemporary, seeing the Son as a divine being, created by the Father (and consequently inferior to Him) at some point in time, before which... This 11th-century portrait is one of many images of Jesus in which a halo with a cross is used. ... The Nicene Creed, or the Icon/Symbol of the Faith, is a Christian statement of faith accepted by the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican, and most Protestant churches. ... Athanasius of Alexandria (also spelled Athanasios) (298–May 2, 373) was a Christian bishop, the Patriarch of Alexandria, in the fourth century. ... Arius (AD 256 - 336) was an early Christian theologian, who taught that the Son of God was not eternal, and was subordinate to God the Father (a view known generally as Arianism). ...


When the Altar of Victory was desecrated and removed from its place of honor in the Senate, the Senate deputized Symmachus, prefect of Rome, to appeal to the Emperor for its return. Symmachus publicly characterized the late Emperor Constantine's policy, in a plea for freedom of religion: Symmachus can refer to several different people of Roman antiquity. ... Freedom of religion is a modern legal concept of being free as a matter of right, while freedom of worship is based upon the free expression of that right. ...

"[Constantine] diminished none of the privileges of the sacred virgins, he filled the priestly offices with nobles, he did not refuse the cost of the Roman ceremonies, and following the rejoicing Senate through all the streets of the eternal city, he contentedly beheld the shrines with unmoved countenance, he read the names of the gods inscribed on the pediments, he enquired about the origin of the temples, and expressed admiration for their builders. Although he himself followed another religion, he maintained its own for the empire, for everyone has his own customs, everyone his own rites. The divine mind has distributed different guardians and different cults to different cities. As souls are separately given to infants as they are born, so to peoples the genius of their destiny." (Possible Christian insertion in italics.)
Medieval sourcebook: "The Memorial of Symmachus, prefect of the City". (The Memorial has been emended to address three emperors, Valentinian II (died 392), Theodosius I, and Arcadius. Arcadius was named co-ruler of his father and Augustus in January, 383. So the address to the three Augusti could have been written anywhere between 383 and 392. There may be Christian adulterations of the text. The reply of Ambrose, Bishop of Milan, is appended, which is highly revealing in the character of his argument in rebuttal.)

A vestal Virgin, engraving by Sir Frederick Leighton, ca 1890: Leightons artistic sense has won over his passion for historical accuracy in showing the veil over the Vestals head at sacrifices, the suffibulum, as translucent, instead of fine white wool. ... Valentinian II (371 - 392) was elevated as Western Roman Emperor at the age of four in 375, along with his half-brother Gratianus who was seventeen. ... Events August 22 - Arbogast elevates Eugenius as Roman Emperor. ... Flavius Theodosius (Cauca (modern Coca, Segovia, Spain), January 11, 347 - Milan, January 17, 395), also called Theodosius I and Theodosius the Great, was a Roman emperor. ... Flavius Arcadius ( 377/ 378– May 1, 408) was Roman Emperor in the Eastern half of the Roman Empire from 395 until his death. ... Augustus (plural Augusti) is Latin for majestic or venerable. The greek equivalent is sebastos, or a mere grecization (by changing of the ending) augustos. ... January is the first month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... Events January 19 - Arcadius is elevated as Roman Emperor. ... Saint Ambrose, Latin Sanctus Ambrosius, Italian SantAmbrogio (circa 340–April 4, 397), bishop of Milan, was one of the most eminent fathers of the Christian church in the 4th century. ... The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Milan is an ecclesiastical territory or diocese of the Roman Catholic Church in Italy. ...

Persian reaction

Beyond the limites, east of the Euphrates, the Sassanid rulers of the Persian Empire had usually tolerated their Christians. A Letter supposedly from Constantine to Shapur II of Persia (both lived and reigned from 310 to 379), was estimated to have been written in 324 urged him to protect the Christians in his realm… With the edicts of toleration in the Roman Empire, the followers of Christ would be regarded as allies of Persia's ancient enemy. The persecutions began. Shapur II wrote to his generals: A limes is a Roman wall marking the boundaries of the Roman Empire. ... Length 2,800 km Elevation of the source 4,500 m Average discharge 818 m³/s Area watershed 765,831 km² Origin Lake Van Mouth Shatt al Arab Basin countries Turkey Syria Iraq Boat on the Shatt-al-Arab The Euphrates (the traditional Greek name for the river, which is... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Shapur II the Great was king of Persia (309 - 379). ... Events While Constantine was campaigning against the Bructeri, Maximian attempted to make himself emperor at Arles. ... Events January 19 - Theodosius I is elevated as Roman Emperor at Sirmium. ... Events Constantine becomes the sole emperor of the Roman Empire. ...

You will arrest Simon, chief of the Christians. You will keep him until he signs this document and consents to collect for us a double tax and double tribute from the Christians … for we Gods have all the trials of war and they have nothing but repose and pleasure. They inhabit our territory and agree with Caesar, our enemy. (quoted in Freya Stark, Rome on the Euphrates 1967, p. 375)

It was not an unreasonable demand in the circumstances. The Sassanids were perennially at war with Rome, (which incidently raises further doubt on the authenticity of this letter). Christians were now suspected for potential treachery. The "Great Persecution" of the Persian Christian churches occurred in a later period, 340 to 363, after the Persian Wars that reopened upon Constantine's death. In 344 came the martyrdom of Catholicos Shimun bar Sabbae, with five bishops and 100 priests. Freya Madeleine Stark (1893-1993) was famous for writing of her travels in the Middle East. ... 1967 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Constantine II attacks his brother Constans near Aquileia, aiming for sole control of the western half of the Roman Empire. ... Events Perisapora is destroyed by Emperor Julian. ... Events Emperor Mu succeeds Emperor Kang as emperor of China. ... Catholicos (plural Catholicoi) is a title used by the head bishop of any of certain Eastern churches. ...


Constantine's Christianity

The religion of Constantine the Great, while quite Christian in view of his many Christian qualities and acts later in life, is frequently attacked because of his sinful actions (not unlike Augustine of Hippo, whose early life was debauched, and twisted by ambition). St. ...


Bronze coins struck for emperors often reveal details of their personal iconography. During the early part of Constantine's rule, representations first of Mars and then (from 310) of Apollo as Sun god consistently appear on the reverse of the coinage. Mars had been associated with the Tetrarchy, and Constantine's use of this symbolism served to emphasize the legitimacy of his rule. After his breach with his father's old colleague Maximian in 309–310, Constantine began to claim legitimate descent from the 3rd century emperor Marcus Aurelius Claudius Gothicus, the hero of the Battle of Naissus (September, 268). The Augustan History of the 4th century reports Constantine's paternal grandmother Claudia to be a daughter of Crispus. Crispus being a reported brother of both Claudius II and Quintillus. Historians however suspect this account to be a genealogical fabrication to flatter Constantine. Salvator Mundi is an iconography depicting Christ with his right hand raised in blessing and his left hand holding an orb. ... Mars was Roman god of war, the son of Juno and a magical flower (or Jupiter). ... Events While Constantine was campaigning against the Bructeri, Maximian attempted to make himself emperor at Arles. ... Apollo (Greek: Απόλλων, Apóllōn) is a god in Greek and Roman mythology, the son of Zeus and Leto, and the twin of Artemis (goddess of the hunt). ... A solar deity is a deity who represents the Sun. ... The Tetrarchs, a porphyry sculpture sacked from a Byzantine palace in 1204, Treasury of St. ... Maximian on a coin (295–296 AD) Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus (c. ... Events The Spanish provinces revolt from the control of Maxentius, acknowledging Constantine as their Emperor Pope Marcellus I is banished from Rome, as is his successor Eusebius later that year Shapur II becomes king of Persia. ... (2nd century - 3rd century - 4th century - other centuries) Events The Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east. ... Claudius Gothicus on a coin celebrating his equity (AEQUITAS AUGUSTI). ... Battle of Naissus Conflict Roman-Gothic war Date September 268 Place Nis, Serbia and Montenegro Result Roman victory The Battle of Naissus took place in September of 268 between the armies of the Goths and forces of the Roman Empire, led by Gallienus as emperor and the future Emperor Aurelian... Events The Alamanni invade Italy. ... The Augustan History (Lat. ... (3rd century - 4th century - 5th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... Quintillus picture on a coin. ... Genealogy is the study and tracing of family pedigrees. ... Fabrication may refer to more than one thing: Fabrication (metal) Semiconductor device fabrication Lie Fiction Fable This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

Coin of Constantine, with depiction of the sun god Sol Invictus, holding a globe and right hand raised. Legend "SOLI INVICTO COMITI".
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Coin of Constantine, with depiction of the sun god Sol Invictus, holding a globe and right hand raised. Legend "SOLI INVICTO COMITI".

Gothicus had claimed the divine protection of Apollo-Sol Invictus. In mid 310, two years before the victory at the Milvian Bridge, Constantine reportedly experienced the publicly announced vision in which Apollo-Sol Invictus appeared to him with omens of success. Thereafter the reverses of his coinage were dominated for several years by his "companion, the unconquered Sol" -- the inscriptions read SOLI INVICTO COMITI. The depiction represents Apollo with a solar halo, Helios-like, and the globe in his hands. In the 320s Constantine has a halo of his own. There are also coins depicting Apollo driving the chariot of the Sun on a shield Constantine is holding and another (313?) shows the Christian chi-rho on a helmet Constantine is wearing. Constantine I. 307-337 AD. Æ Follis (5. ... Constantine I. 307-337 AD. Æ Follis (5. ... Sol Invictus (the unconquered sun), or more fully, Deus Sol Invictus (the unconquered sun god) was a religious title applied to three distinct divinities during the later Roman Empire. ... Apollo (Greek: Απόλλων, Apóllōn) is a god in Greek and Roman mythology, the son of Zeus and Leto, and the twin of Artemis (goddess of the hunt). ... Sol Invictus (the unconquered sun), or more fully, Deus Sol Invictus (the unconquered sun god) was a religious title applied to three distinct divinities during the later Roman Empire. ... Events While Constantine was campaigning against the Bructeri, Maximian attempted to make himself emperor at Arles. ... This article is about Greek mythology. ... Centuries: 3rd century - 4th century - 5th century Decades: 270s - 280s - 290s - 300s - 310s - 320s - 330s - 340s - 350s - 360s - 370s Years: 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 Events Constantine I of the Roman Empire starts legislating Christian beliefs into civil law. ...


Another aspect of Constantine's life which these attacks employ is his execution of many. He had deposed Eastern Roman Emperor Licinius, his brother-in-law, strangled in 325. He had publicly promised not to execute him upon Licinius' surrender in 324. In 326, Constantine executed first his eldest son Crispus and a few months later his own second wife Fausta. (Crispus was the only known son of Constantine by his first wife Minervina). There are rumours of step-mother and step-son having had an affair which caused Constantine's jealousy. The rumours were reported however by 5th century historian Zosimus and 12th century historian Joannes Zonaras. Their sources are not stated. Events May 20 - First Council of Nicaea _ first Ecumenical Council of the Christian Church: The Nicene Creed is formulated, the date of Easter is discussed. ... Events September 14 - Discovery of the (alleged) True Cross by Vatican City, where St. ... Crispus on a coin issued to celebrate Constantine I victory over Goths in 323. ... Fausta Flavia Maxima was the daughter of the Roman Emperor Maximianus. ... (4th century - 5th century - 6th century - other centuries) // Events Rome sacked by Visigoths in 410. ... For the pope of this name see Pope Zosimus Zosimus, Greek historical writer, nourished at Constantinople during the second half of the 5th century A.D. According to Photius, he was a count, and held the office of advocate of the imperial treasury. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Joannes (John) Zonaras, Byzantine chronicler and theologian, flourished at Constantinople in the 12th century. ...


Family influence is thought to account for a personal adoption of Christianity: Helena is said to be "probably born a Christian" though virtually nothing is known of her background, save that her mother was the daughter of an innkeeper and her father a successful soldier, a career that excluded overt Christians. Certainly Helena demonstrated extreme piety in her later life in her trip to Palestine, where she discovered the True Cross and established basilicas. Palestine (Latin: Syria Palæstina; Hebrew: פלשתינה Palestina, ארץ־ישראל Eretz Yisrael; Arabic: فلسطين Filasṭīn) is the region between the Mediterranean Sea and the banks of the Jordan River, plus various adjoining lands to the east. ... According to Christian tradition, the True Cross is the cross upon which Jesus was crucified. ...


As the general custom, Constantine was not baptized until close to his death in 337, when his choice fell upon the Arian bishop Eusebius of Nicomedia, who happened, despite his being an overt, scheming ally of Arius, to still be the bishop of the region. Also, Eusebius was a close friend of Constantine's sister; she probably secured his recall from exile. Baptism is a water purification ritual practiced in certain religions such as Christianity, Mandaeanism, Sikhism, and some historic sects of Judaism. ... Events February 6 - Julius is elected pope. ... Eusebius of Nicomedia and Constantinople, (d. ...

Staring eyes on later Constantine coinage.
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Staring eyes on later Constantine coinage.

The great staring eyes in the iconography of Constantine, though not specifically Christian, show how official images were moving away from early imperial conventions of realistic portrayal towards schematic representations: the Emperor as Emperor, not merely as this particular individual Constantine, with his characteristic broad jaw and cleft chin. The large staring eyes will loom larger as the 4th century progresses: compare the early 5th century silver coinage of Theodosius I. Constantine I. 307-337 AD. AV Multiple of 1 1/2 Solidi (6. ... Constantine I. 307-337 AD. AV Multiple of 1 1/2 Solidi (6. ... (4th century - 5th century - 6th century - other centuries) // Events Rome sacked by Visigoths in 410. ... Flavius Theodosius (Cauca (modern Coca, Segovia, Spain), January 11, 347 - Milan, January 17, 395), also called Theodosius I and Theodosius the Great, was a Roman emperor. ...


Other achievements

His victory in AD 312 over Maxentius at the Battle of Milvian Bridge resulted in his becoming Western Augustus, or ruler of the entire Western Roman Empire. He gradually consolidated his military superiority over his rivals in the crumbling Tetrarchy. Events October 28 - Battle of Milvian Bridge: Constantine defeats Maxentius in the fight to become emperor of Rome. ... Maxentius Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius, Western Roman Emperor from AD 306 to 312, was the son of Maximian, and the son-in-law of Galerius. ... Battle of the Milvian Bridge Conflict Date October 28, 312 Place Milvian Bridge (Saxa Rubra), Rome Result Defeat of Maxentius The Battle of Milvian Bridge took place on October 28, 312 between the Roman Emperors Constantine the Great and Maxentius. ... The Western Roman Empire is the name given to the western half of the Roman Empire after its division by Diocletian. ... The Tetrarchs, a porphyry sculpture sacked from a Byzantine palace in 1204, Treasury of St. ...


In the year 320, Licinius, emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire, reneged on the religious freedom promised by the Edict of Milan in 313 and began another persecution of the Christians. A puzzling inconsistency since Constantia, half-sister of Constantine and wife of Licinius, was an influential Christian. It became a challenge to Constantine in the west, climaxing in the great civil war of 324. The armies were so large another like these would not be seen again until at least the 14th century. Characteristic of the age, it was a great cosmic battle. Licinius, aided by Goth mercenaries, represented the past and the ancient faith of Paganism. Constantine and his Franks marched under the Christian standard of the labarum. The new religion confronted the old Gods. Supposedly outnumbered, but fired by their zeal, Constantine's army emerged victorious. He was the sole emperor of the entire Roman Empire. (MacMullen 1969) This article is about the year 320 AD. For the aircraft, see Airbus A320. ... Coin of Licinius For other Romans of this name, see Licinius (gens). ... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ... The Edict of Milan (313 AD) declared that the Roman Empire would be neutral with regard to religious worship, officially ending all government-sanctioned persecution especially of Christianity. ... For other uses, see 313 (disambiguation). ... Constantia is the name of a CDP, a town in Oswego County, New York, and a genus in the orchid family (Orchidaceae): Constantia (CDP) Constantia (town) Constantia (orchid) Constantia (wine) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A civil war is a war in which the competing parties are segments of the same country or empire. ... Events Constantine becomes the sole emperor of the Roman Empire. ... (13th century - 14th century - 15th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 14th century was that century which lasted from 1301 to 1400. ... Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche portrays the Goths as cavalrymen. ... A mercenary is a soldier who fights, or engages in warfare primarily for private gain, usually with little regard for ideological, national or political considerations. ... Within a European Christian context, paganism is a catch-all term which has come to connote a broad set of spiritual/religious beliefs and practices of a natural religion (as opposed to a revealed religion of a text). ... The Franks were one of several west Germanic tribes who entered the late Roman Empire from Frisia as foederati and established a lasting realm in an area that covers most of modern-day France and the region of Franconia in Germany, forming the historic kernel of both these two modern... The Roman Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Ancient Roman polity in the centuries following its reorganization under the leadership of Octavian (better known as Caesar Augustus). ...


Now with the passing of her Gods, old Rome was put aside. The new empire would grow and prosper in the east. Constantine rebuilt the city of Byzantium which was said to have been founded by colonists from the Greek city of Megara under Byzas in 667 BC. He renamed the city Nova Roma (New Rome), providing it with a Senate and civic offices similar to the older Rome. Nova Roma was preserved by the alleged True Cross, The Rod of Moses and other holy relics. The figures of old gods were replaced and given new faces. On the site of a temple to Aphrodite was built the new Basilica of the Apostles. Generations later there was the story that a Divine vision lead Constantine to this spot, and an angel, no one else could see, led him on a circuit of the new walls. After his death it was renamed Constantinopolis (or Constantinople, "Constantine's City"), and gradually became the capital of the empire.(MacMullen 1969) Byzantium was the original name of the modern city of Istanbul. ... Megara (Greek: Μέγαρα) is an ancient city in Attica, Greece, on the Saronic Gulf opposite the island of Salamis, which belonged to Megara in archaic times, before being taken by Athens. ... According to a Greek legend, Byzas was a Greek colonist (reported by some to be a leader or even a king) from the Doric colony of Megara in Ancient Greece, who consulted the oracle of Apollo at Delphi. ... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 710s BC 700s BC 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC - 660s BC - 650s BC 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC Events and trends 668 BC - Egypt revolts against Assyria 668 BC - Assurbanipal succeeds Esarhaddon as king of... New Rome is a term that can be applied to a city or a country. ... The Byzantine Senate was a nominal continuation of the Roman Senate, established in the 4th century by Constantine I. It survived for centuries but was increasingly irrelevant until its eventual disappearance in the 13th century. ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC mythical, 1st millennium BC Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni (Democratici di Sinistra) Area  - City Proper  1290 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2,546,807 almost 4,000,000 1... According to Christian tradition, the True Cross is the cross upon which Jesus was crucified. ... Moses or Móshe (מֹשֶׁה, Standard Hebrew Móše, Tiberian Hebrew Mōšeh, Arabic موسى), son of Amram and his wife, Jochebed, a Levite. ... The word relic comes from the Latin reliquiae (remains) and there are many pre-Christian instances of some bone or other part of the corpse, or some intimately associated object, carefully preserved with an air of veneration as a tangible memorial. ... Aphrodite (Αφροδίτη, risen from sea-foam) is the Greek goddess of love and beauty. ... The Basilica of the Apostles (Polyandreion) in Constantinople was the magnificent and wondrous cruciform church built by Constantine the Great, which was described by Eusebius of Caesarea, who mentioned porticoes along the four sides and walls faced with marble up to the gilded roof. ... In religion, visions comprise inspirational renderings, generally of a future state and/or of a mythical being, and are believed (by followers of the religion) to come from a deity, directly or indirectly via prophets, and serve to inspire or prod believers as part of a revelation or an epiphany. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Map of Constantinople. ...


Constantine also passed laws making the occupations of butcher and baker hereditary, and more importantly, supported converting the coloni (tenant farmers) into serfs — laying the foundation for European society during the Middle Ages. He began giving his own sermons in the palace before his court and invited crowds. He preached harmony. Pagan temples were just an honest error.(This criticism will grow very sharper as time passes! The reason for this later "change of heart" remains conjecture). Pagans still received appointments, even up to the end of his life. Exerting his absolute power, the army recited his composed Latin prayer in an attempt to convert them to Christianity. (The attempt failed). He began a large building program of churches in the Holy Land. The power and wealth of the clergy grew, contaminated by those who saw this as an opportune time to join for selfish gain. The clergy took over the courts and heard all civil suites. There was no appeal. The clergy enjoyed such benefits that restrictions to join them began in 329. (MacMullen 1969) Categories: Stub | Cooking | Food preparation and serving related occupations | Food preparation occupations ... Bakery foods A baker is someone who bakes and sells bread, cakes and similar foods. ... A tenant farmer is one who resides on and farms land owned by a landlord. ... Costumes of Slaves or Serfs, from the Sixth to the Twelfth Centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel, from original Documents in the great Libraries of Europe. ... A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. ... ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The phrase The Holy Land (Arabic الأرض المقدسة al-Arḍ ul-Muqaddasah; Hebrew ארץ הקודש;, Standard Hebrew Éreẓ haQodeš, Tiberian Hebrew ʾÉreṣ haqQāḏēš; Latin Terra Sancta) generally refers to Palestine or the Land of Israel. ... Events End of the Han Zhao state. ...


As a Christian, Constantine's kindness, in his laws, reflect his brutal age. Death to anyone collecting taxes over the authorized amount. A prisoner was no longer to be kept in total darkness, but must be given the outdoors and daylight. A condemned man was allowed to die in the arena, but he could not be branded on his "heavenly beautifed" face, just on the feet. Parents caught allowing (soliciting?) their daughters to be seduced were to have molten lead poured down their throats. To little, or no effect, gladiatorial games were ordered to be eliminated in 325. A slave master's rights were limited, but a slave could still be beaten to death. Criminals were still to be crucified and put on display, to show there was Roman law and justice, until 337. Easter could be publicly celebrated. Exposure remained, unwanted children could still be thrown out into the streets to die. Those who took them in were allowed to keep and raise them as slaves. The members of slave families were not to be separated. As in the past, endangering dark sorcery, magic and divination were outlawed. Pagan religious practices were to be performed publicly at altars, sacred places and shrines as was custom, not in suspicious secret gatherings, that may hide debauchery and plotting. Omens arising from public buildings being damaged by lightning, etc. were to read by the royal soothsayers. For the first time, girls could not be abducted. (MacMullen 1969, New Catholic Encyclopedia 1908) General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish white Atomic mass 207. ... Pollice Verso, an 1872 painting by Jean-Léon Gérôme, is a well known history painters researched conception of a gladiatorial combat. ... Events May 20 - First Council of Nicaea _ first Ecumenical Council of the Christian Church: The Nicene Creed is formulated, the date of Easter is discussed. ... Crucifixion is an ancient method of execution, in which the victim was tied or nailed to a large wooden cross (Latin: crux) and left to hang there until dead. ... Events February 6 - Julius is elected pope. ... Easter is the most important religious holiday of the liturgical year, observed in March, April, or May each year to celebrate the resurrection of Jesus from the dead after his death by crucifixion (see Good Friday), which Christians believe happened at about this time of year around AD 30-33. ... The ancient symbol of the pentagram is often used as a symbol for magic. ... This man in Rhumsiki, Cameroon, tells the future by interpreting the changes in position of various objects as caused by a fresh-water crab. ... Multiple cloud-to-ground and cloud-to-cloud lightning strokes are observed during a night-time thunderstorm. ... For prophecy in the context of revealed religions see Prophet. ... In criminal law, kidnapping is the taking away of a person against the persons will, usually to hold the person in false imprisonment (confinement without legal authority) for ransom or in furtherance of another crime. ...


Constantine respected cultivation and Christianity. His court was composed of older, respected, honored men. Leading Roman families that refused Christianity were denied positions of power. Yet two-thirds of his top government was non-Christian. A student of Iamblichus, Sopater, a Greek Neoplatonist, and a defender of Paganism, enjoyed a private position for some years. Until he was charged with sorcery, or some other reason not preserved by pagan writers, and executed. Shortly before his own death Constantine confirmed the privileges of pagan priests.(MacMullen 1969,1984, New Catholic Encyclopedia 1908)


"From Pagan temples Constantine had his statue removed. The repair of Pagan temples that had decayed was forbidden. These funds were given to the favored Christian clergy. Offensive forms of worship, either Christian or Pagan, were suppressed. At the dedication of Constantinople in 330 a ceremony half Pagan and half Christian was performed, in the market place, the Cross of Christ was placed over the head of the Sun-God's chariot. There was a singing of hymns." (New Catholic Encyclopedia 1908)


Although he earned his honorific of "The Great" from Christian historians long after he had died, he could have claimed the title on his military achievements alone. In addition to reuniting the empire under one emperor, Constantine won major victories over the Marcomanni and Alamanni (306308), the Vandals and Marcomanni (314315), the Visigoths in 332 and the Sarmatians in 334. In fact, by 336, Constantine had actually reoccupied most of the long-lost province of Dacia, which Aurelian had been forced to abandon in 271. At the time of his death, he was planning a great expedition to put an end to raids on the eastern provinces from the Persian Empire by conquering that nation—something no Emperor since Trajan had contemplated. The Marcomanni were a Germanic people, probably related to the Suebi or Suevi. ... The Alamanni, Allemanni or Alemanni, are a Germanic tribe, first mentioned by Dio Cassius, under the year 213. ... Events July 25 - Constantine I proclaimed Roman Emperor by his troops. ... Events November 11 - The Congress of Carnuntum: Attempting to keep peace within the Roman Empire, the leaders of the Tetrarchy declare Maxentius Augustus, and rival contender Constantine I is declared Caesar (junior emperor of Britain and Gaul) Births Deaths Categories: 308 ... The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe that entered the late Roman Empire, and created a state in North Africa, centered on the city of Carthage. ... Events August 30 - Council of Arles, which confirmed the pronouncement of Donatism as a schism, and passed other canons. ... Events Eusebius becomes bishop of Caesarea (approximate date). ... The Visigoths, originally Tervingi, or Vesi (the noble ones), one of the two main branches of the Goths (of which the Ostrogothi were the other), were one of the loosely-termed Germanic peoples that disturbed the late Roman Empire. ... Events Constantine the Great emperor of the Roman Empire, engaged the Visigoths in battle and was victorious. ... Sarmatian Cataphract from Tanais: compare Pausanias description of armor (text below) Sarmatians, Sarmatae or Sauromatae (the second form is mostly used by the earlier Greek writers, the other by the later Greeks and the Romans) were a people whom Herodotus (4. ... For the novel by Thomas M. Disch see 334 (novel). ... Events January 18 - Marcus elected pope. ... Dacia, in ancient geography the land of the Daci or Getae, was a large district of Central Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpathians, on the south by the Danube, on the west by the Tisa (Tisza river, in Hungary), on the east by the Tyras (Dniester or Nistru... Coin (antoninianus) of Aurelian Lucius Domitius Aurelianus (September 9, 214–275), known in English as Aurelian, Roman Emperor (270–275), was the second of several highly successful soldier-emperors who helped the Roman Empire regain its power during the latter part of the third century and the beginning of the... Events Goths forced to withdraw across the Danube Roman Emperor Aurelian withdraws troops to the Danube frontier, abandoning Dacia. ... The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Emperor Trajan Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus (September 18, 53 - August 9, 117), Roman Emperor (98 - 117), commonly called Trajan, was the second of the so-called five good emperors of the Roman Empire. ...


Constantine's pro-Christian policies also led to Anti-Judaism policies, the forerunner of the Persecution of Jews during the Middle Ages. Anti-Judaism in Christian theology is a phenomenon distinct from Anti-Semitism. ... Related articles: anti-Semitism; history of anti-Semitism; modern anti-Semitism This article deals with various persecutions that the Jewish people have experienced throughout history. ...


He was succeeded by his three sons by Fausta, Constantine II, Constantius II and Constans, who secured their hold on the empire with the murder of a number of relatives and supporters of Constantine. The last member of his dynasty was his nephew and son-in-law, Julian, who attempted to restore paganism. Constantine II, (February 317 - 340), was Roman Emperor (337 - 340). ... emperor Constantius II Constantius II, Roman Emperor ( 7 August 317 - 3 November 361, reigned 337 - 361), was the middle of the three sons of Constantine I the Great and Fausta. ... Bronze coin bearing the profile of Constans Flavius Julius Constans (AD 320 - January 18, 350), was a Roman emperor who ruled from 337 to 350. ... For other meanings of Julian, see Julian (disambiguation). ...


Constantine's Folly: Education and the Betrayal of Reason

During Constantine's reign education flourished. He was known as a man of letters. At the age of five his son, Constantius, could write his name. Never before was a higher value set on intellectual pursuits. Learned people were admired and became celebrities. From schools came scores of young men with a knowledge of literature to serve in administrative posts. In the army codes and ciphers were used. One would think this was a time of cultural renaissance, but it was not. Just the opposite, here the "dark ages" begin. (MacMullen, 1969 & 1990)


Still, the vast majority of the population of the Roman Empire remained illiterate. Many took pride in their ignorance, and the stand of many of the now, new Church State encouraged them to remain this way. The prevailing teachings were: "Accept the end of truth, and the certainty of Divine inspiration from the one and only God on high. Why desire to learn more? Indeed, why question or inquire at all? The only supreme, infinite, knowledge of value was revealed by the wisdom and judgement of the clergy of the Christian Church State and their contemporary interpretation of the holy scriptures". Many of the Roman people, including the emperor himself, believed "it was by God's own intelligent design, his hero, Constantine had defeated the demonic armies of Maxentius and Licinius. It was providence that guided him into becoming the Divine Emperor and champion of the Christian Church". These cognitive evaluations called the Christian masses and many of the clergy of the Roman Empire 4th century to "mob theology" and action. (MacMullen, 1990)


In the 4th century new books of quality fail to appear in the areas of natural history, geography, medicine, architecture, and surveying. Literature outside the Church is perceived by Christian writers as an evil art. Those versed in it are oppressed as being enemies. The wisdom to be found in philosophy is declared false and uncertain. Inquiry is stained with lies to ensnare the faithful. "Who is sound of mind has no need for letters". The illiterate peasant has greater wisdom. "Blessed is he who has obtained infinite ignorance". Hermits are envied and praised. The number of monks that come from "peasant stock" grows. Prominent women give them their support. Paranoia and the belief in the supernatural thrives. The investigation and concept of natural laws is thwarted. Those with skeptical and inquiring minds (even among the clergy) are cautious else they are tortured and killed for possessing knowledge, that can only come from dark magic. It is preached certainty comes only from revelation. Constantine tones become aggressive to non-Christians. He is convinced Satanic powers are at work. (This may include secret plottings and the use of innards from human sacrifices for divination). In the monasteries books that were earlier copied are no longer copied and vanish. Some are hidden. Books seen as containing dark magic or dangerous to the "one true" faith are put into piles by ruthless, civilian mobs and burned. (MacMullen, 1990)


By the end of the 4th century, Christian communities and their bishops had become a force to contend with, in urban centers especially, insinuating themselves into the res publica through a process of incremental restrictions, which Pierre Chuvin has chronicled (Chuvin 1990) from imperial edict to imperial edict, each imposing further restrictions on paganism in the governing class. The Christian hierarchy "seem to combine low bureaucratic cunning with intolerant anti-intellectualism. Their carefully worded edicts of repression leave popular festivals untouched but degrade antique sanctuaries and mock or abolish the picturesque rituals dear to the old pagan intelligentsia. They are blind to the beauties of prose and poetry; literature in their eyes has worth only insofar as it reflects the authenticity of its writers' lives and the correctness of their ideology," as Lee T. Pearcy summarized the process in a Bryn Mawr Review of Chuvin). The tipping point came after Constantine's death. Res publica is a Latin phrase, made of res + publica, literally meaning the thing of the people. Etymology The word publica is the feminine singular of the 1st and 2nd declension adjective publicus, publica, publicum, which is itself derived from an earlier form, poplicus—relating to the populus [people]. The... The phrase tipping point or angle of repose is a sociology term that refers to that dramatic moment when something unique becomes common. ...


It should be noted that also in the 5th century the Visigoths and the Vandals invade the Western Roman Empire. Alaric I of the Visigoths managed to sack the city of Rome on August 24, 410. Geiseric of the Vandals managed to repeat that feat on June 2, 455. The city was no longer a capital as the Western Roman Emperors resided in Ravenna since 404. But the events marked the first and second capture of Rome by "barbarians" since the successful campaign of Brennus and his Celts in 390 BC. The rise of superstition and rioting may have been caused by foreboding and panic in the face of the barbarian invasions. The Visigoths, originally Tervingi, or Vesi (the noble ones), one of the two main branches of the Goths (of which the Ostrogothi were the other), were one of the loosely-termed Germanic peoples that disturbed the late Roman Empire. ... The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe that entered the late Roman Empire, and created a state in North Africa, centered on the city of Carthage. ... Alaric, (also known as Alaricus, Alaric the Goth, Alaric, King of the Visigoths and Alaric I) (about AD 370-410), the first Germanic leader to take the city of Rome, was likely born about 370 on an island named Peuce (the Fir) at the mouth of the Danube. ... August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. ... Events Alaric I deposes Priscus Attalus as Roman Emperor. ... Geiseric the Lame (circa 389 – January 25, 477), also spelled as Gaiseric or Genseric the Lame, was the King of the Vandals and Alans (428–477) and was one of the key players in the troubles of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century. ... 2 June is the 153rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (154th in leap years), with 212 days remaining. ... Events June 2 - Gaiseric leads the Vandals into Rome and plunder the city for two weeks. ... For other places named Ravenna, see Ravenna (disambiguation). ... Events January 1 - Last gladiator competition in Rome. ... Barbarian was originally a Greek term applied to any foreigner, one not sharing a recognized culture or degree of polish with the speaker or writer employing the term. ... A sculpture depicting the Brennus who led the attack on Rome that adorned an 18th or 19th century French naval vessel Brennus is the name of two Celtic chieftains famous in ancient history: 1. ... A Celtic cross. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC - 390s BC - 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 395 BC 394 BC 393 BC 392 BC 391 BC - 390 BC - 389 BC 388 BC 387... Panic is a sudden terror which dominates thinking and often affects groups of people. ...


Geoffrey of Monmouth and a Constantine made British

The English chronicler Geoffrey of Monmouth offered a genealogy of British kings that linked them to the Fall of Troy at the end of the Trojan War. His Historia Regum Britanniae (written c. 1136 during the reign of Stephen of England) is not considered a reliable source by modern historians. The English are an ethnic group originating in the lowlands of Great Britain and are descendent primarily from the Anglo-Saxons, the Celts with minor influences from the Scandanavians and other groups. ... Geoffrey of Monmouth was a clergyman and one of the major figures in the development of British history. ... The term King of the Britons refers to the legendary kings of Celtic Great Britain as established by such pseudo-historical authors as Nennius, Gildas, and predominantly Geoffrey of Monmouth. ... Walls of the excavated city of Troy (Turkey) This article is about the city of Troy / Ilion as described in the works of Homer, and the location of an ancient city associated with it. ... The Trojan War was a war waged, according to legend, against the city of Troy in Asia Minor by the armies of the Acheans, following the kidnapping (or elopement) of Helen of Sparta by Paris of Troy. ... Geoffrey of Monmouths Historia Regum Britanniæ (English: The History of the Kings of Britain) was written around 1136. ... Events Completion of the Saint Denis Basilica in Paris Peter Abelard writes the Historia Calamitatum, detailing his relationship with Heloise Births William of Newburgh, British historian and author of the Historia rerum Anglicarum Deaths November 15 - Leopold III of Austria, Patron saint of Austria Categories: 1136 ... Stephen (1096 – October 25, 1154), the last Norman King of England, reigned from 1135 to 1154, when he was succeeded by his cousin Henry II, the first of the Angevin or Plantagenet Kings. ...


Geoffrey claimed that Helena, Constantine's mother, was actually the daughter of "King Cole", the mythical King of the Britons and eponymous founder of Colchester. A daughter for King Cole had not previously figured in the lore, at least not as it has survived in writing, and this pedigree is likely to reflect Geoffrey's desire to create a continuous line of regal descent. It was indecorous, Geoffrey considered, that a king might have less-than-noble ancestors. Monmouth also said that Constantine was proclaimed "King of the Britons" at York, rather than Roman Emperor. A legendary king of Celtic Britain, about all that can be said about Old King Cole with any certainty is that: Old King Cole in an illustration by Maxfield Parrish, 1909. ... The term Briton may have the following meanings: in a historical context: an inhabitant of Great Britain in pre-Roman times a descendant of Britons during a later period (e. ... Arms of Colchester Borough Council Colchester town centre Map sources for Colchester at grid reference TL9925 Colchester is an historic town in the north of the English county of Essex, with a population of about 160,000. ... The term King of the Britons refers to the legendary kings of Celtic Great Britain as established by such pseudo-historical authors as Nennius, Gildas, and predominantly Geoffrey of Monmouth. ...


Notes

1- In the English language, Constantine's official Imperial title is Imperator Caesar Flavius Constantine Augustus, the blessed, the lucky, the unconquerable The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Links

Diocletian: Edicts against the Christians [1] Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (245-313 AD), born Diocles, was Roman Emperor from November 20, 284 to May 1, 305. ...


Arch of Constantine Monument to the victory at Milvian Bridge. Also see Arch of Constantine: Constantinian Art on the Arch [2] The Arch of Constantine The arch seen from Via Triumphalis The Arch of Constantine is a triumphal arch in Rome, a short distance to the west of the Colosseum. ...


Forvm Ancient Coins: Constantine the Great, early AD 307-22 May 337. [3] May 22 is the 142nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (143rd in leap years). ... Events February 6 - Julius is elected pope. ...


Donatist Ammianus Marcellinus The Donatists (founded by the Berber christian Donatus) were followers of a belief considered a heresy by the Roman Catholic Church. ... Ammianus Marcellinus, thought by some to be the last Roman historian of worth, was born about A.D. 325‑330 likely at Antioch (the likelihood hingeing on whether he was the recipient of a surviving letter to a Marcellinus from a fellow citizen of Antioch). ...


The Edict of Milan AD 313 [4]

  • Ammianus Marcellinus on-line project

Arius (AD 256 - 336) was an early Christian theologian, who taught that the Son of God was not eternal, and was subordinate to God the Father (a view known generally as Arianism). ...

References and Further reading

  • Chuvin, Pierre, 1990, B. A. Archer, translator, A Chronicle of the Last Pagans (Harvard) ISBN 0-674-12970-9
  • Dodds, E. R., 1964 The Greeks and the Irrational (University of California)
  • Dodds, E. R., 1965. Pagan and Christian in an Age of Anxiety: Some Aspects of the Religious Experience from Marcus Aurelius to Constantine (Cambridge)
  • Jones, A.H.M., 1949. Constantine and the Conversion of Europe (Macmillan)

The Association of Ancient Historians has honored Ramsay MacMullen as being the finest ancient historian of the Roman Empire in our time. Some may find him difficult, he speaks the language of the professional scholar, but reading his works is certainly worth the time and effort. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... 1990 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1964 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1965 was a common year starting on Friday (link goes to calendar). ... 1949 is a common year starting on Saturday. ...

  • MacMullen, Ramsay, 1969. Constantine, (Dial Press)
  • MacMullen, Ramsay, 1984, Christianizing the Roman Empire A.D. 100-400, (Yale)
  • MacMullen, Ramsay, 1990. Changes in the Roman Empire: Essays in the Ordinary (Princeton)
  • MacMullen, Ramsay, 1966. Enemies of the Roman Order: Treason, Unrest, and Alienation (Harvard)
  • Wilken, Robert L., 1984 Christians As the Romans Saw Them (Yale)
  • Vlassis R. Rassias,"Es Edafos Ferein", 2nd edition, Athens, 2000, ISBN 960-7748-20-4


1969 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... 1984 is a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1990 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1966 was a common year starting on Saturday (link goes to calendar) // Events January January 1 - In a coup, Colonel Jean-Bédel Bokassa ousts president David Dacko and takes over the Central African Republic. ... 1984 is a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Eusebius of Caesarea (~275 – May 30, 339) (often called Eusebius Pamphili, Eusebius [the friend] of Pamphilus) was a bishop of Caesarea in Palestine and is often referred to as the father of church history because of his work in recording the history of the early Christian church. ... Events July 25 - Constantine I proclaimed Roman Emperor by his troops. ... Events February 6 - Julius is elected pope. ... Lucius Caelius (or Caecilius?) Firmianus Lactantius was an early Christian author who wrote in Latin (around A.D. 240 - around 320). ... For alternate uses, see Number 240. ... This article is about the year 320 AD. For the aircraft, see Airbus A320. ... Claudius Galenus of Pergamum (131-201 AD), better known as Galen, was an ancient Greek physician. ... Marcus Cornelius Fronto (c. ...

Preceded by:
Constantius Chlorus and Galerius
Roman Emperor

306–337
Co-Emperor with: Galerius, Licinius and Maximinus
Succeeded by:
Constantius II, Constantine II and Constans


Gaius Flavius Valerius Constantius (March 31, 250–July 25, 306) was an emperor of the Western Roman Empire (305–306). ... Galerius on a coin Galerius Maximianus (c. ... This is a list of Roman Emperors with the dates they controlled the Roman Empire. ... Galerius on a coin Galerius Maximianus (c. ... Coin of Licinius For other Romans of this name, see Licinius (gens). ... Maximinus denarius Gaius Valerius Galerius Maximinus (20 November 270? - July/August, 313) Roman emperor from AD 308 to 313, was originally an Illyrian shepherd named Daia. ... emperor Constantius II Constantius II, Roman Emperor ( 7 August 317 - 3 November 361, reigned 337 - 361), was the middle of the three sons of Constantine I the Great and Fausta. ... Constantine II (February 317 - 340) was Roman Emperor (337 - 340). ... Bronze coin bearing the profile of Constans Flavius Julius Constans (AD 320 - January 18, 350), was a Roman emperor who ruled from 337 to 350. ...



Preceded by:
Constantius
Mythical British Kings
Succeeded by:
Octavius


Gaius Flavius Valerius Constantius (March 31, 250–July 25, 306) was an emperor of the Western Roman Empire (305–306). ... The term King of the Britons refers to the legendary kings of Celtic Great Britain as established by such pseudo-historical authors as Nennius, Gildas, and predominantly Geoffrey of Monmouth. ... Octavius (Welsh: Eydaf) was a legendary king of the Britons, according to Geoffrey of Monmouth. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Constantine I (emperor) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2345 words)
Constantine is best remembered in modern times for the Edict of Milan in 313 and the Council of Nicaea in 325, which fully legalized and then legitimized Christianity in the Empire for the first time.
Constantine managed to be at his deathbed in Eboracum (York) of Roman Britain, where the loyal general Crocus, of Alamannic descent, and the troops loyal to his father's memory proclaimed him an Augustus ("Emperor").
Constantine was also known for being ruthless with his political enemies, deposing the Eastern Roman Emperor Licinius, his brother-in-law, by strangulation in 325 even though he had publicly promised not to execute him upon Licinius' surrender in 324.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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