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Encyclopedia > Constantine I
Constantine I
Emperor of the Roman Empire
Head of Constantine's colossal statue at the Capitoline Museums
Reign 306 - 312 (hailed as Augustus in the West, officially made Caesar by Galerius with Severus as Augustus, by agreement with Maximian, refused relegation to Caesar in 309);
312 - 324 (undisputed Augustus in the West);
324 - 22 May 337 (emperor of the whole empire)
Full name Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus
Born 27 February c. 274[1]
Naissus (modern Niš, Serbia)
Died 22 May 337
Buried Constantinople
Predecessor Constantius Chlorus
Successor Constantine II, Constantius II and Constans
Wife/wives Minervina, died or divorced before 307
Fausta
Issue Constantina, Helena, Crispus, Constantine II, Constantius II and Constans
Dynasty Constantinian
Father Constantius Chlorus
Mother Helena

Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[2] (27 February c. 280[1]22 May 337 AD), commonly known as Constantine I, (among Roman Catholics) and Constantine the Great, or Saint Constantine (among Eastern Orthodox and Byzantine Catholic Christians), was an Illyrian Roman Emperor, proclaimed Augustus by his troops in 306, who ruled an ever-growing portion of the Roman Empire until his death. Best known for being the first Christian Roman Emperor, the Edict of Milan - issued by his co-emperor Licinius - helped to put an end to institutionalized persecution of Christians in the Empire. Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (538x858, 224 KB) Summary Head of the colossal marble statue of Constantine I, Musei Capitolini, Rome Photographer: Markus Bernet Date: 07/10/2004 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Constantine I (emperor) Metadata This file contains additional... Michelangelos design for Capitoline Hill, now home to the Capitoline Museums. ... Events July 25 - Constantine I proclaimed Roman Emperor by his troops. ... October 28 — Battle of Milvian Bridge: Constantine I defeats Maxentius and becomes the only Roman Emperor in the West. ... Augustus (plural augusti) is Latin for majestic, the increaser, or venerable. The feminine form is Augusta. ... Caesar (plural Caesars), Latin: Cæsar (plural Cæsares), is a title of imperial character. ... Galerius Maximianus (c. ... Flavius Valerius Severus as caesar. ... Maximian Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius (c. ... Caesar (plural Caesars), Latin: Cæsar (plural Cæsares), is a title of imperial character. ... For the car known as the 309, see Peugeot 309. ... October 28 — Battle of Milvian Bridge: Constantine I defeats Maxentius and becomes the only Roman Emperor in the West. ... Events Constantine becomes the sole emperor of the Roman Empire. ... Events Constantine becomes the sole emperor of the Roman Empire. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... September 9 - Constantine II, Constantius II, and Constans succeed their father Constantine I and rule as co-emperors of the Roman Empire. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The Gallic Empire (Gaul and Britain) is reconquered by Roman Emperor Aurelian With the conquests of the Palmyran Empire (272) and the Gallic Empire, the Roman Empire is united again Births Deaths Pope Felix I Cao Fang, emperor of the Kingdom of Wei Categories: 274 ... Nis redirects here. ... Nis redirects here. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... September 9 - Constantine II, Constantius II, and Constans succeed their father Constantine I and rule as co-emperors of the Roman Empire. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... On the reverse of this argenteus struck in Antioch under Constantius Chlorus, the tetrarcs are sacrificing to celebrate a victory against the Sarmatians. ... Flavius Claudius Constantinus, known in English as Constantine II, (316 – 340) was Roman Emperor from 337 to 340. ... Flavius Iulius Constantius, known in English as Constantius II, (7 August 317 - 3 November 361) was a Roman Emperor (337 - 361) of the Constantinian dynasty. ... Flavius Julius Constans (320 - 350), was a Roman Emperor who ruled from 337 to 350. ... Minervina was the wife of Constantine the first ruler of the Byzantine empire. ... Fausta, as Salus, holding her two sons, Constantine II and Constantius II. Fausta Flavia Maxima, Roman Empress, (289-326A.D.) She was the daughter of the Roman Emperor Maximianus. ... Constantina Augusta was the eldest daughter of Constantine the Great, Roman Emperor. ... Crispus on a coin issued to celebrate Constantine I victory over Goths in 323. ... Flavius Claudius Constantinus, known in English as Constantine II, (316 – 340) was Roman Emperor from 337 to 340. ... Flavius Iulius Constantius, known in English as Constantius II, (7 August 317 - 3 November 361) was a Roman Emperor (337 - 361) of the Constantinian dynasty. ... Flavius Julius Constans (320 - 350), was a Roman Emperor who ruled from 337 to 350. ... Category: ... On the reverse of this argenteus struck in Antioch under Constantius Chlorus, the tetrarcs are sacrificing to celebrate a victory against the Sarmatians. ... Flavia Iulia Helena, also known as Saint Helena, Saint Helen, Helena Augusta or Helena of Constantinople (ca. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The Chinese Jin Dynasty under Emperor Wu of Jin China unifies China by conquering the Kingdom of Wu, ending the Period of the Three Kingdoms. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... September 9 - Constantine II, Constantius II, and Constans succeed their father Constantine I and rule as co-emperors of the Roman Empire. ... Look up AD, ad-, and ad in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The... The domes of an Ukrainian Catholic parish in Simpson, Pennsylvania This article refers to Eastern Churches in full communion with the See of Rome. ... This article is about an ancient civilization in southeastern Europe; see also Illyria (software), Illyria (character in the TV series Angel). ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... Augustus (plural augusti) is Latin for majestic, the increaser, or venerable. The feminine form is Augusta. ... Events July 25 - Constantine I proclaimed Roman Emperor by his troops. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... The Edict of Milan was a letter that proclaimed religious toleration in the Roman Empire. ... Aureus of Licinius, celebrating his tenth year of reign and the fifth year of his son Licinius (on the obverse). ...


The Byzantine liturgical calendar, observed by the Eastern Orthodox Church and Eastern Catholic Churches of Byzantine rite, lists both Constantine and his mother Helena as saints. Although he is not included in the Latin Church's list of saints, which does recognize several other Constantines as saints, he is revered under the title "The Great" for his contributions to Christianity. The Byzantine Rite, sometimes called Constantinopolitan, is the liturgical rite used (in various languages) by all the Eastern Orthodox Churches and by several Eastern Rite particular Churches within the Catholic Church. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The... The Eastern Catholic Churches are autonomous particular Churches in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ... Flavia Iulia Helena, also known as Saint Helena, Saint Helen, Helena Augusta or Helena of Constantinople (ca. ... The Latin Rite is one of the 23 sui iuris particular Churches within the Catholic Church. ...


In 324, Constantine announced his decision to transform Byzantium into Nova Roma and on May 11, 330, he officially proclaimed the city the new capital of the Roman Empire. The city was renamed Constantinople, The City of Constantine, after Constantine's death in 337. It would remain the capital of the Byzantine Empire for over a thousand years, a reign interrupted only briefly by its 1204 sacking and occupation in the Fourth Crusade, until it finally fell to the Ottoman Empire in 1453. Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek city, which, according to legend, was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 11 - Constantine I refounds Byzantium, renames it New Rome, and moves the capital of the Roman Empire there from Rome. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Byzantine redirects here. ... The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople (Eugène Delacroix, 1840). ... Ottoman redirects here. ...

Contents

Life

Early life

Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus was born in Naissus (modern Niš, Serbia) in the province of Moesia Superior on 27 February ca. 285 to Roman general and later Western Roman Emperor Constantius Chlorus, and his first wife St. Helena. Helena, who played a very influential role throughout her son's life, was of modest background; Ambrose writes that she worked in an inn. His father left his mother around 292 to marry Flavia Maximiana Theodora, daughter (or step-daughter) of the Western Roman Emperor Maximian, although Constantine fully reinstated his mother, St. Helena, as "Augusta, mother of Caesar" after his father's death. Theodora would give birth to six half-siblings of Constantine, including Julius Constantius.[3] Nis redirects here. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Moesia (Greek: , Moisia; Bulgarian: Мизия, Miziya; Serbian: Мезија, Mezija) is an ancient province situated in the areas of modern Serbia and Bulgaria. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... On the reverse of this argenteus struck in Antioch under Constantius Chlorus, the tetrarcs are sacrificing to celebrate a victory against the Sarmatians. ... For other uses, see Ambrose (disambiguation). ... Flavia Maximiana Theodora. ... The Western Roman Empire is the name given to the western half of the Roman Empire after its division by Diocletian. ... Maximian Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius (c. ... Flavius Julius Constantius (d. ...


Young Constantine received a formidable education, became a fluent speaker of Greek, and was adept in philosophy.[4] He served at the court of Diocletian in Nicomedia, after the appointment of his father as one of the two caesares (junior emperors) of the Tetrarchy in 293. In 305, both augusti (senior emperors), Diocletian and Maximian, abdicated, and Constantius succeeded to Maximian's position of western augustus. Although two legitimate sons of emperors were available (Constantine and Maxentius, the son of Maximian), both of them were ignored in the transition of power. Instead, Severus and Maximinus Daia were made caesares. Constantine subsequently left Nicomedia to join his father in the Roman Gaul; however, Constantius fell sick during an expedition against the Picts of Caledonia, and died on July 25, 306 in Eboracum (York). The general Chrocus, of Alamannic descent, and the troops loyal to Constantius' memory immediately proclaimed Constantine an augustus. Under the Tetrarchy, Constantine's succession was of dubious legitimacy. While Constantius as senior emperor could "create" a new caesar, Constantine's (or, his troops') claim to the title of augustus ignored the system of succession established in 305. Accordingly, Constantine asked Galerius, the eastern augustus, to be recognized as heir to his father's throne. Galerius granted him the title of caesar, confirming Constantine's rule over his father's territories, and promoted Severus to augustus of the West.[5] Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (c. ... Nicomedia (modern Ä°zmit, also known as Iznik) was founded by Nicomedes I of Bithynia at the head of the Gulf of Astacus (which opens on the Propontis) in 264 BC. The city has ever since been one of the chief towns in this part of Asia Minor. ... Caesar (plural Caesars), Latin: Cæsar (plural Cæsares), is a title of imperial character. ... The Tetrarchs, a porphyry sculpture sacked from a Byzantine palace in 1204, Treasury of St. ... Augustus (plural augusti) is Latin for majestic, the increaser, or venerable. The feminine form is Augusta. ... Maximian Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius (c. ... Abdication (from the Latin abdicatio disowning, renouncing, from ab, from, and dicare, to declare, to proclaim as not belonging to one), the act whereby a person in office renounces and gives up the same before the expiry of the time for which it is held. ... Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius ( 278-28 October 312) was Western Roman Emperor from 306 to 312. ... Flavius Valerius Severus as caesar. ... This article deals with 4th century Roman Emperor. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... A replica of the Hilton of Cadboll Stone. ... Caledonia is the Latin name given by the Roman Empire to a northern area of the island of Great Britain. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events July 25 - Constantine I proclaimed Roman Emperor by his troops. ... York shown within England Coordinates: , Sovereign state Constituent country Region Yorkshire and the Humber Ceremonial county North Yorkshire Admin HQ York City Centre Founded 71 City Status 71 Government  - Type Unitary Authority, City  - Governing body City of York Council  - Leadership: Leader & Executive  - Executive: Liberal Democrat  - MPs: Hugh Bayley (L) John... Chrocus (also Crocus) was a leader of the Alamanni in the late 3rd century. ... Area settled by the Alamanni, and sites of Roman-Alamannic battles, 3rd to 6th century The Alamanni, Allemanni, or Alemanni were originally an alliance of west Germanic tribes located around the upper Main, a river that is one of the largest tributaries of the Rhine, on land that is today... The Tetrarchs, a porphyry sculpture sacked from a Byzantine palace in 1204, Treasury of St. ... Galerius Maximianus (c. ...


Ruler of the West

Bronze statue of Constantine I in York, England, near the spot where he was proclaimed Emperor in 306
Bronze statue of Constantine I in York, England, near the spot where he was proclaimed Emperor in 306

Constantine's share of the empire consisted of Britain, Gaul, the Germanic provinces, and Spain. He therefore commanded one of the largest Roman armies, stationed along the important Rhine frontier. While Gaul was one of the richer regions of the empire, it had suffered much during the Crisis of the Third Century. Many areas were depopulated, and the cities ruined.[citation needed] During his years in Gaul, from 306 to 316, Constantine continued his father's efforts to secure the Rhine frontier and rebuild the Gallic provinces. His main residence during that time was Trier.[6] Statue of the roman emperor Constantine File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Statue of the roman emperor Constantine File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... York shown within England Coordinates: , Sovereign state Constituent country Region Yorkshire and the Humber Ceremonial county North Yorkshire Admin HQ York City Centre Founded 71 City Status 71 Government  - Type Unitary Authority, City  - Governing body City of York Council  - Leadership: Leader & Executive  - Executive: Liberal Democrat  - MPs: Hugh Bayley (L) John... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Gaul in the Roman Empire Roman Gaul consisted of an area of provincial rule in what would become modern day France, Belgium, Luxembourg, and western Germany. ... Map of the Roman Empire and the free Germania, Magna Germania, in the early 2nd century For other uses, see Germania (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rhine (disambiguation). ... Emperor Maximinus Thrax, ruled 235-238, was the first of the emperors during the Crisis of the Third Century. ... Trier (French: ; Luxembourgish Tréier) is a city in Germany on the banks of the Moselle River. ...


Immediately after his promotion to emperor, Constantine abandoned his father's British campaign and returned to Gaul to quell an uprising by Franks. Another expedition against Frankish tribes followed in 308. After this victory, he began to build a bridge across the Rhine at Cologne to establish a permanent stronghold on the right bank of the river. A new campaign in 310 had to be abandoned because of Maximian's rebellion described below. The last of Constantine's wars on the Rhine frontier took place in 313, after his return from Italy, and saw him again victorious.[7] This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... For other uses, see Cologne (disambiguation). ...


Constantine's main goal was stability, which he tried to achieve by immediate, often brutal, punitive expeditions against rebellious tribes, demonstrating his military power by conquering the enemies on their own side of the Rhine frontier, and slaughtering many prisoners during games in the arena. The strategy proved successful, as the Rhine frontier remained relatively quiet during the rest of his reign.


In the internal conflicts of the Tetrarchy, Constantine tried to remain neutral. In 307, senior emperor Maximian (recently returned to the political scene after his abdication in 305) visited Constantine to get his support in the war of Maxentius, his son, against Severus and Galerius. Constantine married Maximian's daughter Fausta to seal the alliance and was promoted to Augustus by Maximian. He did not interfere on Maxentius' behalf, though.[8] The Tetrarchs, a porphyry sculpture sacked from a Byzantine palace in 1204, Treasury of St. ... Maximian Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius (c. ... Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius ( 278-28 October 312) was Western Roman Emperor from 306 to 312. ... Flavius Valerius Severus as caesar. ... Galerius Maximianus (c. ... Fausta, as Salus, holding her two sons, Constantine II and Constantius II. Fausta Flavia Maxima, Roman Empress, (289-326A.D.) She was the daughter of the Roman Emperor Maximianus. ...


Maximian returned to Gaul in 308 after he had failed to depose his son. Later that year, at the conference of Carnuntum between Diocletian, Galerius and Maximian, Maximian was forced to abdicate again and Constantine reduced to caesar. In 310, Maximian became involved in a conspiracy to have his son-in-law murdered when Constantine came back from campaigning against the Franks. The rebellion was quickly quelled once Constantine found out, and Maximian was killed or forced to commit suicide. Both Constantine and Maximinus Daia were disappointed over their relegation to caesar and Licinius' appointment, and subsequently defied that ruling and styled themselves Augustus, which was granted to them by Galerius in 310, thus officially creating four Augusti. With Galerius' death in 311, the last ruler with enough authority interested in continuing the tetrarchy left the stage, and the system rapidly declined. In the struggle for power that ensued, Constantine allied himself with Licinius, while Maximinus approached Maxentius, who was still officially regarded as a usurper.[9] Carnuntum (Καρνοιις in Ptolemy) was an important Roman army camp in what is now Austria. ... Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (c. ... Galerius Maximianus (c. ... Aureus of Licinius, celebrating his tenth year of reign and the fifth year of his son Licinius (on the obverse). ...


312 to 324

Early in 312, Constantine crossed the Alps with his army and attacked Maxentius. He quickly conquered Northern Italy in the battles of Turin and Verona and then moved on to Rome. [10] Constantine defeated Maxentius in the Battle of the Milvian Bridge, which resulted in his becoming Western Augustus, or ruler of the entire Western Roman Empire. During this epic battle Constantine had his soldiers place on their shields what Christians believed was the Labarum symbol, although there is a dispute between historians whether this design was of clear Christian, ancient paganistic (solar) or of that date's astronomical origins.[11]. The labarum and associated motto In Hoc Signo Vinces (in this sign, you will conquer) were said to have resulted from a vision by Constantine at Saxa Rubra, inspiring his eventual conversion to Christianity. During the next years, he gradually consolidated his military superiority over his rivals in the crumbling Tetrarchy. Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius ( 278-28 October 312) was Western Roman Emperor from 306 to 312. ... The Battle of Turin was fought in 312 between Constantine and his rival, Maxentius. ... Combatants Constantinian forces Maxentian forces Commanders Constantine I Ruricius Pompeianus† The Battle of Verona was fought in 312 between the forces of Constantine I and Maxentius. ... Battle of the Milvian Bridge Conflict Date October 28, 312 Place Milvian Bridge (Saxa Rubra), Rome Result Defeat of Maxentius The Battle of Milvian Bridge took place on October 28, 312 between the Roman Emperors Constantine the Great and Maxentius. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ... The Labarum An image of the labarum, with the Greek letters Alpha and Omega inscribed. ... Detail from The Vision of the Cross by assistants of Raphael, depicting the vision of the cross and the Greek writing εν τούτω νίκα in the sky, before the Battle of the Milvian Bridge. ... The Tetrarchs, a porphyry sculpture sacked from a Byzantine palace in 1204, Treasury of St. ...


In 313, he met Licinius in Milan to secure their alliance by the marriage of Licinius and Constantine's half-sister Constantia. During this meeting, the emperors agreed on the so-called Edict of Milan, officially granting full tolerance to all religions in the empire, especially Christianity.[12] The conference was cut short, however, when news reached Licinius that his rival Maximinus Daia had crossed the Bosporus and invaded Licinian territory. Licinius departed and eventually defeated Maximinus, gaining control over the entire eastern half of the Roman Empire. Relations between the two remaining emperors deteriorated, though, and either in 314 or 316, Constantine and Licinius fought against one another in the war of Cibalae, with Constantine (with 30,000 men) being victorious[13]. They clashed again in the Battle of Campus Ardiensis in 317, and agreed to a settlement in which Constantine's sons Crispus and Constantine II, and Licinius' son Licinianus were made caesars The Emperor Constantine, pp. 41–42.</ref>. It became a challenge to Constantine in the west, climaxing in the great civil war of 324. Around AD 323, Constantine I defeated Licinius's fleet with 200 war galleys.[13] Licinius, aided by Goth mercenaries, represented the past and the ancient faith of Paganism. Constantine and his Franks marched under the Christian standard of the labarum, and both sides saw the battle in religious terms. Supposedly outnumbered, but fired by their zeal, Constantine's army emerged victorious in the battles of Adrianople, the Hellespont, and at Chrysopolis.[14] Aureus of Licinius, celebrating his tenth year of reign and the fifth year of his son Licinius (on the obverse). ... Type Anti-tank Nationality Joint France/Germany Era Cold War, modern Launch platform Individual, Vehicle Target Vehicle, Fortification History Builder MBDA, Bharat Dynamics (under license) Date of design 70s Production period since 1972 Service duration since 1972 Operators 41 countries Variants MILAN 1, MILAN 2, MILAN 2T, MILAN 3, MILAN... Flavia Julia Constantia, also Constantia, (after AD 293 – about 330), was the daughter of the Roman Emperor Constantius Chlorus and his second wife, Flavia Maximiana Theodora. ... The Edict of Milan was a letter that proclaimed religious toleration in the Roman Empire. ... This article deals with 4th century Roman Emperor. ... I LOVE BORAT!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Two bridges cross the Bosporus. ... Events August 30 - Council of Arles, which confirmed the pronouncement of Donatism as a schism, and passed other canons. ... Events Huns sack Changan, capital of the Chinese Western Jin Dynasty. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... The Battle of Mardia was fought in 316 between the forces of Constantine I and Licinius. ... Crispus on a coin issued to celebrate Constantine I victory over Goths in 323. ... Flavius Claudius Constantinus, known in English as Constantine II, (316 – 340) was Roman Emperor from 337 to 340. ... Caesar (plural Caesars), Latin: Cæsar (plural Cæsares), is a title of imperial character. ... This article is about the Germanic tribes. ... For other uses, see Mercenary (disambiguation). ... Pagan and heathen redirect here. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... The Labarum An image of the labarum, with the Greek letters Alpha and Omega inscribed. ... The Battle of Adrianople was fought on July 3, 324 between the armies of Constantine and Licinius. ... The Battle of the Hellespont was fought in 324 between a Constantinian fleet led by Flavius Julius Crispus and a larger fleet loyal to Licinius. ... After the defeat of the superior fleet of Licinius by Flavius Julius Crispus, Constantine’s eldest son, he withdrew to Bithynia, where a last stand was made; the Battle of Chrysopolis, near Chalcedon, resulted in his final submission. ...

cameo depicting Constantine the Great crowned by Constantinople
cameo depicting Constantine the Great crowned by Constantinople

With the defeat and death of Licinius a year later (he was accused of plotting against Constantine and executed), Constantine became the sole emperor of the Roman Empire.[15] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Founding of New Rome

Licinius' defeat represented the passing of old Rome, and the beginning of the role of the Eastern Roman Empire as a center of learning, prosperity, and cultural preservation. Constantine rebuilt the city of Byzantium, and renamed it Nova Roma (New Rome) and issued special commemorative coins in 330 to honour the event. He provided Nova Roma with a Senate and civic offices similar to those of Rome. The new city was protected by the alleged True Cross, the Rod of Moses and other holy relics, though a cameo now at the Hermitage Museum also represented Constantine crowned by the tyche of the new city [1]. The figures of old gods were replaced and often assimilated into Christian symbolism. On the site of a temple to Aphrodite was built the new Church of the Holy Apostles. Generations later there was the story that a Divine vision led Constantine to this spot, and an angel no one else could see, led him on a circuit of the new walls. After his death, his capital was renamed Nova Roma Constantinopolitana (Constantinople in English, "Constantine's City").[15] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Byzantine Empire. ... Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek city, which, according to legend, was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ... The Byzantine Senate was a nominal continuation of the Roman Senate, established in the 4th century by Constantine I. It survived for centuries but was increasingly irrelevant until its eventual disappearance in the 13th century. ... According to Christian tradition, the True Cross is the cross upon which Jesus was crucified. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... A relic is an object, especially a piece of the body or a personal item of someone of religious significance, carefully preserved with an air of veneration as a tangible memorial, Relics are an important aspect of Buddhism, some denominations of Christianity, Hinduism, shamanism, and many other personal belief systems. ... The State Hermitage Museum (Russian: ) in Saint Petersburg, Russia is one of the largest museums in the world, with 3 million works of art (not all on display at once), [1] and one of the oldest art galleries and museums of human history and culture in the world. ... Tyche on the reverse of this coin by Gordian III. In Greek mythology, Tyche (Roman equivalent: Fortuna) was the presiding tutelary deity that governed the fortune and prosperity of a city, its destiny. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christian symbolism... The Birth of Venus, (detail) by Sandro Botticelli, 1485 For other uses, see Aphrodite (disambiguation). ... The Church of the Holy Apostles (Greek: Aghioi Apostoloi), also known as the Imperial Polyandreion, was a Christian basilica built in Constantinople (then the capital of the Byzantine Empire) in 550 AD. It was second only to the Church of the Holy Wisdom (Hagia Sophia) among the great churches of... In religion, visions comprise inspirational renderings, generally of a future state and/or of a mythical being, and are believed (by followers of the religion) to come from a deity, directly or indirectly via prophets, and serve to inspire or prod believers as part of a revelation or an epiphany. ... This article is about the supernatural being. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ...


326–death

The Baptism of Constantine, as imagined by students of Raphael.
The Baptism of Constantine, as imagined by students of Raphael.

In 326, Constantine had his eldest son Crispus tried and executed, as he believed accusations that Crispus had been having an affair with Fausta, Constantine's second wife. A few months later he also had Fausta killed as the apparent source of these false accusations. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1191x740, 177 KB) Permission from www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1191x740, 177 KB) Permission from www. ... The Baptism of Constantine is a painting by assistents of the Italian renaissance artist Raphael. ... This article is about the Renaissance artist. ... Fausta, as Salus, holding her two sons, Constantine II and Constantius II. Fausta Flavia Maxima, Roman Empress, (289-326A.D.) She was the daughter of the Roman Emperor Maximianus. ...


Eusebius reports that Constantine was baptized only shortly before his death in 337.[16] He moved from the Capital to a neighbouring thermal spa to take the waters, and thence to his mother's city of Helenopolis, where he prayed in the great church that she built in honour of Lucian the apostle. With this, he followed one custom at the time which postponed baptism until old age or death.[17] According to Jerome, Constantine's choice fell upon the bishop Eusebius of Nicomedia. Following his death, his body was transferred to Constantinople and buried in the Church of the Holy Apostles there.[18] This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ... For other uses, see Jerome (disambiguation). ... Eusebius of Nicomedia and Constantinople, (d. ... The Church of the Holy Apostles (Greek: Aghioi Apostoloi), also known as the Imperial Polyandreion, was a Christian basilica built in Constantinople (then the capital of the Byzantine Empire) in 550 AD. It was second only to the Church of the Holy Wisdom (Hagia Sophia) among the great churches of...


Succession

He was succeeded by his three sons born of Fausta, Constantine II, Constantius II and Constans. A number of relatives were killed by followers of Constantius. He also had two daughters, Constantina and Helena, wife of Emperor Julian.[19] Flavius Claudius Constantinus, known in English as Constantine II, (316 – 340) was Roman Emperor from 337 to 340. ... Flavius Iulius Constantius, known in English as Constantius II, (7 August 317 - 3 November 361) was a Roman Emperor (337 - 361) of the Constantinian dynasty. ... Flavius Julius Constans (320 - 350), was a Roman Emperor who ruled from 337 to 350. ... Constantina Augusta was the eldest daughter of Constantine the Great, Roman Emperor. ... Flavius Claudius Iulianus (331–June 26, 363), was a Roman Emperor (361–363) of the Constantinian dynasty. ...


Constantine and Christianity

Constantine the Great, mosaic in Hagia Sophia, Constantinople, c. 1000; (present-day Istanbul.
Constantine the Great, mosaic in Hagia Sophia, Constantinople, c. 1000; (present-day Istanbul.

Constantine is perhaps best known for being the first Christian Roman Emperor. His reign was a turning point for the Christian Church. In 313 Constantine announced toleration of Christianity in the Edict of Milan, which removed penalties for professing Christianity (under which many had been martyred in previous persecutions of Christians) and returned confiscated Church property. Though a similar edict had been issued in 311 by Galerius, then senior emperor of the Tetrarchy,[20] Constantine's lengthy rule, conversion, and patronage of the Church redefined the status of Christianity in the empire. The relationship between Constantine I and Christianity entails both the nature of the conversion of the emperor to Christianity, and his relations with the Christian Church. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 466 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1576 × 2027 pixel, file size: 491 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) tyhfgghfghdfgxdg File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Constantinople Constantine I First Council... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 466 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1576 × 2027 pixel, file size: 491 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) tyhfgghfghdfgxdg File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Constantinople Constantine I First Council... For other uses, see Hagia Sophia (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... The Edict of Milan was a letter that proclaimed religious toleration in the Roman Empire. ... Spanish Leftists during the Red Terror Shoot at a statue of Christ The persecution of Christians is religious persecution that Christians sometimes undergo as a consequence of professing their faith, both historically and in the current era. ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... Galerius Maximianus (c. ... The Tetrarchs, a porphyry sculpture sacked from a Byzantine palace in 1204, Treasury of St. ...


Scholars debate whether Constantine adopted his mother St. Helena's Christianity in his youth, or whether he adopted it gradually over the course of his life.[21] Constantine was over 40 when he finally declared himself a Christian.[22] Writing to Christians, Constantine made clear that he believed he owed his successes to the protection of the Christian High God alone.[23] Throughout his rule, Constantine supported the Church financially, built various basilicas, granted privileges (e.g. exemption from certain taxes) to clergy, promoted Christians to high ranking offices, and returned property confiscated during the Great Persecution of Diocletian.[24] His most famous building projects include the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and Old Saint Peter's Basilica. This article is about the church building in Jerusalem. ... Drawing of Old Saint Peters Basilica at about 1450. ...


The reign of Constantine established a precedent for the position of the Christian Emperor in the Church; Constantine considered himself responsible to God for the spiritual health of his subjects, and thus he had a duty to maintain orthodoxy.[25] For Constantine, the emperor did not decide doctrine - that was the responsibility of the bishops - rather his role was to enforce doctrine, root out heresy, and uphold ecclesiastical unity.[26] The emperor ensured that God was properly worshipped in his empire; what proper worship consisted of was for the Church to determine.[27]


In 316, Constantine acted as a judge in a North African dispute concerning the heresy of Donatism. More significantly, in 325 he summoned the Council of Nicaea, effectively the first Ecumenical Council (unless the Council of Jerusalem is so classified), to deal mostly with the heresy of Arianism. The Donatists (founded by the Berber christian Donatus) were followers of a belief considered a heresy by the Roman Catholic Church. ... The First Council of Nicaea, held in Nicaea in Bithynia (present-day Iznik in Turkey), convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in 325, was the first Ecumenical council[1] of the early Christian Church, and most significantly resulted in the first uniform Christian doctrine, called the Nicene Creed. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      An... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Arminius · Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box...


Constantine also enforced the prohibition of the First Council of Nicaea against celebrating Easter on the day before the Jewish Passover (14 Nisan) (see Quartodecimanism and Easter controversy).[28] The First Council of Nicaea, held in Nicaea in Bithynia (present-day Iznik in Turkey), convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in 325, was the first Ecumenical council[1] of the early Christian Church, and most significantly resulted in the first uniform Christian doctrine, called the Nicene Creed. ... This article is about the Jewish holiday. ... Nisan (Hebrew: נִיסָן, Standard Nisan Tiberian Nîsān ; from Akkadian , from Sumerian nisag First fruits) is the first month of the civil year and the seventh month (eighth, in leap year) of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar. ... Quartodecimanism (derived from the Vulgate Latin: quarta decima[1], meaning fourteen) refers to the custom of Christians celebrating Passover on the 14th day of Nisan in the Old Testaments Hebrew Calendar (Lev 23:5). ... The Easter controversy is a series of controversies about the proper date to celebrate Easter. ...


Constantine and Judaism

Constantine instituted several legislative measures impacting on Jews. They were forbidden to own Christian slaves or to circumcise their slaves. Conversion of Christians to Judaism was outlawed. Congregations for religious services were restricted, but Jews were allowed to enter Jerusalem on Tisha B'Av, the anniversary of the destruction of the Temple. Set of implements used in the performance of brit milah, displayed in the Göttingen city museum Brit milah (Hebrew: [bərīt mīlā] literally: covenant [of] circumcision), also berit milah (Sephardi), bris milah (Ashkenazi pronunciation) or bris (Yiddish) is a religious ceremony within Judaism to welcome infant Jewish... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Tisha BAv (Hebrew: תשעה באב or ט׳ באב), or the Ninth of Av, is an annual fast day in Judaism. ... Combatants Roman Empire Jews of Judea Commanders Titus Flavius Vespasianus Simon Bar-Giora Yohanan mi-Gush Halav (John of Gischala) Eleazar ben Simon Strength 70,000 men 13,000 men, split among three factions Casualties Unknown 60,000–1,100,000 (mass civilian casualties) The Siege of Jerusalem in the... The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash and meaning literally The Holy House) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ...


Reforms

Constantine's iconography and ideology

Coins struck for emperors often reveal details of their personal iconography. During the early part of Constantine's rule, representations first of Mars and then (from 310) of Apollo as Sun god consistently appear on the reverse of the coinage.[citation needed] Mars had been associated with the Tetrarchy, and Constantine's use of this symbolism served to emphasize the legitimacy of his rule. After his breach with his father's old colleague Maximian in 309–310, Constantine began to claim legitimate descent from the third century emperor Marcus Aurelius Claudius Gothicus (Claudius II), the hero of the Battle of Naissus (September, 268).[29] Look up Iconography in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Mars was the Roman god of war, the son of Juno and a magical flower (or Jupiter). ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... The Trundholm sun chariot pulled by a horse is believed to be a sculpture illustrating an important part of Nordic Bronze Age mythology. ... The Tetrarchs, a porphyry sculpture sacked from a Byzantine palace in 1204, Treasury of St. ... Maximian Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius (c. ... Claudius Gothicus on a coin celebrating his equity (AEQUITAS AUGUSTI). ... Combatants Roman Empire Goths Commanders Gallienus Aurelius Claudius (commander in chief) Domitius Aurelianus (cavalry commander) Strength unknown unknown Casualties unknown 30,000 to 50,000 The Battle of Naissus took place in September of 268 between the armies of the Goths and forces of the Roman Empire, led by Emperor...

Coin of Constantine, with depiction of the sun god Sol Invictus, holding a globe and right hand raised. The legend on the reverse reads SOLI INVICTO COMITI, to (Constantine's) "companion, the unconquered Sol".
Coin of Constantine, with depiction of the sun god Sol Invictus, holding a globe and right hand raised. The legend on the reverse reads SOLI INVICTO COMITI, to (Constantine's) "companion, the unconquered Sol".
Follis by Constantine. On the reverse, a labarum.
Follis by Constantine. On the reverse, a labarum.

Gothicus had claimed the divine protection of Apollo-Sol Invictus. Constantine also promoted an association of himself with Sol Invictus, which was the last deity to appear on his coinage.[30] The reverses of his coinage were dominated for several years by his "companion, the unconquered Sol" — the inscriptions read SOLI INVICTO COMITI. The depiction represents Apollo with a solar halo, Helios-like, and the globe in his hands. In the 320s Constantine has a halo of his own. There are also coins depicting Apollo driving the chariot of the Sun on a shield Constantine is holding.[citation needed] Elements of this association remained even after Constantine's famous conversion to Christianity in 312. Thereafter, Christian symbolism, albeit ambiguous in some instances, began to appear in Imperial iconography.[31] A coin of ca 312, for example, shows the chi-rho, the first two letters of the name of Christ in Greek, on a helmet Constantine is wearing.[32] Image File history File links Follis-Constantine-lyons_RIC_VI_309. ... Image File history File links Follis-Constantine-lyons_RIC_VI_309. ... Coin of Emperor Probus, circa 280, with Sol Invictus riding a quadriga, with legend SOLI INVICTO, to the Unconquered Sun. Note how the Emperor (on the left) wears a radiated solar crown, worn also by the god (to the right). ... World globe A Baroque era celestial globe A globe is a three-dimensional scale model of a spheroid celestial body such as a planet, star or moon, in particular Earth, or, alternatively, a spherical representation of the sky with the stars (but without the Sun, Moon, or planets, because their... Image File history File links As-Constantine-XR_RIC_vII_019. ... Image File history File links As-Constantine-XR_RIC_vII_019. ... A follis of Galerius as caesar The follis (plural folles) was a large bronze coin introduced in about 294 with the coinage reform of Diocletian. ... The Labarum An image of the labarum, with the Greek letters Alpha and Omega inscribed. ... For other uses, see Helios (disambiguation). ... Sarcophagus with Chi Rho symbol, Soisson, France, 6th century. ...

An example of "staring eyes" on later Constantine coinage.
An example of "staring eyes" on later Constantine coinage.

A continuation of the iconographic precedent can be seen in the larger eye of the coin portrait. This suggests a more fundamental shift in official images. Beginning in the late third century, portraits began away to become less realistic and more idealistic.[citation needed] The Emperor as Emperor, not merely as any particular individual, is of primary importance. The most common characteristics of this style are the broad jaw and cleft chin. The large staring eyes will loom larger as the fourth century progresses: compare the early fifth century silver coinage of Theodosius I.[citation needed] Constantine I. 307-337 AD. AV Multiple of 1 1/2 Solidi (6. ... Constantine I. 307-337 AD. AV Multiple of 1 1/2 Solidi (6. ... An engraving depicting what Theodosius may have looked like, ca. ...


Constantine's Courts and Appointees

Constantine respected cultivation and Christianity, and his court was composed of older, respected, and honored men.[citation needed] Leading Roman families that refused Christianity were denied positions of power, yet two-thirds of his top government was non-Christian.[33]


"From Pagan temples Constantine had his statue removed. The repair of Pagan temples that had decayed was forbidden. These funds were given to the favored Christian clergy. Offensive forms of worship, either Christian or Pagan, were suppressed. At the dedication of Constantinople in 330 a ceremony half Pagan and half Christian was performed, in the market place, the Cross of Christ was placed over the head of the Sun-God's chariot. There was a singing of hymns."[34] Events May 11 - Constantine I refounds Byzantium, renames it New Rome, and moves the capital of the Roman Empire there from Rome. ...


Constantine's legal legacy

Constantine passed laws making the occupations of butcher and baker hereditary, and more importantly, supported converting the coloni (tenant farmers) into serfs — laying the foundation for European society during the Middle Ages.[citation needed] Butcher shop in Valencia A butcher is someone who prepares various meats and other related goods for sale. ... A baker prepares fresh rolls A baker is someone who primarily bakes and sells bread. ... A tenant farmer is one who resides on and farms land owned by a landlord. ... Costumes of Slaves or Serfs, from the Sixth to the Twelfth Centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel, from original Documents in the great Libraries of Europe. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Society (disambiguation). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


Constantine's laws in many ways improved those of his predecessors, though they also reflect his more violent age.[citation needed] Some examples:

  • For the first time, girls could not be abducted (this may actually refer to elopements, which were considered kidnapping because girls could not legally consent to the elopement).
  • A punishment of death was mandated to anyone collecting taxes over the authorized amount.
  • A prisoner was no longer to be kept in total darkness, but must be given the outdoors and daylight.
  • A condemned man was allowed to die in the arena, but could not be branded on his "heavenly beautified" face, just on the feet (because God made man in His image).
  • Slave "nurses" or chaperones caught allowing the girls they were responsible for to be seduced were to have molten lead poured down their throats.
  • Gladiatorial games were ordered to be eliminated in 325, although this had little real effect.[35]
  • A slave master's rights were limited, but a slave could still be beaten to death.
  • Crucifixion was abolished for reasons of Christian piety, but was replaced with hanging, to show there was Roman law and justice.
  • Easter could be publicly celebrated.
  • A Sunday law enforcing its public observation as a day of rest was enacted.

For other uses, see Gladiator (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Crucifixion (disambiguation). ... Hanging is the suspension of a person by a ligature, usually a cord wrapped around the neck, causing death. ... This article is about the Christian festival. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Constantine's legacy

Contemporary bronze head of Constantine.
Contemporary bronze head of Constantine.

Although he earned his honorific of "The Great" from Christian historians long after he had died, he could have claimed the title on his military achievements and victories alone. In addition to reuniting the empire under one emperor, Constantine won major victories over the Franks and Alamanni in 306–308, the Franks again in 313–314, the tervingian Goths in 332 and the Sarmatians in 334. In fact, by 336, Constantine had actually reoccupied most of the long-lost province of Dacia, which Aurelian had been forced to abandon in 271. At the time of his death, he was planning a great expedition to put an end to raids on the eastern provinces from the Sassanian Empire.[36] ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 618 KB) Summary Bronze head of Constantine I, Musei Capitolini, Rome. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 618 KB) Summary Bronze head of Constantine I, Musei Capitolini, Rome. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... Area settled by the Alamanni, and sites of Roman-Alamannic battles, 3rd to 6th century The Alamanni, Allemanni, or Alemanni were originally an alliance of west Germanic tribes located around the upper Main, a river that is one of the largest tributaries of the Rhine, on land that is today... This article is about the Germanic tribes. ... Sarmatia Europea in Scythia map 1697 AD Sarmatia Europæa separated from Sarmatia Asiatica by the Tanais (the River Don), based on Greek literary sources, in a map printed in London, ca 1770 Great steppe in early spring. ... Dacia, in ancient geography the land of the Daci, named by the ancient Greeks Getae, was a large district of Southeastern Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpathians, on the south by the Danube, on the west by the Tisa, on the east by the Tyras or Nistru, now... Lucius Domitius Aurelianus[1] (September 9, 214–September 275), known in English as Aurelian, Roman Emperor (270–275), was the second of several highly successful soldier-emperors who helped the Roman Empire regain its power during the latter part of the third century and the beginning of the fourth. ... Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ...


The Byzantine Empire considered Constantine its founder and also the Holy Roman Empire reckoned him among the venerable figures of its tradition. In both East and West, Emperors were sometimes hailed as a "new Constantine". Most Eastern Christian churches consider Constantine a saint.[37] In the East he is sometimes called "isapostolos" or the "13th apostle"[2]. Byzantine redirects here. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... An equal-to-the-apostles is a special title given to some canonized Saints in Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Rite churches as an outstanding recognition of their service in spreading and assertion of Christianity comparable to that of the original apostles. ...


Legend and Donation of Constantine

In later years, historical facts were clouded by legend. It was considered inappropriate that Constantine was baptized only on his death-bed and by a bishop of questionable orthodoxy, and hence a legend emerged that Pope Sylvester I (314-335) had cured the pagan Emperor from leprosy. According to this legend, Constantine was baptized after that and donated buildings to the Pope. In the eighth century, a document called the "Donation of Constantine" first appeared, in which the freshly converted Constantine hands the temporal rule over Rome, Italy and the Occident to the Pope. In the High Middle Ages, this document was used and accepted as the basis for the Pope's temporal power, though it was denounced as a forgery by Emperor Otto III and lamented as the root of papal worldliness by the poet Dante Alighieri. The 15th century philologist Lorenzo Valla proved the document was indeed a forgery. A 13th C. fresco of Sylvester and Constantine, showing the purported Donation. ... ... For the malady found in the Hebrew Bible, see the article Tzaraath. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... A 13th C. fresco of Sylvester and Constantine, showing the purported Donation. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Occident has a number of meanings. ... The cathedral Notre Dame de Paris, a significant architectural contribution of the High Middle Ages. ... By the expression temporal power is commonly indicated the political and governmental activity of the Popes of the Roman Catholic Church, as distinguished from their spiritual and pastoral activity (also called eternal power). ... Otto III in a medieval manuscript Otto III (980 – January 23, 1002, Paterno, Italy) was the fourth ruler of the Saxon or Ottonian dynasty. ... Dante redirects here. ... Philology is the study of ancient texts and languages. ... Lorenzo Valla Lorenzo (or Laurentius) Valla (c. ...


Constantine in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia

Because of his fame and his being proclaimed Emperor on the territory of Great Britain, Constantine was later also considered a British King. In the 11th century, the English writer Geoffrey of Monmouth published a fictional work called Historia Regum Britanniae, in which he narrates the supposed history of the Britons and their kings from the Trojan War, King Arthur and the Anglo-Saxon conquest. In this work, Geoffrey claimed that Constantine's mother Helena was actually the daughter of "King Cole", the mythical King of the Britons and eponymous founder of Colchester. A daughter for King Cole had not previously figured in the lore, at least not as it has survived in writing, and this pedigree is likely to reflect Geoffrey's desire to create a continuous line of regal descent. It was indecorous, Geoffrey considered, that a king might have less-than-noble ancestors. Geoffrey also said that Constantine was proclaimed "King of the Britons" at York, rather than Roman Emperor.[38] The English are an ethnic group originating in the lowlands of Great Britain and are descendent primarily from the Anglo-Saxons, the Celts with minor influences from the Scandanavians and other groups. ... Geoffrey of Monmouth (in Welsh: Gruffudd ap Arthur or Sieffre o Fynwy) (c. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: History of the Kings of Britain Geoffrey of Monmouths Historia Regum Britanniae (English: The History of the Kings of Britain) is a pseudohistorical account of British history, written around 1136. ... The fall of Troy, by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769). ... For other uses, see King Arthur (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... Old King Cole, according to William Wallace Denslow For other uses of King Cole, see King Cole (disambiguation). ... The term Briton may have the following meanings: in a historical context: an inhabitant of Great Britain in pre-Roman times a descendant of Britons during a later period (e. ... This article is about the town in England. ... Old King Cole, according to William Wallace Denslow For other uses of King Cole, see King Cole (disambiguation). ... // For historical kings who used or upon whom was bestowed (often retrospectively) the title King of the Britons, see King of the Britons. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ...


Notes

  1. ^ a b Birth dates vary but recent mainstream sources use "ca. 274" such as in "Constantine", Encyclopædia Britannica, 2007 Online edition; and "Constantine", Dictionary of the Middle Ages, volume 3, 1983.
  2. ^ In (Latin Constantine's official imperial title was IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS CONSTANTINVS PIVS FELIX INVICTVS AVGVSTVS, Imperator Caesar Flavius Constantine Augustus, the pious, the fortunate, the undefeated. After 312, he added MAXIMVS ("the greatest"), and after 325 replaced ' ("undefeated") with VICTOR, as invictus reminded of Sol Invictus, the Sun God.
  3. ^ Pohlsander, Hans, The Emperor Constantine, pp. 12–13 & p. 71, figure 9.
  4. ^ Barnes, T.D., Constantine and Eusebius Cambridge, MA and London, 1981.
  5. ^ Pohlsander, Hans, The Emperor Constantine, pp. 14–15.
  6. ^ Pohlsander, Hans, The Emperor Constantine, pp. 16–17.
  7. ^ Pohlsander, Hans, The Emperor Constantine, pp. 15–16.
  8. ^ Pohlsander, Hans, The Emperor Constantine, pp. 15–16.
  9. ^ Pohlsander, Hans, The Emperor Constantine, pp. 15–16.
  10. ^ The Early Centuries, 38
  11. ^ Elizabeth DePalma Digeser, "The Making of A Christian Empire: Lactantius and Rome" (London, Cornell University Press, 2000) p. 122
  12. ^ Pohlsander, Hans, The Emperor Constantine, p. 24.
  13. ^ a b J. Norwich, Byzantium: The Early Centuries, 47
  14. ^ Pohlsander, Hans, The Emperor Constantine, pp. 42–43.
  15. ^ a b MacMullen, 1969
  16. ^ Pohlsander, Hans, The Emperor Constantine, pp. 25 & 75–76.
  17. ^ In this period infant baptism, though practiced (usually in circumstances of emergency) had not yet become a matter of routine in the west. See Thomas M. Finn (1992), Early Christian Baptism and the Catechumenate: East and West Syria. See also Philip Rousseau (1999). "Baptism", in Late Antiquity: A Guide to the Post Classical World, ed. Peter Brown.
  18. ^ Pohlsander, Hans, The Emperor Constantine, pp. 75–76.
  19. ^ Pohlsander, Hans, The Emperor Constantine, p. 71, figure 9.
  20. ^ The edict granted Christians the right to practice their religion but did not restore any property to them; see Lactantius, De Mortibus Persecutorum ("On the Deaths of the Persecutors")ch. 35-34
  21. ^ R. Gerberding and J. H. Moran Cruz, Medieval Worlds (New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004) p. 55
  22. ^ Peter Brown, The Rise of Christendom 2nd edition (Oxford, Blackwell Publishing, 2003) p. 61
  23. ^ Peter Brown, The Rise of Christendom 2nd edition (Oxford, Blackwell Publishing, 2003) p. 60
  24. ^ R. Gerberding and J. H. Moran Cruz, Medieval Worlds (New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004) pp. 55-56
  25. ^ Richards, Jeffrey. The Popes and the Papacy in the Early Middle Ages 476-752 (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1979) pp. 14-15
  26. ^ Richards, Jeffrey. The Popes and the Papacy in the Early Middle Ages 476-752 (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1979) q. 15
  27. ^ Richards, Jeffrey. The Popes and the Papacy in the Early Middle Ages 476-752 (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1979) p. 16
  28. ^ Life of Constantine Vol. III Ch. XVIII by Eusebius; The Epistle of the Emperor Constantine, concerning the matters transacted at the Council, addressed to those Bishops who were not present
  29. ^ Pohlsander, Hans, The Emperor Constantine, pp. 22 & 62–63.
  30. ^ N. Hannestad Roman Art and Imperial Policy (Aarhus: 1988)
  31. ^ P. Bruun Studies in Constantinian numismatics : papers from 1954 to 1988
  32. ^ Pohlsander, Hans, The Emperor Constantine, p. 40 & p. 41, figure 4.
  33. ^ MacMullen 1969,1984, New Catholic Encyclopedia, 1908 Constantine
  34. ^ New Catholic Encyclopedia 1908
  35. ^ Pohlsander, Hans, The Emperor Constantine, p. 69.
  36. ^ Pohlsander, Hans, The Emperor Constantine, p. 72.
  37. ^ Pohlsander, Hans, The Emperor Constantine, pp. 83–87.
  38. ^ Geoffrey of Monmouth, The History of the Kings of Britain, pp. 132–133.

The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... Dictionary of the Middle Ages: Supplement 1 (2003) The Dictionary of the Middle Ages is a 13-volume encyclopedia of the Middle Ages published by the American Council of Learned Societies between 1982 and 1989, with a supplemental volume added in 2003. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Coin of Emperor Probus, circa 280, with Sol Invictus riding a quadriga, with legend SOLI INVICTO, to the Unconquered Sun. Note how the Emperor (on the left) wears a radiated solar crown, worn also by the god (to the right). ... There have been several people named Peter Brown. ...

References and further reading

  • The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Constantine (Cambridge Companions to the Ancient World), edited by Noel Lenski. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005 (hardcover, ISBN 0-521-81838-9; paperback, ISBN 0-521-52157-2).
  • Barnes, T.D. 1981 Constantine and Eusebius. Cambridge, MA, London.
  • Chuvin, Pierre; Archer, B. A. (translator). A Chronicle of the Last Pagans. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1990 (ISBN 0-674-12970-9).
  • Chapman, John. "Donatists", The Catholic Encyclopedia (1909).
  • "Constantine", Encyclopaedia Britannica (1911).
  • Dodds, Eric Robertson. The Greeks and the Irrational. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1964.
  • Dodds, Eric Robertson. Pagan and Christian in an Age of Anxiety: Some Aspects of the Religious Experience from Marcus Aurelius to Constantine. Cambridge University Press, 1965.
  • Eusebius of Caesarea. The Life of the blessed Emperor Constantine in four books from 306 to 337.
  • Fowden, Garth. "The Last Days of Constantine: Oppositional Versions and Their Influence", The Journal of Roman Studies, Vol. 84. (1994), pp. 146–170.
  • Herbermann, Charles G.; Grupp, Georg. "Constantine the Great", The Catholic Encyclopedia (1908).
  • Holloway, R. Ross. Constantine and Rome. New Heaven, CT; London: Yale University Press, 2004 (hardcover, ISBN 0-300-10043-4).
  • Jones, A.H.M. Constantine and the Conversion of Europe. London: English University Press, 1948; London: Macmillan, 1949.
  • Kousoulas, D.G. The Life and Times of Constantine the Great: The First Christian Emperor. Bethesda, MD: Provost Books, 2003 (paperback, ISBN 1-887750-61-4).
  • Lactantius, (240–320). Of the Manner the in Which the Persecutors Died.
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  • Monmouth, Geoffrey of, The History of the Kings of Britain, translated by Lewis Thorpe. London: Penguin, 1966. ISBN 0-140-44170-0
  • Odahl, Charles Matson. Constantine and the Christian Empire. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-415-17485-6
  • Pohlansander, Hans. The Emperor Constantine. London & New York: Routledge, 1996. ISBN 0-415-13178-2
  • Rassias, Vlassis R. Es Edafos Ferein, 2nd edition. Athens, 2000 (ISBN 960-7748-20-4).
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Eric Robertson Dodds (26 July 1893 - 8 April 1973) was a British classical scholar. ... Eusebius of Caesarea Eusebius of Caesarea (c. ... Charles George Herbermann (1840-1916) was born near Münster, Westphalia, Prussia, came to the United States in 1851, and seven years later graduated at College of St. ... Lucius Caelius (or Caecilius?) Firmianus Lactantius was an early Christian author who wrote in Latin (c. ... The January 1920 issue of the Dial. ... Geoffrey of Monmouth (in Welsh: Gruffudd ap Arthur or Sieffre o Fynwy) (c. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: History of the Kings of Britain Geoffrey of Monmouths Historia Regum Britanniae (English: The History of the Kings of Britain) is a pseudohistorical account of British history, written around 1136. ... For other uses, see Galen (disambiguation). ... Marcus Cornelius Fronto (c. ...

See also

Ammianus Marcellinus (325/330-after 391) was a fourth-century Greek historian [1][2]. His is the last major historical account of the late Roman empire which survives today: his work chronicled the history of Rome from 96 to 378, although only the sections covering the period 353 - 378 are... The Arch of Constantine seen from the Colosseum The arch seen from Via Triumphalis Detail of the arch (southern side, left) The Arch of Constantine is a triumphal arch in Rome, situated between the Colosseum and the Palatine Hill. ... A triumphal arch is a structure in the shape of a monumental archway, usually built to celebrate a victory in war. ... Combatants Constantinian forces Maxentian forces Commanders Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius† Strength ~50000 men ~75000-120000 men Casualties Unknown Unknown The Battle of Milvian Bridge took place on October 28, 312 between the Roman Emperors Constantine the Great and Maxentius. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... The Colossus head The Colossus of Constantine was a colossal acrolithic statue of Constantine the Great that once occupied the west apse of the Basilica of Maxentius in the Forum Romanum in Rome. ... The relationship between Constantine I and Christianity entails both the nature of the conversion of the emperor to Christianity, and his relations with the Christian Church. ... Battle of the Milvian Bridge, Raphael, Vatican Rooms. ... A 13th C. fresco of Sylvester and Constantine, showing the purported Donation. ... The Donatists (founded by the Berber Christian Donatus Magnus) were followers of a belief considered a heresy by the broader Catholic community. ...

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Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Preceded by
Constantius Chlorus
Roman Emperor
306337
with Galerius, Licinius and Maximinus Daia
Succeeded by
Constantius II,
Constantine II
and Constans

Persondata
NAME Constantine I
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Constantinus, Flavius Valerius Aurelius;Constantine, Saint;Constantine the Great;
SHORT DESCRIPTION Roman Emperor
DATE OF BIRTH c. 27 February 274
PLACE OF BIRTH Naissus
DATE OF DEATH 22 May 337
PLACE OF DEATH

  Results from FactBites:
 
Constantine I - LoveToKnow 1911 (3156 words)
Maximianus thereupon recognized Constantine as Augustus (A.D. 307); their alliance was confirmed by the marriage of Constantine with Fausta, the daughter of Maximianus, and the father and son-in-law held the consulship, which, however, was not recognized in the East.
Constantine, with his customary union of prudence and decision, tacitly ignored this arrangement; he continued to bear the title of Augustus, and in 309, when he himself was proclaimed consul (with Licinius) in the East, no consuls were recognized in his dominions.
Constantine was preparing to lead his army in person, when he was taken ill, and after a vain trial of the baths at Helenopolis, died at Ancyrona, a suburb of Nicomedia, on the 22nd of May, having received Christian baptism shortly before at the hands of Eusebius.
Constantine I - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3192 words)
Constantine is best remembered in modern times for the Edict of Milan in 313, which fully legalized Christianity in the Empire, for the first time, and the Council of Nicaea in 325; these actions are considered major factors in the spreading of the Christian religion.
Constantine was born at Naissus (modern Niš, Serbia) in the province of Moesia Superior on 27 February 272 or 273, to Roman general, Constantius Chlorus, and his first wife Helena, an innkeeper's daughter who at the time was only sixteen years old.
Constantine's main goal was stability, and he tried to achieve that by immediate, often brutal punitive expeditions against rebellious tribes, demonstrating his military power by conquering the enemies on their own side of the Rhine frontier, and slaughtering many prisoners during games in the arena.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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