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Encyclopedia > Constable

A constable is a person holding a particular office, most commonly in law enforcement. However, the office of constable can vary significantly in different jurisdictions. A self portrait by John Constable John Constable (11 June 1776 – 31 March 1837) was an English Romantic painter. ... Henry Constable (1562 - 1613), poet, son of Sir Robert Constable, educated at Cambridge, but becoming a Roman Catholic, went to Paris, and acted as an agent for the Catholic powers. ... “NY” redirects here. ... Constable is a town located in Franklin County, New York. ... For the band, see The Police. ...


Originally, in some European countries during the Middle Ages, a constable was a person in charge of keeping the horses of his lord. The title comes from the Latin comes stabuli (attendant of the stables). World map showing the location of Europe. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... For other uses, see Lord (disambiguation). ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Leland Stanfords horse stable, still in use Horse kept in stable A stable is a building in which livestock, usually horses, are kept. ...


In some countries this developed into a high military rank, such as: rank. ...

A constable could also be someone in charge of the defence of a castle. Even today, there is a Constable of the Tower of London. Constable of Castile (Spanish :Condestable de Castilla), was a title created by John I, King of Castile in 1382, to substitute the title Alférez Mayor del Reino. ... The Constable of France (French connétable de France, from Latin comes stabulari for count of the stables), as the First Officer of the Crown, was one of the original five Great Officers of the Crown of France (along with seneschal, chamberlain, butler, and chancellor) and Commander in Chief of... Constable of Portugal (Portuguese: ) or Constable of the Kingdom (Portuguese: ) was a title created by king Ferdinand I of Portugal in 1382, to substitute the title Alferes do Reino. The constable was the second person in power in the kingdom, after the King of Portugal. ... The Lord High Constable of England is the seventh of the Great Officers of State, ranking beneath the Lord Great Chamberlain and above the Earl Marshal. ... Edward, who served under Alexander I and David I is called chief of Davids knights (princeps militae), but the exact nature of the Constables military role in the 12th century is unclear. ... Pierrefonds Castle, France. ... Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress The Tower of London, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically simply as The Tower), is a historic monument in central London, England on the north bank of the River Thames. ...


A constable is a rank for police officers in the United Kingdom and most countries with a British colonial history (now mostly members of the Commonwealth of Nations). This gives rise to the alternative name of Constabulary for a police force. Also, in Finland, a police trooper is called konstaapeli, and a police sergeant is ylikonstaapeli (yli- "leading"). Most of the police forces of the United Kingdom use a standard set of ranks, shown here in descending seniority from left to right. ... For the band, see The Police. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... Constabulary may have several definitions. ...

Contents

Historical usage

Byzantine Empire

The position of constable originated from the Byzantine Empire; by the 5th century AD the comes stabuli, or count of the stable, was responsible for the keeping of horses at the imperial court.[1] Later on, the position became a high military office. Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Look up AD, ad-, and ad in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ...


Byzantine administrative structures were largely adopted by Charlemagne in developing his empire; the position of Constable, along with the similar office of Marshal, spread throughout the emerging states of Western Europe during this period.[2] In most medieval nations, the constable was the highest-ranking officer of the army, and was responsible for the overseeing of martial law.[3] Charlemagne and Pippin the Hunchback. ... Marshal (also sometimes spelled marshall in American English, but not in British English) is a word used in several official titles of various branches of society. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


France

Main article: Constable of France

The Constable of France, under the French monarchy, was the First Officer of the Crown of France and was originally responsible for commanding the army. His symbol of office was a sword in a sheath of royal blue.[3] Some constables were prominent military commanders in the medieval period, such as Bertrand du Guesclin who served from 1370 to 1380. The Constable of France (French connétable de France, from Latin comes stabulari for count of the stables), as the First Officer of the Crown, was one of the original five Great Officers of the Crown of France (along with seneschal, chamberlain, butler, and chancellor) and Commander in Chief of... Kings ruled in France from the Middle Ages to 1848. ... The Great Officers of the Crown were appointed by the King of France and there were seven all told. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Swiss longsword, 15th or 16th century Look up Sword in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Royal blue is a lighter shade of blue. ... Statue of Bertrand du Guesclin in Dinan Bertrand du Guesclin at the Saint-Denis Basilica, near Paris Bertrand du Guesclin (c. ... Events Beginning of the rule of Poland by Capet-Anjou family. ... September 8 - Battle of Kulikovo - Russian forces under Grand Prince Dmitri Donskoi of Moscow resist a large invasion by the Blue Horde, Lithuania and Ryazan, stopping their advance at Kulikovo. ...


England

See also: Lord High Constable and Parish constable

The term was originally used in England and Scotland for the Lord High Constable, one of the Great Officers of State responsible for the command of the army; however, the term was also used at the local level within the feudal system, describing an officer appointed to keep order.[4] The Lord High Constable of England is the seventh of the Great Officers of State, ranking beneath the Lord Great Chamberlain and above the Earl Marshal. ... In British history, a parish constable was a law enforcement officer, usually unpaid and part-time, serving a parish. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem specific to England — the anthem of the United Kingdom is God Save the Queen. See also Proposed English National Anthems. ... This article is about the country. ... The Lord High Constable of England is the seventh of the Great Officers of State, ranking beneath the Lord Great Chamberlain and above the Earl Marshal. ... In the United Kingdom, the Great Officers of State are officers who either inherit their positions or are appointed by the Crown, and exercise certain ceremonial functions. ... Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ...


There is evidence of the term "constable" being used for law enforcement officers in England by the 13th century AD. In 1285 King Edward I of England "constituted two constables in every hundred to prevent defaults in towns and highways".[5] There are records of parish constables by the 17th century in the county records of Buckinghamshire; traditionally they were elected by the parishioners, but from 1617 onwards were typically appointed by justices of the peace in each county.[5] Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem specific to England — the anthem of the United Kingdom is God Save the Queen. See also Proposed English National Anthems. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Look up AD, ad-, and ad in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as Edward the Lawgiver because of his legal reforms, and as Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and who tried to do the same to Scotland. ... A hundred is a geographic division used in England, Scandinavia, and some parts of the USA, which historically was used to divide a larger region into smaller administrative units. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Buckinghamshire (abbreviated Bucks) is one of the home counties in South East England. ... Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed I (1603-1617) to Mustafa I (1617-1623). ... A Justice of the Peace (JP) is a magistrate appointed by a commission to keep the peace, dispense summary justice and deal with local administrative applications in common law jurisdictions. ...


The system of policing by unpaid parish constables continued in England until the 19th century; in the London metropolitan area it was ended by the creation of the Metropolitan Police in 1829, [6] and outside London by the County Police Act 1839, which allowed counties to establish full-time professional police forces. However, the term "constable" was still used by officers of the new police forces, and most outside London were headed by a chief constable.[7][8] This system is still used today. Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem specific to England — the anthem of the United Kingdom is God Save the Queen. See also Proposed English National Anthems. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Metropolitan Police redirects here. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1829 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The County Police Act 1839 (2&3 Vict. ... A county is generally a sub-unit of regional self-government within a sovereign jurisdiction. ... Chief Constable is the title given to the commanding officer of every territorial police force in the United Kingdom except the two responsible for Greater London. ...


Netherlands

Nor in the Dutch armed forces or in the police force the rank "Constable" or a Dutch derivative was used.


Other European nations

The position of hereditary constable persists in some current or former monarchies of Europe. The position of Lord High Constable of Scotland is hereditary in the family of the Earl of Erroll. There is also a hereditary constable of Navarre in Spain; this position is presently held by the Duchess of Alba.[3] For the comic series, see Monarchy (comics). ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... Edward, who served under Alexander I and David I is called chief of Davids knights (princeps militae), but the exact nature of the Constables military role in the 12th century is unclear. ... The title Earl of Erroll is an ancient one in the Peerage of Scotland. ... Capital Pamplona Official language(s) Spanish and Basque Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 11th  10,391 km²  2. ... The House of Alba (es: La Casa de Alba) is an important aristocratic family of Spanish origin who can trace back their ancestry to 1429, when the first “Alba” was made “Lord of the City of Alba de Tormes”. In 1492, it was a member of this family, the second...


Modern usage

Denmark

In the Danish armed forces the ranks "Konstabel" en "Overkonstabel" are used for soldiers in an operational level. Al the armed forces i.e. Navy, Air Force and Army use the term. The rank is more or less equal to a private. A Private is a soldier of the lowest military rank (equivalent to Nato Rank Grades OR-1 to OR-3 depending on the force served in). ...


Netherlands

Nor in the Dutch armed forces or in the police force the rank "Constable" or a Dutch derivative is used.


United Kingdom and the Commonwealth

In the legal systems of the United Kingdom and similar jurisdictions, a constable has the additional legal powers of arrest and control of the public given to him or her directly by a sworn oath and warrant, rather than being delegated powers that he or she has simply because of employment as a police officer. Technically this means that each sworn constable is an independent legal official rather than simply an agent of the police. It also means that all sworn police officers of all ranks in these countries legally are constables, since it is from this office that they derive their powers, although the term usually refers to a police officer who holds no rank. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... All Police officers take an oath to uphold the law. ... In law, a warrant can mean any authorization. ...


Senior Constable can sometimes mean the head of the police force in an area, but this is not the case in the UK. In Australia it generally refers to a police officer of the rank above constable. The New South Wales Police Force has three grades of Senior Constable, namely Senior Constable (2 chevrons), Incremental Senior Constable (2 chevrons and a bar) and Leading Senior Constable (2 chevrons and 2 bars). However Leading Senior Constable is not a rank per se, rather it is a temporary "training" position and is not senior to Incremental Senior Constable.


Head Constable is the title for a police sergeant in some Commonwealth police forces. It was also the title of some British police force chiefs until police ranks were standardised. The British police are a group of similar but independent police services which operate in the United Kingdom. ...


For more information, see police or United Kingdom police. A Police Constable of West Yorkshire Police on patrol The United Kingdom is a unitary (as opposed to federal) state, and police forces, generally speaking, are organised at the level of administrative districts. ...


Channel Islands

Constable's Office in St. Brelade, Jersey
Constable's Office in St. Brelade, Jersey

In Jersey and Guernsey, the elected heads of the Parishes are titled "constables" (connétables in French). The constables are entitled each to carry a silver-tipped baton of office. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1180x1585, 1028 KB) fr: Bureau du Connétable, Salle Paroissiale de Saint Brélade, Jersey en: Constables Office, St. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1180x1585, 1028 KB) fr: Bureau du Connétable, Salle Paroissiale de Saint Brélade, Jersey en: Constables Office, St. ... Parish Hall of St. ...


In Jersey, each parish elects a constable for a three year mandate to run the parish and also represent the parish in the legislature, the States of Jersey. The constable presides over the Roads Committee, the Conseil Paroissial (except St. Helier) and Parish Assemblies. The twelve constables also collectively sit as the Comité des Connétables. The constable is the titular head of the Honorary Police. With the Roads Inspectors, Roads Committee and other officers, the constable of each parish also carries out the visites du branchage twice a year. Jersey is divided into parishes Saint Helier Saint Saviour Saint Clement Grouville (historically Saint Martin de Grouville) Saint Martin (historically Saint Martin le Vieux) Trinity Saint John Saint Mary Saint Ouen Saint Peter Saint Brelade Saint Lawrence Categories: UK geography stubs | Parishes of Jersey | Parishes ... The States of Jersey (French: États de Jersey) is the parliament of Jersey. ... There is an Honorary Police (French: Police Honorifique) force in each parish in Jersey. ...


In Guernsey, each parish elects two constables, the senior constable and the junior constable. Persons elected generally serve a year as junior and then senior constable. The senior constable presides over the Douzaine that runs the parish. The constables are responsible for enforcing the brancage (summer hedge-cutting) and also have the power to declare any parishioner insane. Anthem God Save the Queen (official) Sarnia Cherie (official for occasions when distinguishing anthem required) Capital St Peter Port Official languages English (predominant) French (legislative) Recognised regional languages Guernésiais Government  -  Head of state Elizabeth II, Duke of Normandy  -  Lt. ... Inmates at Bedlam Asylum, as portrayed by William Hogarth Insanity, or madness, is a semi-permanent, severe mental disorder typically stemming from a form of mental illness. ...


United States

In the United States, there is no consistent use of the office of constable across the states, and use may vary even within a state. A constable may merely be an official responsible for service of process: such as summonses and subpoenas for people to appear in court in criminal and/or civil matters. Or, they may be fully empowered law enforcement officers. They may also have additional specialized duties unique to the office. In some states, a constable may be appointed by the judge of the court which he or she serves; in others the constable is an elected or appointed position at the village, precinct or township level of local government. Service of process is the procedure employed to give legal notice to a person (defendant etc. ... A summons is a legal document issued by a court (a judicial summons) or by an administrative agency of government (an administrative summons) for various purposes. ... A subpoena is a command to appear at a certain time and place to give testimony upon a certain matter. ... For the band, see The Police. ... A precinct is a space enclosed by the walls or other boundaries of a particular place or building, or by an arbitrary and imaginary line drawn around it. ... The term township generally means the district or area associated with a town. ...


The office developed from its British counterpart during the colonial period. Prior to the modernization of law enforcement which took place in the middle 19th century, local law enforcement was performed by constables and watchmen.[9] Constables were appointed or elected at the local level for specific terms and, like their UK counterparts the Parish Constable, were not paid and did not wear a uniform. However, they were often paid a fee by the courts for each writ served and warrant executed. Following the example of the Metropolitan Police established in 1829, the states gradually enacted laws to permit municipalities to establish police departments. This differed from the UK in that the old system was not uniformly abolished in every state. Often the enacting legislation of the state conferred a police officer with the powers of a constable, the most important of these powers being the common law power of arrest. Police and constables exist concurrently in many jurisdictions. Perhaps because of this, the title "constable" is not used for police of any rank. The lowest rank in a police organization would be officer, deputy, patrolman, trooper, and historically, private, depending on the particular organization. Watchmen were used in many parts of the United Kingdom prior to the establishment of a state run police force. ... In British history, a parish constable was a law enforcement officer, usually unpaid and part-time, serving a parish. ... In law, a writ is a formal written order issued by a body with administrative or judicial jurisdiction. ... Warrant has several meanings: In law, a warrant is a form of authorization, such as A writ issued by a judge. ... Metropolitan Police redirects here. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... Trooper can refer to: Canadian rock band Trooper the rank of Trooper in Canadian and British army groups. ... A Private is a soldier of the lowest military rank (equivalent to Nato Rank Grades OR-1 to OR-3 depending on the force served in). ...


In many states, constables do not conduct patrols or preventive policing activities. In such states the office is relatively obscure to its citizens.


A constable may be assisted by deputy constables as sworn officers or constable's officers as civil staff, usually as process servers. In some states, villages or towns, an office with similar duties is marshal. Marshal (also sometimes spelled marshall in American English, but not in British English) is a word used in several official titles of various branches of society. ...


Constables unite under the National Constables Association at http://www.nationalconstablesassociation.com


Alabama

In Alabama, a constable is traditionally elected in each precinct, a subdivision of a county. Constables are peace officers and have full powers of arrest, stop and search within their county.[10][11][12] They are generally responsible for serving warrants and acting as process servers, as well as patrolling the streets and providing security for civic events. They are not funded from general tax revenues; instead, constables' fees are paid by the criminals they arrest.[13] Official language(s) English Capital Montgomery Largest city Birmingham Area  Ranked 30th  - Total 52,419 sq mi (135,765 km²)  - Width 190 miles (306 km)  - Length 330 miles (531 km)  - % water 3. ... A precinct is a space enclosed by the walls or other boundaries of a particular place or building, or by an arbitrary and imaginary line drawn around it. ... A county is generally a sub-unit of regional self-government within a sovereign jurisdiction. ... In the broad sense a peace officer is any public sector person charged to uphold the peace. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Warrant has several meanings: In law, a warrant is a form of authorization, such as A writ issued by a judge. ... Service of process is the term given to legal notice of a court or administrative bodys exercise of its jurisdiction over a person (defendant etc. ... for other uses please see Crime (disambiguation) A crime is an act that violates a political or moral law. ...


In Mobile County, all constables are required to complete law enforcement training, except for those currently in office who are grandfathered in.[14][15] In some other counties, the office of constable has been largely abandoned. Mobile County is a county of the State of Alabama. ... For the band, see The Police. ... A grandfather clause is an exception that allows an old rule to continue to apply to some existing situations, when a new rule will apply to all future situations. ...


Arizona

In Arizona, a constable is an elected officer of the county for the Justice of the Peace Court and must live in the precinct to which they are elected. The constable serves a four year term and has similar powers and duties to sheriffs. A justice of the peace (JP) is a puisne judicial officer appointed by means of a commission to keep the peace. ... A precinct is a space enclosed by the walls or other boundaries of a particular place or building, or by an arbitrary and imaginary line drawn around it. ... Look up Sheriff in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In Arizona law, the authority of constables is defined by Arizona Revised Statutes Title 22, Section 131. Constables have the same powers as sheriffs, but their primary responsibility is to act as process servers for the Justice of the Peace courts, serving summons subpoenas, orders, injunctions, and writs.[16] Constables must undergo training, and their expenses are paid by the county board of supervisors.[17] Constables receive a salary from their respective counties based on the number of registered voters who reside in their precinct. Constables are peace officers but in Arizona do not regularly perform police functions such as arrests and criminal investigations. Look up Sheriff in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Service of process is the term given to legal notice of a court or administrative bodys exercise of its jurisdiction over a person (defendant etc. ... A justice of the peace (JP) is a puisne judicial officer appointed by means of a commission to keep the peace. ... A summons is a legal document issued by a court (a judicial summons) or by an administrative agency of government (an administrative summons) for various purposes. ... A subpoena is a command to appear at a certain time and place to give testimony upon a certain matter. ... A court order is an official proclamation by a judge (or panel of judges) that defines the legal relationships between the parties before the court and requires or authorizes the carrying out of certain steps by one or more parties to a case. ... Look up Injunction in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In law, a writ is a formal written order issued by a body with administrative or judicial jurisdiction. ... A county is generally a sub-unit of regional self-government within a sovereign jurisdiction. ... In some counties, the legislature is the board of supervisors. ...


Arkansas

In Arkansas like Arizona, a constable is an elected officer of the county with full police power of arrest. Unlike Arizona, Constables in Arkansas serve only two year terms. They are elected in November. Constable is a partisan office and is guaranteed by the state constitution.


California

The few constables that remained on duty when the state courts were reorganized in 2000, even in remote regions of the state, were eventually absorbed into sheriff or police agencies. Constables as such had full police powers and carried out occasional to frequent patrol work in addition to their paper serving duties, and were attached to the former justice courts, and were either elected by popular vote or appointed by the presiding judge of the county's supreme court.


Connecticut

There are two types of constables in Connecticut.


Special Constables are appointed by Towns. In general, they are appointed to serve as police officers and expected to have or complete the requirements of the Police Officer Standards & Training Council in order to do so. Special Constables normally work under the supervision of a Resident State Trooper contracted by the town (a requirement of the Connecticut State Police if the Town wishes their Constables to be dispatched by the State Police or have access to the radio and computer system of the State Police). The system of Resident State Trooper and Constables is used by many medium sized towns as a cost effective way of providing increased police patrols while the State Police retain primary responsibility to provide additional levels of supervision, dispatch, Detective, and other specialized services.


Constables who are elected officials are generally limited to serving civil process within the town they are elected by. The election are held every two years, except communities which by local ordinance or charter have set the term of office at four years. While a small number of towns will also allow the Constables to perform traffic control and event security functions, most strictly prohibit their Constables from acting in any official capacity on behalf of the Town. The authority to act as a law enforcement officer by nature of their office was removed in 1984, at which time they became subject to the Police Officer Standards & Training Council requirements. In 1984 these requirements were for 480 hours of training, which could be completed in 120 hour long "blocks" which were offered as part-time evening classes. With completion of each block came expansion of the types of law enforcement the officer could perform. While it was never common after 1984 to have elected Constables with law enforcement powers, there were a few who did complete certification. As of 2007, POST requirements of 680 hours of training provided on a full-time basis for new officers, followed by 400 hours of training provided by a certified Field Training Officer make completing the requirements to be a law enforcement officer impractical for elected Constables.


Historically, Constables had been the key office for providing law enforcement in rural Connecticut. Connecticut never developed a strong institution of County Sheriffs providing general police services. From colonial times through the 1940s, Town Constables would work with two other Town officials -- the Investigating Grand Juror and Prosecuting Grand Juror -- in the initial handling of criminal investigations, arrests, and the "binding over" of serious crimes from the Town's Justice Court to a higher court. A series of reforms in regulations, statutes, and the state Constitution in the 1950s and 1960s removed the involvement of towns in these matters. In towns without a local Police Chief, investigations became the exclusive responsibility of the State Police, while State Prosecutors took over the prosecution of cases, and the court system was flattened by the elimination of courts with criminal venue below the level of the Superior Court.


Delaware

Delaware has had a unique law enforcement position entitled "Constable". Transplanted from England to Delaware in the early colonial period, the constable’s main responsibilities were keeping the peace and serving the courts. Under the Duke of York’s government the constable was elected from one of four overseers of the town or parish. He had the responsibility to pursue and apprehend offenders and bring them before the Justice of the Peace, whip or punish offenders by order of the court, take bail for a person arrested, help to settle estates, and keep proper accounts of fines collected. The constables and eight overseers made the tax assessments, and the constable also collected taxes. If taxes were not paid, the constable was to value the delinquent’s property and seize it until taxes were paid or the property sold. In addition, the constable and two overseers held the town courts. The laws of William Penn provide little information on the duties of the constables except that they served warrants, attended courts, and furnished lists of taxables in their hundreds for the tax assessors. Capital Dover Largest city Wilmington Area  Ranked 49th  - Total 2,491 sq mi (6,452 km²)  - Width 30 miles (48 km)  - Length 100 miles (161 km)  - % water 21. ...


Legislation relating to constables does not appear in the Delaware Laws until 1770. This act required constables at the end of their terms to return the names of three freeholders to the Court of General Sessions, who then appointed one to serve the next year. The Clerk of the Peace certified the appointment and delivered it to the sheriff who then notified the person of his appointment. At least one constable was appointed for each hundred, and appointees had to be residents of the hundred in which they served. After 1832 the Levy Court of each county appointed the constables, although the Governor could also fill appointments if Levy Court was in recess.


Later in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, with the establishment of the Delaware State Police; constables were appointed for specific concerns, institutions, or companies. The constable had a number of duties, many of which continue today. He executed all orders, warrants, and other process directed by any Justice of the Peace; ensured that the peace of the State be kept; arrested all persons committing riot, murder, theft, or breach of the peace, and carried them before a Justice of the Peace; attended elections to ensure that the peace be kept; and enforced the laws of the State.


Today, there is a Board of Examiners consisting of the Superintendent of the Delaware State Police, the Chief of the New Castle County Police, the Attorney General, a representative from the Chiefs of Police Council, and a representative from the American Society of Industrial Security is responsible for reviewing applications for constables and delivering a list of approved applicants to the Governor.


To meet the qualifications of a constable, an applicant is required to be at least twenty-one years of age, meet the minimum standards established by the Delaware Council on Police Training, and may be required to receive additional training as directed by the Board of Examiners. Constables may exercise the same powers as peace officers and law enforcement officers in order to protect life and property and preserve peace and good order. Constables are commissioned law enforcement officers with powers of arrest and may be employed by private corporations, civic associations, or governmental entities.


Currently, in Delaware, constables are appointed to the Bayhealth Medical Center, Christiana Care Health System, Dover Downs Inc., Justice of the Peace Courts, and Wilmington College.


Idaho

Although the Idaho Statutes mention the election of a Constable as a Peace Officer or as Elections Security Officials, there are no persons serving as such in the State today. The 4th District Court in Boise, has a Marshal, who serves in the same capacity as a Constable in other States. Ada County is the only jurisdiction in Idaho employing a "County Marshal."


The Commonwealth of Kentucky

In Kentucky, Constables are elected from each magistrate district in the state. In theory, constables have the same countywide police authority as the county sheriff. However, since judicial reform in the 1970's that stripped county magistrates of their judicial authority and eliminated Justice of the Peace courts (which the magistrates presided over) and municipal Police Courts, the actual duties of constables has been reduced. Security and paper service for the District Courts, which replaced the above mentioned courts, is provided by the sheriff's office of their particular county in the same manner as is provided for the long standing Circuit Courts. These services were traditionally provided by the constables in Justice of the Peace Courts. State nickname: Bluegrass State Other U.S. States Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Governor Ernie Fletcher Official languages English Area 104,749 km² (37th)  - Land 102,989 km²  - Water 1,760 km² (1. ... A magistrate is a judicial officer. ...


In reality, the authority of constables in Kentucky varies from county to county. This authority is usually determined by either the County Judge/Executive and/or the county Fiscal Court (the county legislative authority). Some counties prefer or do not interfere with the constables authority to patrol their county and act with full police authority. These counties often provide uniforms and patrol vehicles and sometimes even allow the constable to appoint deputy constables. Others prefer the constable to have a limited role in the law enforcement activities, such as assisting the sheriff with paper service or acting as school resource officers. In this situation, uniforms and vehicles may or may not be provided by the county. However, when a patrol car is not provided in these situations, the county will often allow the constable to display a blue light on their personal vehicle when acting in an official capacity. In addition, there are some counties in Kentucky where the constable is not allowed to display a blue light on their vehicle and the county may not prefer the constable to take any law enforcement action.


Since Constables are Constitutional officers they are exempt from attending the mandatory DOCJT academy. Sheriffs, Coroners, and Jailers are also exempted law enforcement officers.


Maine

Constables have all of the powers and duties of police officers once they have completed training required by the state.


The Commonwealth of Massachusetts

CONSTABLES Massachusetts General Laws Chapter 41, section 91-95.


Chapter 41: Section 91B. Appointments; qualifications; application; investigation


Section 91B. Constables shall not be appointed by mayors or selectmen under section ninety-one or ninety-one A except as hereinafter provided. A person desiring to be appointed as aforesaid shall make a written application therefor to the appointing authority stating his reasons for desiring such appointment and such information as may be reasonably required by said authority relative to his fitness for said office. Such application shall also contain a statement as to the moral character of the applicant signed by at least five reputable citizens of the city or town of his residence, one of whom shall be an attorney-at-law. The appointing authority shall also investigate the reputation and character of every applicant and his fitness for said office. The chief of police or other official having charge of the police shall upon request give the appointing authority all possible assistance in making such investigation. The office of constable shall be filled only by appointment of an applicant hereunder who is found by the appointing authority, after investigation as aforesaid, to be a person of good repute and character and qualified to hold said office.


Chapter 41: Section 91. Appointment and removal in cities


Section 91. In a city in which the city council accepts this section, or has accepted corresponding provisions of earlier laws, constables shall be appointed by the mayor for terms not exceeding three years. The mayor may, with the consent of the board of aldermen, remove a constable from office for gross misconduct.


Chapter 41: Section 91A. Appointment in towns


Section 91A. The selectmen in any town may from time to time appoint, for terms not exceeding three years, as many constables as they deem necessary.


Chapter 41: Section 94. Powers and duties


Section 94. Constables may serve the writs and processes described in section ninety-two and warrants and processes in criminal cases, although their town, parish, religious society or district is a party or interested. They shall have the powers of sheriffs to require aid in the execution of their duties. They shall take due notice of and prosecute all violations of law respecting the observance of the Lord’s day, profane swearing and gaming. They shall serve all warrants and other processes directed to them by the selectmen of their town for notifying town meetings or for other purposes. They may serve by copy, attested by them, demands, notices and citations, and their returns of service thereof shall be prima facie evidence; but this provision shall not exclude the service thereof by other persons.


Chapter 41: Section 93. Remedies on bond


Section 93. The town clerk shall note upon every bond given by a constable the time of filing. Any person injured by a breach of the condition thereof may, at his own expense, sue thereon in the name of the town, and the proceedings shall be the same as in an action by a creditor on an administrator’s bond. The writ shall be endorsed by him and, if he is not a resident of the commonwealth, it shall also be endorsed by a responsible resident thereof. If judgment is for the defendant, execution shall issue for costs against the endorser as if he were a plaintiff of record.


Chapter 41: Section 95. Territorial jurisdiction


Section 95. A constable, in the execution of a warrant or writ directed to him, may convey prisoners and property in his custody under such process beyond the limits of his town, either to the justice who issued it or to the jail or house of correction of his county. If a warrant is issued against a person for an alleged crime committed within any town, any constable thereof to whom the warrant is directed may apprehend him in any place in the commonwealth.


Michigan

Upon gaining statehood, constables continued to be appointed at the county level as had been done when Michigan was a territory. The Constitution of 1850, however, required that each township elect at least one but not more than four constables. With few exceptions cities also elected constables by ward. In addition to serving the justice courts of their county, "constables have always been peace officers ... in the territory of their constituents." However their role was vastly altered upon adoption of the Constitution of 1963 when their office was deleted as was the office of justice of the peace. They were not named as officers of the new District Court. And by the end of the 1970s their election was no longer statutorily mandated. Michigan Commission on Law Enforcement Standards (MCOLES) certification became required if they were to perform general peace officer duties. As of 2005 there are no elected city constables and less than 10% of Michigan's 1242 townships continue to elect constables.


Mississippi

In Mississippi, constables are law enforcement officers elected from single-member districts in each county. Mississippi law provides for one constable per Justice Court district in the county, from a minimum of two such districts in counties with less than 35,001 people, to a maximum of five districts in counties with more than 150,000 people. See www.scottenlow.com for a good example of what a Mississippi Constable is. This article is about the U.S. state. ...


By law, constables keep and preserve the peace within the county; advise justice court judges or other officers of all riots, routs, unlawful assemblies, and violations of the penal laws; execute and return all processes directed to them by any county, chancery or circuit court (not just the Justice Courts); and attend the justices' courts of their districts.


All counties are required to provide their constables with at least two complete uniforms, some type of motor vehicle identification which clearly indicates that the motor vehicle is being used by a constable in his official capacity, and a blue flashing light for use on official duty. Other than standard fees for attending court, serving processes, etc., state law does not otherwise require counties to pay or otherwise compensate constables for their jobs.


A Constable is the only county official with the authority to arrest the Sheriff of said county by bench warrant of the Circuit or Chancery court absent authority of the State Attorney General.


Mississippi code Title 19 Chapter 19 defines the roles, powers, and duties of constables.[18]


Nevada

The constable is an elected peace officer. They are primarily process servers; the Nevada statutes define their responsibilities and fees.


New Jersey

A constable is considered a "peace officer" with very limited police authority. Their duties are mainly confined to the enforcement, and processing of civil law.


New York

Constables serve at the pleasure of the local towns and villages, usually in a civil aspect for the courts. However, constables are considered law enforcement officers under New York State law. Their powers can be limited by each jurisdiction. State nickname: Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York Governor George Pataki Official languages None Area 141,205 km² (27th)  - Land 122,409 km²  - Water 18,795 km² (13. ...


Ohio

The appointment of constables is authorized by the Ohio Revised Code, which defines several roles for them. Constables serve as police officers of some small towns and townships, or as officers of some minor courts. A "special constable" may also be appointed by a municipal court judge for a renewable one-year term upon application by any three "freeholders" (landowners) of the county, who are then responsible for paying the special constable. The term township is used to denote a lower level territorial subdivision. ...


Duly-sworn Ohio constables are considered "peace officers" under Ohio law, as are sheriffs, municipal police officers, state park rangers, Highway Patrol officers, etc., and have full law-enforcement authority within their jurisdictions (The Ohio Administrative Code defines a township constables jurisdiction as statewide). With some exceptions, constables must post bonds and undergo police training. They are required to serve court papers when so ordered, and to apprehend and bring to justice any lawbreakers or fugitives, suppress riots or unlawful assemblies, enforce state law and generally keep the peace. A highway patrol is either a police agency created primarily for the purpose of overseeing and enforcing traffic safety compliance on roads and highways, such as the California Highway Patrol, or a detail within an existing local or regional police agency that is primarily concerned with such duties, such as... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up fugitive in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Teamsters, armed with pipes, riot in a clash with riot police in the Minneapolis Teamsters Strike of 1934. ...


Pennsylvania

Constables in Pennsylvania are elected and serve a six-year term, they are Peace Officers by virtue of the office they hold, upon completing state certification and training, they may also serve as the Law Enforcement Arm of the Court. Constables primarily serve the District Courts but may also assist in serving the Common Pleas Court, when requested by the Sheriff.


As Public Officials Constables are required to file an annual Statement of Financial Interests with the Pennsylvania State Ethics Commission .


Each Constable may with approval of the President Judge, appoint Deputies to work under his authority. Each Deputy is given the same authority as the Constable himself, but serves at the pleasure of the elected Constable.


Constables are considered to be the "People's Peace Officers" because of their Constitutional origin, and as elected officials they are independent of other governing bodies, this gives the Constable the freedom and authority to perform his duties according to statute, in the interest of justice.


Under Pennsylvania Law, Constables are Public Officers, elected or appointed to their position in accordance with the laws of elections.


A Constable is a sworn Law Enforcement / Peace Officer that can arrest for felony crimes and breaches of the peace committed in his presence, or by warrant anywhere in the commonwealth.


A Constable is also an officer empowered to carry out the business of the statewide district court system, by serving warrants of arrest, mental health warrants, transporting prisoners, service of summons, complaints and subpoenas, and enforcing protection from abuse orders as well as orders of eviction and judgement levies.


Constables are also charged with maintaining order at the election polls and ensuring that no qualified elector is obstructed from voting, Constables are the only Law Enforcement Officials permitted at the polls on election day.


While Constables primarily serve the Courts, they belong to the executive branch of government.


Constables are elected at the municipal level, however State law governs Constables and they have statewide authority, thus the title became "State Constable".


Constables are empowered to enforce both criminal and civil laws, Police Officers are empowered to enforce criminal and traffic laws, Sheriff's are the chief law enforcement officer of the County and are empowered to enforce criminal, civil and traffic laws.


Link to source: http://www.pastateconstable.org/history.html


Link to laws governing Constables in PA: http://pafoc.org/index_files/Authority.htm


South Carolina

Constables are appointed by the Governor of South Carolina and are generally used to assist the police in any particular jurisdiction. They only have arrest authorities while they are escorted by police in that jurisdiction. They can act with full police powers in instances of emergencies when police are not immediately available and when a threat of life is present. Any handguns they carry must be concealed unless they are in a state approved uniform.


Tennessee

Constable is an elected position with full power of arrest and is a state peace officer. The Tennessee State Constitution was amended in 1978 so as not to require counties to have this office; prior to this point, it was mandatory to elect constables in each county. Subsequent statutory law has allowed its continuance in certain counties, with the stipulation that there be no more than half as many constables in a county as there are county commissioners in that county, except in counties where the general law provides for an exception by county population brackets. Constables are elected to four year terms in August of the years coincident with presidential elections; unexpired terms are filled by special election, but such special election must be held coincidentally with another, scheduled election. In some counties, constable is a partisan office; in others all candidates run as independents. The Tennessee State Constitution defines the form, structure, activities, character, and fundamental rules (and means for changing them) of the U.S. State of Tennessee. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... A by-election or bye-election is a special election held to fill a political office when the incumbent has died or resigned. ... Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ...


Texas

See article: Texas Constable The Texas Constable is enshrined in the Texas Constitution 0f 1956(Article 5, Section 18), which provides for the election of a constable in each precinct of a county, and counties may have between one and eight precincts each depending on their population. ...


The Texas Constitution 0f 1956(Article 5, Section 18) provides for the election of a constable in each precinct of a county, and counties may have between one and eight precincts each depending on their population. Currently, the term of office for Texas constables is four years. However, when vacancies arrise, the commissioners court of the respective county has the authority to appoint a replacement to serve out the remaining term. The Texas Constitution is the document that describes the structure and function of the government of Texas. ...


In Texas, constables and their deputies are fully empowered peace officers with county-wide jurisdiction and thus, may legally exercise their authority in any precinct within their county [19]; however, some constables’ offices limit themselves to providing law enforcement services only to their respective precinct, except in the case of serving civil and criminal process. Constables and their deputies may serve civil process in any precinct in their county and any contiguous county and can serve warrants anywhere in the state.


The duties of a Texas constable generally include providing bailiffs for the justice of the peace court(s) within his precinct and serving process issued therefrom and from any other court. Moreover, some constables’ offices limit themselves to only these activities but others provide patrol, investigative, and security services as well. Bailiff (from Late Latin bajulivus, adjectival form of bajulus) is a governor or custodian (cf. ... A justice of the peace (JP) is a puisne judicial officer appointed by means of a commission to keep the peace. ...


In 2000, there were 2,630 full-time deputies and 418 reserve deputies working for the 760 constables’ offices in Texas. Of this number, 35% were primarily assigned to patrol, 33% to serving process, 12% to court security, and 7% to criminal investigations. The Harris County Precinct 4 and 5 Constables’ Offices are the largest constables’ offices in Texas with over 300 deputies each.[20]


Utah

Utah Constables are appointed by the political governing body which they serve - County, City, etc. They are fully empowered PEACE OFFICERS but are not tasked with "General Law Enforcement Duties." They serve process, provide court security (Bailiff duties), transport prisoners, seize property, enforce writs of all types and effect service of arrest warrants and may make probable cause arrests.


Vermont

Constables are generally elected by the town. They are charged with service of process; the destruction of unlicensed or dangerous dogs or wolf-hybrids, and of injured deer; removal of disorderly people from town meeting; collection of taxes, when no tax collector is elected; and other duties. Constables have full law enforcement authority unless the town votes to either remove the authority or require training before such authority is exercised. Cities and villages may also have constables. Their duties and method of selection are governed by the corporation's charter. A town meeting is a meeting where an entire geographic area is invited to participate in a gathering, often for a political or administrative purpose. ... “Corporate” redirects here. ...


West Virginia

David F. Green of Davy, West Virginia was the last person to hold the elected office of Constable in West Virginia.


References

  1. ^ Constable, Encyclopedia Britannica online
  2. ^ p103, Bruce, Alistair, Keepers of the Kingdom (Cassell, 2002), ISBN 0-304-36201-8
  3. ^ a b c p172, Slater, Stephen, The Complete Book of Heraldry (Lorenz, 2002), ISBN 0-7548-1062-3
  4. ^ p72, Bruce, Alistair, Keepers of the Kingdom (Cassell, 2002), ISBN 0-304-36201-8
  5. ^ a b p276-7, Markham, Sir Frank, History of Milton Keynes and District, vol.1 (1973), ISBN 0 900804 29 7
  6. ^ p591, Inwood, Stephen, A History of London (Macmillan, 1998), ISBN 0-333-67154-6
  7. ^ Wiltshire Constabulary History, Wiltshire Police website
  8. ^ The Making of a Chief Constable, Essex Police website
  9. ^ A Brief Guide to Police History, North Carolina Wesleyan College
  10. ^ Section 36-23-5, Alabama State Code
  11. ^ Section 15-5-30, Alabama State Code
  12. ^ Section 15-10-1, Alabama State Code
  13. ^ About the Constables, Mobile County Constables Association
  14. ^ HB409, May 2005 Act of the Alabama State Legislature
  15. ^ [http://www.mobileconstables.com/ Mobile County Constables Association
  16. ^ 22-131, Arizona Revised Statutes
  17. ^ 22-132, Arizona Revised Statutes
  18. ^ Mississippi Code
  19. ^ [1]PDF[2]PDF
  20. ^ [3]PDF (276 KiB).

The Portable Document Format (PDF) is the file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 for document exchange. ... The Portable Document Format (PDF) is the file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 for document exchange. ... The Portable Document Format (PDF) is the file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 for document exchange. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
constable.htm (0 words)
Constable was entranced with the bountiful rural landscape of the Stour valley.
Constable’s artistic ambitions came to fruition in the six monumental landscapes of rural scenes in the Stour Valley, which he exhibited at the Royal Academy between 1819 and 1825.
One of the reasons Constable painted his exhibition landscapes on such a grand scale was to attract the attention of potential patrons at the crowded annual Royal Academy exhibitions, which were a crucial place for establishing an artist’s reputation.
Constable - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3432 words)
In some states, a constable may be appointed by the judge of the court which he or she serves; in others the constable is an elected or appointed position at the village, precinct or township level of local government.
Constables as such had full police powers and carried out occasional to frequent patrol work in addition to their paper serving duties, and were typically attached to the old municipal or justice courts, and were either elected by popular vote or appointed by the area's presiding judge.
Constables may serve the writs and processes described in section ninety-two and warrants and processes in criminal cases, although their town, parish, religious society or district is a party or interested.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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