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Encyclopedia > Conservative Party (UK)
Conservative Party
Conservative Party logo
Leader David Cameron
Founded Historical 1678, Modern 1830
Headquarters 30 Millbank, London SW1
Political Ideology Conservatism, Liberal Conservatism
Political Position Centre-Right
International Affiliation International Democrat Union
European Affiliation Movement for European Reform, European Democrat Union
European Parliament Group ED, within EPP-ED
Colours Blue, Green
Website www.conservatives.com
See also Politics of the UK

Political parties
Elections Image File history File links Conservative_logo_2006. ... For the Canadian ice hockey player, see Dave Cameron. ... The term Tory derives from the Tory Party, the ancestor of the modern UK Conservative Party. ... Events August 10 - Treaty of Nijmegen ends the Dutch War. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Conservative Campaign Headquarters (CCHQ), formerly known as Conservative Central Office (CCO), is the headquarters of the British Conservative Party, housing its central staff and committee members. ... London SW1 is the London postal district covering the area of central London on the north bank of the River Thames, roughly between Hungerford Bridge and Chelsea Bridge. ... Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favor tradition and gradual change, where tradition refers to religious, cultural, or nationally defined beliefs and customs. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The centre-right is a political term commonly used to describe or denote political parties or organizations (such as think tanks) that stretch from the centre to the right on the left-right spectrum, excluding far right stances. ... The International Democrat Union (IDU) is an international grouping of conservative, nationalist, classical liberal, anti-Communist and some Christian democratic political parties. ... The Movement for European Reform is a pan-European alliance of national political parties founded on 13 July 2006, intended to group forces of the center-right in favour of free market policies and critical of further European integration. ... The European Democrat Union is the European wing of the International Democrat Union. ... For other uses, see European Democrats (disambiguation). ... The European Peoples Party (Christian Democrats) and European Democrats is a group in the European Parliament. ... This article is about the colour. ... For other uses, see Green (disambiguation). ... The Politics of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland takes place in the framework of a constitutional monarchy in which the Monarch is head of state and the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government. ... This is a list of political parties in the United Kingdom. ... The United Kingdom has five distinct types of elections: general, local, regional, European and mayoral. ...

The Conservative Party, officially though less commonly known as the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a political party in the United Kingdom. Founded in its present form during the early 19th century, it has historically been the principal party of the right, though in the modern day the party and its voters are more associated with the centre-right.[1] A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ... Right wing redirects here. ... The centre-right is a political term commonly used to describe or denote political parties or organizations (such as think tanks) that stretch from the centre to the right on the left-right spectrum, excluding far right stances. ...


The Conservative Party is descended from the historic Tory Party which was founded in 1678. Due to this lineage the party it still often referred to as the Tory Party. As well as the more correct description of Conservatives, its members are also called Tories. Although the Conservative Party was in government for two-thirds of the twentieth century, it has been in opposition in Parliament since losing the 1997 election to the Labour Party. The term Tory derives from the Tory Party, the ancestor of the modern UK Conservative Party. ... The UK general election, 1997 was held on 1 May 1997. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ...


Currently the Conservatives are the largest opposition party in the United Kingdom and form Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition in the Parliament of the United Kingdom. The Conservative Party is the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament, the largest in terms of public membership, the largest in terms of sitting councillors in local government, and the oldest political party in the United Kingdom. It is the most successful political party in British history in terms of election victories. The current party leader is David Cameron, who acts as the Leader of the Opposition and heads the Shadow Cabinet. Her Majestys Loyal Opposition, or the Official Opposition in the United Kingdom is the largest opposition party in the House of Commons. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Speaker of the House of Lords Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist... A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... For the Canadian ice hockey player, see Dave Cameron. ... The Leader of the Opposition in the United Kingdom is the politician who leads Her Majestys Most Loyal Opposition. ... The Official Loyal Opposition Shadow Cabinet (normally referred to simply as The Shadow Cabinet) is, in British parliamentary practice, a group of members from Her Majestys Loyal Opposition whose job it is to scrutinise their opposite numbers in government and come up with alternative policies. ...

Contents

Name

The Party's official name is The Conservative and Unionist Party, although this is rarely used. The name has its origins in the 1912 merger with the Liberal Unionist Party and is an echo of the party's 1886-1921 policy of maintaining the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, in opposition to Irish nationalist and republican aspirations. Scotland's allied Unionist Party was independent of the Conservatives until 1965. Similarly the Ulster Unionist Party supported the Conservatives for many decades in the House of Commons and traditionally took the Conservative whip. In contrast to Scotland this arrangement broke down in the aftermath of the Ulster Unionists' opposition to the 1973 Sunningdale Agreement. The Conservative Party is now formally organised in Northern Ireland separately from the Ulster Unionist Party. For the Canadian party see Liberal-Unionist The Liberal Unionists were a British political party that split away from the Liberals in 1886, and had effectively merged with the Conservatives by the turn of the century. ... This article is about the historical state called the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801–1927). ... Irish nationalism refers to political movements that desire greater autonomy or the independence of Ireland from Great Britain. ... Irish republicanism is an ideology based on the Irish nationalist belief that all of Ireland should be a single independent republic, whether as a unitary state, a federal state or as a confederal arrangement. ... This article is about the country. ... The Unionist Party, referred to as the Scottish Unionist Party outwith Scotland itself, was the main Tory political party in Scotland between 1912 and 1965. ... The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP, sometimes referred to as the Official Unionist Party or OUP or, in a historic sense, simply the Unionist Party) is a moderate unionist political party in Northern Ireland. ... Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... In politics, a whip is a member of a political party in a legislature whose task is to ensure that members of the party attend and vote as the party leadership desires. ... The Sunningdale Agreement on December 9, 1973, was an attempt to end the Northern Ireland troubles by forcing unionists to share power with nationalists. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ...


Organisation and membership

The internal organisation of the Conservative Party is a contrast between the grassroots groups who dominate in the election of party leaders and selection of local candidates, and the members of the Conservative Campaign Headquarters who lead in financing, the organising of elections, and drafting of policy. The leader of the Parliamentary party provides the core of daily political activity and forms policy in consultation with his cabinet and administration. This decentralised structure is unusual.[2] A grassroots movement (often referenced in the context of a political movement) is one driven by the constituents of a community. ... In Canadian politics a riding association or constituency association is the basic unit of a political party, that is it is the partys organization at the level of the electoral constituency or riding. ...

A graph showing the percentage of the popular vote received by major parties in general elections, 1832-2005. The Conservatives have remained a dominant force in British politics since their founding as the Tories.

As with the Labour Party, membership has long been declining and despite an initial boost shortly after Cameron's election as leader, membership resumed its fall in 2006 and is now actually lower than when David Cameron was elected in December 2005. However, the Conservative Party still has more members (about 290,000) than the Labour Party and the Liberal Democrats combined (around 200,000 and 70,000 respectively).[3] However, the party does not publicly provide verifiable membership figures, making this difficult to confirm. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 502 pixelsFull resolution (3043 × 1909 pixel, file size: 435 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) made by myself I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 502 pixelsFull resolution (3043 × 1909 pixel, file size: 435 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) made by myself I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ...


The membership fee for the Conservative party is £25, or £5 if the member is under the age of 23.


According to accounts filed with the Electoral Commission it had income in the year ending 31 December 2004 of about £20 million and expenditure of about £26 million.[4] The Electoral Commission is a non-ministerial government department with powers in the United Kingdom, which was created by an Act of Parliament, the Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act 2000 (2000 c. ...


The electoral symbol of the Conservative party is a stylised oak tree, replacing the freedom torch. The present motto, adopted by the Party on 6 October 2007, is "It's Time For Change". Before David Cameron, the official party colours were red, white and blue, though blue is most generally associated with the party, in contrast to the red of the Labour Party. The position has become more ambiguous since the logo change in 2006, and the party website is now blue and green. (In the Cumbrian constituencies of Penrith and the Border and Westmorland and Lonsdale the party adopts yellow as its colour after the coat of arms of the Earls of Lonsdale). Cumbria (IPA: ), is a shire county in the extreme North West of England. ... Penrith and The Border is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Creation 1983 MP Tim Farron Party Liberal Democrat Type House of Commons County Cumbria EP constituency North West England Westmorland and Lonsdale is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... The title of Earl of Lonsdale has been created twice - first in the Peerage of Great Britain in 1784 (becoming extinct in 1802), and then in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in 1807, both times for members of the Lowther family. ...


History

Sir Robert Peel (1788-1850)
Sir Robert Peel (1788-1850)

The Conservative Party traces its origins to a faction, rooted in the 18th century Whig Party, that coalesced around William Pitt the Younger (Prime Minister of Great Britain 1783-1801 and 1804-1806). Originally known as "Independent Whigs", "Friends of Mr. Pitt", or "Pittites", after Pitt's death the term "Tory" came into use. This was an allusion to the then-extinct Tory Party, a political grouping that had existed from 1678 to 1760, but which had no organisational continuity with the Pittite party. From about 1812 on the name "Tory" was commonly used for the newer party. The modern Conservative Party of the United Kingdom traces its origins back to the Tory supporters of Duke of York, later King James VII&II, during the 1678-1681 exclusion. ... Leaders of the UK Conservative Party since 1834. ... Download high resolution version (500x623, 95 KB)From [1], in the public domain This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (500x623, 95 KB)From [1], in the public domain This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... For other people named Robert Peel, see Robert Peel (disambiguation). ... The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to the mid 19th centuries. ... William Pitt the Younger (28 May 1759 – 23 January 1806) was a British politician of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. ... The term Tory derives from the Tory Party, the ancestor of the modern UK Conservative Party. ...


Not all members of the party were content with the "Tory" name. George Canning first used the term 'Conservative' in the 1820s and it was suggested as a title for the party by John Wilson Croker in the 1830s. It was later officially adopted under the aegis of Sir Robert Peel around 1834. Peel is acknowledged as the founder of the Conservative party which he created with the announcement of the Tamworth Manifesto. George Canning (11 April 1770 – 8 August 1827) was a British statesman and politician who served as Foreign Secretary and, briefly, Prime Minister. ... John Wilson Croker (December 20, 1780 - August 10, 1857) was a British statesman and author. ... For other people named Robert Peel, see Robert Peel (disambiguation). ... The Tamworth Manifesto was a political manifesto issued by Sir Robert Peel in 1835 in Tamworth, which is widely credited by historians as having laid down the principles upon which the modern British Conservative Party is based. ...

Benjamin Disraeli
Prime Minister 1868, 1874-80

The widening of the franchise in the nineteenth century forced the Conservative Party to popularise its approach under Lord Derby and Benjamin Disraeli, who carried through their own expansion of the franchise with the Reform Act of 1867. In 1886 the party formed an alliance with Lord Hartington (later the 8th Duke of Devonshire) and Joseph Chamberlain's new Liberal Unionists, and under the statesmen Lord Salisbury and Arthur Balfour the party held power for all but three of the following twenty years. However, the party suffered a landslide election defeat in 1906 when it split over the issue of free trade. Download high resolution version (500x605, 87 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (500x605, 87 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield (December 21, 1804 - April 24, British Conservative Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and author. ... Arms of Edward Smith-Stanley Statue in Parliament Square, London Edward George Geoffrey Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, KG, PC (29 March 1799–23 October 1869) was a British statesman, three times Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and is to date the longest serving leader of the Conservative... Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, KG, PC, FRS (December 21, 1804 – April 19, 1881), born Benjamin DIsraeli was a British Conservative statesman and literary figure. ... Contemporary cartoon of Disraeli outpacing Gladstone. ... Spencer Compton Cavendish, 8th Duke of Devonshire (29 June 1833 - 19 October 1908) was a British politician, previously known (1858-1891) as Marquess of Hartington. ... The Dukes of Devonshire are members of the aristocratic Cavendish family in the United Kingdom. ... The Rt. ... This article is about the historic Liberal Party. ... Sir Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, KG, GCVO, PC (3 February 1830 – 22 August 1903), known as Lord Robert Cecil before 1865 and as Viscount Cranborne from 1865 until 1868, was a British statesman and thrice Prime Minister, serving for a total of over 13 years. ... For the steel manufacturer, see Arthur Balfour, 1st Baron Riverdale. ... The UK general election of 1906 was from 12th January – 8th February 1906. ... Protectionism is the economic policy of promoting favored domestic industries through the use of high tariffs and other regulations to discourage imports. ...


The Conservatives served with the Liberals in the all-party coalition government during World War I, and the coalition continued under Liberal PM David Lloyd George (with half of the Liberals) until 1922. Eventually, Bonar Law and Stanley Baldwin led the breakup of the Coalition and the Conservatives came again to dominate the political scene in the inter-war period, albeit from 1931 in another coalition, the National Government. It was this wartime coalition government under the leadership of Winston Churchill that saw the United Kingdom through World War II. However, the party lost the 1945 general election in a landslide to the resurgent Labour Party. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman who was Prime Minister throughout the latter half of World War I and the first four years of the subsequent peace. ... Andrew Bonar Law (September 16, 1858 _ October 30, 1923) was a Conservative British statesman and Prime Minister. ... Stanley Baldwin, 1st Earl Baldwin of Bewdley, KG, PC (3 August 1867 – 14 December 1947) was a British statesman and thrice Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... In the United Kingdom the term National Government is in an abstract sense used to refer to a coalition of some or all UK major political parties. ... Churchill redirects here. ... Clement Attlee Winston Churchill The United Kingdom General Election of 1945 held on 5 July 1945 but not counted and declared until 26 July 1945 (due to the time it took to transport the votes of those serving overseas) was one of the most significant general elections of the 20th... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ...


Upon their election victory in the 1951 general election, the Conservatives accepted the reality of Labour's 'welfare state' and its industry nationalisation programme, though Churchill, Anthony Eden, Harold Macmillan and Sir Alec Douglas-Home continued to promote relatively liberal trade regulations and less State involvement throughout the 1950s and early 1960s. The 1951 election was held soon after the UK general election, 1950, which Labour won, but with an unworkable majority. ... For the eponymous hat, see Anthony Eden hat. ... Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, OM, PC (10 February 1894 – 29 December 1986), was a British Conservative politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963. ... Alexander Frederick Douglas-Home, Baron Home of the Hirsel,[1] KT, PC (2 July 1903 - 9 October 1995) 14th Earl of Home from 1951 to 1963, was a British Conservative (actually SUP) politician, and served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom for a year from October 1963 to October...


Edward Heath's 1970-1974 government was notable for its failure to battle the increasingly militant trade unions, although it was successful in taking Britain into the European Economic Community. Macmillan's earlier bid to join the EC in early 1963 had been blocked by French President Charles de Gaulle. As an example of the Conservatives' divided stance on the issue, Churchill at one point argued strongly for a 'United States of Europe',[5] although he was against British membership of any federal European state and specifically the EEC.[6] Since accession, British membership in the EU has been a source of significant and heated debate over the decades within the Conservative party. Sir Edward Richard George Heath, KG, OBE (9 July 1916 – 17 July 2005) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1970 to 1974 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1965 to 1975. ... The Lawrence textile strike (1912), with soldiers surrounding peaceful demonstrators A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages, hours, and working conditions, forming a cartel of labour. ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... This article is about the person. ...


Margaret Thatcher

Margaret Thatcher in 1983
Margaret Thatcher in 1983

Margaret Thatcher won her party's leadership election in 1975. Following victory in the 1979 general election, the Conservatives briefly pursued a monetarist economic programme. More generally, the party adopted a free-market approach to government services and focused on the privatisation of industries and utilities nationalised under Labour in the 1940s and 1960s. Thatcher after her initial election led the Conservatives to two landslide election victories in 1983 and 1987. However, she was also deeply unpopular in certain sections of society, in part due to the high unemployment following her economic reforms and also for what was seen as a heavy-handed response to issues such as the miners' strike. Yet it was Thatcher's introduction of the Community Charge (known by its opponents as the poll tax) which most contributed to her political downfall. Her increasing unpopularity and unwillingness to compromise on policies perceived as vote losers saw internal party tensions lead to a leadership challenge by the Conservative MP Michael Heseltine, after which she was forced to stand down from the premiership in 1990. Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and only woman to hold either post. ... The Conservative Party Leadership Election was held during early February, 1975. ... The United Kingdom general election of 1979 was held on 3 May 1979 and is regarded as a pivotal point in 20th century British politics. ... Monetarism is a set of views concerning the determination of national income and monetary economics. ... The UK general election, 1983 was held on June 9, 1983 and gave the Conservatives and Margaret Thatcher the most decisive election victory since that of Labour in 1945. ... Margaret Thatcher David Steel Election 1987 Titles The United Kingdom general election of 1987 was held on 11 June 1987 and was the third consecutive victory for the Conservative Party under the leadership of Margaret Thatcher. ... The miners strike of 1984–1985 was a major industrial action affecting the British coal industry. ... A poll tax, head tax, or capitation is a tax of a uniform, fixed amount per individual (as opposed to a percentage of income). ... Michael Ray Dibdin Heseltine, Baron Heseltine, CH, PC (born 21 March 1933) is a British businessman and Conservative Party politician. ...


Conservatives after Thatcher

John Major won the ensuing party leadership contest in 1990, and also won an unexpected general election victory in his own right in 1992. Major's government experienced only a brief honeymoon as the pound sterling was forced out of the European Exchange Rate Mechanism on 16 September 1992, a day thereafter referred to as "Black Wednesday". Soon after, approximately one million householders faced repossession of their homes during a recession that saw a sharp rise in unemployment. The party subsequently lost much of its reputation for good financial stewardship despite the ensuing economic recovery, and was also increasingly accused in the media of sleaze. An effective opposition campaign by the Labour Party culminated in a landslide defeat for the Conservatives in 1997. It was Labour's largest ever parliamentary victory. One significant feature of the result of the 1997 election was that it left the Conservative Party with MPs in just England, with all remaining seats in Scotland and Wales being lost. For other persons named John Major, see John Major (disambiguation). ... The United Kingdom general election of 1992 was held on 9 April 1992, and was the fourth consecutive victory for the Conservative Party. ... GBP redirects here. ...  Eurozone countries  ERM II countries  other EU countries  unilaterally adopted euro The European Exchange Rate Mechanism, ERM, was a system introduced by the European Community in March 1979, as part of the European Monetary System (EMS), to reduce exchange rate variability and achieve monetary stability in Europe, in preparation for... In British politics and economics, Black Wednesday refers to 16 September 1992 when the Conservative government was forced to withdraw the Pound from the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) due to pressure by currency speculators—most notably George Soros who made over US$1 billion from this speculation. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Politics of the United Kingdom. ... The UK general election, 1997 was held on 1 May 1997. ... The UK general election, 1997 was held on 1 May 1997. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the country. ...


William Hague assumed the leadership after the party's electoral collapse in 1997. Though a strong debater in the House of Commons, a Gallup poll for the Daily Telegraph found that two-thirds of voters regarded him as laughable,[7] mocked as he was for headlines such as his claim that he drank 14 pints of beer in a single day in his youth. He was also criticised for attending the Notting Hill Carnival and for wearing a baseball cap in public, in what were seen as poor attempts to appeal to younger voters.[8] Shortly before the 2001 election, Hague was much maligned by some Labour and Tory supporters for a speech in which he predicted that a re-elected Labour government would turn Britain into a "foreign land".[9] The BBC also reported that Conservative peer Lord Taylor criticised Hague for not removing the whip from Conservative MP John Townend, after the latter made a speech in which he termed the British "a mongrel race", although Hague did reject Townsend's views.[10] The 2001 election resulted in a net gain of just one seat for the Conservative Party and William Hague resigned soon after, having privately set himself a target of 209 seats – Labour's performance in 1983 – a target which he missed by 43. William Jefferson Hague (born 26 March 1961) is a British politician, the Member of Parliament for Richmond, North Yorkshire, former leader of the Conservative Party, and current Conservative Shadow Foreign Secretary. ... This article deals with The Daily Telegraph in Britain, see The Daily Telegraph (Australia) for the Australian publication The Daily Telegraph is a British broadsheet newspaper founded in 1855. ... Participant in Notting Hill Carnival parade Notting Hill Carnival is an annual event which takes place in Notting Hill, London, England each August, over two days (Sunday and the following bank holiday). ... A baseball cap worn with the bill at the front, shading the eyes A baseball cap is a type of soft cap with a long, stiffened and curved peak and it is worn by men, women and children. ... John David Beckett Taylor, Baron Taylor of Warwick (born 1952) is a British politician and Conservative member of the House of Lords. ... John Townend is a United Kingdom politician. ... Tony Blair William Hague Charles Kennedy The UK general election, 2001 was held on 7 June 2001 and was dubbed the quiet landslide by the media. ... The UK general election, 1983 was held on June 9, 1983 and gave the Conservatives and Margaret Thatcher the most decisive election victory since that of Labour in 1945. ...


Iain Duncan Smith (2001-2003) (often known as IDS) was a strong Eurosceptic. But Euroscepticism did not define Duncan Smith's leadership—indeed it was during his tenure that Europe ceased to be an issue of division in the party as it united behind calls for a referendum on the proposed European Union Constitution. However, before ever facing the public at a general election, Duncan Smith lost a vote of no confidence to MPs who felt he was unelectable. Michael Howard then stood for the leadership unopposed on 6 November 2003. Rt. ... Euroscepticism has become a general term for opposition to the process of European integration. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe The constitutional treaty as signed in Rome on 29 October 2004 by representatives of the EU member states The Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe (TCE), commonly referred to as the European Constitution, was an unimplemented... A motion of no confidence, also called a motion of non-confidence, a censure motion, a no-confidence motion, or simply a confidence motion, is a parliamentary motion traditionally put before a parliament by the opposition in the hope of defeating or embarrassing a government. ... The Rt Hon. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Conservative Party performed poorly in the 2001 UK General Election. ...

David Cameron, leader of the Conservative Party.
David Cameron, leader of the Conservative Party.

Under Howard in the 2005 general election, the Conservative Party increased their total vote share by around 0.6% (up to 32.3%) and – more significantly – their number of parliamentary seats by 33 (up to 198 seats). This gain accompanied a large fall in the Labour vote, and the election reduced Labour's majority from 167 to 66. The Conservative party actually won the largest share of the vote in England, though not the largest number of seats. The campaign - based around the slogan,"Are you thinking what we're thinking?" - was designed by Australian pollster Lynton Crosby. The day after the election, on May 6, Howard announced that he did not feel it was right to continue as leader after defeat in the general election, also saying that he would be too old to lead the party into another campaign and would therefore step down, while first allowing time for the party to amend its leadership election rules. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... For the Canadian ice hockey player, see Dave Cameron. ... The United Kingdom general election of 2005 was held on Thursday, 5 May 2005. ... Lynton Crosby is an Australian campaign strategist who has been given much credit for Australian Prime Minister John Howards four election victories. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further information: Conservative Party (UK) leadership election, 2005

David Cameron, the eventual winner of the contest. ...

David Cameron

David Cameron won the subsequent leadership campaign. Cameron beat his closest rival, David Davis, by a margin of more than two to one, taking 134,446 votes to 64,398. He then announced his intention to reform and realign the Conservatives, saying they needed to change the way they looked, felt, thought and behaved.[11] For most of 2006 and the first half of 2007, polls showed leads over Labour for the Conservatives.[12] Polls became more volatile in the summer of 2007 with the accession of Gordon Brown as Prime Minister although a strong Conservative lead has once again become apparent since October 2007, with a lead of sixteen points in one poll occurring in March 2008, the highest since 1984. The Conservatives gained control of the London mayoralty for the first time in May 2008 after Boris Johnson defeated Labour incumbent Ken Livingstone.[13] For the Canadian ice hockey player, see Dave Cameron. ... David Michael Davis (born December 23, 1948) is a British politician, Conservative Member of Parliament (MP) for Haltemprice and Howden and Shadow Home Secretary. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the elected mayor of Greater London. ... Alexander Boris de Pfeffel Johnson (commonly known as Boris Johnson, born 19 June 1964, New York City)[1] is a British Conservative Party politician, journalist and former editor of The Spectator. ... Kenneth Robert Livingstone (born 17 June 1945) is the outgoing Mayor of London, a post he has held from its creation in 2000 until 2008. ...


The Conservative Party today

The Conservative Party, as the largest in the UK Parliament after the Labour Party, provides Her Majesty's Official Opposition to the Labour Government of Gordon Brown. Labour currently holds a majority of 66 in a House of Commons of 646 Members of Parliament. The Conservatives now number 194 MPs. The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... Her Majestys Loyal Opposition, or the Official Opposition in the United Kingdom is the largest opposition party in the House of Commons. ... Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ...


Current policies

As with all political parties, the Conservatives' policies are characterised by the tensions between opposing factions within the party. A basic expression of these tensions can be found in the opposing values of individual liberty and cultural conformity, both of which inform Conservative policy-making: the former expressed through their economic liberalism and in post-2005 attitudes towards gay couples; the latter through, for example, tax incentives for co-habiting couples to marry and policies towards immigrant communities.


On Europe many commentators believe that their failures in UK politics from 1997 were partly as a result of continued internal tension between Europhiles (such as Kenneth Clarke and Michael Heseltine) and Eurosceptics (such as John Redwood and William Hague). However, the Conservative party has in recent years largely come to terms with these issues, or has at least ceased to argue quite as publicly over what remains a contentious internal issue. This article is about Kenneth Clarke, the English politician. ... Michael Ray Dibdin Heseltine, Baron Heseltine, CH, PC (born 21 March 1933) is a British businessman and Conservative Party politician. ... John Alan Redwood (born 15 June 1951 in Dover, Kent) is a British Conservative Party politician and Member of Parliament for Wokingham. ... William Jefferson Hague (born 26 March 1961) is a British politician, the Member of Parliament for Richmond, North Yorkshire, former leader of the Conservative Party, and current Conservative Shadow Foreign Secretary. ...


Since the election of David Cameron as leader, party policy has increasingly focused on such "quality of life" issues as the environment, the improvement of government services (most prominently the National Health Service and the Home Office), and schools. For the Canadian ice hockey player, see Dave Cameron. ... The modern concept of Small Office and Home Office or SoHo , or Small or Home Office deals with the category of business which can be from 1 to 10 workers. ...


Conservatives hold a varying record of opposition and support on parliamentary devolution to the nations and English regions of the UK. They opposed devolution to Wales and Scotland in the 1997 referendums, whilst supporting it for Northern Ireland. They also opposed the government's unsuccessful attempt at devolution of power to North East England in 2004. However, with a Scottish parliament and Welsh assembly now in existence, the Conservatives have pledged not to reverse these reforms. Recently the Conservatives have begun to take a stance on the difficult West Lothian Question, supporting - as a proposal but not yet as a policy - the idea that only English MPs should vote on policies that affect only England. (See the article on the 'West Lothian Question' for fuller explanation of the issues involved). Look up Devolution in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the country. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... The three northern regions. ... North-East England is one of the nine official regions of England and comprises the combined area of Northumberland, County Durham, Tyne and Wear and a small part of North Yorkshire. ... The West Lothian question was a question posed on 14 November 1977 by Tam Dalyell, Labour Member of Parliament (MP) for the Scottish constituency of West Lothian, during a British House of Commons debate over Scottish and Welsh devolution (see Scotland Act 1978 and Wales Act 1978): For how long...


Economic policy

Though Margaret Thatcher's reforms of the 1980s are often credited with breaking Britain's cycle of long-term decline[citation needed] even while substantially increasing unemployment, the party's reputation for economic stewardship was dealt a blow by Black Wednesday in 1992, in which billions of pounds were spent in an effort to keep the pound within the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) system at an overvalued rate. Combined with the recession of the early 1990s 'Black Wednesday' allowed Tony Blair and then-Chancellor of the Exchequer Gordon Brown to claim from the Conservatives the mantle of economic competence. Many on both the left and right have since argued that New Labour's embrace of market forces and public sector modernisation amounted to little more than stealing the Conservative Party's economic clothes.[14][15] In British politics and economics, Black Wednesday refers to 16 September 1992 when the Conservative government was forced to withdraw the Pound from the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) due to pressure by currency speculators—most notably George Soros who made over US$1 billion from this speculation. ...  Eurozone countries  ERM II countries  other EU countries  unilaterally adopted euro The European Exchange Rate Mechanism, ERM, was a system introduced by the European Community in March 1979, as part of the European Monetary System (EMS), to reduce exchange rate variability and achieve monetary stability in Europe, in preparation for... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British Cabinet minister responsible for all economic and financial matters. ... For others with the same or similar names, see Gordon Brown (disambiguation). ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition... In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply the right, are terms which refer, with no particular precision, to the segment of the political spectrum in opposition to left-wing politics. ... New Labour is an alternative name of the British political Labour Party. ...


Following Labour's victory in the 1997 general election, the Conservative Party opposed Labour's decision to grant the Bank of England independent control of interest rates. Economists had long advocated independent central banks as a means of depoliticising monetary policy and overcoming the problem of time inconsistency (a situation in game theory which shows how a policymaker who cares about both low unemployment and low inflation will achieve neither). Moreover, in the 1990s a number of countries (e.g. New Zealand) pursued such reforms. However, the Conservatives initially opposed independence for the Bank of England on the grounds that it would be a prelude to the abolition of the pound sterling and acceptance of the European single currency, and also expressed concern over the removal of monetary policy from democratic control. However, Bank independence was popular amongst the financial community as it helped to keep inflation low.[16] The Conservatives accepted Labour's policy in early 2000.[17] Headquarters Coordinates , , Governor Mervyn King Central Bank of United Kingdom Currency Pound sterling ISO 4217 Code GBP Base borrowing rate 5. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        Monetary policy is the process by which the government, central bank... In game theory and economics, dynamic inconsistency, or time inconsistency is situation in a dynamic game, where a players best plan for some future period will not be optimal when that future period arrives; The plan is inconsistent over time. ... Game theory is a branch of applied mathematics that is often used in the context of economics. ... GBP redirects here. ...


The Conservative Party under David Cameron has redirected its stance on taxation, still committed to the general principle of reducing direct taxation whilst arguing that the country needs a "dynamic and competitive economy", with the proceeds of any growth shared between both "tax reduction and extra public investment".


Perhaps the most notable Conservative economic policy of recent years has been opposition to the European single currency. Anticipating the growing Euroscepticism within his party, John Major negotiated a British opt-out from the single currency in the 1992 Maastricht Treaty, although several members of Major's cabinet (Kenneth Clarke, Michael Heseltine and Stephen Dorrell) were personally supportive of EMU participation. Following Major's resignation after the 1997 defeat, each of the four successive Conservative leaders (William Hague, Iain Duncan Smith, Michael Howard and David Cameron) have positioned the party firmly against the abolition of the pound. This policy is broadly popular with the British electorate, although voters typically rank Europe as an issue of low importance compared to education, healthcare, immigration and crime. In a study by the European Parliament in 2004, only 9% of voters questioned agreed that the EU was an important issue for the country.[18] For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... Euroscepticism has become a general term for opposition to the process of European integration. ... For other persons named John Major, see John Major (disambiguation). ... The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty of European Union, TEU) was signed on February 7, 1992 in Maastricht, Netherlands after final negotiations in December 1991 between the members of the European Community and entered into force on November 1, 1993 during the Delors Commission. ... This article is about Kenneth Clarke, the English politician. ... Michael Ray Dibdin Heseltine, Baron Heseltine, CH, PC (born 21 March 1933) is a British businessman and Conservative Party politician. ... The Right Honourable Stephen James Dorrell (born March 25, 1952) is an English politician and Conservative Member of Parliament for Charnwood. ... William Jefferson Hague (born 26 March 1961) is a British politician, the Member of Parliament for Richmond, North Yorkshire, former leader of the Conservative Party, and current Conservative Shadow Foreign Secretary. ... Rt. ... The Rt Hon. ... For the Canadian ice hockey player, see Dave Cameron. ...


Social policy

Scarborough Conservative Club.
Scarborough Conservative Club.

In recent years, 'modernisers' in the party have claimed that the association between social conservatism and the Conservatives (manifest in policies such as tax incentives for married couples, the removal of the link between pensions and earnings, and criticism of public financial support for those who do not work) have played a role in the electoral decline of the party in the 1990s and early 2000s. For example, David Willetts has criticised what he termed "the war on single parents", whilst former Conservative Party Chairman Brian Mawhinney observed that the party had "created the impression that if you weren't in a traditional nuclear family, then we weren't interested in you". Since 1997 a debate has continued within the party between 'modernisers' such as Michael Portillo, who believe that the Conservatives should modify their public stances on social issues, and 'traditionalists' such as William Hague and David Davis, who believe that the party should remain faithful to its traditional conservative platform. This may have resulted in William Hague's and Michael Howard's pre-election swings to the right in 2001 and 2005,[citation needed] as well as the election of the stop-Kenneth Clarke candidate Iain Duncan Smith in 2001. Theresa May famously remarked that the result of all this was that the Conservatives were perceived as "the nasty party". Since the election of Cameron the 'modernisers' appear to have been given more of a voice on social policy. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1168x1760, 553 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Conservative Party (UK) Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1168x1760, 553 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Conservative Party (UK) Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Social conservatism generally refers to a political ideology or personal belief system that advocates the conservation or resurrection of what one, or ones community, considers to be traditional morality and social structure. ... For the West End actor, see Dave Willetts. ... It has been suggested that Baby mama be merged into this article or section. ... Brian Stanley Mawhinney, Baron Mawhinney PC (born 26 July 1940) is a British Conservative Party politician. ... Michael Denzil Xavier Portillo (born 26 May 1953) is an English journalist, broadcaster, and former Conservative party politician and Cabinet Minister. ... William Jefferson Hague (born 26 March 1961) is a British politician, the Member of Parliament for Richmond, North Yorkshire, former leader of the Conservative Party, and current Conservative Shadow Foreign Secretary. ... David Michael Davis (born December 23, 1948) is a British politician, Conservative Member of Parliament (MP) for Haltemprice and Howden and Shadow Home Secretary. ... This article is about Kenneth Clarke, the English politician. ... Rt. ... Theresa Mary May (born in Eastbourne, Sussex, England, on October 1, 1956 as Theresa Mary Brasier) is a British politician, former chairman of the Conservative Party, and Member of Parliament for Maidenhead. ...


Foreign policy

For much of the twentieth century the Conservative party took a broadly Atlanticist stance in relations with the United States, favouring close ties with the United States and similarly aligned nations such as Canada, Australia and Japan. The Conservatives have generally favoured a diverse range of international alliances, ranging from the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) to the Commonwealth of Nations. Atlanticism is a philosophy of cooperation among European and North American nations regarding political, economic, and defense issues. ... NATO 2002 Summit The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), sometimes called North Atlantic Alliance, Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for defence collaboration established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on April 4, 1949. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ...


Close US-British relations have been an element of Conservative foreign policy since World War II. Winston Churchill during his 1951-1955 post-war premiership built up a strong relationship with the Eisenhower Administration in the United States. Harold Macmillan demonstrated a similarly close relationship with the Democratic administration of J.F. Kennedy. Though the US-British relationship in foreign affairs has often been termed a 'Special Relationship', a term coined by Sir Winston Churchill, this has often been observed most clearly where leaders in each country are of a similar political stripe. Former Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher built a close relationship with American President Ronald Reagan in his opposition to the former Soviet Union, but John Major was less successful in his personal contacts with former Presidents George H. W. Bush and Bill Clinton.[citation needed] Out of power and perceived as largely irrelevant by American politicians, Conservative leaders Hague, Duncan-Smith, and Howard each struggled to forge personal relationships with presidents Bill Clinton and George W Bush. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Churchill redirects here. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and only woman to hold either post. ... For other uses, see President (disambiguation). ... Reagan redirects here. ... For other persons named John Major, see John Major (disambiguation). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001 and re-elected in the 2004 U.S. presidential election. ...


David Cameron has recently sought to distance himself from President Bush and his neoconservative foreign policy, and has called for a "rebalancing" of US-UK ties.[19] Republican 2008 presidential candidate John McCain spoke at the 2006 Conservative Party Conference.[20] For the Canadian ice hockey player, see Dave Cameron. ... Neoconservatism describes several distinct political ideologies which are considered new forms of conservatism. ... GOP redirects here. ... McCain redirects here. ...


On the European Union

No subject has more divided the Conservative Party in recent history than the UK's relations with the European Union (EU). Though the principal architect of Britain's entry into the then-Common Market (later European Community and European Union) was Conservative Prime Minister Edward Heath, and both Winston Churchill and Harold Macmillan favoured some form of European union, the bulk of contemporary Conservative opinion is opposed to closer economic and particularly political union with the EU. This is a noticeable shift in British politics, as in the 1960s and 1970s the Conservatives were more pro EU than the Labour Party. Divisions on Europe came to the fore under the premiership of Margaret Thatcher (1979-1990) and were cited by several ministers resigning, including Deputy Prime Minister Geoffrey Howe, whose resignation triggered the challenge that ended Thatcher's leadership, although other factors such as the poll tax also played a role. Under Thatcher's successor, John Major (1990-1997), the slow process of integration within the EU forced party tensions to the surface. A core of Eurosceptic MPs under Major used the small Conservative majority in Parliament to oppose Government policy on the Maastricht Treaty. By doing so they undermined Major's ability to govern. The European Community (EC), most important of three European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... Sir Edward Richard George Heath, KG, OBE (9 July 1916 – 17 July 2005) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1970 to 1974 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1965 to 1975. ... Churchill redirects here. ... Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, OM, PC (10 February 1894 – 29 December 1986), was a British Conservative politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and only woman to hold either post. ... Under its uncodified constitution, the United Kingdom possesses no formal permanent office of Deputy Prime Minister. ... Richard Edward Geoffrey Howe, Baron Howe of Aberavon, CH, PC, QC (born 20 December 1926), known until 1992 as Sir Geoffrey Howe, is a senior British Conservative politician. ... The 1990 Conservative Party leadership election in the United Kingdom took place in November 1990 following the decision of former Trade and Industry Secretary Michael Heseltine to stand against the incumbent Conservative leader and Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher. ... A poll tax, head tax, or capitation is a tax of a uniform, fixed amount per individual (as opposed to a percentage of income). ... For other persons named John Major, see John Major (disambiguation). ... Euroscepticism has become a general term for opposition to the process of European integration. ... The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty of European Union, TEU) was signed on February 7, 1992 in Maastricht, Netherlands after final negotiations in December 1991 between the members of the European Community and entered into force on November 1, 1993 during the Delors Commission. ...


In recent years the Conservative Party has become more clearly Eurosceptic, as the Labour Government has found itself unwilling to make a positive case for further integration, and Eurosceptic or pro-withdrawal parties such as the United Kingdom Independence Party have made showings in UK elections. But under current EU practices, the degree to which a Conservative Government could implement policy change regarding the EU would depend directly on the willingness of other EU member states to agree to such policies. The United Kingdom Independence Party (commonly known as UKIP, pronounced ) is a British political party. ...


The Conservatives are a member of the International Democrat Union and its European Democrat Union. In the summer of 2006 the Conservatives became founding members of the Movement for European Reform, following Cameron's pledge to end the fourteen-year-old partnership between the largely Eurosceptic Conservatives and the more Euro-integrationist, European People's Party (EPP). Within the European Parliament, however, the Conservatives remain members of an informal bloc called the European Democrats (ED), which is committed to sit in a coalition arrangement with the EPP as the EPP-ED group until 2009. The International Democrat Union (IDU) is an international grouping of conservative, nationalist, classical liberal, anti-Communist and some Christian democratic political parties. ... The European Democrat Union is the European wing of the International Democrat Union. ... The Movement for European Reform is a pan-European alliance of national political parties founded on 13 July 2006, intended to group forces of the center-right in favour of free market policies and critical of further European integration. ... Euroscepticism is scepticism about, or disagreement with, the purposes of the European Union, sometimes coupled with a desire to preserve national sovereignty. ... The European Peoples Party (EPP) is the largest transnational European political party. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... For other uses, see European Democrats (disambiguation). ... The European Peoples Party (Christian Democrats) and European Democrats is a group in the European Parliament. ...


Beyond relations with the United States, the Commonwealth and the EU, the Conservative Party has generally supported a pro free-trade foreign policy within the mainstream of international affairs. The degree to which Conservative Governments have supported interventionist or non-interventionist Presidents in the US has often varied with the personal relations between a US President and the British Prime Minister.


Internal groupings

There are three main political traditions within the modern Conservative Party:


One Nation Conservatives

One Nation Conservatism was the party's dominant ideology in the 20th century until the rise of Thatcherism in the 1970s, and included in its ranks Conservative Prime Ministers such as Stanley Baldwin, Harold Macmillan and Edward Heath. The name itself comes from a famous phrase of Benjamin Disraeli. The basis of One-Nation Conservatism is a belief in social cohesion, and its adherents support social institutions that maintain harmony between different interest groups, classes, and—more recently—different races or religions. These institutions have typically included the welfare state, the BBC, and local government. Some are also supporters of the European Union, perhaps stemming from an extension of the cohesion principle to the international level, though others are strongly against the EU (such as Sir Peter Tapsell). Prominent One-Nation Conservatives in the contemporary party include Kenneth Clarke, Malcolm Rifkind and Damian Green; they are often associated with the Tory Reform Group and the Bow Group. One Nation Conservatives often invoke Edmund Burke and his emphasis on civil society ("little platoons") as the foundations of society, as well as his opposition to radical politics of all hues. One Nation, One Nation Conservatism, or Tory Democracy is a term used in political debate in the United Kingdom to refer to one wing of the Conservative Party. ... Stanley Baldwin, 1st Earl Baldwin of Bewdley, KG, PC (3 August 1867 – 14 December 1947) was a British statesman and thrice Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, OM, PC (10 February 1894 – 29 December 1986), was a British Conservative politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963. ... Sir Edward Richard George Heath, KG, OBE (9 July 1916 – 17 July 2005) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1970 to 1974 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1965 to 1975. ... Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, KG, PC, FRS (December 21, 1804 – April 19, 1881), born Benjamin DIsraeli was a British Conservative statesman and literary figure. ... There are three main interpretations of the idea of a welfare state: the provision of welfare services by the state. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Sir Peter Hannay Bailey Tapsell (born 1 February 1930, Hove) is a politician in the United Kingdom. ... This article is about Kenneth Clarke, the English politician. ... Sir Malcolm Leslie Rifkind, KCMG, QC (born 21 June 1946) is a Scottish Conservative and Unionist politician and Member of Parliament for the constituency of Kensington and Chelsea. ... Damian Howard Green (born January 17, 1956) is an English Conservative Party (UK) politician, and Member of Parliament for Ashford (UK Parliament constituency) in Kent. ... The Tory Reform Group (TRG) is a group within the United Kingdoms Conservative Party, that uphold the One Nation Tory vision, which they describe[citation needed] as being the promotion of: Social justice Political progress Prosperity for all // Europe The TRG is commonly seen as being pro-European. ... The Bow Group is one of the oldest, most influential and prestigious think tanks in the United Kingdom. ... Edmund Burke (January 12, 1729[1] – July 9, 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman, author, orator, political theorist, and philosopher, who served for many years in the British House of Commons as a member of the Whig party. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Civil society is composed of the totality of voluntary civic and social organizations and institutions that form the basis of a functioning society as opposed to the force-backed structures of a state (regardless of that states political system) and commercial institutions. ...


Free-Market Conservatives

The second main tradition in the Conservative party is the free market, or Thatcherite wing. Economic liberals achieved dominance after the election of Margaret Thatcher as party leader in 1975. Their political goal was to reduce the role of the government in the economy, and to this end they supported cuts in direct taxation, the privatisation of public services, the ending of nationalised industry, and a reduction in the size and scope of the welfare state. Matters of social policy are not so clear cut. Although Thatcher herself was socially conservative and a practising Methodist, her supporters harbour a range of social opinions from the libertarian views of Michael Portillo to the traditional conservatism of William Hague and David Davis. Many are also Eurosceptic, since they perceive most EU regulations as an unwelcome interference in the free market and/or a threat to British sovereignty. Rare Thatcherite Europhiles include Leon Brittan. Margaret Thatcher Thatcherism is the system of political thought attributed to the governments of Margaret Thatcher, British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and only woman to hold either post. ... Privatization (sometimes privatisation, denationalization, or — especially in India — disinvestment) is the process of transferring property, from public ownership to private ownership. ... The Methodist movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity. ... See also Libertarianism and Libertarian Party Libertarian,is a term for person who has made a conscious and principled commitment, evidenced by a statement or Pledge, to forswear violating others rights and usually living in voluntary communities: thus in law no longer subject to government supervision. ... Michael Denzil Xavier Portillo (born 26 May 1953) is an English journalist, broadcaster, and former Conservative party politician and Cabinet Minister. ... William Jefferson Hague (born 26 March 1961) is a British politician, the Member of Parliament for Richmond, North Yorkshire, former leader of the Conservative Party, and current Conservative Shadow Foreign Secretary. ... David Michael Davis (born December 23, 1948) is a British politician, Conservative Member of Parliament (MP) for Haltemprice and Howden and Shadow Home Secretary. ... Euroscepticism is scepticism about, or disagreement with, the purposes of the European Union, sometimes coupled with a desire to preserve national sovereignty. ... Leon Brittan, Baron Brittan of Spennithorne, PC (born September 25, 1939), is a barrister, a British politician, and a former Conservative Member of Parliament and former member of the European Commission. ...


Many take inspiration from Thatcher's anti-EU Bruges speech in 1988, in which she declared that "we have not successfully rolled back the frontiers of the state in Britain, only to see them reimposed at a European level". Thatcherites also tend to be Atlanticist, dating back to the close friendship between Thatcher and US President Ronald Reagan. Thatcher herself claimed philosophical inspiration from the works of Burke and Friedrich Hayek for their defence of liberal economics. Groups associated with this tradition include the No Turning Back Group and Conservative Way Forward. Atlanticism is a philosophy of cooperation among Western European and North American nations (specifically the United States, and Canada) regarding political, economic, and defense issues, with the purpose to maintain the security of the participating countries, and to protect the values that unite them: democracy, individual liberty and the rule... Reagan redirects here. ... Friedrich August von Hayek, CH (May 8, 1899 in Vienna – March 23, 1992 in Freiburg) was an Austrian-born British economist and political philosopher known for his defense of liberal democracy and free-market capitalism against socialist and collectivist thought in the mid-20th century. ... No Turning Back is a group within the British Conservative Party advocating Thatcherite policies. ... Conservative Way Forward (CWF) is a campaigning group within the British Conservative Party. ...


Traditionalist Conservatives

This right-wing grouping is currently associated with The Cornerstone Group (or Faith, Flag and Family), and is the third main tradition within the Conservative Party. The name stems from its support for three British social institutions: the Church of England, the unitary British state and the family. To this end, they emphasise the country's Anglican heritage, oppose any transfer of power away from the United Kingdom—either downwards to the nations and regions or upwards to the European Union—and seek to place greater emphasis on traditional family structures to repair what they see as a broken society in Britain. Most oppose high levels of immigration into the UK, and some members have in the past professed controversial opinions on issues of race and ethnicity in modern Britain.[21][22] Some members also support capital punishment. Prominent MPs from this wing of the party include Nadine Dorries, Andrew Rosindell, Ann Widdecombe and Edward Leigh—the last two prominent Roman Catholics, notable in a faction marked out by its support for the established Church of England. Homosexual Conservative MP Alan Duncan once referred to this wing as a "Taliban tendency" within the party. The conservative English philosopher Roger Scruton is a representative of the intellectual wing of the Cornerstone group: his writings rarely touch on economics and instead focus on conservative perspectives concerning political, social, cultural and moral issues. The Cornerstone Group (or Faith, Flag and Family) is a socially conservative or traditionalist political faction within the British Conservative Party consisting of Eurosceptic, traditionalist MPs. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[3] in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the oldest among the communions thirty-eight independent national churches. ... A map showing the unitary states. ... This box:      Anglicanism most commonly refers to the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion, a world-wide affiliation of Christian Churches, most of which have historical connections with the Church of England. ... Nadine Vanessa Dorries (born 1958) is a British politician. ... Andrew Richard Rosindell (born March 17, 1966) is a British Conservative Member of Parliament for Romford. ... Ann Noreen Widdecombe (born 4 October 1947) is a British Conservative Party politician. ... Edward Julian Egerton Leigh (born 20 July 1950) is a politician in the United Kingdom. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Alan James Carter Duncan (born March 31, 1957) is a British politician from the Conservative Party. ... The Taliban (Pashto: , also anglicized as Taleban) are a Sunni Muslim and ethnic Pashtun movement [2] that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by a cooperative military effort between the Northern Alliance, United States, Canada, Australia and the United Kingdom. ... Roger Vernon Scruton (born 27 February 1944) is a British philosopher. ...


Sometimes two groupings have united to oppose the third. Both Thatcherite and Traditionalist Conservatives rebelled over Europe (and in particular Maastricht) during John Major's premiership; and Traditionalist and One Nation MPs united to inflict Margaret Thatcher's only defeat in parliament, over Sunday trading. For other persons named John Major, see John Major (disambiguation). ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and only woman to hold either post. ...


Not all Conservative MPs can be easily placed within one of the above groupings. For example, John Major was the ostensibly "Thatcherite" candidate during the 1990 leadership election, but he consistently promoted One-Nation Conservatives to the higher reaches of his cabinet during his time as Prime Minister. These included Kenneth Clarke as Chancellor of the Exchequer and Michael Heseltine as Deputy Prime Minister. The 1990 Conservative Party leadership election in the United Kingdom took place in November 1990 following the decision of former Trade and Industry Secretary Michael Heseltine to stand against the incumbent Conservative leader and Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher. ... This article is about Kenneth Clarke, the English politician. ... Michael Ray Dibdin Heseltine, Baron Heseltine, CH, PC (born 21 March 1933) is a British businessman and Conservative Party politician. ...


Associated groups

Further information: List of organisations associated with the British Conservative Party

This is a list of organisations that are associated with the British Conservative Party. ... The Bow Group is one of the oldest, most influential and prestigious think tanks in the United Kingdom. ... The Bruges Group is a euro-sceptic think tank which is often associated with the British Conservative Party (although this has been disputed). ... The Centre for Policy Studies is a United Kingdom-based think tank. ... The Conservative Christian Fellowship is an organisation allied with the British Conservative Party, established in 1990 by Tim Montgomerie and Conservative MP David Burrowes. ... Conservative Future is the youth movement of the British Conservative Party, for members aged up to 30 years old. ... Conservative Future Scotland (CFS) is the youth group of the Scottish Conservative Party, based at Scottish Conservative Central Office in Edinburgh. ... Conservative Way Forward (CWF) is a campaigning group within the British Conservative Party. ... Conservative Muslim Forum is a group within the British Conservative Party. ... The Cornerstone Group (or Faith, Flag and Family) is a socially conservative or traditionalist political faction within the British Conservative Party consisting of Eurosceptic, traditionalist MPs. ... The European Foundation is a leading Eurosceptic think tank based in the United Kingdom. ... The Freedom Association is a right-wing British pressure group. ... The Tory Reform Group (TRG) is a group within the United Kingdoms Conservative Party, that uphold the One Nation Tory vision, which they describe[citation needed] as being the promotion of: Social justice Political progress Prosperity for all // Europe The TRG is commonly seen as being pro-European. ... Conservative Mainstream is a pressure group on the left of the British Conservative Party. ... The ... The Conservative Research Department (CRD) was an integral part of the central organisation of the Conservative Party of the United Kingdom. ... Conservative Friends of Israel is a UK Parliament based campaign group whose aims include strengthening business and political ties between Britain and Israel and promoting support for a two-state solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, with Israel recognised and secure within its borders and the establishment of a stable...

See also

List of Conservative Party politicians This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... David Cameron, the eventual winner of the contest. ... The logo of the Conservatives in Northern Ireland The Conservatives in Northern Ireland is the wing of the Conservative Party of the United Kingdom that operates in Northern Ireland. ... Leaders of the UK Conservative Party since 1834. ... In the United Kingdom, the Chairman of the Conservative Party is responsible for running the party machine, overseeing Conservative Central Office. ... Conservative Campaign Headquarters (CCHQ), formerly known as Conservative Central Office (CCO), is the headquarters of the British Conservative Party, housing its central staff and committee members. ... The Conservative Research Department (CRD) was an integral part of the central organisation of the Conservative Party of the United Kingdom. ... The Official Loyal Opposition Shadow Cabinet (normally referred to simply as The Shadow Cabinet) is, in British parliamentary practice, a group of members from Her Majestys Loyal Opposition whose job it is to scrutinise their opposite numbers in government and come up with alternative policies. ... The Conservative Party is one of the two largest political parties in the United Kingdom and the most successful party in political history based on election victories. ... The Unionist Party, referred to as the Scottish Unionist Party outwith Scotland itself, was the main Tory political party in Scotland between 1912 and 1965. ... The Politics of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland takes place in the framework of a constitutional monarchy in which the Monarch is head of state and the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government. ... Euroscepticism has become a general term for opposition to the process of European integration. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... The Liberal Democrats, often shortened to Lib Dems, is a liberal political party in the United Kingdom formed in 1988 by the merger of the Liberal Party and the Social Democratic Party; the two parties had already been in an alliance for seven years prior to this, since not long... Plaid Cymru (IPA:; English: ; often referred to simply as Plaid) is a political party in Wales. ... The Scottish National Party (SNP) (Scottish Gaelic: is a centre-left political party which campaigns for Scottish independence. ... The United Kingdom Independence Party (commonly known as UKIP, pronounced ) is a British political party. ...

Further reading

  • Geoffrey Wheatcroft (2005), The Strange Death of Tory England

References

  1. ^ "Tories secure centre-right deal", BBC.co.uk, 30 June 1999. 
  2. ^ Conservative and Unionist Central Office v. James Robert Samuel Burrell (HM Inspector of Taxes) [1981] EWCA 2 (Civ) (1981-12-10)
  3. ^ Toby Helm; George Jones (2006-12-27). Conservatives' success story stalls. Daily Telegraph. Retrieved on 2007-04-20.
  4. ^ Annual Report and Financial Statements for the year ended 31 December 2004 (PDF). The Conservative and Unionist Central Office. Retrieved on 2007-04-20.
  5. ^ "European Union" - Speech by Winston Churchill - Zürich - 19 September 1946: BMDF Synopsis. BMDF Library of speeches. British Management Data Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-04-20.
  6. ^ Datelines. Sir Winston Churchill: Publications and Resources. The Churchill Centre. Retrieved on 2007-04-20.
  7. ^ David Cowling (2001-02-09). Poll monitor: Labour looks hard to beat. BBC News. Retrieved on 2007-04-20.
  8. ^ Trying to be 'down with the kids'. BBC News (2003-03-07). Retrieved on 2007-04-20.
  9. ^ Tory critics round on Hague. BBC News (2001-03-05). Retrieved on 2007-04-20.
  10. ^ Tory peer attacks Hague over race. BBC News (2001-04-27). Retrieved on 2007-04-20.
  11. ^ Full text of David Cameron's victory speech. Guardian Unlimited (2005-06-12). Retrieved on 2007-04-20.
  12. ^ Conservative or Labour preference (”forced choice”). UK Polling Report. YouGov. Retrieved on 2007-04-20.
  13. ^ Boris is the new Mayor of London. Conservative Party (2008-05-03). Retrieved on 2008-05-03.
  14. ^ Blair stole our clothes - Howard. BBC News (2004-11-17). Retrieved on 2007-04-20.
  15. ^ William Keegan (2005-10-30). It's the rich what gets the pleasure .... The Observer. Retrieved on 2007-04-20.
  16. ^ Business: The Economy - Labour's economic record. BBC News (1999-07-26). Retrieved on 2007-04-20.
  17. ^ Portillo springs surprise U-turns. BBC News (2000-02-03). Retrieved on 2007-04-20.
  18. ^ EU boost for professionals' job mobility. European Review, Issue 26 4. Retrieved on 2007-04-20.
  19. ^ Matthew Tempest (2006-09-11). Cameron: I'm no neo-con. Guardian Unlimited. Retrieved on 2007-04-20.
  20. ^ Martin Kettle (2006-08-29). David Cameron's special relationship. Guardian Unlimited: Comment is Free. Retrieved on 2007-04-20.
  21. ^ Hague rebukes Tory MP over race. BBC News (2001-03-28). Retrieved on 2007-04-20.
  22. ^ Senior Tory sacked over racist joke. BBC News (2002-05-05). Retrieved on 2007-04-20.

Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... This article is about the day. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Official party sites

Internal party policy groups

Other

  • Failsworth Conservatives - Working hard to make a difference in local politics
  • Yahoo! - Conservative Party directory category
  • Guardian Unlimited Politics - Special Report: Conservative Party
Leaders of the UK Conservative Party since 1834. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... Italic text His Grace Field Marshal the Most Noble Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, KG, GCB, GCH, PC, FRS (c. ... Arms of Edward Smith-Stanley Statue in Parliament Square, London Edward George Geoffrey Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, KG, PC (29 March 1799–23 October 1869) was a British statesman, three times Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and is to date the longest serving leader of the Conservative... The Rt Hon. ... Hugh McCalmont Cairns, 1st Earl Cairns (27 December 1810 - 2 April 1885) was a British statesman (of Irish birth) who served as Lord Chancellor of Great Britain during the first two ministries of Benjamin Disraeli. ... His Grace The Duke of Richmond and Lennox Charles Henry Gordon_Lennox, 6th Duke of Richmond, 6th Duke of Lennox and 1st Duke of Gordon (February 27, 1818 - September 27, 1903) was a British politician. ... Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield (December 21, 1804 - April 24, British Conservative Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and author. ... Sir Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, KG, GCVO, PC (3 February 1830 – 22 August 1903), known as Lord Robert Cecil before 1865 and as Viscount Cranborne from 1865 until 1868, was a British statesman and thrice Prime Minister, serving for a total of over 13 years. ... Spencer Compton Cavendish, 8th Duke of Devonshire (23 July 1833 - 24 March 1908) was a British Liberal statesman, previously known (1858-1891) as Marquess of Hartington (a courtesy title). ... The Most Honourable Henry Charles Keith Petty-FitzMaurice, 5th Marquess of Lansdowne, KG, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE (14 January 1845 – 3 June 1927) was a British politician and Irish peer who served successively as Governor General of Canada, Viceroy of India, Secretary of State for War, and Secretary of State for... The Marquess Curzon of Kedleston George Nathaniel Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston, KG, GCSI, GCIE, PC (11 January 1859 – 20 March 1925) was a British Conservative statesman who served as Viceroy of India and Foreign Secretary. ... The House of Commons is a component of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which also includes the Sovereign and the House of Lords. ... For other people named Robert Peel, see Robert Peel (disambiguation). ... Lord William George Frederick Cavendish-Bentinck (27 February 1802–21 September 1848), better known as simply Lord George Bentinck, was an English Conservative politician and racehorse owner, best known (with Benjamin Disraeli) for his role in unseating Sir Robert Peel over the Corn Laws. ... The Most Noble Charles Manners, 6th Duke of Rutland (1815–1888), known before 1857 as the Marquess of Granby, was an English Conservative politician. ... Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield (December 21, 1804 - April 24, British Conservative Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and author. ... The Most Noble Charles Manners, 6th Duke of Rutland (1815–1888), known before 1857 as the Marquess of Granby, was an English Conservative politician. ... John Charles Herries (1778 - 1855) was an English politician and financier and a frequent member of Tory and Conservative cabinets in the early to mid 19th century. ... Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield (December 21, 1804 - April 24, British Conservative Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and author. ... The Rt Hon. ... The Rt Hon. ... Lord Randolph Henry Spencer Churchill Lord Randolph Henry Spencer-Churchill (13 February 1849 – 24 January 1895) was a British statesman. ... The Rt Hon. ... For the steel manufacturer, see Arthur Balfour, 1st Baron Riverdale. ... Andrew Bonar Law (16 September 1858 – 30 October 1923) was a British Conservative Party statesman and Prime Minister. ... Sir Joseph Austen Chamberlain, KG (October 16, 1863 – March 17, 1937) was a British statesman, politician, and recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize. ... Leaders of the UK Conservative Party since 1834. ... Andrew Bonar Law (16 September 1858 – 30 October 1923) was a British Conservative Party statesman and Prime Minister. ... Stanley Baldwin, 1st Earl Baldwin of Bewdley, KG, PC (3 August 1867 – 14 December 1947) was a British statesman and thrice Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the British Prime Minister. ... Churchill redirects here. ... For the eponymous hat, see Anthony Eden hat. ... Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, OM, PC (10 February 1894 – 29 December 1986), was a British Conservative politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963. ... Alexander Frederick Douglas-Home, Baron Home of the Hirsel,[1] KT, PC (2 July 1903 - 9 October 1995) 14th Earl of Home from 1951 to 1963, was a British Conservative (actually SUP) politician, and served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom for a year from October 1963 to October... Sir Edward Richard George Heath, KG, OBE (9 July 1916 – 17 July 2005) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1970 to 1974 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1965 to 1975. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and only woman to hold either post. ... For other persons named John Major, see John Major (disambiguation). ... William Jefferson Hague (born 26 March 1961) is a British politician, the Member of Parliament for Richmond, North Yorkshire, former leader of the Conservative Party, and current Conservative Shadow Foreign Secretary. ... Rt. ... The Rt Hon. ... For the Canadian ice hockey player, see Dave Cameron. ... This is a list of political parties in the United Kingdom. ... Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... The Liberal Democrats, often shortened to Lib Dems, is a liberal political party in the United Kingdom formed in 1988 by the merger of the Liberal Party and the Social Democratic Party; the two parties had already been in an alliance for seven years prior to this, since not long... This article is about the political party in Northern Ireland. ... The Scottish National Party (SNP) (Scottish Gaelic: is a centre-left political party which campaigns for Scottish independence. ... For pre-Arthur Griffith use of the political name, see Sinn Féin (19th century). ... Plaid Cymru (IPA:; English: ; often referred to simply as Plaid) is a political party in Wales. ... The Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP — Irish: Páirtí Sóisialta Daonlathach an Lucht Oibre) is the smaller of the two major nationalist parties in Northern Ireland. ... In politics, an independent is a politician who is not affiliated with any political party. ... In politics, an independent is a politician who is not affiliated with any political party. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Clare Short (born 15 February 1946) is a British politician and a member of the British Labour Party. ... The United Kingdom Independence Party (commonly known as UKIP, pronounced ) is a British political party. ... Respect – The Unity Coalition is a left wing political party in England and Wales founded on January 25, 2004 in London. ... The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP, sometimes referred to as the Official Unionist Party or OUP or, in a historic sense, simply the Unionist Party) is a moderate unionist political party in Northern Ireland. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... A cross-bencher is a member of the British House of Lords who is not aligned to any particular party. ... The Liberal Democrats, often shortened to Lib Dems, is a liberal political party in the United Kingdom formed in 1988 by the merger of the Liberal Party and the Social Democratic Party; the two parties had already been in an alliance for seven years prior to this, since not long... The United Kingdom Independence Party (commonly known as UKIP, pronounced ) is a British political party. ... The Lords Spiritual of the United Kingdom, also called Spiritual Peers, consist of the 26 clergymen of the established Church of England who serve in the House of Lords along with the Lords Temporal. ... David Robert Stevens, Baron Stevens of Ludgate is the only Conservative Independent peer in the House of Lords. ... David Leonard Stoddart, Baron Stoddart of Swindon, of Reading in the Royal County of Berkshire is a British Independent Labour politician (that is, unaffiliated to the British Labour Party), raised to the peerage as a life peer in 1983. ... For the national legislative body up to 1707, see Parliament of Scotland. ... The Scottish National Party (SNP) (Scottish Gaelic: is a centre-left political party which campaigns for Scottish independence. ... This article is about the Scottish Labour Party founded in 1976. ... The Scottish Conservative Party (officially the Scottish Conservative and Unionist Party), often referred to as the Scottish Tories (see Tory), is the part of the British Conservative Party that operates in Scotland. ... The Liberal Democrats, often shortened to Lib Dems, are a liberal political party in the United Kingdom. ... The Scottish Green Party (Pàrtaidh Uaine na h-Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is the Green party of Scotland, and a full member of the European Federation of Green Parties. ... Established 1999 by the Government of Wales Act 1998 Presiding Officer Lord Elis-Thomas AM (Plaid) Since May 12, 1999 Deputy Presiding Officer Rosemary Butler AM (Lab) Leader of the House Carwyn Jones AM (Lab) Chief Executive and Clerk to the Assembly Claire Clancy Political parties 6 Welsh Labour (26... The Wales Labour Party, also known as Welsh Labour, is the part of the Labour Party which operates in Wales. ... Plaid Cymru (IPA:; English: ; often referred to simply as Plaid) is a political party in Wales. ... The Welsh Conservative Party is the part of the Conservative Party which operates in Wales. ... The Liberal Democrats, often shortened to Lib Dems, is a liberal political party in the United Kingdom formed in 1988 by the merger of the Liberal Party and the Social Democratic Party; the two parties had already been in an alliance for seven years prior to this, since not long... The logo of the Northern Ireland Assembly, a six flowered linen or flax plant. ... This article is about the political party in Northern Ireland. ... For pre-Arthur Griffith use of the political name, see Sinn Féin (19th century). ... The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP, sometimes referred to as the Official Unionist Party or OUP or, in a historic sense, simply the Unionist Party) is a moderate unionist political party in Northern Ireland. ... The Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP — Irish: Páirtí Sóisialta Daonlathach an Lucht Oibre) is the smaller of the two major nationalist parties in Northern Ireland. ... The Alliance Party of Northern Ireland (APNI), is a political party operating in Northern Ireland. ... The Green Party in Northern Ireland is a political party operating in Northern Ireland. ... The Progressive Unionist Party (PUP) are a small political party from Northern Ireland. ... The London Assembly is an elected body that supervises the Greater London Authority and the Mayor of London. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... The Liberal Democrats, often shortened to Lib Dems, is a liberal political party in the United Kingdom formed in 1988 by the merger of the Liberal Party and the Social Democratic Party; the two parties had already been in an alliance for seven years prior to this, since not long... The Green Party of England and Wales (GPEW) is the principal Green political party in England and Wales. ... The British National Party (BNP) is a white nationalist political party in the United Kingdom. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... For other uses, see European Democrats (disambiguation). ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... The Party of European Socialists (PES) is a European political party whose members are 33 social democratic, socialist and labour parties of the European Union member states as well as Norway. ... The Liberal Democrats, often shortened to Lib Dems, is a liberal political party in the United Kingdom formed in 1988 by the merger of the Liberal Party and the Social Democratic Party; the two parties had already been in an alliance for seven years prior to this, since not long... The European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party (founded in 1993) is a liberal party, mainly active in the European Union, composed of 49 national liberal and centrist parties from across Europe. ... The United Kingdom Independence Party (commonly known as UKIP, pronounced ) is a British political party. ... The Independence/Democracy Group in the European Parliament was set up on 20 July 2004. ... The Green Party of England and Wales (GPEW) is the principal Green political party in England and Wales. ... European Greens (or the European Green Party) is the name of the European Green Party, a political party at European level. ... The Scottish National Party (SNP) (Scottish Gaelic: is a centre-left political party which campaigns for Scottish independence. ... The European Free Alliance (EFA) is a grouping of various political parties in Europe who believe in either full political independence (statehood), or some form of devolution or self-government for their country or region. ... Plaid Cymru (IPA:; English: ; often referred to simply as Plaid) is a political party in Wales. ... The European Free Alliance (EFA) is a grouping of various political parties in Europe who believe in either full political independence (statehood), or some form of devolution or self-government for their country or region. ... For pre-Arthur Griffith use of the political name, see Sinn Féin (19th century). ... GUE-NGL logo The European United Left–Nordic Green Left is a socialist and communist political grouping within the European Parliament. ... The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP, sometimes referred to as the Official Unionist Party or OUP or, in a historic sense, simply the Unionist Party) is a moderate unionist political party in Northern Ireland. ... For other uses, see European Democrats (disambiguation). ... The Alliance of Independent Democrats in Europe (most commonly represented in French, as Alliance des Démocrates Indépendants en Europe) is an apparent European political party, whose existence is claimed by both itself and by the EUDemocrats[1]. Little, however, is known about the composition of the ADIE or... Non-Inscrits (English: Non-Attached; the English name is also official, but the French name is prevalent even in English texts) are Members of the European Parliament who do not sit in one of the political groups. ... Non-Inscrits (English: Non-Attached; the English name is also official, but the French name is prevalent even in English texts) are Members of the European Parliament who do not sit in one of the political groups. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This is an overview of political parties by country, in the form of a table with a link to a list of political parties in each country and showing which party system is dominant in each country . ... The Politics of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland takes place in the framework of a constitutional monarchy in which the Monarch is head of state and the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government. ...

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