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Encyclopedia > Conservatism in the United States
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Conservatism in the United States comprises a constellation of political ideologies including fiscal conservatism, free market or economic liberalism, social conservatism,[1] bioconservatism and religious conservatism,[2][3] as well as support for a strong military,[4] small government and promotion of states' rights.[5] Ths article deals with conservatism as a political philosophy. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions. ... Cultural conservatism is conservatism with respect to culture. ... Liberal conservatism is a variant of conservatism that combines the classical conservative concern for established tradition, respect for authority and (sometimes) religious values with liberal ideas, especially on economic issues (see economic liberalism, which advocates free market capitalism). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Neoconservatism is a political movement that emerged as a rejection of liberalism and the New Left counter-culture of the 1960s. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Libertarianism is a political philosophy that holds that individuals should be allowed complete freedom of action as long as they do not infringe on the freedom of others. ... Fiscal conservatism (also known as economic liberalism) is a term used in the United States to refer to economic and political policy that advocates restraint of government taxation, government expenditures and deficits, and government debt. ... This page deals with property as ownership rights. ... The rule of law is the principle that governmental authority is legitimately exercised only in accordance with written, publicly disclosed laws adopted and enforced in accordance with established procedure. ... Social order is a concept used in sociology, history and other social sciences. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Many countries have political parties that are deemed to represent conservative, center-right, or Tory views which may be referred to informally as conservative parties even if not explicitly named so. ... The International Democrat Union (IDU) is an international grouping of conservative, neoconservative and Christian democratic political parties. ... The European Peoples Party (EPP) is the largest transnational European political party. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Bioconservatism is a stance of hesitancy about technological development in general and strong opposition to the genetic, prosthetic or cognitive modification of human beings in particular. ... The terms limited government and small government are two terms which cover two related meanings. ... States rights refers to the idea, in U.S. politics and constitutional law, that U.S. states possess certain rights and political powers in relation to the federal government. ...


In the United States modern conservatism coalesced in the latter half of the 20th century, responding over time to the political and social change associated with events such as the Great Depression, tension with the Soviet Union in the Cold War, the American Civil Rights Movement, the counterculture of the 1960s, the deregulation of the economy in the late 1970s and early 1980s, the overthrow of the New Deal Coalition in the 1980s, and the terrorist threat of the 21st century. While conservatives were once significant minorities in both major parties, the conservative wing of the Democratic party has all but died out and most conservatives today identify themselves as Republicans. In 2000 and 2004, about 80% of self-described conservatives voted Republican.[6][7] The Great Depression was a dramatic, worldwide economic downturn beginning in some countries as early as 1928. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Martin Luther King is perhaps most famous for his I Have a Dream speech, given in front of the Lincoln Memorial during the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom This article is about the civil rights movement following the Brown v. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Deregulation is the process by which governments remove, reduce, or simplify restrictions on business and individuals in order to (in theory) encourage the efficient operation of markets. ... The New Deal coalition was the alignment of interest groups and voting blocks who supported the New Deal and voted for Democratic presidential candidates from 1932 until approximately 1966, which made the Democratic Party the majority party during the Fifth Party System. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. ...

Contents

History

Founding Fathers

The Loyalists of the American Revolution were mostly political conservatives, some of whom produced political discourse of a high order, including lawyer Joseph Galloway and governor-historian Thomas Hutchinson. After the war, the great majority remained in the U.S. and became citizens, but some leaders emigrated to other places in the British Empire. Samuel Seabury was a Loyalist who returned and as the first American bishop played a major role in shaping the Episcopal religion, a stronghold of conservative social values. [[ This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen Colonies that... Joseph Galloway (1731–August 29, 1803) was an American Continental Congress Delegate from Pennsylvania; born at West River, Maryland; moved with his father to Pennsylvania in 1740; received a liberal schooling; studied law; was admitted to the bar and began practice in Philadelphia; member of the Pennsylvania House of... Thomas Hutchinson (September 9, 1711 – June 3, 1780) was the American colonial governor of Massachusetts from 1771 to 1774 and a prominent Loyalist in the years before the American Revolutionary War. ... Samuel Seabury The Right Reverend Samuel Seabury (November 30, 1729 – February 25, 1796), was the first American Episcopal bishop, the second Presiding Bishop of the Episcopal Church, USA, and the first Bishop of Connecticut. ... This article is about the Episcopal Church in the United States. ...


The Founding Fathers created the single most important set of political ideas in American history, known as republicanism, which all groups, liberal and conservative alike, have drawn from. The Federalist Party, followers of Alexander Hamilton, developed an important variation of republicanism that can be considered conservative. Rejecting monarchy and aristocracy, they emphasized civic virtue as the core American value. The Federalists spoke for the propertied interests and the upper classes of the cities. They envisioned a modernizing land of banks and factories, with a strong army and navy. Founding Fathers are persons instrumental in the establishment of an institution, usually a political institution, especially those connected to the origination of its ideals. ... Republicanism is the political value system that has dominated American political thought since the American Revolution. ... The Federalist Party (or Federal Party) was an American political party during the First Party System, in the period 1793 to 1816, with remnants lasting into the 1820s. ... Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757–July 12, 1804) was an Army officer, lawyer, Founding Father, American politician, leading statesman, financier and political theorist. ...


On many issues American conservatism also derives from the republicanism of Thomas Jefferson and his followers, especially John Randolph of Roanoke and his "Old Republican" followers. They idealized the yeoman farmer as the epitome of civic virtue, warned that banking and industry led to corruption, that is to the illegitimate use of government power for private ends. Jefferson himself was a vehement opponent of what today is called "judicial activism". [8] The Jeffersonians stressed States' Rights and small government. In the 1830-54 period the Whig Party attracted conservatives such as Daniel Webster of New England. Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... Autographed portrait of John Randolph John Randolph (June 2, 1773 - May 24, 1833) was a Representative and a Senator from Virginia, USA. He was born in Cawsons, Virginia, and was known as John Randolph of Roanoke to distinguish him from relatives. ... States rights refers to the idea, in U.S. politics and constitutional law, that U.S. states possess certain rights and political powers in relation to the federal government. ... The Whig Party was a political party of the United States during the era of Jacksonian democracy. ... Daniel Webster (January 18, 1782 – October 24, 1852) was a leading American statesman during the nations antebellum era. ...


Ante-Bellum: Calhoun and Webster

Daniel Webster and other leaders of the Whig Party, called it the conservative party in the late 1830s.[9] John C. Calhoun, a Democrat, articulated a sophisticated conservatism in his writings. Richard Hofstadter (1948) called him "The Marx of the Master Class." Calhoun argued that a conservative minority should be able to limit the power of a "majority dictatorship" because tradition represents the wisdom of past generations. (This argument echoes one made by Edmund Burke, the founder of British conservatism, in Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790)). Calhoun is considered the father of the idea of minority rights, a position adopted by liberals in the 1960s in dealing with Civil Rights. Daniel Webster (January 18, 1782 – October 24, 1852) was a leading American statesman during the nations antebellum era. ... The Whig Party was a political party of the United States during the era of Jacksonian democracy. ... John Caldwell Calhoun (March 18, 1782 – March 31, 1850) was a leading United States Southern politician and political philosopher from South Carolina during the first half of the 19th century, best known as a spokesman for slavery, nullification and the rights of electoral minorities, such as slave-holders. ... Edmund Burke (January 12, 1729[1] – July 9, 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman, author, orator, political theorist, and philosopher, who served for many years in the British House of Commons as a member of the Whig party. ...


The conservatism of the antebellum period is contested territory; conservatives of the 21st century disagree over what comprises their heritage. Thus William J. Bennett (2006) a prominent conservative leader, tells conservatives to NOT honor Calhoun, Know-Nothings, Copperheads and 20th century isolationists. The Know-Nothing movement was a nativist American political movement of the 1850s. ... The Copperheads were a faction of Democrats in the North (see also Union (American Civil War)) who opposed the American Civil War, wanting an immediate peace settlement with the Confederates. ...


Lincoln to Cleveland

Since 1865 the Republican party has identified itself with President Abraham Lincoln, who was the ideological heir of the Whigs and of both Jefferson and Hamilton. As the Gettysburg Address shows, Lincoln cast himself as a second Jefferson bringing a second birth of freedom to the nation that had been born 86 years before in Jefferson's Declaration. The Copperheads of the Civil War reflected a reactionary opposition to modernity of the sort repudiated by modern conservatives. A few libertarians have adopted a neo-Copperhead position, arguing Lincoln was a dictator who created an all-powerful government. The Republican Party of the United States was established in 1854 and is one of the two dominant parties today. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... The only known photo of Abraham Lincoln at Gettysburg (seated, center), taken about noon, just after Lincoln arrived and some three hours before he spoke. ... The Copperheads were a faction of Democrats in the North (see also Union (American Civil War)) who opposed the American Civil War, wanting an immediate peace settlement with the Confederates. ...


In the late 19th century the Bourbon Democrats, led by President Grover Cleveland, preached against corruption, high taxes (protective tariffs), and imperialism, and supported the gold standard and business interests. They were overthrown by William Jennings Bryan in 1896, who moved the mainstream of the Democratic Party permanently to the left. Bourbon Democrat was a term used in the United States from 1876 to 1904 to refer to a conservative or reactionary member of the Democratic Party, especially one who supported President Grover Cleveland in 1884–1896 and Alton B. Parker in 1904. ... Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837 – June 24, 1908) was the 22nd and 24th President of the United States, and the only President to serve two non-consecutive terms (1885–1889 and 1893–1897). ... The gold standard is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is a fixed weight of gold. ... William Jennings Bryan (March 19, 1860 – July 26, 1925) was an American lawyer, statesman, and politician. ...


The 1896 presidential election was the first with a conservative versus liberal theme approaching the way in which these terms are now understood in the U.S. Republican William McKinley won using the pro-business slogan "sound money and protection," while the anti-bank and populism of the Democratic nominee, William Jennings Bryan, had a lasting effect on his party. For the mountain, see Mount McKinley. ... Administrators, remember to check if anything links here, the page history (last edit) and any revisions of CSD before deleting. ...


William Graham Sumner, Yale professor (1872-1910) and polymath, vigorously promoted a libertarian conservative ethic. After dallying with Social Darwinism under the influence of Herbert Spencer, he rejected evolution in his later works, and strongly opposed imperialism. He opposed monopoly and paternalism in theory as a threat to equality, democracy and middle class values, but was vague on what to do about it.[10] William Graham Sumner (1840-1910) was the leading American advocate of a free-trade industrial society, which is what he believed the socialists meant by capitalism. ... Social Darwinism is the idea that Charles Darwins theory can be extended and applied to the social realm, i. ... Herbert Spencer (27 April 1820 – 8 December 1903) was an English philosopher and prominent classic-liberal political theorist. ... Image of traditional cultural paternalism: Father Junipero Serra in a modern portrayal at Mission San Juan Capistrano, California Paternalism refers usually to an attitude or a policy stemming from the hierarchic pattern of a family based on patriarchy, that is, there is a figurehead (the father, pater in Latin) that...


Early 20th century

See also: Old Right (United States)

In the Progressive Era (1890s-1932), regulation of industry expanded at a rapid pace. Much of the opposition to this governmental expansion came from the remaining classic liberals in the Democratic Party and the corporatists in the Republican Party. Image File history File links Official portrait of Senator Robert Taft http://bioguide. ... Image File history File links Official portrait of Senator Robert Taft http://bioguide. ... Robert Alphonso Taft I (September 8, 1889 - July 31, 1953), of the Taft family political dynasty of Ohio, was a United States Senator and Presidential candidate in the United States Republican Party. ... In the United States, the Old Right, also called the Paleoconservatives are a faction of American conservatives who both opposed New Deal domestic programs and were also isolationists opposing entry into World War II. Many were associated with the Republicans of the interwar years led by Robert Taft, but some... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Classical liberalism (also known as traditional liberalism[1] and laissez-faire liberalism[2]) is a doctrine stressing the importance of human rationality, individual property rights, natural rights, constitutional limitations of government, the protection of civil liberties, an economic policy with heavy emphasis on free markets, and individual freedom from restraint... The term corporatism has different meanings in different contexts. ...


Because of their corporatist views, it was quite common for the leading Republicans at the time to go back and forth between supporting and opposing progressive measures. For instance, while opposed to many of the progressive reforms, [Nelson Aldrich]] nevertheless supported the proposal for a strong national banking system which came to be known as the Federal Reserve System in 1913. In a similar fashion, Theodore Roosevelt, the dominant personality of the era, took some "conservative" and some "liberal" stances on the major issues of the time. While leading the fight to make the country a major naval power, and demanded entry into World War I to stop what he saw as the German attacks on civilization, he nonetheless supported numerous trust busting actions. His successor, William Howard Taft, was also characterized by the same back and forth between "conservative" and "liberal" views. While in office, he promoted a strong federal judiciary that would overrule excessive legislation. Taft defeated Roosevelt on that issue in 1912, forcing Roosevelt out of the GOP and turning it to the right for decades. As president, Taft remade the Supreme Court with five appointments; he himself presided as chief justice in 1921-30, the only former president ever to do so. The term corporatism has different meanings in different contexts. ... The Fed redirects here. ... Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... William Howard Taft (September 15, 1857 – March 8, 1930) was an American politician, the twenty-seventh President of the United States, the tenth Chief Justice of the United States, a leader of the progressive conservative wing of the Republican Party in the early 20th century, a pioneer in international arbitration... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries  Atlas  Politics Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym...


Pro-business Republicans returned to dominance in 1920 with the election of President Warren G. Harding. The presidency of Calvin Coolidge (1923-29) was a high water mark for conservatism, both politically and intellectually. Classic writing of the period includes Democracy and Leadership (1924) by Irving Babbitt and H.L. Mencken's magazine American Mercury (1924-33). The Efficiency Movement attracted many conservatives such as Herbert Hoover with its pro-business, pro-engineer approach to solving social and economic problems. Furthermore, in the 1920s many American conservatives generally maintained antiforeign attitudes and, as usual, were disinclined toward changes to the healthy economic climate of the age. Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2, 1865 – August 2, 1923) was an American politician and the twenty-ninth President of the United States, from 1921 to 1923, when he became the sixth president to die in office. ... John Calvin Coolidge, Jr. ... The Efficiency Movement was a major dimension of the Progressive Era in the United States. ... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933), was a world-famous mining engineer and humanitarian administrator. ...


During the Great Depression, other conservatives participated in the taxpayers' revolt at the local level. From 1930 to 1933, Americans formed as many as 3,000 taxpayers' leagues to protest high property taxes. These groups endorsed measures to limit and rollback taxes, lowered penalties on tax delinquents, and cuts in government spending. A few also called for illegal resistance (or tax strikes). Probably the best known of these was led by the Association of Real Estate Taxpayers in Chicago which, at its height, had 30,000 dues-paying members. The Great Depression was a dramatic, worldwide economic downturn beginning in some countries as early as 1928. ... Property tax, millage tax is an ad valorem tax that an owner of real estate or other property pays on the value of the property being taxed. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


An important intellectual movement, calling itself Southern Agrarians and based in Nashville, brought together like-minded novelists, poets and historians who argued that modern values undermined the traditions of American republicanism and civic virtue. The Southern Agrarians or Vanderbilt Agrarians were a group of 12 American Traditionalist writers and poets from the Southern United States who joined together to publish the Agrarian manifesto, a collection of essays entitled Ill Take My Stand in 1930. ... Republicanism is the political value system that has dominated American political thought since the American Revolution. ...


The Depression brought liberals to power under President Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933). Indeed the term "liberal" now came to mean a supporter of the New Deal. In 1934 Al Smith and pro-business Democrats formed the American Liberty League to fight the new liberalism, but failed. In 1936 the Republicans rejected Hoover and tried the more liberal Alf Landon, who carried only Maine and Vermont. When Roosevelt tried to pack the Supreme Court in 1937 the conservatives finally cooperated across party lines and defeated it with help from Vice President John Nance Garner. Roosevelt unsuccessfully tried to purge the conservative Democrats in the 1938 election. The conservatives in Congress then formed a bipartisan informal Conservative Coalition of Republicans and southern Democrats. It largely controlled Congress from 1937 to 1964. Its most prominent leaders were Senator Robert Taft, a Republican of Ohio, and Senator Richard Russell, Democrat of Georgia. FDR redirects here. ... The New Deal was the title President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave to the series of programs he initiated between 1933 and 1938 with the goal of providing relief, recovery, and reform (3 Rs) to the people and economy of the United States during the Great Depression. ... Alfred Emanuel Al Smith (December 30, 1873 – October 4, 1944) was Governor of New York, and Democratic U.S. presidential candidate in 1928. ... The American Liberty League was a U.S. organization formed in 1934 by conservative Democrats such as Al Smith (the 1928 Democratic presidential nominee), Jouett Shouse (former high party official and U.S. Representative), John Davis (the 1924 Democratic presidential nominee), and John Jacob Raskob (former Democratic National Chairman and... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Alf Landon Alfred Mossman Alf Landon (September 9, 1887 – October 12, 1987) was an American Republican politician from Kansas, who was defeated in a landslide by Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1936 presidential election. ... The Judiciary Reorganization Bill of 1937, frequently called the Court-packing Bill, was a law proposed by United States President Franklin Roosevelt. ... John Nance Garner IV (November 22, 1868 – November 7, 1967) was a Representative from Texas and the thirty-second Vice President of the United States (1933-41). ... The Conservative coalition was a coalition in American politics bringing together Republicans (most of whom were conservatives) and the minority of conservative Democrats, most of them from the South. ... Robert A. Taft Robert Alphonso Taft (September 8, 1889 - July 31, 1953), of the Taft political family of Ohio, was a United States Senator and sought to be the Presidential candidate of the Republican Party in 1940 and 1952. ... Richard Russell can refer to several people: Richard Russell, Sr. ...

1936 cartoon shows GOP building its platform from the conservative planks abandoned by the Democrats

In the United States, the Old Right, also called the Old Guard, was a group of libertarian, free-market anti-interventionists, originally associated with Midwestern Republicans and Southern Democrats. The Republicans (but not the southern Democrats) were isolationists in 1939-41, (see America First), and later opposed NATO and U.S. military intervention in Korea. According to historian Murray Rothbard, "the libertarian intellectuals were in the minority...[and] theirs was the only thought-out contrasting ideology to the New Deal." Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1195x1559, 324 KB) Summary US cartoon 1936, parody on American politics Licensing This image is a single panel from the interior of a single issue of a comic book and the copyright for it is most likely owned by either the... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1195x1559, 324 KB) Summary US cartoon 1936, parody on American politics Licensing This image is a single panel from the interior of a single issue of a comic book and the copyright for it is most likely owned by either the... The Old Right refers to separate political groups in the United Kingdom and the United States. ... This article does not adequately cite its references. ... America First was a series of 20th Century isolation movements that opposed United States involvement in international affairs. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... Combatants United Nations:  Republic of Korea,  Australia,  Belgium,  Luxembourg,  Canada,  Colombia,  Ethiopia,  France,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Philippines,  South Africa,  Thailand,  Turkey,  United Kingdom,  United States Medical staff:  Denmark,  Australia,  Italy,  Norway,  Sweden Communist states:  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,  Peoples Republic of China,  Soviet Union Commanders... Murray Newton Rothbard (March 2, 1926 – January 7, 1995) was an influential American economist, historian and natural law theorist belonging to the Austrian School of Economics who helped define modern libertarianism. ...


Later 20th century: Goldwater, Buckley, the Dixiecrats

By 1950, American liberalism was so dominant intellectually that author Lionel Trilling could dismiss contemporary conservatism as "irritable mental gestures which seek to resemble ideas." [11] American liberalism—that is, liberalism in the United States of America—is a broad political and philosophical mindset, favoring individual liberty, and opposing restrictions on liberty, whether they come from established religion, from government regulation, from the existing class structure, or from multi-national corporations. ... Lionel Trilling (July 4, 1905 – November 5, 1975) was an American literary critic, author, and teacher. ...


In the 1950s, principles for a conservative political movement were hashed out in books like Russell Kirk's The Conservative Mind (1953) and in the pages of the magazine National Review, founded by William F. Buckley Jr. in 1955. National Review editor Frank Meyer used the pages of the magazine to advocate "fusionism", the combination of traditional conseratives and libertarians into a unqiue American style of conservatism. William Frank Buckley Jr. ... Frank Meyer (born 1909, died 1972) was a conservative political philosopher and co-founding editor of National Review. ... Fusionism is an American political term for the combination or fusion of libertarians and traditional conservatives in the American conservative movement. ...


Whereas Taft's Old Right had been isolationist the new conservatism favored American intervention overseas to oppose communism. It looked to the Founding Fathers for historical inspiration as opposed to Calhoun and the antebellum South. In the United States, the Old Right, also called the Paleoconservatives are a faction of American conservatives who both opposed New Deal domestic programs and were also isolationists opposing entry into World War II. Many were associated with the Republicans of the interwar years led by Robert Taft, but some...


Ironically, as the Democratic Party became identified with the American Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s through 1970s, many former southern Democrats joined the Republican Party, even in the face of greater proportional support for civil rights legislation among Republicans, thereby increasingly cementing the Republicans' alignment as a conservative party. Senator Barry Goldwater, sometimes known as "Mr. Conservative," argued in his 1960 Conscience of a Conservative that conservatives split on the issue of civil rights due to some conservatives advocating ends (integration, even in the face of what they saw as unconstitutional Federal involvement) and some advocating means (constitutionality above all else, even in the face of segregation). Republicans joined northern Democrats to override a filibuster of the Civil Rights Act in 1964. Later that year, Goldwater was resoundingly defeated by President Lyndon B. Johnson. Martin Luther King is perhaps most famous for his I Have a Dream speech, given in front of the Lincoln Memorial during the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom This article is about the civil rights movement following the Brown v. ... Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–1965, 1969–87) and the Republican Partys nominee for president in the 1964 election. ... The Conscience of a Conservative was a book written by L. Brent Bozell in 1960, but attributed solely to Barry Goldwater Categories: United States politics stubs | Controversial books | Political books ... The Rex Theatre for Colored People Racial segregation is characterized by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home[1]. Segregation... “LBJ” redirects here. ...

Out of this defeat emerged the New Right, a political movement that coalesced through grassroots organizing in the years preceding Goldwater's 1964 presidential campaign. The American New Right is distinct from and opposed to the more moderate/liberal tradition of the so-called Rockefeller Republicans, and succeeded in building a policy approach and electoral apparatus that propelled Ronald Reagan into the White House in the 1980 presidential election. http://bioguide. ... http://bioguide. ... Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–1965, 1969–87) and the Republican Partys nominee for president in the 1964 election. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In the United States, the term Rockefeller Republican refers to those members of the Republican party who hold moderate views similar to those of the late Nelson Rockefeller, governor of New York from 1959 to 1973 and vice president of the United States under President Gerald Ford in the mid... Ronald Wilson Reagan, GCB (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ... The United States presidential election of 1980 featured a contest between incumbent Democrat Jimmy Carter and his Republican opponent, Ronald Reagan, along with a third party candidate, the liberal Republican John B. Anderson. ...

Nixon, Reagan, and Bush

See also: Nixon and the liberal consensus
American liberalism—that is, liberalism in the United States of America—is a broad political and philosophical mindset, favoring individual liberty, and opposing restrictions on liberty, whether they come from established religion, from government regulation, from the existing class structure, or from multi-national corporations. ...


The Republican administrations of President Richard Nixon in the 1970s were characterized more by their emphasis on realpolitik, détente, and economic policies such as wage and price controls, than by their adherence to conservative views in foreign and economic policy. Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... Realpolitik (German: real (realistic, practical or actual) and Politik (politics)) is a term that is synonomous to Machiavellianism and is used to describe politics based on strictly practical rather than ideological notions, and practiced without any sentimental illusions. Realpolitik is usually used pejoratively as a term to imply politics imposed... Détente is a French term, meaning a relaxing or easing; the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s. ...

Thus, it was not until the election of 1980 and the subsequent eight years of Ronald Reagan's presidency that the American conservative movement truly achieved ascendancy. In that election, Republicans took control of the Senate for the first time since 1954, and conservative principles dominated Reagan's economic and foreign policies, with supply side economics and strict opposition to Soviet Communism defining the Administration's philosophy. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (594x750, 49 KB) Official Portrait of President Reagan, 1981. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (594x750, 49 KB) Official Portrait of President Reagan, 1981. ... Order: 40th President Term of Office: January 20, 1981–January 20, 1989 Preceded by: Jimmy Carter Succeeded by: George H.W. Bush Date of birth: February 6, 1911 Place of birth: Tampico, Illinois Date of death: June 5, 2004 Place of death: Los Angeles, California First Lady: Nancy Reagan... The United States presidential election of 1980 featured a contest between incumbent Democrat Jimmy Carter and his Republican opponent, Ronald Reagan, along with a third party candidate, the liberal Republican John B. Anderson. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan, GCB (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ... Supply-side economics is a school of macroeconomic thought which emphasizes the importance of tax cuts and business incentives in encouraging economic growth, in the belief that businesses and individuals will use their tax savings to create new businesses and expand old businesses, which in turn will increase productivity, employment...


An icon of the American conservative movement, Reagan is credited by his supporters with transforming the politics of 1980s United States, galvanizing the success of the Republican Party, uniting a coalition of economic conservatives who supported his economic policies, known as "Reaganomics," foreign policy conservatives who favored his staunch opposition to Communism and the Soviet Union over the détente of his predecessors, and social conservatives who identified with Reagan's conservative religious and social ideals. Reagan, in attempting to define conservativism, said: "If you analyze it I believe the very heart and soul of conservatism is libertarianism. I think conservatism is really a misnomer just as liberalism is a misnomer for the liberals -- if we were back in the days of the Revolution, so-called conservatives today would be the Liberals and the liberals would be the Tories. The basis of conservatism is a desire for less government interference or less centralized authority or more individual freedom and this is a pretty general description also of what libertarianism is."[12] Supply-side economics is a school of macroeconomic thought which emphasizes the importance of tax cuts and business incentives in encouraging economic growth, in the belief that businesses and individuals will use their tax savings to create new businesses and expand old businesses, which in turn will increase productivity, employment... Ronald Reagan, the US president from which Reaganomics derives its name Reaganomics (a blend of Reagan and economics, coined by radio broadcaster Paul Harvey) is a term that has been used to both describe and decry free market advocacy economic policies of U.S. President Ronald Reagan, who served from... Détente is a French term, meaning a relaxing or easing; the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s. ...


It is hotly debated whether the successive Republican Administrations of Presidents George H. W. Bush and George W. Bush are truly conservative. George W. Bush campaigned in 2000 as a "compassionate conservative," but in his second term, conservative critics have negatively cited his increases in Federal spending and the Federal deficits; in contrast, he is often lauded by some conservatives for his commitment to conservative social and religious values, tax-cut initiatives, and a strong national defense which lead to "tax and spend" practices that most would associate with Democrats, despite Bush's claim to conservatism. George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... In the United States presidential election of 2000 Republican George W. Bush gained the US Presidency over Democrat Al Gore on December 12, 2000 in the United States Supreme Court case Bush v. ... Compassionate conservatism is a political ideology and phrase that was invented by radio talk show host Michael Savage in 1994 and Marvin Olasky, whose book Compassionate Conservatism: What it is, What it Does, and How it Can Transform America was published in 2000. ...


Types of conservatism

Defining "American conservatism" requires a definition of conservatism in general, and the term is applied to a number of ideas and ideologies, some more closely related to core conservative beliefs than others.


1. Classical or institutional conservatism - Opposition to rapid change in governmental and societal institutions. This kind of conservatism is anti-ideological insofar as it emphasizes process (slow change) over product (any particular form of government). To the classical conservative, whether one arrives at a right- or left-leaning government is less important than whether change is effected through rule of law rather than through revolution and sudden innovation. The storming of the Bastille, 14 July 1789 during the French Revolution. ...


2. Ideological conservatism or right-wing conservatism -- In contrast to the anti-ideological classical conservatism, right-wing conservatism is, as its name implies, ideological. It is typified by three distinct subideologies: social conservatism, fiscal conservatism, and economic liberalism. Together, these subideologies comprise the conservative ideology, while separately, these subideologies are incorporated into other political positions. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Fiscal conservatism (also known as economic liberalism) is a term used in the United States to refer to economic and political policy that advocates restraint of government taxation, government expenditures and deficits, and government debt. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


3. Neoconservatism has come to refer to the views of a subclass of conservatives who support a more assertive foreign policy coupled with one or more other facets of social conservatism, in contrast to the typically isolationist views of early- and mid-20th century conservatives. Neoconservatism was first described by a group of disaffected liberals, and thus Irving Kristol, usually credited as its intellectual progenitor, defined a "neoconservative" as "a liberal who was mugged by reality." Although originally regarded as an approach to domestic policy (the founding instrument of the movement, Kristol's The Public Interest periodical, did not even cover foreign affairs), through the influence of figures like Dick Cheney, Robert Kagan, Richard Perle, Ken Adelman and (Irving's son) William Kristol, it has become more famous for its association with the foreign policy of the George W. Bush Administration. Neoconservatism is a political movement that emerged as a rejection of liberalism and the New Left counter-culture of the 1960s. ... Irving Kristol Irving Kristol (born January 22, 1920, New York City) is considered the founder of American neoconservatism. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into The_Public_Interest_Magazine. ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941), is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ... Robert Kagan (born September 26, 1958) is an American neoconservative scholar and political commentator. ... Richard Norman Perle (born 16 September 1941 in New York City) is an American political advisor and lobbyist who worked for the Reagan administration as an assistant Secretary of Defense and worked on the Defense Policy Board Advisory Committee from 1987 to 2004. ... William Bill Kristol (born December 23, 1952 in New York City) is an American conservative pundit, inspired in part by the ideas of Leo Strauss. ...


4. Small government conservatism -- Small government conservatives look for a decreased role of the federal government, and as well weaker state governments. Small government conservatives rather than focusing of the protections given individuals by the Bill of Rights, they try to weaken the federal government, thereby following the Founding Fathers who were suspicious of a centralized, unitary state like Britain, from which they had just won their freedom.


5. Paleoconservatism, which arose in the 1980s in reaction to neoconservatism, stresses tradition, civil society, classical federalism and heritage of Christendom. They see social democracy, ideology, and managerial society as malevolent attempts to remake humanity. [8] Supporters say that the dominant forces in Western society no longer support conserving the traditions, institutions, and values that created and formed it. [9] Therefore, they say true conservatives must oppose the status quo. In statecraft, they call for decentralism, local rule, private property and minimal bureaucracy. [10] In society, they are traditionalist, support a Christian moral order and proclaim the nuclear family is a wise system. Some like Samuel P. Huntington argue that multiracial, multiethnic, and egalitarian states are inherently unstable.[13] Paleos are generally noninterventionist, arguing that American entry into foreign wars is unnecessary and unwise. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This T-and-O map, which abstracts the known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Non-interventionism is a foreign policy which holds that political rulers should avoid alliances with other nations and avoid all wars not related to direct territorial self-defense. ...


Conservatism as "ideology," or political philosophy

Classical conservatives tend to be anti-ideological, and some would even say anti-philosophical,[14] promoting rather, as Russell Kirk explains, a steady flow of "prescription and prejudice." Kirk's use of the word "prejudice" here is not intended to carry its contemporary pejorative connotation: a conservative himself, he believes that the inherited wisdom of the ages may be a better guide than apparently rational individual judgment. Russell Kirk Russell Kirk (1918, Plymouth, Michigan – 29 April 1994, Mecosta, Michigan), was an American political theorist, historian, social critic, and man of letters, best known for his influence on 20th century American conservatism. ...


In contrast to classical conservatism, social conservatism and fiscal conservatism are concerned with consequences as well as means.


There are two overlapping subgroups of social conservatives—the traditional and the religious. Traditional conservatives strongly support traditional codes of conduct, especially those they feel are threatened by new ideas. For example, traditional conservatives may oppose the use of female soldiers in combat. Religious conservatives focus on rules laid down by religious leaders. In the United States, they especially oppose abortion and homosexuality and often favor the use of government institutions, such as schools and courts, to promote Christianity. Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ...


Fiscal conservatives support limited government, limited taxation, and a balanced budget. Some admit the necessity of taxes, but hold that taxes should be low. A recent movement against the inheritance tax labels such a tax a death tax. Fiscal conservatives often argue that competition in the free market is more effective than the regulation of industry, with the exception of industries that exhibit market dominance or monopoly powers. For some this is a matter of principle, as it is for the libertarians and others influenced by thinkers such as Ludwig von Mises, who believed that government intervention in the economy is inevitably wasteful and inherently corrupt and immoral. For others, "free market economics" simply represents the most efficient way to promote economic growth: they support it not based on some moral principle, but pragmatically, because it "works". The term death tax in the United States is a reference by opponents of the estate tax to the fact that a death must occur prior to a tax on the value of a deceased individuals assets is assessed. ... Ludwig Heinrich Edler von Mises (September 29, 1881 – October 10, 1973) (IPA: ) was a notable economist and a major influence on the modern libertarian movement. ...


Most modern American fiscal conservatives accept some social spending programs not specifically delineated in the Constitution. As such, fiscal conservatism today exists somewhere between classical conservatism and contemporary consequentialist political philosophies.


Throughout much of the 20th century, one of the primary forces uniting the occasionally disparate strands of conservatism, and uniting conservatives with their liberal and socialist opponents, was opposition to communism, which was seen not only as an enemy of the traditional order, but also the enemy of western freedom and democracy. Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and movements which aim to improve society through collective and egalitarian action; and to a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ...


Social conservatism and tradition

Main article: Social conservatism

Social conservatism or "cultural conservatism" is generally dominated by defense of traditional social norms and values, of local customs and of societal evolution, rather than social upheaval, though the distinction is not absolute. Often based upon religion, modern cultural conservatives, in contrast to "small-government" conservatives and "states-rights" advocates, increasingly turn to the federal government to overrule the states in order to preserve educational and moral standards. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Social conservatives emphasize traditional views of social units such as the family, church, or locale. Social conservatives would typically define family in terms of local histories and tastes. To the Protestant or Catholic, social conservatism may entail support for defining marriage as between a man and a woman (thereby banning gay marriage) and laws placing restrictions on abortion. a family of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso in 1997 Family is a Western term used to denote a domestic group of people, or a number of domestic groups linked through descent (demonstrated or stipulated) from a common ancestor, marriage or adoption. ... It has been suggested that Ecclesia (Church) be merged into this article or section. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


From this same respect for local traditions comes the correlation between conservatism and patriotism. [citation needed] Conservatives, out of their respect for traditional, established institutions, tend to strongly identify with nationalist movements, existing governments, and its defenders: police, the military, and national poets, authors, and artists. Conservatives hold that military institutions embody admirable values like honor, duty, courage, and loyalty. Military institutions are independent sources of tradition and ritual pageantry that conservatives tend to admire.


Some conservatives want to use federal power to block state actions they disapprove of. Thus in the 21st century came support for the "No Child Left Behind" program, support for a constitutional amendment prohibiting same-sex marriage, support for federal laws overruling states that attempt to legalize marijuana or assisted suicide. The willingness to use federal power to intervene in state affairs is the negation of the old state's rights position. Signing ceremony at Hamilton High School in Hamilton, Ohio. ... International recognition Civil unions and Domestic partnerships Recognized in some regions Unregistered co-habitation Recognition debated See also Same-sex marriage Civil union Registered partnership Domestic partnership Timeline of same-sex marriage Listings by country This box:      Same-sex marriage is a term for a governmentally, socially, or religiously recognized... World laws on cannabis possession (small amount). ... Euthanasia (from Ancient Greek: ευθανασία, good death) is the practice of ending the life of a terminally ill person in a painless or minimally painful way, for the purpose of limiting suffering. ...


Anti-intellectualism has sometimes been a component of social conservatism, especially when intellectuals were seen in opposition to religion or as proponents of "progress". [15] In the 1920s, William Jennings Bryan led the battle against Darwinism and evolution, a battle which still goes on in conservative circles today. William Jennings Bryan (March 19, 1860 – July 26, 1925) was an American lawyer, statesman, and politician. ...


Fiscal conservatism

Main article: Fiscal conservatism

Fiscal conservatism is the economic and political policy that advocates restraint of governmental taxation and expenditures. Fiscal conservatives since the 18th century have argued that debt is a device to corrupt politics; they argue that big spending ruins the morals of the people, and that a national debt creates a dangerous class of speculators. The argument in favor of balanced budgets is often coupled with a belief that government welfare programs should be narrowly tailored and that tax rates should be low, which implies relatively small government institutions. Fiscal conservatism (also known as economic liberalism) is a term used in the United States to refer to economic and political policy that advocates restraint of government taxation, government expenditures and deficits, and government debt. ... A balanced budget embodies maintaining a net government surplus, meaning the government takes in more in taxes than in spends. ...


This belief in small government combines with fiscal conservatism to produce a broader economic liberalism, which wishes to minimize government intervention in the economy. This amounts to support for laissez-faire economics. This economic liberalism borrows from two schools of thought: the classical liberals' pragmatism and the libertarian's notion of "rights." The classical liberal maintains that free markets work best, while the libertarian contends that free markets are the only ethical markets. Laissez-faire is short for laissez faire, laissez passer, a French phrase meaning to let things alone, let them pass. First used by the eighteenth century Physiocrats as an injunction against government interference with trade, it is now used as a synonym for strict free market economics. ...


Economic liberalism

The economic philosophy of conservatives in the United States tends to be liberalism. Economic liberalism can go well beyond fiscal conservatism's concern for fiscal prudence, to a belief or principle that it is not prudent for governments to intervene in markets. It is also, sometimes, extended to a broader "small government" philosophy. Economic liberalism is associated with free-market, or laissez-faire economics. Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In civics, minarchism, sometimes called minimal statism or small government, is the view that the size, role and influence of government in a free society should be minimal — only large enough to protect the liberty and property of each individual. ... A free market describes a theoretical, idealised, or actual market where the prices of goods and services is arranged completely by the mutual non-coerced consent of sellers and buyers, determined generally by the supply and demand law with no government interference in the regulation of costs, supply and demand. ... Laissez-faire is short for laissez faire, laissez passer, a French phrase meaning to let things alone, let them pass. First used by the eighteenth century Physiocrats as an injunction against government interference with trade, it is now used as a synonym for strict free market economics. ...


Economic liberalism, insofar as it is ideological, owes its creation to the "classical liberal" tradition, in the vein of Adam Smith, Friedrich A. Hayek, Milton Friedman, and Ludwig von Mises. Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Adam Smith FRSE (baptised June 5, 1723 O.S. / June 16 N.S. – July 17, 1790) was a Scottish moral philosopher and a pioneering political economist. ... Friedrich Hayek Friedrich August von Hayek (May 8, 1899 – March 23, 1992) was an economist and social scientist of the Austrian School, noted for his defense of free-market capitalism against a rising tide of socialist thought in the mid-20th century. ... Milton Friedman (July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was a prominent American economist and public intellectual. ... Ludwig Heinrich Edler von Mises (September 29, 1881 – October 10, 1973) (IPA: ) was a notable economist and a major influence on the modern libertarian movement. ...


Classical liberals and libertarians support free markets on moral, ideological grounds: principles of individual liberty morally dictate support for free markets. Supporters of the moral grounds for free markets include Ayn Rand and Ludwig von Mises. The liberal tradition is suspicious of government authority, and prefers individual choice, and hence tends to see capitalist economics as the preferable means of achieving economic ends. Ayn Rand (IPA: , February 2 [O.S. January 20] 1905 – March 6, 1982), born Alisa Zinovyevna Rosenbaum (Russian: ), was a Russian-born American novelist and philosopher,[1] best known for developing Objectivism and for writing the novels We the Living, The Fountainhead, Atlas Shrugged and the novella Anthem. ... Ludwig Heinrich Edler von Mises (September 29, 1881 – October 10, 1973) (IPA: ) was a notable economist and a major influence on the modern libertarian movement. ...


Modern conservatives, on the other hand, derive support for free markets from practical grounds. Free markets, they argue, are the most productive markets. Thus the modern conservative supports free markets not out of necessity, but out of expedience. The support is not moral or ideological, but driven on the Burkean notion of prescription: what works best is what is right.


Another reason why conservatives support a smaller role for the government in the economy is the belief in the importance of the civil society. As noted by Alexis de Tocqueville, a bigger role of the government in the economy will make people feel less responsible for the society. The responsibilities must then be taken over by the government, requiring higher taxes. In his book Democracy in America, De Tocqueville describes this as "soft oppression". The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Civil society is composed of the totality of voluntary civic and social organizations and institutions that form the basis of a functioning society as opposed to the force-backed structures of a state (regardless of that states political system) and commercial institutions. ... For other uses, see Tocqueville (disambiguation) Alexis de Tocqueville Alexis-Charles-Henri Clérel de Tocqueville (Verneuil-sur-Seine, ÃŽle-de-France, July 29, 1805– Cannes, April 16, 1859) was a French political thinker and historian. ... De la démocratie en Amérique (published in two volumes, the first in 1835 and the second in 1840) is a classic French text by Alexis de Tocqueville on the United States in the 1830s and its strengths and weaknesses. ...


It must be noted that while classical liberals and modern conservatives reached free markets through different means historically, to-date the lines have blurred. Rarely will a politician claim that free markets are "simply more productive" or "simply the right thing to do" but a combination of both. This blurring is very much a product of the merging of the classical liberal and modern conservative positions under the "umbrella" of the conservative movement.


The archetypal free-market conservative administrations of the late 20th century -- the Margaret Thatcher government in the UK and the Ronald Reagan government in the U.S. -- both held the unfettered operation of the market to be the cornerstone of contemporary modern conservatism (this philosophy is sometimes called neoliberalism). To that end, Thatcher privatized industries and Reagan cut the maximum capital gains tax from 28% to 20%, though in his second term he raised it back up to 28%. Contrary to the neoliberal ideal, Reagan increased government spending from about 700 billion in his first year in office to about 900 billion in his last year. [16] Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC (born October 13, 1925), former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, in office from 1979 to 1990. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan, GCB (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ... For the school of international relations, see Neoliberalism (international relations). ...


The interests of capitalism, fiscal and economic liberalism, and free-market economy do not necessarily coincide with those of social conservatism. At times, aspects of capitalism and free markets have been profoundly subversive of the existing social order, as in economic modernization, or of traditional attitudes toward the proper position of sex in society, as in the now near-universal availability of pornography. To that end, on issues at the intersection of economic and social policy, conservatives of one school or another are often at odds. Capitalism generally refers to an economic system in which the means of production are all or mostly privately[1][2] owned and operated for profit, and in which investments, distribution, income, production and pricing of goods and services are determined through the operation of a free market. ... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... Porn redirects here. ...


Conservatism in the United States electoral politics

See also: Dixiecrats, Southern strategy, Solid South, Contract with America The States Rights Democratic Party, usually known as the Dixiecrat Party, was a short-lived splinter group that broke from the Democratic Party in 1948. ... In American politics, the Southern strategy refers to the focus of the Republican party on winning U.S. Presidential elections by securing the electoral votes of the U.S. Southern states. ... The phrase Solid South describes the electoral support of the Southern United States for Democratic Party candidates for almost a century after the Reconstruction era, 1876-1964. ... The Contract with America was a document released by the Republican Party of the United States during the 1994 Congressional election campaign. ...


In the United States, the Republican Party is generally considered to be the party of conservatism. This has been the case since the 1960s, when the conservative wing of that party consolidated its hold, causing it to shift permanently to the right of the Democratic Party. The most dramatic realignment was the white South, which moved from 3-1 Democratic to 3-1 Republican between 1960 and 2000. The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic...

Map of results by state of the 2004 U.S. presidential election representing states won by the Republicans with red, and states won by the Democrats with blue.

In addition, many United States libertarians, in the Libertarian Party and even some in the Republican Party, see themselves as conservative, even though they advocate significant economic and social changes – for instance, further dismantling the welfare system or liberalizing drug policy. They see these as conservative policies because they conform to the spirit of individual liberty that they consider to be a traditional American value. It should be noted that although libertarians have had closer ties with conservatives, they do not typically believe themselves to be conservative. Red denotes Bush-Cheney wins. ... Red denotes Bush-Cheney wins. ... Presidential election results map. ... The Libertarian Party is an American political party founded on Dec. ... Welfare is financial assistance paid by taxpayers to groups of people who are unable to support themselves, and determined to be able to function more effectively with financial assistance. ... This article deals with the libertarianism as defined in America and several other nations. ...


On the other end of the scale, some Americans see themselves as conservative while not being supporters of free market policies. These people generally favor protectionist trade policies and government intervention in the market to preserve American jobs. Many of these conservatives were originally supporters of neoliberalism who changed their stance after perceiving that countries such as China were benefiting from that system at the expense of American production. However, despite their support for protectionism, they still tend to favor other elements of free market philosophy, such as low taxes, limited government and balanced budgets. Protectionism is the economic policy of promoting favored domestic industries through the use of high tariffs and other regulations to discourage imports. ... For the school of international relations, see Neoliberalism (international relations). ...


Conservative geography, "Red States"

Today in the U.S., geographically the South, the Midwest, the non-coastal West, and Alaska are conservative strongholds. However, the division of the United States into conservative red states and liberal blue states is artificial and does not reflect the actual distribution of voters of either stripe. Most college towns are generally liberal and vote Democratic. The majority of people who live in rural areas and a slightly smaller majority of those living in the "exurbs" or suburbs of a metropolitan area, tend to be conservative (socially, culturally, and/or fiscally) and vote Republican. People who live in the urban cores of large metropolitan areas tend to be liberal and vote Democratic. Thus, within each state, there is a division between city and county, between town and gown. [11] [12] This article is 88 kilobytes or more in size. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Official language(s) English[1] Spoken language(s) English 85. ... ... ... Commuters waiting for the morning train in Maplewood, New Jersey to travel to New York City A commuter town, is an urban community that is primarily residential, from which most of the workforce commute to a nearby metropolis to earn their livelihood. ... Illustration of the backyards of a surburban neighbourhood Suburbs are inhabited districts located either on the outer rim of a city or outside the official limits of a city (the term varies from country to country), or the outer elements of a conurbation. ... Town and gown is a term used to describe the two communities of a university town; town being the non-academic population and gown the university community, especially in traditional seats of learning such as Oxford and Cambridge. ...


Other topics

Conservatism and change

"Conservatism" is not necessarily opposed to change. For example, the Reagan administration in the U.S. and that of Margaret Thatcher in the UK both professed conservatism, but during Reagan's term of office, the United States radically revised its tax code, while Thatcher dismantled several previously nationalized industries and made major reforms in taxation and housing; furthermore, both took, or attempted, significant measures to reduce the power of labor unions. These changes were justified on the grounds that they were changing back to the conditions of a better time. Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC (born October 13, 1925), former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, in office from 1979 to 1990. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers...


Various "Conservative" parties have presided over periods of economic expansion which have been disruptive of previous social and political arrangements, for example the Republican Party in 1920s America, and the Bharatiya Janata Party in late 1990s India. The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. ... The Bharatiya Janata Party [BJP] (Hindi: , English: ), created in 1980, is a major Indian political party. ...


Political memory can be of various durations, and the traditions conservatives embrace can be of relatively recent invention. The prevalence of the nuclear family is, at most, a few decades old. Western democracy itself is a late 18th century invention. Corporate capitalism is even newer. The reference to God in the Pledge of Allegiance only goes back to the 1950s. The race-blind meritocracy now embraced by many U.S. conservatives as an alternative to affirmative action would have seemed quite radical to most U.S. conservatives in the 1950s. The term nuclear family developed in the western world to distinguish the family group consisting of parents (usually a father and mother) and their children, from what is known as an extended family. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... The Pledge of Allegiance is a promise or oath of allegiance to the United States as represented by its national flag. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Affirmative action refers to policie intended to discriminate against white males and/or to promote access to education or employment aimed at a historically socio-politically non-dominant group (typically, minorities or women). ...


Contemporary conservative platform

In the United States and western Europe, conservatism is generally associated with the following views, as noted by Russell Kirk in his book, The Conservative Mind: World map showing the location of Europe. ... Russell Kirk Russell Kirk (1918, Plymouth, Michigan – 29 April 1994, Mecosta, Michigan), was an American political theorist, historian, social critic, and man of letters, best known for his influence on 20th century American conservatism. ...

  1. "Belief in a transcendent order, or body of natural law, which rules society as well as conscience."
  2. "Affection for the proliferating variety and mystery of human existence, as opposed to the narrowing uniformity, egalitarianism, and utilitarian aims of most radical systems;"
  3. "Persuasion that freedom and property are closely linked: separate property from private possession, and the Leviathan becomes master of all."
  4. "Faith in prescription and distrust of 'sophisters, calculators, and economists' who would reconstruct society upon abstract designs."
  5. "Recognition that change may not be salutary reform: hasty innovation may be a devouring conflagration, rather than a torch of progress."

There is currently debate over whether the policies of the George W. Bush Administration accurately reflect American conservative values: Peggy Noonan, writing for the Wall Street Journal, recently said, "For this we fought the Reagan revolution? A year into his second term, President Bush is redefining what it means to be a Republican and a conservative. The Bush administration includes President George W. Bush, Vice President Richard Cheney, Bushs Cabinet, and other select officials and advisors. ... Peggy Noonan (born Margaret Ellen Noonan on September 7, 1950 in Brooklyn, New York) is an author of seven books on politics, religion and culture, a weekly columnist for The Wall Street Journal, and was a Special Assistant to President Ronald Reagan. ... The Wall Street Journal is an influential international daily newspaper published in New York City, New York with an average daily circulation of 1,800,607 (2002). ...


Conservatism and the Courts

Main article: Originalism

One stream of conservatism exemplified by William Howard Taft extols independent judges as experts in fairness and the final arbiters of the Constitution. However, another more populist stream of conservatism condemns "judicial activism" -- that is, judges rejecting laws passed by Congress or interpreting old laws in new ways. This position goes back to Jefferson's vehement attacks on federal judges and to Abraham Lincoln's attacks on the Dred Scott decision of 1857. In 1910 Theodore Roosevelt broke with most of his lawyer friends and called for popular votes that could overturn unwelcome decisions by state courts. President Franklin D. Roosevelt did not attack the Supreme Court directly in 1937, but ignited a firestorm of protest by a proposal to add seven new justices. The Warren Court of the 1960s came under conservative attack for decisions regarding redistricting, desegregation, and the rights of those accused of crimes. Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States, by Howard Chandler Christy. ... William Howard Taft (September 15, 1857 – March 8, 1930) was an American politician, the twenty-seventh President of the United States, the tenth Chief Justice of the United States, a leader of the progressive conservative wing of the Republican Party in the early 20th century, a pioneer in international arbitration... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... Dred Scott Dred Scott (ca. ... Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ... FDR redirects here. ... Earl Warren Earl Warren (March 19, 1891 – July 9, 1974) was a California district attorney and 30th Governor of California, but is best known as the 14th Chief Justice of the United States from 1953-1969. ...


A more recent variant that emerged in the 1970s is "originalism", the assertion that the United States Constitution should be interpreted to the maximum extent possible in the light of what it meant when it was adopted. Originalism should not be confused with a similar conservative ideology, strict constructionism, which deals with the interpretation of the Constitution as written, but not necessarily within the context of the time when it was adopted. Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States, by Howard Chandler Christy. ... The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... Strict constructionism is a philosophy of judicial interpretation and legal philosophy that limits judicial interpretation to the meanings of the actual words and phrases used in law, and not on other sources or inferences. ...


Semantics, language, and media

Language

In the late 20th century conservatives found new ways to use language and the media to support their goals and to shape the vocabulary of political discourse. Thus the use of "Democrat" as an adjective, as in "Democrat Party" was used first in the 1930s by Republicans to criticize large urban Democratic machines. Republican leader Harold Stassen stated in 1940, "I emphasized that the party controlled in large measure at that time by Hague in New Jersey, Pendergast in Missouri and Kelly Nash in Chicago should not be called a 'Democratic Party.' It should be called the 'Democrat party.'" [Safire 1994] In 1947 Senator Robert A. Taft said, "Nor can we expect any other policy from any Democrat Party or any Democrat President under present day conditions. They cannot possibly win an election solely through the support of the solid South, and yet their political strategists believe the Southern Democrat Party will not break away no matter how radical the allies imposed upon it." [Taft Papers 3:313]. The use of "Democrat" as an adjective is standard practice in Republican national platforms (since 1948), and has been standard practice in the White House since 2001, for press releases and speeches. It seems to be quite common on conservative talk radio.[citation needed] Governor Stassen Harold Edward Stassen (April 13, 1907 – March 4, 2001) was the 25th Governor of Minnesota from 1939 to 1943 and a later perennial candidate for other offices, most notably and frequently President of the United States. ... Robert A. Taft Robert Alphonso Taft (September 8, 1889 - July 31, 1953), of the Taft political family of Ohio, was a United States Senator and sought to be the Presidential candidate of the Republican Party in 1940 and 1952. ... The phrase Solid South describes the electoral support of the Southern United States for Democratic Party candidates for almost a century after the Reconstruction era, 1876-1964. ...


Radio

Conservatives gained a major new communications medium with the advent of talk radio in the 1990s. Rush Limbaugh proved there was a huge nationwide audience for specific and heated discussions of current events from a conservative viewpoint. Major hosts who describe themselves as either conservative or libertarian include: Michael Peroutka, Jim Quinn, Dennis Miller, Ben Ferguson, Lars Larson, Sean Hannity, G. Gordon Liddy, Laura Ingraham, Mark Levin, Michael Savage, Glenn Beck, Larry Elder, Neal Boortz, Michael Reagan, and Ken Hamblin. The Salem Radio Network syndicates a group of religiously-oriented Republican activists, including Catholic Hugh Hewitt, and Jewish conservatives Dennis Prager and Michael Medved. One popular Jewish conservative Dr. Laura offers parental and personal advice, but is an outspoken critic of social and political issues. Libertarians such as Neal Boortz (based in Atlanta), and Mark Davis (based in Ft. Worth and Dallas, Texas) reach large local audiences. Art Bell held some Libertarian views before his talk show adapted a new paranormal format. Many of these hosts also publish books, write newspaper columns, appear on television, and give public lectures (Limbaugh was a pioneer of this model of multi-media punditry). At a rarer level, University of Chicago psychology professor Milt Rosenberg has been hosting a talk show "Extension 720"[17] on WGN radio in Chicago since the 1970s. Talk radio provided an immediacy and a high degree of emotionalism that seldom is reached on television or in magazines. Pew researchers found in 2004 that 17% of the public regularly listens to talk radio. This audience is mostly male, middle-aged, well-educated and conservative. Among those who regularly listen to talk radio, 41% are Republicans and 28% are Democrats. Furthermore, 45% describe themselves as conservatives, compared with 18% who say they are liberal.[18] Talk radio is a radio format which features discussion of topical issues. ... Rush Hudson Limbaugh III (born January 12, 1951) is an American radio talk show host and political commentator. ... See also Libertarianism and Libertarian Party Libertarian,is a term for person who has made a conscious and principled commitment, evidenced by a statement or Pledge, to forswear violating others rights and usually living in voluntary communities: thus in law no longer subject to government supervision. ... Michael Peroutka Michael Anthony Peroutka (born 1952) is a Maryland lawyer, the founder of the Institute on the Constitution, cohost of The American View, and once held a position in the United States Department of Health and Human Services. ... Jim Quinn (b. ... Dennis Miller (born November 3, 1953, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) is an American Emmy Award-winning comedian, political commentator, television personality, and talk radio host. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Lars Larson (born March 6, 1959 in Taipei, Taiwan) is an Oregon conservative talk radio show host who recently began a national talk radio show on the Westwood One Radio Network. ... Sean Patrick Hannity (born December 30, 1961, in New York City, New York) is an American neoconservative talk radio host, a co-host of Fox News Channels program Hannity & Colmes, the host of the Fox News weekend program Hannitys America, and the author of two books. ... George Gordon Battle Liddy (born November 30, 1930) was the chief operative for U.S. President Richard Nixons White House Plumbers unit. ... Laura Anne Ingraham (born June 19, 1964 in Glastonbury, Connecticut) is an American conservative talk radio host and author. ... Mark Reed Levin (b. ... Michael Savage is the pseudonym of Michael Alan Weiner (born March 31, 1942), a controversial[1] American conservative talk radio host, author, and political pundit. ... Glenn Beck (born February 10, 1964) is a talk-radio and television host. ... Larry Elder Laurence Allen Larry Elder (born April 27, 1952 in Los Angeles, California) aka the Sage from South Central is an American libertarian-minded Republican (he has sometimes referred to his views as conservatarian) radio and former TV talk show host and author whose The Larry Elder Show is... Neal Boortz (born April 6, 1945), is a U.S. talk radio host. ... Michael Edward Reagan (born March 18, 1945 as John Flaugher), adopted son of United States President Ronald Reagan and his first wife Jane Wyman, is the host of a conservative talk radio show, the Michael Reagan Show, which is syndicated to radio stations in the United States through Radio America. ... Ken Hamblin, the self-titled Black Avenger, was host of the Ken Hamblin Show which was syndicated nationally on Entertainment Radio Networks. ... Salem Communications is a Christian radio company operating in the United States, with 95 stations across the country that are primarily located in the nations biggest markets. ... Hugh Hewitt (born February 22, 1956) is a conservative American radio talk show host, author, and blogger. ... Dennis Prager (born August 2, 1948) is a conservative syndicated radio talk show host, columnist, and public speaker in the United States. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Laura Schlessinger, Ph. ... See also Libertarianism and Libertarian Party Libertarian,is a term for person who has made a conscious and principled commitment, evidenced by a statement or Pledge, to forswear violating others rights and usually living in voluntary communities: thus in law no longer subject to government supervision. ... Neal Boortz (born April 6, 1945), is a U.S. talk radio host. ... Mark Davis is a radio talk show host in the Dallas Fort Worth Metroplex for station WBAP, 820 AM. Presently The Mark Davis Show airs from 9 A.M. to 11:45 A.M Central Time. ... Information in this article or section has not been verified against sources and may not be reliable. ...


Television

Pew further reports that conservatives and liberals are increasingly polarized in their TV news preferences. The cable news audience is more Republican and more strongly conservative than the public at large or the network news audience. Among regular cable news viewers, 43% describe their political views as conservative, compared with 33% of regular network news viewers; 37% of cable viewers are moderate, compared to 41% of network viewers; and 14% are self-described liberals versus 18% of network viewers.


The audience for the Fox News Channel has grown since 1998, attracting more conservative and Republican viewers. In 1998, the Fox News audience mirrored the public in terms of both partisanship and ideology. However, the percentage of Fox News Channel viewers who identify as Republicans has increased steadily from 24% in 1998, to 29% in 2000, 34% in 2002, and 41% in 2004. Over the same time period, the percentage of Fox viewers who describe themselves as conservative has increased from 40% to 52%.[19] The Fox News Channel (FNC) is a United States-based cable and satellite news channel. ...


Conservative political movements

Contemporary political conservatism — the actual politics of people and parties professing to be conservative — in most western democratic countries is an amalgam of social and institutional conservatism, generally combined with fiscal conservatism, and usually containing elements of broader economic conservatism as well. As with liberalism, it is a pragmatic and protean politics, opportunistic at times, rooted more in a tradition than in any formal set of principles. The term Western world, the West or the Occident (Latin occidens -sunset, -west, as distinct from the Orient) [1] can have multiple meanings dependent on its context (e. ... Democracy is a form of government under which the power to alter the laws and structures of government lies, ultimately, with the citizenry. ...


It is certainly possible for one to be a fiscal and economic conservative but not a social conservative; in the United States at present, this is the stance of libertarianism. It is also possible to be a social conservative but not an economic conservative — at present, this is a common political stance in, for example, Ireland — or to be a fiscal conservative without being either a social conservative or a broader economic conservative, such as the "deficit hawks" of the Democratic Party. In general use, the unqualified term "conservative" is often applied to social conservatives who are not fiscal or economic conservatives. It is rarely applied in the opposite case, except in specific contrast to those who are neither. Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic...


It can be argued that classical conservatism tends to represent the interests of the Establishment. Yet, this is not always the case. Considering the conservative's opposition to political abstractions, the "true" conservative ought never support a contrived social state, be that on the left (Communism) or on the right (Fascism). There is an independent justification of the attitude of conservatism, which tends to favour what is organic and has been shaped by history, against the planned and artificial. The Establishment is a pejorative slang term to refer to the traditional and usually conservative ruling class elite and the structures of society which they control. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests subordinate to the needs of the state, and seeks to forge a type of national unity, usually based on, but not limited to, ethnic, cultural, or racial attributes. ...


Conservative thinkers and leaders in the United States

Some notable figures in the history of modern conservatism in the United States are:

Robert Alphonso Taft I (September 8, 1889 - July 31, 1953), of the Taft family political dynasty of Ohio, was a United States Senator and Presidential candidate in the United States Republican Party. ... James Strom Thurmond (December 5, 1902 – June 26, 2003) was an American politician who served as governor of South Carolina and as a United States Senator representing that state. ... Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–1965, 1969–87) and the Republican Partys nominee for president in the 1964 election. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan, GCB (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ... William Hubbs Rehnquist (October 1, 1924 – September 3, 2005) was an American lawyer, jurist, and a political figure, who served as an Associate Justice on the Supreme Court of the United States and later as the Chief Justice of the United States. ... William Francis Bill Buckley, Jr. ... Alan Greenspan (born March 6, 1926) is an American economist and was Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve of the United States from 1987 to 2006. ... Patrick Joseph Buchanan (born November 2, 1938) is an American politician, author, syndicated columnist, and broadcaster. ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941), is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ... Chester Trent Lott, Sr. ... Newton Leroy Gingrich (born June 17, 1943), Ph. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Karl Christian Rove (born December 25, 1950) is Deputy Chief of Staff to President George W. Bush until the end of August 2007. ... Rush Hudson Limbaugh III (born January 12, 1951) is an American radio talk show host and political commentator. ... William Harrison Bill Frist, Sr. ... John Glover Roberts Jr. ... Ann Hart Coulter (born December 8, 1961)[1] is an American best-selling author, columnist and political commentator. ... Sean Patrick Hannity (born December 30, 1961, in New York City, New York) is an American neoconservative talk radio host, a co-host of Fox News Channels program Hannity & Colmes, the host of the Fox News weekend program Hannitys America, and the author of two books. ...

References

  1. ^ http://usconservatives.about.com/od/theconservativephilosophy/p/social.htm The Conservative Philosophy
  2. ^ http://atheism.about.com/library/weekly/aa070898.htm About atheism
  3. ^ http://www.icr.org/ Institute for Creation Research
  4. ^ http://www.conservative.org/columnists/divine/001226dd.asp The American Conservative Union
  5. ^ http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/13067747/
  6. ^ [1]
  7. ^ [2]
  8. ^ [3]
  9. ^ The word was originally used in the French Revolution. The British used it after 1839 to describe a major party. The first American usage is by Whigs who called themselves "Conservatives" in the late 1830s. Hans Sperber and Travis Trittschuh, American Political terms: An Historical Dictionary (1962) 94-97.
  10. ^ Curtis, Bruce. "William Graham Sumner 'On the Concentration of Wealth.'" Journal of American History 1969 55(4): 823-832.
  11. ^ Lapham 2004
  12. ^ Reason Magazine, 1975-07-01
  13. ^ Samuel P. Huntington, "The Clash of Civilizations," Foreign Affairs Summer 1993, v72, n3, p22-50, online version.
  14. ^ [4]
  15. ^ Richard Hofstadter, Anit-Intellectualism in American Life (1963)
  16. ^ The World Almanac and Book of Facts, ISBN 0-88687-910-8
  17. ^ [5]
  18. ^ [6]
  19. ^ [7]

Intellectual history

  • Dunn, Charles W. and J. David Woodard; The Conservative Tradition in America Rowman & Littlefield, 1996
  • Filler, Louis. Dictionary of American Conservatism Philosophical Library, (1987)
  • Foner, Eric. "Radical Individualism in America: Revolution to Civil War," Literature of Liberty, vol. 1 no. 3, 1978 pp 1-31 online
  • Bruce Frohnen et al eds. American Conservatism: An Encyclopedia (2006) ISBN 1-932236-44-9, the most detailed reference
  • Genovese, Eugene. The Southern Tradition: The Achievement and Limitations of an American Conservatism Harvard University Press, 1994
  • Gottfried, Paul. The Conservative Movement Twayne, 1993.
  • Guttman, Allan. The Conservative Tradition in America Oxford University Press, 1967.
  • Willmoore Kendall, and George W. Carey. "Towards a Definition of 'Conservatism." Journal of Politics 26 (May 1964): 406-22.
  • Kirk, Russell. The Conservative Mind. Regnery Publishing; 7th edition (2001): ISBN 0-89526-171-5
  • Lora, Ronald. Conservative Minds in America Greenwood, 1976.
  • Lowi, Theodore J. The End of the Republican Era (1995) online review
  • Meyer, Frank S. ed. What Is Conservatism? 1964.
  • Murphy, Paul V. The Rebuke of History: The Southern Agrarians and American Conservative Thought (2001)
  • Nash, George. The Conservative Intellectual Movement in America Since 1945 (1978) influential history
  • Nisbet, Robert A. Conservatism: Dream and Reality. University of Minnesota Press, 1986.
  • Ribuffo, Leo P. 1983. The Old Christian Right: The Protestant Far Right from the Great Depression to the Cold War. Temple University Press.
  • Rossiter, Clinton. Conservatism in America. 2nd ed. Harvard University Press, 1982.
  • Melvin J. Thorne; American Conservative Thought since World War II: The Core Ideas Greenwood: 1990
  • Peter Viereck; Conservatism: from John Adams to Churchill 1956, 1978

Paul Gottfried Paul Edward Gottfried is Raffensperger Professor of Humanities at Elizabethtown College and a Guggenheim recipient. ... Russell Kirk Russell Kirk (1918, Plymouth, Michigan – 29 April 1994, Mecosta, Michigan), was an American political theorist, historian, social critic, and man of letters, best known for his influence on 20th century American conservatism. ... Unfit for Command, published by Regnery Publishing. ... Theodore J. Lowi is a professor of political science at Cornell University. ... George Kilborn Nash (August 14, 1842 – October 28, 1904) was a Republican politician from Ohio. ... Robert Nisbet (1962- ) is a prolific author and an acknowledged expert on the subject of workplace bullying. ...

Political activity

  • Hart, Jeffrey. The Making of the American Conservative Mind: The National Review and Its Times (2005)
  • Lora, Ronald.; The Conservative Press in Twentieth-Century America Greenwood Press, 1999
  • McDonald, Forrest. States' Rights and the Union: Imperium in Imperio, 1776-1876 (2002)
  • Malsberger, John W. From Obstruction to Moderation: The Transformation of Senate Conservatism, 1938-1952 2000.
  • Patterson, James. Congressional Conservatism and the New Deal: The Growth of the Conservative Coalition in Congress, 1933-39 (1967)
  • Perlstein, Rick. Before the Storm: Barry Goldwater and the Unmaking of the American Consensus (2004) on 1964
  • Reinhard, David W.; Republican Right since 1945 University Press of Kentucky, 1983
  • Shelley II, Mack C. The Permanent Majority: The Conservative Coalition in the United States Congress (1983)
  • Wilensky, Norman N. Conservatives in the Progressive Era: The Taft Republicans of 1912 (1965).

Critical views

  • Bell, David. ed, The Radical Right. Doubleday 1963.
  • Huntington, Samuel P. "Conservatism as an Ideology." American Political Science Review 52 (June 1957): 454-73.
  • Coser Lewis A., and Irving Howe, eds. The New Conservatives: A Critique from the Left New American Library, 1976.

Lewis Coser (born 27 November 1913 in Berlin, died 8 July 2003 in Cambridge, Massachusetts) was an American sociologist. ... Irving Howe (1920 – 1993), was born Irving Horenstein in New York, the son of immigrants who ran a small grocery store that went out of business during the Great Depression. ...

Biographical

  • H. Lee Cheek Jr.;Calhoun and Popular Rule: The Political Theory of the Disquisition and Discourse University of Missouri Press. 2001. Stresses Calhoun's Republicanism
  • Crunden, Robert M. The Mind and Art of Albert Jay Nock (1964)
  • Dierenfield, Bruce J. Keeper of the Rules: Congressman Howard W. Smith of Virginia (1987), leader of the Conservative coalition in Congress
  • Fergurson, Ernest B. Hard Right: The Rise of Jesse Helms, 1986
  • Fite, Gilbert. Richard B. Russell, Jr, Senator from Georgia (2002) leader of the Conservative coalition in Congress
  • Goldberg, Robert Alan. Barry Goldwater (1995)
  • Judis, John B. William F. Buckley, Jr.: Patron Saint of the Conservatives (1988)
  • Kelly, Daniel. James Burnham and the Struggle for the World: A Life (2002)
  • Patterson, James T. Mr. Republican: A Biography of Robert A. Taft (1972)
  • Rodgers, Marion Elizabeth. Mencken: The American Iconoclast (2005)
  • Federici , Michael P. Eric Voegelin: The Restoration of Order (2002)
  • Pemberton, William E. Exit with Honor: The Life and Presidency of Ronald Reagan (1998)
  • Smant, Kevin J. Principles and Heresies: Frank S. Meyer and the Shaping of the American Conservative Movement (2002) (ISBN 1-882926-72-2)
  • Smith, Richard Norton. An Uncommon Man: The Triumph of Herbert Hoover (1994) strongest on 1933-64
  • Tanenhaus, Sam. Whittaker Chambers: A Biography (1997) (ISBN 0-394-58559-3)
  • Chambers, Whittaker, Witness (1952), a memoir his Communist years

The Conservative coalition was a coalition in American politics bringing together Republicans (most of whom were conservatives) and the minority of conservative Democrats, most of them from the South. ... The Conservative coalition was a coalition in American politics bringing together Republicans (most of whom were conservatives) and the minority of conservative Democrats, most of them from the South. ... Sam Tanenhaus (born October 31, 1955) is an American author, historian and biographer. ... Whittaker Chambers, 1948 Jay Vivian (David Whittaker) Chambers (April 1, 1901 – July 9, 1961) was an American writer, editor, Communist party member and spy for the Soviet Union who defected and became an outspoken opponent of communism. ...

Recent politics

  • John B. Bader; Taking the Initiative: Leadership Agendas in Congress and the "Contract with America" Georgetown University Press, (1996)
  • Berkowitz, Peter . Varieties Of Conservatism In America (2004)
  • Collins, Robert M. Transforming America: Politics and Culture During the Reagan Years, (Columbia University Press; 320 pages; 2007).
  • Himmelstein, Jerome and J. A. McRae Jr., "'Social Conservatism, New Republicans and the 1980 Election'", Public Opinion Quarterly, 48 (1984), 595-605.
  • Micklethwait, John, and Adrian Wooldridge. The Right Nation (2004)
  • Geoffrey Nunberg, "Language and Politics"
  • Rae; Nicol C. Conservative Reformers: The Republican Freshmen and the Lessons of the 104th Congress M. E. Sharpe, 1998
  • Schoenwald; Jonathan . A Time for Choosing: The Rise of Modern American Conservatism (2002)

The Right Nation (ISBN 1594200203) is a book which charts the rise of the Republican Party in America since Barry Goldwaters defeat in 1964. ...

Neoconservatism

  • Allan Bloom. The Closing of the American Mind (1988)
  • Gerson, Mark. The Neoconservative Vision: From the Cold War to Culture Wars (1997)
  • Halper, Stefan & Clarke, Jonathan, America Alone: The Neo-Conservatives and the Global Order (Cambridge University Press, 2004) ISBN 0-521-83834-7
  • Stelzer, Irwin. Neo-conservatism (2004)

Critical views

  • Diamond, Sara. Roads to Dominion: Right-Wing Movements and Political Power in the United States. (1995)
  • Koopman; Douglas L. Hostile Takeover: The House Republican Party, 1980-1995 Rowman & Littlefield, 1996
  • Lapham, Lewis H. "Tentacles of Rage" in Harper's, September 2004, p. 31-41.
  • Martin, William. 1996. With God on Our Side: The Rise of the Religious Right in America, New York: Broadway Books.

Primary sources

  • Buckley, William F., Jr., ed. Up from Liberalism Stein and Day, (1958)
  • Buckley, William F., Jr., ed. Did You Ever See a Dream Walking? American Conservative Thought in the 20th Century Bobbs-Merrill, (1970)
  • Mark Gerson, ed., The Essential Neo-Conservative Reader (Perseus Publishing, (1997)) ISBN 0-201-15488-9
  • Irving Kristol, Neoconservatism: the Autobiography of an Idea, ISBN 0-02-874021-1
  • Gregory L. Schneider, ed. Conservatism in America Since 1930: A Reader (2003)
  • Irwin Stelzer ed. The NeoCon Reader (2005) ISBN 0-8021-4193-5
  • Wolfe, Gregory. Right Minds: A Sourcebook of American Conservative Thought. Regnery, (1987)

Irwin M. Stelzer (born 1932) is an American economist. ...

See also

The American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research (AEI) is a conservative think tank, founded in 1943, whose stated mission is to defend the principles and improve the institutions of American freedom and democratic capitalism — limited government, private enterprise, individual liberty and responsibility, vigilant and effective defense and foreign policies... The United States Patriot Party, which is also known as the American Patriot Party, was founded on March 1, 2003 by several U.S. citizens who want to return the United States back to the original intent of the Founding Fathers and within the framework of the original U.S... Definition Compassionate conservatism is a political philosophy that was invented by Marvin Olasky, who went on to memorialize it in his 2000 book Compassionate Conservatism: What it is, What it Does, and How it Can Transform America, and Myron Magnet of the Manhattan Institute. ... A common sense conservative is an advocate of conservative politics who adopts the rhetoric of common sense to frame his arguments. ... The Constitution Party is a conservative United States political party. ... FreedomWorks is a non-partisan conservative non-profit organization based in Washington D.C. with over 850,000 grassroots activists. ... The Heritage Foundation is a public policy research institute based in Washington, D.C., in the United States. ... This article does not adequately cite its references. ... National Review (NR) is a biweekly magazine of political opinion, founded by author William F. Buckley, Jr. ... Neoconservatism is a somewhat controversial term referring to the political goals and ideology of the new conservatives (ultraconservative) in the United States. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Old Right refers to separate political groups in the United Kingdom and the United States. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Policy Review is one of Americas leading conservative journals. ... Reactionary (or reactionist) is a political epithet, generally used as a pejorative, originally applied in the context of the French Revolution to counter-revolutionaries who wished to restore the real or imagined conditions of the monarchical Ancien Régime. ... The Reagan Doctrine was an important Cold War strategy by the United States to oppose the influence of the Soviet Union by backing anti-communist guerrillas against the communist governments of Soviet-backed client states. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Weekly Standard is an American neoconservative [1] magazine published 48 times per year. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ...

Outside USA

The Action d mocratique du Qu bec (ADQ) is a right-wing political party (by Canadian standards) in Quebec, Canada. ... Blue Tories are, in Canadian politics, members of the former Progressive Conservative Party of Canada and current Conservative Party of Canada who are more ideologically Right wing. ... The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a conservative political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ... In the Peoples Republic of China, neoconservatism is a movement which started in the early 1990s which argues that social progress is best accomplished through gradual reform of society, and which eschews revolution and sudden overthrow of governmental system. ... Neoconservatism in Japan, also known as the neo-defense school, is a term used by Asian media only recently to refer to a hawkish new generation of Japanese conservatives. ... The Red Tory Tradition: Ancient Roots-New Routes, by Ron Dart Red Tory is a term given to a political philosophy, tradition, and disposition in Canada. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Conservatism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (7270 words)
In politics, conservatism underlies the ideology of "Conservative" political parties in various countries, when it is usually spelt with a capital C. Even in the absence of a Conservative party, the values conservatives defend vary widely from country to country.
Conservatism is a universal ideology or philosophy: conservatives consider their values to be valid for all persons, not just for themselves.
Conservatism is generally seen as an ideology, in the sense of a coherent and comprehensive political programme, based on a view of the world, and especially on specific values.
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