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Encyclopedia > Conservation movement

The conservation movement is a political and social movement that seeks to protect natural resources including plant and animal species as well as their habitat for the future.


The early conservation movement included fisheries and wildlife management, water, soil conservation and sustainable forestry. The contemporary conservation movement has broaden from the early movement's emphasis on use of sustainable yield of natual resources and preservation of wilderness areas to include preservation of biodiversity. The conservation movement is part of the broader and more far-reaching environmental movement. A fishery (plural: fisheries) is an organized effort by humans to catch fish or other aquatic species, an activity known as fishing. ... Wildlife management is the process of keeping certain wildlife populations at desirable levels determined by wildlife managers. ... For the American hard rock band, see Soil (band). ... Sustainable forestry is a forest management concept. ... Wilderness is generally defined as a natural environment on Earth that has not been modified by human activity. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of taxonomic life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... The Environmental Movement (a term that sometimes includes the conservation and green movements) is a diverse scientific, social, and political movement. ...

Contents

History

See also: Timeline of environmental events

The nascent conservation movement slowly developed in the 19th century, starting first in the scientific forestry methods pioneered by the Germans and the French in the 17th and 18th centuries. While continental Europe created the scientific methods later used in conservationist efforts, British India and the United States are credited with starting the conservation movement. The timeline of environmental events is a historical account of events that have shaped humanitys perspective on the environment. ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... British India (otherwise known as The British Raj) was a historical period during which most of the Indian subcontinent, or present-day India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Myanmar, were under the colonial authority of the British Empire (Undivided India). ...


Foresters in India, often German, managed forests using early climate change theories (in America, see also, George Perkins Marsh) that Alexander Von Humboldt developed in the mid 19th century, applied fire protection, and tried to keep the "house-hold" of nature, an early ecological idea, in order so as not to disturb the growth of delicate teak trees. The same German foresters who headed the Forest Service of India, such as Dietrich Brandis and Berthold Ribbentrop, traveled back to Europe and established themselves at forestry schools in England (Cooper's Hill, later moved to Oxford), and in Germany. These men brought with them the legislative and scientific knowledge of conservationism in British India back to Europe, where they distributed it to men such as Gifford Pinchot and Bernard Fernow. George Perkins Marsh (March 15, 1801 – July 23, 1882), an American diplomat and philologist, is considered by some to be Americas first environmentalist. ... An 1859 portrait of Alexander von Humboldt by the artist Julius Schrader, showing Mount Chimborazo in the background. ... Species Tectona grandis Tectona hamiltoniana Tectona philippinensis Teak (Tectona), also called jati is a genus of tropical hardwood trees in the family Verbenaceae, native to the south and southeast of Asia, and is commonly found as a component of monsoon forest vegetation. ... Sir Dietrich Brandis (1824-1907) is considered the father of tropical forestry. ... Gifford Pinchot Gifford Bryce Pinchot (August 11, 1865 – October 4, 1946) was the first Chief of the United States Forest Service (1905–1910) and the Republican Governor of Pennsylvania (1923–1927, 1931–1935). ... Bernard Fernow was the chief forester of the USDA in the late 1800s. ...


America had its own conservation movement in the 19th century, most often characterized by George Perkins Marsh, author of Man and Nature. The expedition into northwest Wyoming in 1871 led by F.V. Hayden and accompanied by photographer William Henry Jackson provided the imagery needed to dispel any rumors about the grandeur of the Yellowstone region, and resulted in the creation of Yellowstone National Park, the world's first, in 1872. Travels by later U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt through the region around Yellowstone provided the impetus for the creation of the Yellowstone Timberland Reserve in 1891. The largest section of the reserve was later renamed Shoshone National Forest, and it is the oldest National Forest in the U.S. But it was not until 1898 when German forester Dr. Carl A. Schenck, on the Biltmore Estate, and Cornell University founded the first two forestry schools, both run by Germans. Bernard Fernow, founder of the forestry schools at Cornell University and the University of Toronto, was originally from Prussia (Germany), and he honed his knowledge from Germans who pioneered forestry in India. He introduced Gifford Pinchot, the "father of American forestry," to Brandis and Ribbentrop in Europe. From these men, Pinchot learned the skills and legislative patterns he would later apply to America. Pinchot, in his memoir history Breaking New Ground, credited Brandis especially with helping to form America's conservation laws. George Perkins Marsh (March 15, 1801 – July 23, 1882), an American diplomat and philologist, is considered by some to be Americas first environmentalist. ... Man and Nature is a book written by George Perkins Marsh in 1864. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden (September 7, 1829 - December 22, 1887) was an American geologist noted for his pioneering surveying expeditions of Rocky Mountains in the late 19th century. ... William Henry Jackson, 1862 William Henry Jackson (April 4, 1843 - June 30, 1942) was an American painter, photographer and explorer famous for his images of the American West. ... Yellowstone National Park is a U.S. National Park located in the states of Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming. ... Yellowstone National Park is a U.S. National Park located in the western states of Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho. ... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... Theodore (Teddy) Roosevelt, Jr. ... Shoshone National Forest (pronounced sho-sho-nee [1]) is a national forest that spans nearly 2. ... Biltmore house Biltmore House is a French Renaissance-inspired chateau near Asheville, North Carolina, built by George Washington Vanderbilt II between 1888 and 1895. ... Cornell redirects here. ... Bernard Fernow was the chief forester of the USDA in the late 1800s. ... Cornell redirects here. ... The University of Toronto (U of T) is a coeducational public research university in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... Gifford Pinchot Gifford Bryce Pinchot (August 11, 1865 – October 4, 1946) was the first Chief of the United States Forest Service (1905–1910) and the Republican Governor of Pennsylvania (1923–1927, 1931–1935). ...


In the early 1900s the Conservation movement in America was split into two main groups: conservationists, like Pinchot, who were utilitarian foresters and natural rights advocates who wanted to protect forests "for the greater good for the greatest length," and preservationists, such as John Muir, the founder of the Sierra Club. Whereas conservationists wanted regulated use of forest lands for both public activities and commercial endeavors, preservationists wanted forest to be preserved for natural beauty, scientific study and recreation. The differences continue to the modern era, with sustainable harvest and multiple-use the major focus of the U.S. Forest Service and recreation emphasized by the National Park Service. A preservationist generally refers to one who wishes to preserve a historic structure from demolition or degradation. ... John Muir (1838-1914) John Muir appears on the California quarter John Muir (April 21, 1838 – December 24, 1914) was one of the earliest modern preservationists. ... The Sierra Club is an American environmental organization founded on May 28, 1892 in San Francisco, California by the well-known preservationist John Muir, who became its first president. ... The USDA Forest Service, a United States government agency within the United States Department of Agriculture, is under the leadership of the United States Secretary of Agriculture. ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ...


Contributions by hunters

Hunters have been driving forces throughout history in the movement to ensure long-term sustainability of natural resources and wildlife habitats. Some hunters feel that the honor once bestowed upon their sport has diminished over the years, claiming that mainstream media sometimes ignores the connection between hunting and conservation and often publishes claims that hunting endangers wildlife. Of greater concern to endangered wildlife is the loss of habitat, brought on by overpopulation and urban development. Because of their connection with the land and vested interest in increasing wildlife populations, hunters have been influential in implementing and financing various programs geared towards habitat restoration and conservation. Habitat (from the Latin for it inhabits) is the place where a particular species lives and grows. ... Map of countries by population density (See List of countries by population density. ... Urban planning is concerned with the ordering and design of settlements, from the smallest towns to the worlds largest cities. ...


Legislation lobbied by hunters

Hunters have worked closely with local and federal governments to enact legislation to protect wildlife habitats. The following examples represent hunter-advocated legislation enacted to generate funds for preserving and establishing habitats.


Ontario Federation of Anglers and Hunters (OFAH)

  • The OFAH (Ontario Federation of Anglers and Hunters) successfully lobbied to stop the Ontario Liberal Government from cutting the funding to the Community Fisheries and Wildlife Involvement Program (CWIP) by 50% [1]
  • In 2006, the OFAH successfully campaigned to have Sunday Gun Hunting allowed, the first time since the Lord's Day Act was enacted in 1906. [2]
  • The OFAH is also currently fighting against the Canadian gun registry, and has applauded the Conservative governments actions to repeal the law[3][4]
  • the OFAH is also vehemently opposed to the cancellation of the Spring bear hunt, and is campaigning to have it reinstated. [5]

the Ontario Federation of Anglers and Hunters (OFAH) was established in 1928, and is Canadas leading conservation organization, as well as a non-profit registered charity. ... A blue law, in the United States and Canada, is a type of law designed to enforce moral standards, particularly the observance of Sunday as a day of worship or rest. ... The Canadian gun registry is a government-run registry of all legally-owned guns in Canada. ...

Pittman-Robertson Wildlife Restoration Act of 1937

In 1937, hunters successfully lobbied Congress to pass the Pittman-Robertson Wildlife Restoration Act, which placed an 11% tax on all hunting equipment. This self-imposed tax now generates over $700 million each year and is used exclusively to establish, restore and protect wildlife habitats. [6]


Federal Duck Stamp Program

On March 16, 1934 President Roosevelt signed the Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act [7], which requires an annual stamp purchase by all hunters over the age of sixteen. The stamps are created on behalf of the program by the U.S. Postal Service and depict wildlife artwork chosen through an annual contest. They play an important role in habitat conservation because 98% of all funds generated by their sale go directly toward the purchase or lease of wetland habitat for protection in the National Wildlife Refuge System.[8] In addition to waterfowl, it is estimated that one third of the nation's endangered species seek food and shelter in areas protected using Duck Stamp funds. Since 1934, the sale of Federal Duck Stamps has generated $670M and helped to purchase or lease 5.2M acres of habitat. The stamps serve as a license to hunt migratory birds, an entrance pass for all National Wildlife Refuge areas and are also considered collectors items often purchased for aesthetic reasons outside of the hunting and birding communities. Although non-hunters buy a significant number of Duck Stamps, 87% of their sales are contributed to hunters. Distribution of funds is managed by The Migratory Bird Conservation Commission (MBCC) [9]. The Federal Duck Stamp is a U.S. program to generate revenue to protect wetlands. ... National Wildlife Refuge is a designation for certain protected areas of the United States managed by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. ... The Federal Duck Stamp is a U.S. program to generate revenue to protect wetlands. ... The Federal Duck Stamp is a U.S. program to generate revenue to protect wetlands. ... National Wildlife Refuge is a designation for certain protected areas of the United States managed by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. ... The Federal Duck Stamp is a U.S. program to generate revenue to protect wetlands. ...


Conservation organizations founded by hunters

There are a number of organizations founded by hunters and by those interested in preserving wildlife populations and habitats. One of the oldest and most well-known organizations is Ducks Unlimited; one of the newest is the Hunter's Conservation Counsel. Another internationally recognized hunters' conservation organization is Safari Club International.[10] Another recently formed conservational organization is the Coastal Conservation Association. External links Ducks Unlimited Ducks Unlimited Canada Ducks Unlimited is an international non profit organisation dedicated to the conservation of wetlands and associated upland habitats for waterfowl, other wildlife and people. ... Logo for Safari Club International Safari Club International is an international organization composed of hunters and supporters of hunting. ...


Ducks Unlimited (DU)

Ducks Unlimited (DU) [11] was founded in 1937 by Joseph Knapp, a conservationist and hunter who had noted the decline in habitats and migratory bird populations. DU has become a leader in habitat preservation and has conserved more than 11.6 million acres of waterfowl habitat in North America. DU generates $200M in revenues each year, 87% of which goes directly towards habitat conservation. Their sources of revenue include Federal and State habitat reimbursements (32%), conservation easements (27%), sponsors and members (25%), major gifts and donations (11%) and royalties/advertisement (5%). Over ninety percent of those who read DU magazine are hunters, which is an indication that a large portion of their members are themselves hunters. International chapters of Ducks Unlimited [12] are established in Latin America, Canada, Mexico and Australia. External links Ducks Unlimited Ducks Unlimited Canada Ducks Unlimited is an international non profit organisation dedicated to the conservation of wetlands and associated upland habitats for waterfowl, other wildlife and people. ... External links Ducks Unlimited Ducks Unlimited Canada Ducks Unlimited is an international non profit organisation dedicated to the conservation of wetlands and associated upland habitats for waterfowl, other wildlife and people. ... External links Ducks Unlimited Ducks Unlimited Canada Ducks Unlimited is an international non profit organisation dedicated to the conservation of wetlands and associated upland habitats for waterfowl, other wildlife and people. ... External links Ducks Unlimited Ducks Unlimited Canada Ducks Unlimited is an international non profit organisation dedicated to the conservation of wetlands and associated upland habitats for waterfowl, other wildlife and people. ... External links Ducks Unlimited Ducks Unlimited Canada Ducks Unlimited is an international non profit organisation dedicated to the conservation of wetlands and associated upland habitats for waterfowl, other wildlife and people. ...


Ducks Unlimited places strong emphasis on its belief in science and research. They work closely with biologists and ecologists to evaluate habitat needs and to monitor how birds respond to various environmental changes. Some of the methods used by Ducks Unlimited to conserve habitats are: External links Ducks Unlimited Ducks Unlimited Canada Ducks Unlimited is an international non profit organisation dedicated to the conservation of wetlands and associated upland habitats for waterfowl, other wildlife and people. ... External links Ducks Unlimited Ducks Unlimited Canada Ducks Unlimited is an international non profit organisation dedicated to the conservation of wetlands and associated upland habitats for waterfowl, other wildlife and people. ...

  • Restoring Grasslands - grasslands are used to protect waterfowl from predators and serve as a natural concealment for nests.
  • Replanting Forests – 80% of forested land has been cleared and natural flooding has been reduced by 50 – 90%.
  • Restoring Watersheds - when watersheds are disturbed, contaminants wash into wetlands and disrupt the plants, fish and animals. DU utilizes buffer strips to protect stream corridors and filter contaminants out.
  • Educating Landowners - promoting economic viability while being conservative of resources. An example is the planting of winter wheat, which is planted in the fall and undisturbed while ducks are nesting in fields.
  • Conservation Easements – areas of land purchased by DU from private landowners. The land owner maintains actual ownership of the land, but agrees to never drain, fill, level or burn it. Since 75% of U.S. wetlands are on private property, conservation easements play a crucial role in the conservation movement.
  • Acquiring Land – the direct purchase of wetlands

Ducks Unlimited funds are utilized to conserve and protect areas where habitats are either disappearing or in danger of disappearing. The following areas are considered to be the three most endangered in the United States and are at the top of DU's priority list: External links Ducks Unlimited Ducks Unlimited Canada Ducks Unlimited is an international non profit organisation dedicated to the conservation of wetlands and associated upland habitats for waterfowl, other wildlife and people. ... External links Ducks Unlimited Ducks Unlimited Canada Ducks Unlimited is an international non profit organisation dedicated to the conservation of wetlands and associated upland habitats for waterfowl, other wildlife and people. ... External links Ducks Unlimited Ducks Unlimited Canada Ducks Unlimited is an international non profit organisation dedicated to the conservation of wetlands and associated upland habitats for waterfowl, other wildlife and people. ... External links Ducks Unlimited Ducks Unlimited Canada Ducks Unlimited is an international non profit organisation dedicated to the conservation of wetlands and associated upland habitats for waterfowl, other wildlife and people. ...


Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) is an area of the northern Great Plains that is covered with grass-covered wetlands. ...


Over 10,000 years ago, melting glaciers created millions of depressions in the land throughout what is now the Great Plains of North America. These depressions hold water and grasses and constitute wetland habitat for millions of migratory ducks and geese. Increased agricultural development has caused these wetlands to drain, resulting in the disappearance of 194,000 acres since 1984. DU relies heavily on conservation easements in the PPR to counteract habitat losses, and plans to protect an additional 150,000 acres through land acquisitions. The Prairie Pothole Region is the most threatened of the twenty-five waterfowl habits on the continent. External links Ducks Unlimited Ducks Unlimited Canada Ducks Unlimited is an international non profit organisation dedicated to the conservation of wetlands and associated upland habitats for waterfowl, other wildlife and people. ...


Central Valley/Coastal California


This area spans from San Francisco to Northern Mexico and constitutes habitat for 60% of the Pacific Flyway’s wintering waterfowl. Rapid urbanization and water shortages have been contributing factors in the loss of habitat in this area. The Central Valley/Coastal California region is considered number two of the twenty five most threatened waterfowl habitats on the continent. The Pacific Flyway is one of the four major migration route for waterfowl in the United States, Canada and Mexico. ...


Western Boreal Forest – Canada


The world’s largest land-based ecosystem, the Western Boreal Forest covers two thirds of Canada and contains a quarter of the world’s remaining original forests. Millions of migratory birds breed here, including 40% of the regional duck population. Habitats have been damaged by overdevelopment, agriculture, climate changes, dams and oil/mineral extractions. In 1997, DU founded the Western Boreal Forest Initiative aimed at conserving wetlands and habitats. External links Ducks Unlimited Ducks Unlimited Canada Ducks Unlimited is an international non profit organisation dedicated to the conservation of wetlands and associated upland habitats for waterfowl, other wildlife and people. ...


Ducks Unlimited is also working closely with U.S. Congress, the Administration, conservation leaders, private landowners and farmers to ensure that environmental provisions are contained in the 2007 Farm Bill. The Farm Bill supports programs such as the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) [13] and Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP) [14]. External links Ducks Unlimited Ducks Unlimited Canada Ducks Unlimited is an international non profit organisation dedicated to the conservation of wetlands and associated upland habitats for waterfowl, other wildlife and people. ... The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) is a voluntary, Federal assistance program of the United States Department of Agriculture. ...


Sporting Conservation Council

In March of 2006, the U.S. Dept. of the Interior announced the formation of the Sporting Conservation Council. The council will provide input in regards to forest health, habitat restoration/protection and the impact of energy development on wildlife resources. As explained by Interior Secretary Gale A. Norton, “dating back to Teddy Roosevelt, hunters have been the pillar of conservation in America, doing more than anyone to conserve wildlife and its habitat. This new advisory council will provide a formal mechanism for the department to benefit from the expertise of sportsmen and women as well as become aware of their concerns as we develop federal policies.” The council is made up of representatives from various hunting groups, including the National Wild Turkey Federation, Ducks Unlimited and the National Rifle Association [15]. Theodore (Teddy) Roosevelt, Jr. ... External links Ducks Unlimited Ducks Unlimited Canada Ducks Unlimited is an international non profit organisation dedicated to the conservation of wetlands and associated upland habitats for waterfowl, other wildlife and people. ... National Rifle Association logo This article concerns the National Rifle Association of the USA. For the UK organisation, see National Rifle Association, UK The National Rifle Association, or NRA, is a non-profit group for the promotion of marksmanship, firearm safety, and the protection of hunting and personal protection firearm...


Problem areas

Deforestation and overpopulation are issues affecting all regions of the world. The consequent destruction of wildlife habitat has prompted the creation of conservation groups in other countries, some founded by local hunters who have witnessed declining wildlife populations first hand. Deforestation is the conversion of forested areas to non-forest land use such as arable land, pasture, urban use, logged area or wasteland. ... Map of countries by population density (See List of countries by population density. ...


Boreal forest and arctic

The idea of incentive conservation is a modern one but its practice has clearly defended some of the sub arctic wildernesses and the wildlife in those regions for thousands of years, especially by indigenous peoples such as the Evenk, Yakut, Sami, Inuit and Cree. The fur trade and hunting of these peoples have preserved these regions for thousands of years in some cases until now, ironically the pressure now upon them come from non renewable resources such as oil, sometimes ironically to make synthetic clothing advocated as "humane" as opposed to fur. A case study of one animal in particular native to Siberia and its conservation through fur trade can be found at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raccoon_Dog . A similar case where Hunting and Fur got the blame for an animal's demise, when in fact it was responsible for it's revival , was the Beaver. For many years childrens books stated and still do, that the decline in Beaver was because of the fur trade, when in fact it was because of habitat destruction and deforestation, and its continued persecution as a pest(it causes flooding). In Cree lands however, where the population valued the nanimal for meat and fur, it continued to thrive. This site documents many Boreal forest peoples relationship with their surroundings and animals in an enlightening way without commentary. Here are the Cree and their fur trade and Beaver: http://www.arcticphoto.co.uk/gallery2/arctic/peoples/cree/cree.htm In addition, here are the words from the Inuit regarding their relationship with seal, their fur trade and Paul Mccartney and their anger that people from a culture such as this damaging the planet have the nerve to criticise them: http://www.icc.gl/UserFiles/File/sealskin/2006-03-07_icc_saelskind_pressemeddelse_eng.pdf


In other regions of the Arctic too, the Sami in Scandinavia?Russia and the Evenk in Siberia, indigenous peeoples and their traditional hunting and fur trade are making a clear stand against the more "modern" resource exploitation : http://www.survival-international.org/news.php?country_id=13


80% of the worlds furs are produced in these regions either through farming by groups such as SAGA or a not insignificant 22% by indigenous peoples. Fur and Hunting it appears, as indeed Greenpeace are finding out in the Sami forests, is an economic barrier to development, deforestation etc. The WWF have now established areas of traditional hunting and animal use in Siberia and these sable reserves are clearly based on the principles of Incentive Conservation. http://panda.org/about_wwf/where_we_work/europe/news/index.cfm?uNewsID=13895


United Kingdom

One fiercely debated Incentive Conservation issue in the UK concerns the centuries old practice of hunting with hounds. In clear defiance of new anti Hunting legislation introduced by the government of Tony Blair, 300 Foxhunts continue in the UK. In some cases, links with Mongolian tribesmen have seen the idea of introduction of the Eagle to assist in hunting the fox; a bizarre show of allied Hunting cultures. But it appears that the Law was introduced with utter disregard of the bulk of Conservation opinion: http://www.kent.ac.uk/news/stories/article2003.php?id=leader-williams.txt http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2003/05/0528_030528_foxhunting.html http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200203/cmstand/f/st030121/pm/parti/30121s01.htm Veterinary opinion confirmed that foxhunting was not cruel and indeed backed conservation claims as a bio control: http://www.vet-wildlifemanagement.org.uk/print_html/VetOpinion_html.htm The argument continues to rage: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/special_report/1999/08/99/fox_hunting/431671.stm David Bellamy, quoted here, is perhaps the most well known Conservationist in the UK. Certainly the effect of the only previous ban on foxhunting, by the Nazis under Hitler, had as the direct consequence the effect of totally eradicating the fox from the eco sysytem: http://www.editrixoffice.com/sport_hitler.htm The formation of the Organisation the Countryside Alliance not only defends foxhunting but also campaigns on many Conservation issues. The reinvention of the Conservative Party in the UK and their commitment to restoring foxhunting appears to be entirely in line with the "green" policies of the new leadership under David Cameron.


Latin America (Bolivia)

The Izoceño-Guaraní of Santa Cruz, Bolivia is a tribe comprised of hunters who were influential in establishing the Capitania del Alto y Bajo Isoso (CABI). CABI promotes economic growth and survival of the Izoceno people while discouraging the rapid destruction of habitat within Bolivia’s Gran Chaco. They are responsible for the creation of the 3.4 million hectare Kaa-Iya del Gran Chaco National Park and Integrated Management Area (KINP). The KINP protects the most biodiverse portion of the Gran Chaco, an ecoregion shared with Argentina, Paraguay and Brazil. In 1996, the Wildlife Conservation Society joined forces with CABI to institute wildlife and hunting monitoring programs in 23 Izoceño communities. The partnership combines traditional beliefs and local knowledge with the political and administrative tools needed to effectively manage habitats. The programs rely solely on voluntary participation by local hunters who perform self-monitoring techniques and keep records of their hunts. The information obtained by the hunters participating in the program has provided CABI with important data required to make educated decisions about the use of the land. Hunters have been willing participants in this program because of pride in their traditional activities, encouragement by their communities and expectations of benefits to the area. Landscape in the Gran Chaco, Paraguay The Gran Chaco (Quechua chaqu, hunting land), dubbed by some as the last South American frontier, is a sparsely populated, hot and semi-arid lowland region of the Río de la Plata basin, divided between Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina and a small portion in... Landscape in the Gran Chaco, Paraguay The Gran Chaco (Quechua chaqu, hunting land), dubbed by some as the last South American frontier, is a sparsely populated, hot and semi-arid lowland region of the Río de la Plata basin, divided between Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina and a small portion in... Landscape in the Gran Chaco, Paraguay The Gran Chaco (Quechua chaqu, hunting land), dubbed by some as the last South American frontier, is a sparsely populated, hot and semi-arid lowland region of the Río de la Plata basin, divided between Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina and a small portion in... The Wildlife Conservation Society, (WCS), endeavours to save wildlife and wild lands though careful use of science, conservation around the world, education and through a system of urban wildlife parks. ...


Because of their spiritual beliefs, many hunters indigenous to this area used conservative approaches to hunting even before population declines were noted. Common self-imposed conservation techniques followed by this tribe include seasonal rotation of hunting areas; not hunting young animals; not hunting excessively beyond the needs of ones family; not hunting vulnerable species; and the substitution of other activities during certain seasons (fishing/farming).


Africa (Botswana)

In order to discourage illegal South African hunting parties and ensure future local use and sustainability, indigenous hunters in Botswana began lobbying for and implementing conservation practices in the 1960s. The Fauna Preservation Society of Ngamiland (FPS) was formed in 1962 by Robert Kay, an environmentalist working in conjunction with the Batawana tribes to preserve wildlife habitat. The FPS promotes habitat conservation and provides local education for preservation of wildlife. Conservation initiatives were met with strong opposition from the Botswana government because of the monies tied to big-game hunting. In 1963, BaTawanga Chiefs and tribal hunter/adventurers in conjunction with the FPS founded Moremi National Park and Wildlife Refuge, the first area to be set aside by tribal people rather than governmental forces. Moremi National Park is home to a variety of wildlife, including lions, giraffes, elephants, buffalo, zebra, cheetahs and antelope, and covers an area of 3,000 square kilometers. Most of the groups involved with establishing this protected land were involved with hunting and were motivated by their personal observations of declining wildlife and habitat. Moremi Wildlife Reserve is a National Park in Botswana. ... Moremi Wildlife Reserve is a National Park in Botswana. ...


See also

The conservation ethic is an ethic of resource use, allocation, exploitation, and protection. ... The global ecology movement is one of several new social movements that emerged at the end of the sixties; as a values-driven social movement, it should be distinguished from the pre-existing science of ecology. ... This page aims to list articles related to the natural environment. ... Various species of deer are commonly seen wildlife across the Americas and Eurasia. ... Simple living (or voluntary simplicity) is a lifestyle individuals may pursue for a variety of motivations, such as spirituality, health, or ecology. ... cheese ... Wildlife management is the process of keeping certain wildlife populations at desirable levels determined by wildlife managers. ... For the psychology topic, see Environmental psychology. ... The Environmental Movement (a term that sometimes includes the conservation and green movements) is a diverse scientific, social, and political movement. ...

References

  • J. Leonard Bates. "Fulfilling American Democracy: The Conservation Movement, 1907 to 1921," The Mississippi Valley Historical Review, Vol. 44, No. 1. (Jun., 1957), pp. 29-57. in JSTOR
  • Gregory A. Barton, Empire Forestry and the Origins of Environmentalism, Cambridge University Press, 2001
  • Brett Bennett, "Early Conservation Histories in Bengal and Colonial India, 1875-1922," The Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Dec. 2005
  • Bolaane, Maitseo. “Chiefs, Hunters & Adventurers: The Foundation of the Okavango/Moremi National Park, Botswana”. Journal of Historical Geography. 31.2 (Apr. 2005): 241-259.
  • Clover, Charles. 2004. The End of the Line: How overfishing is changing the world and what we eat. Ebury Press, London. ISBN 0-09-189780-7
  • Herring, Hall and Thomas McIntyre. “Hunting’s New Ambassadors (Sporting Conservation Council)”. Field and Stream. 111.2 (June 2006): p. 18.
  • Roderick Nash "Wilderness and the American Mind" Yale University Press, 1967
  • Richard W. Judd "Common Lands and Common People, The Origins of Conservation in Northern New England" Harvard University Press, 1997
  • Samuel P. Hays, "Conservation and the Gospel of Efficiency" Harvard University Press, 1959.
  • Noss, Andrew and Imke Oetting. “Hunter Self-Monitoring by the Izoceño -Guarani in the Bolivian Chaco”. Biodiversity & Conservation. 14.11 (2005): 2679-2693.
  • Pope, Carl. “A Sporting Chance – Sportsmen and Sportswomen are some of the biggest supporters for the preservation of wildlife”. Sierra. 81.3 (May/June 1996): 14.
  • Reiger, George. “Common Ground: Battles Over Hunting Only Draw Attention Away From the Real Threat to Wildlife”. Field and Stream. 100.2 (June 1985): p. 12.
  • Reiger, George. “Sportsmen Get No Respect (Media Ignores Role of Sportsmen in Conservation)”. Field and Stream. 101.10 (Feb 1997): p. 18.

External links

  • The Everglades in the Time of Marjorie Stoneman Douglas Photo exhibit created by the State Archives of Florida
  • British Virgin Islands Conservation Coral Reef Disaster Documentary This documentary exposes the challenges facing the Islanders who are battling the government to curtail this development disaster.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Conservation Districts: Getting to the Roots | NRCS (0 words)
Also, Wilson recognized that the acceptance of conservation in the demonstration projects rested partly on the fact that equipment, labor, and the assistance of trained soil conservationists were available to farmers.
The movement was not led solely by government agencies, but also by landholders who converted friends and neighbors to the values of conservation farming.
In some cases their recollection of "conservation" involved thoughts of the expropriation of the most valuable lands for white farmers and then the imposition of onerous rule for natives farming the poorer, steeper, more erodible lands (Stocking, 1985).
conservation: Definition, Synonyms and Much More from Answers.com (0 words)
Conservation is the term coined by the forester Gifford Pinchot in 1907 to describe the philosophy that the environment must be managed to assure adequate supplies of natural resources for present and future generations.
Fortuitously for the perpetuation of the conservation movement, the founder of the Boone and Crockett Club ascended to the U.S. presidency in 1901.
The conservation movement lost some of its public momentum in the 1910s and 1920s in part due to the departure of Roosevelt from the White House in 1909, the dismissal of Pinchot by President William Howard Taft in 1910 in the wake of the B
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