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Encyclopedia > Conservation ethic

The conservation ethic is an ethic of resource use, allocation, exploitation, and protection. Its primary focus is upon maintaining the health of the natural world: its forests, fisheries, habitats, and biological diversity. Secondary focus is on materials conservation and energy conservation, which are seen as important to protect the natural world. Ethics is a general term for what is often described as the science (study) of morality. In philosophy, ethical behavior is that which is good or right. ... Devils Punchbowl Waterfall, New Zealand. ... A forest is an area with a high density of trees (or, historically, a wooded function as carbon dioxide sinks, animal habitats, hydrologic flow modulators, and soil conservers, constituting one of the most important aspects of the Earths biosphere. ... A lobster boat unloading its catch in Ilfracombe harbour, North Devon, England A fishery (plural: fisheries) is an organized effort by humans to catch fish or other aquatic species, an activity known as fishing. ... Habitat (from the Latin for it inhabits) is the place where a particular species lives and grows. ... Biodiversity or biological diversity is a neologism and a portmanteau word, from bio and diversity. ... For the physical concepts, see conservation of energy and energy efficiency. ...

Satellite photograph of deforestation in progress in the Tierras Bajas project in eastern Bolivia. Photograph courtesy NASA.
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Satellite photograph of deforestation in progress in the Tierras Bajas project in eastern Bolivia. Photograph courtesy NASA.

Contents

This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ...


Introduction

Environmental science
Environmental technology

To conserve habitat in terrestrial ecoregions and stop deforestation is a goal widely shared by many groups with a wide variety of motivations. These issues and groups are covered in their own articles. Environmental science is the study of the interactions among the physical, chemical and biological components of the environment; with a focus on pollution and degradation of the environment related due to human activities; and the impact on biodiversity and sustainability from local and global development. ... Environmental technology is the subset of technologies concerned with preserving the natural environment by recycling waste products produced by human activities. ... Anaerobic digestion is the breakdown of organic matter by bacteria in the absence of oxygen. ... Compost is the decomposed remnants of organic materials (those with plant and animal origins). ...   The international symbol for recycling. ... The international symbol for recycling. ... Generally, remediation means giving a remedy. ... Sewage (or domestic wastewater) treatment incorporates physical, chemical and biological processes which treat and remove physical, chemical and biological contaminants from water following human use. ... Water purification is the removal of contaminants from raw water to produce drinking water that is pure enough for human consumption. ... Waste management is the collection, transport, processing or disposal of waste materials, usually ones produced by human activity, in an effort to reduce their effect on human health or local aesthetics or amenity. ... For the physical concepts, see conservation of energy and energy efficiency. ... Renewable energy (sources) or RES capture their energy from existing flows of energy, from on-going natural processes, such as sunshine, wind, flowing water (hydropower), biological processes, and geothermal heat flows. ... To conserve habitat for wild species and prevent their extinction or reduction in range is a priority of a great many groups that cannot be easily characterized in terms of any one ideology. ... Ecoregions are defined by World Wildlife Fund as relatively large units of land or water containing a distinct assemblage of natural communities and species, with boundaries that approximate the original extent of natural communities prior to major land-use change. Terrestrial ecoregions are land ecoregions, as distinct from freshwater ecoregions... Deforestation is the conversion of forested areas to non-forested. ...


To protect sea life from extinction due to overfishing is another commonly stated goal of conservation — ensuring that "some will be available for our children" to continue a way of life. In biology and ecology, extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of taxa. ... The Traffic Light colour convention, showing the concept of Harvest Control Rule (HCR), specifying when a rebuilding plan is mandatory in terms of precautionary and limit reference points for spawning biomass and fishing mortality rate. ...


The consumer conservation ethic is sometimes expressed by the four R's: " Reduce, Recycle, Reuse, Rethink" This social ethic primarily relates to local purchasing, moral purchasing, the sustained and efficient use of renewable resources, the moderation of destructive use of finite resources, and the prevention of harm to common resources such as air and water quality, the natural functions of a living earth, and cultural values in a built environment. Local purchasing is a preference to buy locally produced goods and services. ... Ethical consumerism is the practice of boycotting products which a consumer believes to be associated with unnecessary exploitation or other unethical behaviour. ... Sustainability is a systemic concept, relating to the continuity of economic, social, institutional and environmental aspects of human society. ... A renewable resource is alyssas mom or dad or any natural resource that is depleted at a rate slower than the rate at which it regenerates. ... This power plant in New Mexico releases sulfur dioxide and particulate matter into the air. ... Water pollution Water pollution is a large set of adverse effects upon water bodies (lakes, rivers, oceans, groundwater) caused by human activities. ... The phrase built environment refers to the manmade surroundings that provide the setting for human activity, ranging from the large-scale civic surroundings to the personal places. ...


The principal value underlying most expressions of the conservation ethic is that the natural world has intrinsic and intangible worth along with utilitarian value — a view carried forward by the scientific ecology movement and some of the older Romantic schools of conservation. The global ecology movement is one of several new social movements that emerged at the end of the sixties; as a values-driven social movement, it should be distinguished from the pre-existing science of ecology. ... Romanticism was a secular and intellectual movement in the history of ideas that originated in late 18th century Western Europe. ...


More Utilitarian schools of conservation seek a proper valuation of local and global impacts of human activity upon nature in their effect upon human well being, now and to our posterity. How such values are assessed and exchanged among people determines the social, political, and personal restraints and imperatives by which conservation is practiced. This is a view common in the modern environmental movement. Utilitarian ethics was formulated first by Jeremy Bentham in 1781, and later championed and elaborated by the philosopher John Stuart Mill. ... The well-being or quality of life of a population is an important concern in economics and political science. ... The environmental movement (sometimes inclusive of the conservation or green movements) is a diverse global social and political movement, which advocates for the protection, sustainable management and restoration of the natural environment in an effort to satisfy human needs, including spiritual and social needs, as well as for its own...


These movements have diverged but they have deep and common roots in the conservation movement. The Conservation movement seeks to protect plant and animal species as well as the habitats they live in from harmful human influences. ...


In the United States of America, the year 1864 saw the publication of two books which laid the foundation for Romantic and Utilitarian conservation traditions in America. The posthumous publication of Henry David Thoreau's Maine Woods established the grandeur of unspoiled nature as a citadel to nourish the spirit of man. From George Perkins Marsh a very different book, Man and Nature, later subtitled "The Earth as Modified by Human Action", cataloged his observations of man exhausting and altering the land from which his sustenance derives. 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Henry David Thoreau Henry David Thoreau (July 12, 1817 – May 6, 1862; born David Henry Thoreau) was an American author, development critic, naturalist, transcendentalist, pacifist, tax resister and philosopher who is famous for Walden, on simple living amongst nature, and On the Duty of Civil Disobedience, on resistance to civil... George Perkins Marsh (March 15, 1801 – July 23, 1882), an American diplomat and philologist, he is considered by some to be Americas first environmentalist. ... Man and Nature is a book written by George Perkins Marsh in 1864. ...

"here introduce specific concerns like supporting populations, global warming, biodiversity, the value of wilderness, fish and timber harvest, etc,etc."

Global mean surface temperatures 1856 to 2005; this map shows mean surface temperature anomalies during the period 1995 to 2004 with respect to the average temperatures from 1940 to 1980 Global warming refers to the increases in the average temperature of the Earths atmosphere and oceans that have been...

Usage of term

Part of the Politics series on
Progressivism


This article has some overlap
with these other political positions
Politics, sometimes defined as the art and science of government[1], is a process by which collective decisions are made within groups. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

Schools
American Progressivism
New Deal liberalism
Economic progressivism
Educational progressivism
Social Progressivism
Techno-progressivism
Ideas
Conservation ethic
Efficiency Movement
Economic interventionism
Freedom
Worker rights
Mixed economy
Positive liberty
Social justice
Welfare of Society
Programs
The Square Deal
The New Nationalism
The New Freedom
The New Deal
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In common usage, the term refers to the activity of systematically protecting natural resources such as forests, including biological diversity. Carl F. Jordan defines the term in his book Replacing Quantity With Quality As a Goal for Global Management Progressivism in the United States // Overview Some argue that Progressivism in the United States can best be differentiated from liberalism in two major ways. ... American liberalism is a political current of modern liberalism in the United States that is descended from classical liberalism in terms of devotion to individual liberty, but rejects absolute free-market economics in favor of an economic system in which the government intervenes where it considers freedom to be threatened... Economic Progressivism is a political Economic Ideology. ... Educational progressivists believe that education must be based on the fact that humans are social animals who learn best in real-life activities with other people. ... [[Category:Articles which may be biased|Social Progressivism] Social Progressivism is a political ideology opposite to Social conservatism. ... Techno-progressivism, technoprogressivism, or tech-progressivism (a portmanteau word combining technology-focused and progressivism), is a stance of active support for technological development and social progress. ... The Efficiency Movement was a major dimension of the Progressive Era in the United States. ... Economic interventionism is a term used to describe activity undertaken by a central government to affect a countrys economy in an attempt to increase economic growth and/or standards of living. ... Political freedom is the right, or the capacity, of self-determination as an expression of the individual will. ... Labor rights or workers rights are a group of legal rights and claimed human rights having to do with labor relations between workers and their employers. ... A mixed economy is an economy that contains both private and public, or state owned (or controlled) enterprises. ... Positive liberty is an idea that was first expressed and analyzed as a separate conception of liberty by John Stuart Mill but most notably described by Isaiah Berlin. ... Social justice is a philosophical definition of justice, that is, giving individuals or groups their due within society as a whole. ... It has been suggested that Welfare capitalism be merged into this article or section. ... The Square Deal was the term used by President of the United States Theodore Roosevelt and his associates for the policies of his administration, particularly with regard to how economic policies, such as antitrust enforcement. ... In a speech in Osawatomie, Kansas, in August 1910, Theodore Roosevelt made the case for what he called the New Nationalism. ... The New Freedom policy of U.S. President Woodrow Wilson promoted antitrust modification, tariff revision, and reform in banking and currency matters. ... The New Deal was Franklin D. Roosevelts legislative agenda for rescuing the United States from the Great Depression. ... Rainforests are the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity or biological diversity is the diversity of life. ...

"biological conservation as being a philosophy of managing the environment in a manner that does not despoil, exhaust or extinguish."

While that usage is not new, the idea of biological conservation has been applied to the principles of ecology, biogeography, anthropology, economy and sociology to maintain biodiversity. The word ecology is often used in common parlance as a synonym for the natural environment or environmentalism. ... Biogeography is the science which deals with patterns of species distribution and the processes that result in such patterns. ... Anthropology (from the Greek word άνθρωπος, human or person) consists of the study of humanity (see genus Homo). ... Social interactions of people and their consequences are the subject of sociology studies. ... Rainforests are the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity or biological diversity is the diversity of life. ...


Even the term "conservation" may cover the concepts such as cultural diversity, genetic diversity and the concept of movements environmental conservation, seedbank (preservation of seeds). These are often summarized as the priority to respect diversity, especially by Greens. Cultural diversity is the variety of human societies or cultures in a specific region, or in the world as a whole. ... Genetic diversity is a characteristic of ecosystems and gene pools that describes an attribute which is commonly held to be advantageous for survival -- that there are many different versions of otherwise similar organisms. ... The conservation movement seeks to protect plant and animal species as well as the habitats they live in from harmful human influences. ... Seedbanks store the seeds of a wide range of food crop cultivars in diverse locations to protect biodiversity and provide a source of seeds for planting where seed reserves are destroyed by natural disasters or war; or when the local cultivar of a food crop becomes susceptable to disease. ... The prerogative to respect diversity, often said to begin with biodiversity of non-human life, is basic to some 20th century studies such as cultural ecology, Queer studies, and anthropological linguistics. ... Greens are people who support some or all of goals of a Green Party without necessarily working with or voting for that or any party. ...


Much recent movement in conservation can be considered a resistance to commercialism and globalization. Slow food is a consequence of rejecting these as moral priorities, and embracing a slower and more locally-focused lifestyle. Commercialism, in its original meaning, is the practices, methods, aims, and spirit of commerce or business. ... Globalization (or globalisation[1]), although often described as the cause of much turbulence and change, is in fact the umbrella term for the collective effect, the change itself. ... The Slow Food movement, coined in response to fast food, claims to preserve the cultural cuisine and the associated food plants and seeds, domestic animals, and farming within an ecoregion. ... Voluntary simplicity (or simple living) is a lifestyle considered by its adherents to be a sustainable, ecologically sensitive alternative to the typical, western consumerist lifestyle. ...


History of biological conservation

The origins of biological conservation can be traced to philosophical and religious beliefs about Man as a full part of Nature: Ethics is a branch of philosophy dealing with right and wrong in human behaviour. ...


The Torah, or Old Testament discusses the concept of the Sabbatical Year, a period whereby the fields are left fallow, presumably in order to rejuvenate the soil. This would appear to be an ancient form of the ecological practice of crop rotation. The weekly Sabbath is also a time when beasts of burden are given rest from their work. The Torah further prohibits the destruction of fruit bearing trees, and this commandment has been extended to encompass all manner of wastefulness.


Taoist and Shintoist philosophies encourage recognition of special sites, allowing spiritual experiments. Taoism (sometimes written as Daoism) is the English name for: (a) a philosophical school based on the texts the Dao De Jing (ascribed to Laozi) and the Zhuangzi. ... Shintō (Japanese: 神道) is the native religion of Japan. ...


Jainism, Hinduism and Buddhism grant a sacred value to animals. Primitive religions also recognize sacred values to sites such as forests, lakes, mountains. Islam recognizes each species as its own "nation", and an obligation of man to khalifa, or "stewardship" of the Earth. Specific conservation mechanisms such as haram and hima zones, and the origins of the idea of carrying capacity, were a product of Islamic civilization. Indigenous strategies successfully combated soil erosion and deforestation in pre-colonial East Africa, as well as in the early colonial empires in China and Venice. As early as 450 BCE Artaxerxes I attempted to restrict cutting Lebanese timber (Grove 1992). Plato, writing in the 4th century BCE, noted that the removal of trees in Attica produced soil erosion "and what remains is like the skeleton of a body wasted by disease". Some historians claim that the idea of conservation originated in conflicts over the use of forests (Glacken 1965). Jaina redirects here. ... Hinduism {Sanskrit/Hindi - Hindū Dharma, also known as Sanātana (eternal) Dharma, and Vaidika (of the Vedas) Dharma} is a religion originating in the Indian subcontinent, based on the Vedas and the beliefs of other people of India. ... Buddhism is a religion and philosophy focusing on the teachings of the Buddha Śākyamuni (Siddhārtha Gautama), who probably lived in the 5th century BCE. Buddhism spread throughout the ancient Indian sub-continent in the five centuries following the Buddhas death, and propagated into Central, Southeast, and East Asia... Islam (Arabic: ; ) is a monotheistic religion based on the Quran. ... Omdurman, Sudan. ... Earth (often referred to as The Earth) is the third planet in the solar system in terms of distance from the Sun, and the fifth in order of size. ... This article covers the word as used in Islamic urban planning. ... Hima means (is Arabic for) inviolate zones solely for the conservation of natural capital, typically fields, wildlife and forests (contrast haram to protect areas for more immediate human purposes). ... As population density increases, birth rates decrease and death rates increase. ...


Conservationism embraces a spectrum of views, ranging from anthropocentric, utilitarian conservationism to radical eco-centric green eco-political views which advocate the total preservation of forest resources and which seek to establish a radically new relationship between humanity and nature. There are three main philosophical movements roughly characterized as conservation movements (plural):


Romantic-Transcendental

Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau, in 1880, defend the idea that Nature has a meaning, beyond economic profits. Nature is a temple where the Man can share and communicate with God.
John Muir defends a preservationist ethic, according to which the beauty of Nature stimulates the religious feelings and supports spiritual experiments. He also sees in biological communities, groups of species evolving together and depending ones on the others. These communities, superorganisms, are a prelude to the Gaia hypothesis developed later by James Lovelock (1988) and the Gaia philosophy that began to stem from it. Ralph Waldo Emerson Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was a famous American author, poet, and philosopher. ... Henry David Thoreau Henry David Thoreau (July 12, 1817 – May 6, 1862; born David Henry Thoreau) was an American author, development critic, naturalist, transcendentalist, pacifist, tax resister and philosopher who is famous for Walden, on simple living amongst nature, and On the Duty of Civil Disobedience, on resistance to civil... John Muir (April 21, 1838 – December 24, 1914) was a Scottish-American polymath: environmentalist, naturalist, explorer, writer, inventor, and geologist. ... A Gaia theory is a class of scientific models of the biosphere in which life fosters and maintains suitable conditions for itself by affecting Earths environment. ... James Lovelock in front of a statue of Gaia in 2000 James Ephraim Lovelock (born July 26, 1919), FRS, is an independent scientist, author, researcher and environmentalist who lives in Cornwall, in the south west of Great Britain. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Resource Conservation

Gifford Pinchot, at the beginning of the 20th century, develops an ethics of resource conservation, which is based on a utilitarian philosophy encapsulated in his slogan "the greatest good for the greatest number for the longest time". Pinchot, trained as a forester in Europe, believed in the complementarity of conservation and development. According to him, Nature is a set of things defined by their utility or their harmful character. He defends the sharing of resources between all users, current and future (a first approach to sustainable development) by avoiding despoiling. However, he does not take into account the costs of degradation and pollution of the environment nor the erosion of resources. This view is taken by the modern environmental movement and the attempts to assign a value of Earth, value of life and quantify nature's services. Gifford Pinchot (August 11, 1865 – October 4, 1946) was the first Chief of the United States Forest Service (1905-1910) and the Republican Governor of Pennsylvania (1923-1927, 1931-1935). ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... Ethics (from Greek ἦθος meaning custom) is the branch of axiology, one of the four major branches of philosophy, which attempts to understand the nature of morality; to distinguish that which is right from that which is wrong. ... Sustainable development is a process of developing (land, cities, business, communities, etc) that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs according to the Brundtland Report, a 1987 report from the United Nations. ... The environmental movement (sometimes inclusive of the conservation or green movements) is a diverse global social and political movement, which advocates for the protection, sustainable management and restoration of the natural environment in an effort to satisfy human needs, including spiritual and social needs, as well as for its own... In economics, value of Earth is the ultimate in ecosystem valuation, and important to value of life calculations. ... FUCKING BULLSHIT!! The value of life is an economic or moral value assigned to life in general, or to specific living organisms. ... Natures services is an umbrella term for the ways in which nature benefits humans, particularly those benefits that can be measured in economic terms. ...


Evolutionary-Ecological

With Aldo Leopold (A Sand County Almanac, 1949), an evolutionary ecology develops, a prospect marked by dynamism rather than by static conservation. In his famous chapter Land ethics, Leopold states A thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic community. It is wrong when it tends otherwise. Aldo Leopold (January 11, 1887 - April 21, 1948) was a United States ecologist, forester, and environmentalist. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... Environmental ethics is theory and practice about appropriate concern for, values in, and duties to the natural world. ...


As an extension, Donella Meadows later defined eco-evolution as a prerequisite to the intelligent extension of a system — a theme carried to its limits by Deep Ecology. Donella Dana Meadows (March 13, 1941 Elgin, Illinois, USA - February 20, 2001, New Hampshire) was a pioneering environmental scientist, a teacher and writer. ... The term eco-evolution was coined by Donella Meadows to describe the power to add, change, evolve, or self-organize system structure which she described as the fourth most powerful way to intervene in a system: Self-organization refers to the capacity of a system to change itself by creating... Deep ecology is a recent philosophy or ecosophy based on a shift away from the anthropocentric bias of established environmental and green movements. ...


The practice of conservation

Beyond these philosophical underpinnings, one may think in terms of two distinct trends to the way in which conservation developed in practice. While many countries' efforts to preserve species and their habitats have been government-led, those in the United Kingdom tended to arise out of the middle-class or aristocratic interest in natural history, expressed at the level of the individual and the national, regional or local learned society. Thus Britain had what we would today term NGOs — in the shape of the RSPB, National Trust and County Naturalists' Trusts (dating back to 1889, 1895 and 1912 respectively) — a long time before it had National Parks and National Nature Reserves. This in part reflects the absence of wilderness areas over much of the country, as well as a longstanding interest in laissez-faire government, leaving it as no coincidence that John Muir, the British-born founder of the National Trust movement (and hence of government-sponsored conservation) did his sterling work in the USA, where he was the motor force behind the establishment of such NPs as Yosemite and Yellowstone. In biology, a species is the basic unit of biodiversity. ... A habitat (from the Latin for it inhabits) is the place where a particular organism usually lives or grows. ... Table of natural history, 1728 Cyclopaedia Natural history is an umbrella term for what are now usually viewed as several distinct scientific disciplines. ... A learned society is a society that exists to promote an academic discipline or group of disciplines. ... A non-governmental organization (NGO) is an organization that is not part of a government and was not founded by states. ... The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) is Europes largest wildlife conservation charity. ... The standard of the National Trust The National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, usually known as The National Trust, is a British preservation organization. ... This article is about national parks. ... National Nature Reserve is a United Kingdom government conservation designation for a nature reserve of national significance. ... Laissez-faire is short for laissez faire, laissez passer, a French phrase meaning to let things alone, let them pass. First used by the eighteenth century Physiocrats as an injunction against government interference with trade, it is now used as a synonym for strict free market economics. ... John Muir (April 21, 1838 – December 24, 1914) was a Scottish-American polymath: environmentalist, naturalist, explorer, writer, inventor, and geologist. ... Yosemite National Park (pron. ... Yellowstone National Park is a U.S. National Park located in the states of Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming. ...


See also

Conservation biology is the protection and management of biodiversity that uses principles and experiences from the biological sciences, from natural resource management, and from the social sciences, including economics. ... Some conservation ecologists have been concerned about the Amazon rainforest. ... The Conservation movement seeks to protect plant and animal species as well as the habitats they live in from harmful human influences. ... Conservationists are those people who tend to more highly rank the wise use of the Earths resources and ecosystems. ... Diversity is the presence of a wide range of variation in the qualities or attributes under discussion. ... Rainforests are the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity or biological diversity is the diversity of life. ... Cultural diversity is the variety of human societies or cultures in a specific region, or in the world as a whole. ... The environmental movement (sometimes inclusive of the conservation or green movements) is a diverse global social and political movement, which advocates for the protection, sustainable management and restoration of the natural environment in an effort to satisfy human needs, including spiritual and social needs, as well as for its own... This is a list of environmental organizations, organizations that preserve or monitor the environment in different ways. ... Ex-situ conservation means literally, off-site conservation. It is the process of protecting an endangered species of plant or animal by removing it from an unsafe or threatened habitat and placing it or part of it under the care of humans. ... The Federal Duck Stamp is a U.S. program to generate revenue to protect wetlands. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Globalization (or globalisation[1]), although often described as the cause of much turbulence and change, is in fact the umbrella term for the collective effect, the change itself. ... In-situ conservation means on-site conservation. It is the process of protecting an endangered plant or animal species in its natural habitat, either by protecting or cleaning up the habitat itself, or by defending the species from predators. ... The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, popularly known as the International Seed Treaty, is a comprehensive international agreement in harmony with Convention on Biological Diversity, which aims at guaranteeing food security through the conservation, exchange and sustainable use of the worlds plant genetic resources... The list of conservation topics is a link page for the conservation of both the natural environment and the built environment. ... The timeline of environmental events is a historical account of events that have shaped humanitys perspective on the environment. ...

External links

  • Dictionary of the History of ideas: Conservation of Natural Resources
  • Eco-Eating: Eating as if the Earth Matters

References

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Conservation ethic
  • Conservation: Replacing Quantity With Quality As a Goal for Global Management by Carl F. Jordan-John Wiley & Sons — ISBN 0471595152 — (January 1995)
  • Conservation Biology : an evolutionary ecological perspective (Soulé et Wilcox, 1980)
  • Conservation and evolution (Frankel et Soulé, 1981)
  • Glacken, C.J. (1967) Traces on the Rhodian Shore. University of California Press. Berkeley
  • Grove, R.H. (1992) 'Origins of Western Environmentalism', Scientific American 267(1): 22-27.
  • Leopold, A. (1966) A Sand County Almanac. Oxford University Press. New York.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Conservation ethic (594 words)
The conservation ethic is an ethic of resource use, allocation, exploitation, and protection.
Conservation biology — Conservation biology is the protection and management of biodiversity that uses principles and experiences from the biological sciences, from natural...
Marine conservation — Marine conservation, also known as marine resources conservation, is the protection and preservation of ecosystems in oceans and seas.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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