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Encyclopedia > Conservation biology

Conservation biology, or conservation ecology, is the science of analyzing and protecting Earth's biological diversity. Conservation biology draws from the biological, physical and social sciences, economics, and the practice of natural-resource management. Conservation ecology addresses population dynamics issues associated with the small population sizes of rare species (e.g., minimum viable populations). The term "conservation biology" refers to the application of science to the conservation of genes, populations, species, and ecosystems. Conservation biology is the scientific study of the phenomena that affect the maintenance, loss, and restoration of biological diversity. For the history of biodiversity conservation and volunteer activity, see conservation movement. Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of taxonomic life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... Population dynamics is the study of marginal and long-term changes in the numbers, individual weights and age composition of individuals in one or several populations, and biological and environmental processes influencing those changes. ... Rare species is an organism which is very uncommon or scarce. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For a non-technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to Genetics. ... The hierarchy of scientific classification. ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... The conservation movement is a political and social movement that seeks to protect natural resources including plant and animal species as well as their habitat for the future. ...


In the 19th century actions in the United Kingdom, the United States and certain other western countries emphasized the protection of habitat areas pursuant to visions of such people as John Muir and Theodore Roosevelt. It was not until the mid 20th century did efforts arise to target individual species for conservation, notably efforts in big cat conservation in South America led by the New York Zoological Society.[1] By the 1970s, led primarily by work in the United States under the Endangered Species Act[2] along with Biodiversity Action Plans developed in Australia, Sweden, the United Kingdom, hundreds of specific species protection plans ensued. The Society for Conservation Biology is a global community of conservation professionals dedicated to advancing the science and practice of conserving Earth's biological diversity. John Muir appears on the California quarter John Muir (April 21, 1838 – December 24, 1914) was one of the first modern preservationists. ... Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... This article is about the zoo, for the tv series see The Bronx Zoo (TV). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Diademed Sifaka, an endangered primate of Madagascar Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) is a an internationally recognized programme addressing threatened species or habitats, which is designed to protect and restore biological systems. ... The Society for Conservation Biology (SCB) is an international professional organization dedicated to promoting the scientific study of the phenomena that affect the maintenance, loss, and restoration of biodiversity. ...

Contents

Threats to biological diversity

Presently the Earth is undergoing the Holocene Mass Extinction, an era of unprecedented number of species extinctions.[3] Human influence over the Earth's ecosystems has been so extensive within the last 10,000 years, that scientists have difficulty estimating the total number of species lost in this era;[4] that is to say the rates of deforestation, reef destruction, wetlands filling and other human acts are proceeding much faster than human assessment of the Earth's species. The matter of ongoing species loss is made more complex by the fact that most of the Earth's species have not been described or evaluated for endangerment. The IUCN has found that 23 percent of vertebrates, 53 percent of invertebrates and 70 percent of plants that have been evaluated are designated as endangered or threatened.[5] (The IUCN does not disaggregate endangered from critically endangered or threatened for the purpose of these statistics.) The Holocene extinction event is a name customarily given to the widespread, ongoing mass extinction of species during the modern Holocene epoch. ... The hierarchy of scientific classification. ... The Dodo, shown here in a 1651 illustration by Jan Savery, is an often-cited[1] example of modern extinction. ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Invertebrate is a term that describes any animal without a spinal column. ...


Historically the main threat to biodiversity has been a set of threats generated from the overpopulation of humans: mass agriculture, deforestation, overgrazing, slash-and-burn, urban development, pesticide use.[4] Worldwide, the effects of global warming add a potentially catastrophic threat to global biological diversity; a 2004 study by Chris Thomas, Lee Hannah, et al. estimated that 15 to 37 percent of all species would become extinct by 2050.[6] Map of countries by population density (See List of countries by population density. ... Deforestation is the conversion of forested areas to non-forest land use such as arable land, pasture, urban use, logged area or wasteland. ... // In the dictionary and agriculture, overgrazing is when plants are exposed to grazing for too long, or without sufficient recovery periods. ... Assarting in Finland in 1892 Slash and burn (a specific practice that may be part of shifting cultivation or swidden-fallow agriculture) is an agricultural procedure widely used in forested areas. ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... Global mean surface temperatures 1850 to 2006 Mean surface temperature anomalies during the period 1995 to 2004 with respect to the average temperatures from 1940 to 1980 Global warming is the observed increase in the average temperature of the Earths atmosphere and oceans in recent decades and the projected... Chris Thomas may refer to: Chris Thomas (basketball), a former mens basketball player for Notre Dame Chris Thomas (boxer), a cruiserweight boxer Chris Thomas (comedian), a comedian and former host of syndicated music show Rap City Chris Thomas (record producer), a record producer of rock and New Wave albums...

Image:Amazon Rainforest.jpg

Map of the Amazon rainforest ecoregions as delineated by the WWF. Yellow line encloses the Amazon rainforest. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

Importance of biological diversity

see also: Benefits of [biodiversity

Biologist Bruce Walsh of the University of Arizona states three reasons for scientific interest in the preservation of species; genetic or medical resources,[7][8] ecosystem stability, and ethics.[9], and today the scientific community "stress[es] the importance" of maintaining biodiversity[10]. Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of taxonomic life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... The University of Arizona (UA or U of A) is a land-grant and space-grant public institution of higher education and research located in Tucson, Arizona, United States. ... DNA, the molecular basis for inheritance. ... See drugs, medication, and pharmacology for substances that are used to treat patients. ... Ethics (via Latin from the Ancient Greek moral philosophy, from the adjective of Ä“thos custom, habit), a major branch of philosophy, is the study of values and customs of a person or group. ...


Biodiversity provides many ecosystem services that are often not readily visible. It plays an essential part in regulating the chemistry of our atmosphere, pollinating crops and generating water supply. Biodiversity is directly involved in recycling nutrients and providing fertile soils. Experiments with controlled environments have shown that humans cannot easily build ecosystems to support human needs; for example insect pollination cannot be mimicked by man-made construction. The total value of ecosystem services may amount to trillions of dollars in ecosystem services per annum to mankind.[11][12][13][14] For example, one segment of North American forests has been assigned an annual value of 250 billion dollars;[15] as another example, honey-bee pollination, a small segment of ecosystem services, is estimated to provide between 10 and 18 billion dollars of value per annum.[16] The value of ecosyst.nz/enviroinfo/profile/economy/ecoservices.htm Regional council, Waikato: The hidden economy]</ref> Ecosystem services are processes by which the natural environment produces resources useful to people. ... View of Jupiters active atmosphere, including the Great Red Spot. ... Look up crop in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Water supply is the process of self-provision or provision by third parties of water of various qualities to different users. ... Link title {{portal|Food} A nutrient is either a chemical element or compound used in an organisms metabolism or physiology. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Monura - extinct Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (may be paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Palaeodictyoptera - extinct Megasecoptera - extinct Archodonata - extinct Diaphanopterodea - extinct Protodonata - extinct Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Caloneurodea - extinct Titanoptera - extinct Protorthoptera - extinct Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera... A flower-fly pollinating a Common Daisy (Bellis perennis) Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (male gametes) to the plant carpel, the structure that contains the ovule (female gamete). ... Ecosystem services are processes by which the natural environment produces resources useful to people. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


History

Conservation biologists trace the ethics that guide their work back to early spiritual philosophies, including the Tao, Shinto, Hindu, Islamic and Buddhist traditions.[17] In the West, origins of concern for the destruction of the natural environment by man can be traced to Plato;[18] however, modern roots of conservation biology can be found in the late 18th century Enlightenment period particularly in England and Scotland.[19][20] A number of thinkers, among them notably Lord Monboddo,[20] described the importance of "preserving nature"; much of this early emphasis had its origins in Christian theology. By the early 1800s biogeography was ignited through efforts of Von Humboldt, DeCandolle, Lyell and Darwin;[21] their efforts, while important in relating species to their environments, fell short of actual conservation. The Age of Enlightenment (French: ; German: ) was an eighteenth century movement in European and American philosophy, or the longer period including the Age of Reason. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic) Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English (de facto)1; Gaelic[1]2 and Scots3 (recognised minority... James Burnett, Lord Monboddo (1714 - May 26, 1799) was a Scottish judge, scholar and eccentric. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A Christian () is a person who... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Alexander von Humboldt (age 89): an 1859 portrait by artist Julius Schrader, showing Mount Chimborazo in the background. ... Lyell may refer to: Charles Lyell (1797–1875), Scottish lawyer, geologist, and populariser of uniformitarianism. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ...


The term conservation came into use in the late 19th century and referred to the management, mainly for economic reasons, of such natural resources as timber, fish, game, topsoil, pastureland, and minerals, and also to the preservation of forests (see forestry), wildlife (see wildlife refuge), parkland, wilderness, and watersheds. Western Europe was the source of much 19th century progress for conservation biology, particularly the British Empire; however, the United States began making sizable contributions to this field starting with thinking of Thoreau and taking form in the United States Congress passing the Forest Act of 1891, John Muir's work and the founding of the Sierra Club in 1895, founding of the New York Zoological Society in 1895 and establishment of a series of national forests and preserves by Theodore Roosevelt from 1901 to 1909.[22] Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction or wood... Pastureland Pasture is land with lush herbaceous vegetation cover used for grazing of ungulates as part of a farm or ranch. ... Wilderness is generally defined as a natural environment on Earth that has not been modified by human activity. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Henry David Thoreau Henry David Thoreau (July 12, 1817 - May 6, 1862; born David Henry Thoreau) was a noted American author and philosopher who is most famous for Walden, his essay on civil disobedience, and his call for the preservation of wilderness. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... This article is about the zoo, for the tv series see The Bronx Zoo (TV). ... Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ...


In the early 20th century the New York Zoological Society was instrumental in developing concepts of establishing preserves for particular species and conducting the necessary conservation studies to determine the suitability of specific locations that are most appropriate as conservation priorities; the work of Henry Fairfield Osborn Jr., Archie Carr and Archie Carr III is notable in this era.[23][24] Archie Carr (June 16, 1909–May 21, 1987) was a Professor of Zoology at the University of Florida and a pioneering conservationist. ... Archie Carr III, PhD., is an American biologist instrumental in establishing the Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary in the nation of Belize. ...


By the early 1970s national and international governmental agencies became more active in the conservation of biodiversity. Notably the United Nations acted to conserve sites of outstanding cultural or natural importance to the common heritage of mankind. The programme was adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO in 1972. As of 2006, a total of 830 sites are listed: 644 cultural, 162 natural. The first country to pursue aggressive biological conservation through national legislation was the USA, which passed back to back legislation in the Endangered Species Act[25] (1966) and National Environmental Policy Act (1970),[26] which together injected major funding and protection measures to large scale habitat protection and threatened species research. UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The National Environmental Policy Act (or, NEPA) was signed into law on January 1, 1970 by US President Richard Nixon. ... Threatened species refers to animal and plant species under a serious, but perhaps not imminent, threat of extinction. ...


By 1992 most of the countries of the world had become committed to the principles of conservation of biological diversity with the Convention on Biological Diversity;[27] subsequently many countries began programmes of Biodiversity Action Plans to identify and conserve threatened species within their borders, as well as protect associated habitats. The Convention on Biological Diversity is an international treaty that was adopted at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. ... Diademed Sifaka, an endangered primate of Madagascar Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) is a an internationally recognized programme addressing threatened species or habitats, which is designed to protect and restore biological systems. ...


The science of ecology has clarified the workings of the biosphere; i.e., the complex interrelationships among humans, other species, and the physical environment; moreover, the burgeoning human population, and associated agriculture, industry and its ensuing pollution have demonstrated how easily ecological relationships can be disrupted.[28] A false-color composite of global oceanic and terrestrial photoautotroph abundance, from September 1997 to August 2000. ... Map of countries by population density (See List of countries by population density. ...


See also

Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of taxonomic life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... For the psychology topic, see Environmental psychology. ... Ex-situ conservation means literally, off-site conservation. It is the process of protecting an endangered species of plant or animal by removing it from an unsafe or threatened habitat and placing it or part of it under the care of humans. ... The Dodo, shown here in a 1651 illustration by Jan Savery, is an often-cited[1] example of modern extinction. ... The Holocene extinction event is a name customarily given to the widespread, ongoing mass extinction of species during the modern Holocene epoch. ... In-situ conservation means on-site conservation. It is the process of protecting an endangered plant or animal species in its natural habitat, either by protecting or cleaning up the habitat itself, or by defending the species from predators. ... The list of conservation topics is a link page for the conservation of both the natural environment and the built environment. ... Table of natural history, 1728 Cyclopaedia Natural history is an umbrella term for what are now often viewed as several distinct scientific disciplines of integrative organismal biology. ... cheese ... Wildlife management is the process of keeping certain wildlife populations at desirable levels determined by wildlife managers. ...

Notes

  1. ^ A.R. Rabinowitz, Jaguar: One Man's Battle to Establish the World's First Jaguar Preserve, Arbor House, New York, N.Y. (1986)
  2. ^ U.S. Endangered Species Act (7 U.S.C. § 136, 16 U.S.C. § 1531 et seq.) of 1973, Washington DC, U.S. Government Printing Office
  3. ^ J.H.Lawton and R.M.May, Extinction rates, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK
  4. ^ a b Paul Ehrlich and Anne Ehrlich, Extinction, Random House, New York (1981) ISBN 0-394-51312-6
  5. ^ IUCN Red-list statistics (2006)
  6. ^ * Chris D. Thomas, Alison Cameron, et al. Extinction risk from climate change Nature 427, 145-148 (8 January 2004) | doi: 10.1038/nature02121
  7. ^ Why preserve endangered species
  8. ^ Endangered Tibetan species with medical uses
  9. ^ Walsh, Bruce. Extinction. Bioscience at University of Arizona. URL accessed July 26] [[Media:]]2006.
  10. ^ Committee on Recently Extinct Organisms. "Why Care About Species That Have Gone Extinct?". URL accessed July 30, 2006.
  11. ^ World Resources Institute: Valuing ecosystem services (1998)
  12. ^ National Academic Press: Perspectives on Biodiversity: Valuing Its Role in an Everchanging World (1999)
  13. ^ Valuation of Ecosystem services : A Backgrounder
  14. ^ Ecosystem Services: Estimated value in trillions
  15. ^ Canadian Forest Congress: Carbon capture, water filtration, other boreal forest ecoservices worth estimated $250 billion/year
  16. ^ APIS, Volume 10, Number 11, November 1992, M.T. Sanford: Estimated value of honey bee pollination
  17. ^ Primack, Richard B. (2004). A Primer of Conservation Biology, 3rd ed.. Sinauer Associates, 320pp.. ISBN 0-87893-728-5 (pbk). 
  18. ^ Plato, The Republic, Penguin Classics, ISBN 9780140449143
  19. ^ David Evans, A History of Nature Conservation in Britain, Routledge, UK ISBN 9780415144919 (1997)
  20. ^ a b Cloyd, E.L., James Burnett, Lord Monboddo (1972)
  21. ^ Short history of biogeography and conservation biology
  22. ^ Environmental timeline 1890-1920
  23. ^ Carr, Archie (Marjorie Carr Ed.), A Naturalist in Florida ISBN 0-300-05589-7
  24. ^ Henry Fairfield Osborn Jr. Biographical summary
  25. ^ U.S. Endangered Species Act of 1966 with subsequent amendments
  26. ^ 42 USC 4321 National Environmental Policy Act (2000): full text of the law
  27. ^ Convention on Biological Diversity Official Page
  28. ^ Al Gore, Earth in the Balance: Ecology and the Human Spirit, (1992) 407 pages

The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

Textbooks

Periodicals

  • Conservation Biology, peer-reviewed journal.
  • Conservation, quarterly magazine published by the Society for Conservation Biology.
  • Herpetological Conservation and Biology, a journal on the conservation, applied ecology, and natural history of amphibians and reptiles.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Conservation biology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (799 words)
Conservation biology is the protection and management of biodiversity that uses principles and experiences from the biological sciences, from natural resource management, and from the social sciences, including economics.
The term "conservation biology" refers to the science and sometimes is used to encompass also the application of this science.
Conservation is one of the concerns of conservationists in the conservation and environmental movements.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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