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Encyclopedia > Conscription

Conscription Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Conscript may refer to: Conscription, the process of drafting a countrys population into involuntary labour. ...


Military service
National service
Conscription crisis
Conscientious objection
For military service in the meaning of an army as a military defense organization, see armed forces. ... National service is a common name for compulsory or voluntary military service programs. ... A conscription crisis is a public dispute about a policy of conscription, or mandatory service in the military. ... A conscientious objector is an individual whose personal beliefs are incompatible with military service, or sometimes with any role in the armed forces. ...


Conscription by country:
Australia
Finland
Germany
Greece
Israel
Malaysia
New Zealand
Russia
Singapore
Turkey
United States

Conscription is a general term for involuntary labor demanded by some established authority. It is most often used in the specific sense of government policies that require citizens (often just males) to serve in the armed forces. It is known by various names — for example, the most recent conscription program in the United States was known colloquially as "'the draft.'" Many nations do not maintain conscription forces, instead relying on a volunteer or professional military most of the time, although many of these countries still reserve the possibility of conscription for wartime and during times of crises. Praetorian Guards, Roman Soldiers Military has two broad meanings. ... Conscription in the United States has been employed several times, usually during war but also during the nominal peace of the Cold War. ...


"Conscription" has also sometimes been used as a general term for non-military involuntary labour demanded by some established authority; for example, some translators of Old Testament commentaries use the term to describe the levies of labour used to build the Temple of Solomon. In Japan during World War II, Japanese women and children were conscripted to work in factories. Involuntary servitude is the condition of a person laboring to benefit another against his will due to coercive influence directed toward him. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... Solomons Temple was the first Jewish temple in Jerusalem which functioned as a religious focal point for worship and the sacrifices known as the korbanot in ancient Judaism. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Referring to compulsory service in the armed forces, the term "conscription" has two main meanings:

  • compulsory service, usually of young men of a given age, e.g. 17 – 18, for a set period of time, commonly 1 – 2 years. In the United Kingdom and Singapore this was commonly known as "national service"; in New Zealand, at first compulsory military training and later national service; in Norway, Safeguard Duty/1st time service.
  • compulsory service, for an indefinite period of time, in the context of a widespread mobilisation of forces for fighting war, including on the home territory, usually imposed on men in a much wider age group (e.g. 18 – 45). (In the United Kingdom this was commonly known as "call-up").

The term "conscription" refers only to the mandatory service; thus, those undergoing conscription are known as "conscripts" or "selectee" in the United States (from the Selective Service System or the Selective Service Initiative announced in 2004). Compulsory Military Training (CMT) was first introduced in New Zealand with the Defence Act of 1919 just after World War I (1914 to 1918). ... National service is a common name for compulsory or voluntary military service programs. ... Mobilization (or mobilisation in British English) is the act of assembling and making both troops and supplies ready for war. ... The Selective Service System is the means by which the United States administers military conscription. ... The Selective Service Initative refers to two bills currently in Congress: HR163 and S89, to reinstate conscription (the draft), claimed to be as response to the continued War on Terrorism, which encompassess the current 2004 Iraq War, Afghanistan, and possible wars with other countries. ...


In the U.S. the term "enlisted" is often used to refer only to those who have volunteered for service in roles other than as commissioned officers. For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... In the military, a commissioned officer is a member of the service who derives authority directly from a sovereign power, and as such holds a commission from that power. ...

     No armed forces      No conscription      Plan to abolish conscription within 3 years      Conscription      No information
     No armed forces      No conscription      Plan to abolish conscription within 3 years      Conscription      No information

Contents

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 30 KB) Map of conscription Map: Green: No armed services Blue: No conscription Orange: Plan for conscription to be abolished within 3 years Red: Conscription Gray: No information Even drawn and/or colored marks the individual countries on basis of... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 30 KB) Map of conscription Map: Green: No armed services Blue: No conscription Orange: Plan for conscription to be abolished within 3 years Red: Conscription Gray: No information Even drawn and/or colored marks the individual countries on basis of...

History

Military slavery

The system of military slaves was widely used in the Middle East from the 9th until the 19th century. The Buxton Memorial Fountain, celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, London. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


In the middle of the 14th century, Ottoman Sultan Murad I built his own personal slave army called the Kapıkulu. The new force was based on the sultan's right to a fifth of the war booty, which he interpreted to include captives taken in battle. The captive slaves were converted to Islam and trained in the sultan's personal service. In the devşirme (translated "blood tax" or "child collection"), young Christian boys from the Balkans were taken away from their homes and families, converted to Islam and enlisted into special soldier classes of the Ottoman army. These soldier classes were named Janissaries, the most famous branch of the Kapıkulu. The Janissaries eventually became a decisive factor in the Ottoman invasions of Europe.[1] Most of the military commanders of the Ottoman forces, imperial administrators and de facto rulers of the Ottoman Empire, such as Pargalı İbrahim Pasha and Sokollu Mehmet Paşa, were recruited in this way.[2][3] By 1609 the Sultan's Kapıkulu forces increased to about 100,000.[4] Mahmud II forcibly disbanded Janissary corps in 1826.[5][6] This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Sultan Murad I (มู้หลัดที่หนึ่ง) Murad I (nick-named Hüdavendigâr, the God-liked one) (1319 (or 1326) – 1389) was the ruler of the Ottoman Empire from 1359 to 1389. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Blood tax (from Topkape Saraj); gravure that depicts young boys forcibly taken from their families to grow up in captivity and later become the elite of the Ottoman army. ... Balkan redirects here. ... The military of Ottoman Empire was structured in three organizational structures Army, Navy, and Air Force. ... The Janissaries (derived from Ottoman Turkish: ينيچرى (yeniçeri) meaning new soldier) comprised infantry units that formed the Ottoman sultans household troops and bodyguard. ... The wars of the Ottoman Empire in Europe are also sometimes referred to as the Ottoman Wars or as Turkish Wars, particularly in older, European texts. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Ä°brahim Pasha Palace to the west of Sultanahmet Square, facing former Hippodrome, in Ä°stanbul, today Turkish-Islamic Art Museum - www. ... Mehmed-paÅ¡a Sokolović (Turkish: Sokollu Mehmet PaÅŸa) (born 1506, Sokolovići1 – died 1579, Istanbul) was an important 16th century Ottoman statesman of Bosnian origins. ... The stylized signature of Mahmud II was written in an expressive calligraphy. ...


Mamluks were a slave soldiers who converted to Islam and served the Muslim caliphs and the Ayyubid sultans during the Middle Ages. The first mamluks served the Abbasid caliphs in 9th century Baghdad. Over time they became a powerful military caste, and on more than one occasion they seized power for themselves, for example, ruling Egypt in the from 1250-1517. From 1250 Egypt had been ruled by the Bahri dynasty of Kipchak Turk origin. White slaves from the Caucasus served in the army and formed an elite corp of troops eventually revolting in Egypt to form the Burgi dynasty. Mamluks were mainly responsible for the expulsion of the Crusaders from Palestine and preventing the Mongol Ilkhanate of Persia and Iraq from entering Egypt.[7] An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for themselves. ... Wiktionary has related dictionary definitions, such as: slave Slave may refer to: Slavery, where people are owned by others, and live to serve their owners without pay Slave (BDSM), a form of sexual and consenual submission Slave clock, in technology, a clock or timer that synchrnonizes to a master clock... A Norwegian soldier (a Corporal, armed with an MP-5) A soldier is a person who has enlisted with, or has been conscripted into, the armed forces of a sovereign country and has undergone training and received equipment to defend that country or its interests. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... The Ayyubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Egypt, Iraq in the 12th and 13th centuries. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Caste systems are traditional, hereditary systems of social classification, that evolved due to the enormous diversity in India (where all three primary races met, not by forced slavery but by immigration). ... The Bahri dynasty or Bahriyya Sultanate المماليك البحرية was a Mamluk dynasty of Kipchak Turk origin that ruled Egypt from 1250 to 1382 when they were succeeded by the Burji dynasty, another group of Mamluks. ... Kipchaks (also Kypchaks, Qipchaqs) are an ancient Turkic people, first mentioned in the historical chronicles of Central Asia in the 1st millennium BC. Their language was also known as Kipchak. ... Whites redirects here. ... For the term Caucasian referring to all white people, see Caucasian race. ... The Burji dynasty ruled Egypt from 1382 until 1517. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ...


The Moroccan Sultan Moulay Ismail "the Bloodthirsty" (1672-1727) raised a corps of 150,000 black slaves, called his Black Guard, who coerced the country into submission.[8] Moulay Ismail the Bloodthirsty (1675-1727) was a Moroccan ruler. ... Black Guard (in Arabic, Abid, from a root meaning slave) were the corps of negro slave-soldiers assembled by the Alaouite sultan of Morocco, Mawlay Ismail (reigned 1672-1727). ...


Invention of modern conscription

Modern conscription was invented during the French Revolution, allowing the Republic to defend itself from European monarchies' attacks. Deputy Jean-Baptiste Jourdan gave its name to the September 5, 1798 Act, whose first article stated: "Any Frenchman is a soldier and owes himself to the defense of the nation." It enabled the creation of the Grande Armée, what Napoleon Bonaparte called "the nation in arms," which successfully battled European professional armies. More than 2.6 million men were inducted between 1800 and 1813.[9] The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... The French Republic or France (French: République française or France) is a country whose metropolitan territory is located in western Europe, and which is further made up of a collection of overseas islands and territories located in other continents. ... Jean-Baptiste Jourdan Jean-Baptiste, comte Jourdan (April 29, 1762 – November 23, 1833), was a marshal of France. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1798 (MDCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Defence of the fatherland is a commonplace of patriotism: The statue in the courtyard of École polytechnique, Paris, commemorating the students involvement in defending France against the 1814 invasion of the Coalition. ... La Grande Armée (in English, the Big or Grand Army) is the French military term for the main force in a military campaign. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from...


The defeat of the disorganized Prussian Army shocked the Prussian establishment, which had largely felt invincible after the Frederician victories. Scharnhorst advocated adopting the levée en masse, the military conscription used by France. Krümpersystem was the beginning of short-term compulsory service in Prussia, as opposed to the long-term conscription previously used.[10] A standard of the Prussian Army. ... Frederick II (German: ; January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was a King of Prussia (1740–1786) from the Hohenzollern dynasty. ... Gerhard Johann David von Scharnhorst (November 12, 1755 - June 28, 1813) was a general in Prussian service, Chief of the Prussian General Staff, noted for both his writings and his leadership during the Napoleonic Wars. ... Levée en masse (literally Mass uprising) is a French term for mass conscription. ...


In Russian Empire, the service time was 25 years at the beginning of the 19th century. In 1834 it was decreased to 20 years. The recruits should have been not younger than 17 and not older than 35.[11] In 1874 universal conscription on the modern pattern was introduced, an innovation only made possible by the abolition of serfdom in 1861.[12] The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... A Peasant Leaving His Landlord on Yuriev Day, painting by Sergei V. Ivanov. ...


Conscription was introduced in the Union Army during the American Civil War. The 1863 Enrollment Act permitted draftees to hire paid substitutes to fight in their place. This, and the bounty system, led to widespread dislike of conscription by the public at large; the New York Draft Riots were one symptom. In addition, draftees were viewed with disdain by volunteer soldiers and their officers. In the end, the draft provided only 6% of the Union Army's manpower. Conscription was not employed again in the U.S. until 1917.[13] The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... The Enrollment Act of March 3, 1863, was legislation passed by the United States Congress during the American Civil War to provide fresh manpower for the Union Army. ... Bounty jumpers were men that enlisted in the Union army during the American Civil War only to collect a bounty and then leave. ... Casualties and losses 120[1], although counts vary by sources. ...


According to philosopher Michel Foucault, conscription is one of the forms taken by "disciplinary institutions", along with hospitals, schools and prisons. Louis Althusser has also underlined how Machiavelli was one of the first modern theorists to think the relationship between conscription and the creation of a nation, or successfully bolstering patriotism. Machiavelli despised the use of mercenaries and professional armies, which at this time were ravaging the divided Italian states. Michel Foucault (pronounced ) (October 15, 1926 – June 25, 1984) was a French philosopher, historian and sociologist. ... Disciplinary institutions (French Institution disciplinaire) is a concept proposed by Michel Foucault in Discipline and Punish (1975). ... Louis Pierre Althusser (Pronunciation: altuË¡seʁ) (October 16, 1918 – October 22, 1990) was a Marxist philosopher. ... Detail of the portrait of Machiavelli, ca 1500, in the robes of a Florentine public official Niccolò Machiavelli (May 3, 1469—June 21, 1527) was an Italian political philosopher during the Renaissance. ... Defence of the fatherland is a commonplace of patriotism: The statue in the courtyard of École polytechnique, Paris, commemorating the students involvement in defending France against the 1814 invasion of the Coalition. ... Mercenary (disambiguation). ...


Sending conscripts to foreign wars that do not directly affect the home nation's security has historically been very politically contentious in democracies. For instance, during World War I, bitter disputes broke out in Canada (see Conscription Crisis of 1917), Australia and New Zealand (See Compulsory Military Training) over conscription. Canada also had a political dispute over conscription during World War II (see Conscription Crisis of 1944). Similarly, mass protests against conscription to fight the Vietnam War occurred in several countries in the late 1960s. (See also: Conscription Crisis) “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Conscription Crisis of 1917 was a political and military crisis in Canada during World War I. // At the outbreak of war in 1914, over 30,000 volunteers joined the army, far more than expected. ... Compulsory Military Training, (CMT) has been adopted in New Zealand on a number of occasions. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Conscription Crisis of 1944 was a political and military crisis in Canada during World War II. It was similar to the Conscription Crisis of 1917, but was not as politically damaging. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... A conscription crisis is a public dispute about a policy of conscription, or mandatory service in the military. ...


Gender issue

Some countries that draft women include Cuba, Israel, North Korea, Libya, and Eritrea. In 2002, Sweden's government asked the army to consider mandatory military service for women. Some have considered the practice of excluding women from the draft unfair, because they feel it goes against principles of equality. Some simply argue that women can be militarily useful, and that excluding them places an unnecessary limit on resources. During World War II, women were drafted into the armed forces of the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union. The United States came close to drafting women into the Nurse Corps in preparation for a planned invasion of Japan; the Japanese surrender made this unnecessary. Equal Rights redirects here. ... Nurse Corps may refer to: U.S. Navy Nurse Corps -a staff corps of the United States Navy Army Nurse Corps (United States) -a special branch of the Army Medical Department (United States) Queen Alexandras Royal Army Nursing Corps -a specialist corps of the Army Medical Services of the...


The non-egalitarian policy practiced by some countries of drafting men and not women has often been a flash point and source of conflict. This policy is often cited by some masculists as an example of an unfair policy, which benefits women over men. Gender egalitarians point out that, in the long run, such a policy supports social thinking about women as weaker and less able beings, and is therefore not really an overall benefit to women - more of a double edged sword (or golden chain). Apprehension about the possible conscription of women was a key factor that led to the defeat of the Equal Rights Amendment in the United States.[citation needed] Egalitarianism is the moral doctrine that equality ought to prevail among some group along some dimension. ... Masculism (also referred to as masculinism) consists of social theories, political movements, and moral philosophies primarily based on the experiences of men. ... Gender egalitarians believe in equality of the sexes. ... The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) was a proposed amendment to the United States Constitution intended to guarantee equal rights under the law for Americans regardless of sex. ...


In 1981 in the United States, several men filed lawsuit in the case Rostker v. Goldberg, alleging that the Military Selective Service Act violates the Due Process Clause of the Fifth Amendment by requiring that men only and not also women register with the SSS. The Supreme Court eventually upheld the Act, stating that "the argument for registering women was based on considerations of equity, but Congress was entitled, in the exercise of its constitutional powers, to focus on the question of military need, rather than 'equity.'"[14] Holding The Acts registration provisions do not violate the Fifth Amendment. ... Due process of law is a legal concept that ensures the government will respect all of a persons legal rights instead of just some or most of those legal rights, when the government deprives a person of life, liberty, or property. ... The Fifth Amendment may refer to: Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution - part of the Bill of Rights. ... The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ...


On 1 October 1999 in the Taiwan Area, the Judicial Yuan of the Republic of China in its Interpretation 490 considered that the physical differences between males and females and the derived role differentiation in their respective social functions and lives would not make drafting males only violating the Constitution of the Republic of China.[15] However, transsexual persons are exempt from the Taiwanese conscription.[16] is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... The Free Area of the Republic of China (Traditional Chinese: 中華民國自由地區) is a legal and political description referring to the territories of the Republic of China under the control of its government. ... The Judicial Yuan is located directly east of the Presidential Office in Zhongzheng District, Taipei City. ... The Constitution of the Republic of China (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: JhongHuá MínGuó SiànFǎ) is the basic governing document for the Republic of China (ROC), with jurisdiction over Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, and Matsu. ... A transsexual (sometimes transexual) person establishes a permanent identity with the opposite gender to their assigned (usually at birth) sex. ...


Conscientious objection

A conscientious objector is an individual whose personal beliefs are incompatible with military service, or sometimes with any role in the armed forces. In some countries, conscientious objectors have special legal status, which augments their conscription duties. For example, Sweden allows conscientious objectors to choose a service in the "weapons-free" branch, such as an airport fireman, nurse or telecommunications technician. Some may also refuse such service as they feel that they still are a part of the military complex. The reasons for refusing to serve are varied. Some conscientious objectors are so for religious reasons — notably, the members of the historic peace churches are pacifist by doctrine, and Jehovah's Witnesses, while not strictly speaking pacifists, refuse to participate in the armed services on the grounds that they believe Christians should be neutral in worldly conflicts. A conscientious objector is an individual whose personal beliefs are incompatible with military service, or sometimes with any role in the armed forces. ... Theory and practice Issues History Culture By region Lists Related Anarchism Portal Politics Portal ·        Antimilitarism is a doctrine commonly found in the anarchist and, more globally, in the socialist movement, which may be both characterized as internationalist movements. ... See also Conscientious objection and Conscription. ... John T. Neufeld was a WWI conscientious objector sentenced to 15 years hard labour in the military prison at Leavenworth. ... Alternate cover US 1979 and 2002 reissue cover, also known as paint spatter cover For the military meaning, see Armed forces. ... Look up fireman in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the occupation. ... Telecommunication involves the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ... Peace churches are Christian churches, groups or communities advocating pacifism. ... Pacifist redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ...


Draft evaders

Not everyone who is conscripted is willing to go to war. In the United States, especially during the Vietnam Era, some used political connections to ensure that they were placed well away from any potential harm, serving in what was termed a Champagne unit. Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Champagne unit is a pejorative term used to describe US Military units staffed by celebrities or people from wealthy or politically powerful families. ...


Many would avoid military service altogether through college deferments, by becoming fathers, or serving in various exempt jobs (teaching was one possibility). Others used educational exemptions, became conscientious objectors or pretended to be conscientious objectors, although they might then be drafted for non-combat work, such as serving as a combat medic. It was also possible they could be asked to do similar civilian work, such as being a hospital orderly. Medical team at work during the Battle of Normandy. ...


It was, in fact, quite easy for those with some knowledge of the system to avoid being drafted. A simple route, widely publicized, was to get a medical rejection. While a person could claim to have symptoms (or feign homosexuality), if enough physicians sent letters that a person had a problem, he might well be rejected. It often wasn't worth the Army's time to dispute this claim. Such an approach worked best in a larger city where there was no stigma to not serving, and the potential draftee was not known to those reviewing him. Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ...


For others, the most common method of avoiding the draft was to cross the border into another country. People who have been "called up" for military service and who attempted to avoid it in some way were known as "draft-dodgers". Particularly during the Vietnam War, U.S. draft-dodgers usually made their way to Canada, Mexico or Sweden. A draft dodger, draft evader or draft resister, is a person who avoids (dodges) or otherwise violates the conscription policies of the nation in which he or she is a citizen or resident, by leaving the country, going into hiding, attempting to fraudulently obtain conscientious objector status, or by open...


Many people looked upon draft-dodgers with scorn as being "cowards", but some supported them in their efforts. In the late years of the war, objections against it and support for draft-dodgers was much more outspoken, because of the casualties suffered by American troops, and the actual cause and purpose of the war being heavily questioned.


Toward the end of the U.S. draft, an attempt was made to make the system somewhat fairer by turning it into a lottery, with each of the year's calendar dates randomly assigned a number. Men born on lower numbered dates were called up for review. For the reasons given above, this did not make the system any fairer, and the entire system ended in 1973. Today, American men 18-25 are required to register with the government, but there has not been a callup since the Vietnam Era.


Draft resisters

Main article: Antimilitarism

Historically, there has been resistance to conscription in almost every country and situation where it has been imposed. In the USA and some other countries, the Vietnam War saw new levels of opposition to conscription and the Selective Service System. Many people opposed to and facing conscription chose to either apply for classification and assignment to civilian alternative service or noncombatant service within the military as conscientious objectors, or to evade the draft by fleeing to a neutral country. A small proportion, like Muhammad Ali, chose to resist the draft by publicly and politically fighting conscription. Some people resist at the point of registration for the draft. In the USA since 1980, for example, the draft resistance movement has focused on mandatory draft registration. Others resist at the point of induction, when they are ordered to put on a uniform, when they are ordered to carry or use a weapon, or when they are ordered into combat. Theory and practice Issues History Culture By region Lists Related Anarchism Portal Politics Portal ·        Antimilitarism is a doctrine commonly found in the anarchist and, more globally, in the socialist movement, which may be both characterized as internationalist movements. ... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The Selective Service System is the means by which the United States administers military conscription. ... For other persons named Muhammad Ali, see Muhammad Ali (disambiguation). ...


There are those who are immune to the draft. These people include anyone who works for the government (Teachers, police officers, lawmakers, etc), People who work for government contractors, and those who work in jobs essential to the operation of the country (waste management, power plants, etc). In the United Kingdom this is known as a Reserved occupation as it is deemed necessary to the survival of the nation. A reserved occupation (also known as essential services) is an occupation considered important enough to a country that those serving in such occupations are exempt - in fact forbidden - from military service. ...


A government can also grant an exemption from conscription to a group of people based upon religious grounds. One instance is the Amish people in the United States who are immune from any military callup and do not have to register for selective service.[citation needed] In Israel, the Muslim and Christian Arab minority, as well as many ultra-Orthodox Jews are also exempt from mandatory service. This exemption, however, does not cover Druze Israeli citizens and several Bedouin Muslim villages. Permanent residents such as the Druzes of the Golan Heights are also excused. Exemption does not prevent members of the exempted groups from volunteering although such behavior is marginal.


Though some conscripts feel that they benefited from their experience in the military, others feel that their time could have been spent more productively pursuing their chosen studies or career paths.[17] Individual resentment may also be compounded by the typically low wages paid to conscripts, especially in countries such as Greece, South Korea, Finland and Singapore.


Countries with and without mandatory military service

See: Military service
Conscription by country — Examples
Country Land area[a]
(km²)
GDP (US$M)[b] Per capita
GDP (US$)[c]
Population[d] Government[e][f] Conscription[g]
Albania 27,398 $9,306 $2,584.63 3,600,523 democracy Yes
Algeria 2,381,740 $90,000 $2,700.01 33,333,216 pseudo-democracy Yes
Angola 1,246,700 $28,610 $2,332.92 12,263,596 transition Yes
Argentina 2,736,690 $210,000 $5,210.67 40,301,927 federal democracy Legal, not practiced
Australia 7,617,930 $644,700 $31,550.09 20,434,176 federal democracy No (banned as enshrined by parliament in 1972[h])
Austria 82,444 $310,100 $37,818.07 8,233,300 federal democracy Yes
Bahamas 10,070 $6,159 $20,150.17 305,655 democracy No
Bangladesh 133,910 $69,340 $460.89 150,448,339 democracy No
Belgium 30,528 $316,200 $31,400 10,584,534 democracy Suspended since 1994
Belize 22,806 $1,141 $3,875.88 294,385 democracy Legal, not practiced
Bhutan 47,000 $840.5 $361.06 2,327,849 absolute monarchy Yes (selective)
Bolivia 1,084,390 $10,330 $1,132.78 9,119,152 democracy Yes (only when there are few volunteers)
Bosnia and Herzegovina 51,129 $9,217 $2,024.74 4,552,198 confederal democracy No
Brazil 8,456,510 $967,000 $5,089.19 190,010,647 democracy Yes
Burma 657,740 $9,600 $202.64 47,373,958 dictatorship Officially prohibited, de facto still practiced
China 9,326,410 $2,518,000 $1,904.90 1,321,851,888 dictatorship Yes (selective)
Croatia 56,414 $37,420 $7,863.44 4,443,350 democracy Yes
Cuba 110,860 $40,000 $3,510.61 11,394,043 dictatorship Yes (both sexes)
Djibouti 22,980 $702 $1,414.26 496,374 pseudo-democracy No
El Salvador 20,720 $15,160 $2,181.90 6,948,073 democracy Legal, not practiced
Finland 304,473 $199,000, $37,988.26 5,238,460 democracy Yes
France 640,053[18] $2,149,000 $33,758.81 60,873,000 democracy No (conscription suspended since 2001)[17]
Gambia 10,000 $462.5 $273.94 1,688,359 pseudo-democracy No
Germany 349,223 $2,872,000 $34,853.95 82,400,996 federal democracy Yes
Greece 130,800 $256,300 $24,000 10,706,290 democracy Yes
Grenada 344 $454 $5,046.07 89,971 democracy No (no military service)
Hungary 93,030 $207,000 $11,369.91 10,064,000 democracy No
Iran 1,636,000 $193,500 $2,958.83 68,251,090 pseudo-democracy Yes
Israel 20,330 $140,300 $21,830.87 6,426,679 democracy Yes (both sexes)
Jamaica 10,831 $9,230 $3,319.99 2,780,132 democracy No
Japan 374,744 $4,883,000 $38,318.03 127,433,494 democracy No
Jordan 92,300 $300,000 $2,068.33 6,053,193 constitutional monarchy No
Korea, North 120,410 $40,000[j] $1,800[j] 23,301,725 dictatorship Yes[i]
Korea, South 98,190 $897,400 $18,297.56 49,044,790 democracy Yes
Kuwait 17,820 $60,720 $24,234.11 2,505,559 pseudo-democracy Yes
Lebanon 10,230 $19,890 $5,066.87 3,925,502 pseudo-democracy No
Libya 1,759,540 $34,200 $5,665.15 6,036,914 dictatorship Yes
Luxembourg 2,586 $34,530 $71,904.24 480,222 democracy No
Macedonia, Republic of 24,856 $6,225 $3,027.85 2,055,915 democracy No
Malaysia 328,550 $132,300, $5,330.10 24,821,286 federal pseudo-democracy Yes (selective)
Maldives 300 $906 $2,455.08 369,031 democracy No
Malta 316 $5,447,000 $13,553.80 401,880 democracy No
Moldova 33,371 $2,574,000 $595.77 4,320,490 democracy Yes
Netherlands 33,883 $612,700 $36,975.10 16,570,613 democracy Legal, not practiced
Qatar 11,437 $30,760 $33,905.44 907,229 absolute monarchy No
Romania 238,392 $256,900 $10,661 22,276,056 democracy No (abolished by law in 2006)
Russia 16,995,800 $733,600 $5,188.94 141,377,752 federal democracy Yes
Rwanda 24,948 $1,968 $198.64 9,907,509 transition No
Saudi Arabia 2,149,690 $276,900 $10,032.23 27,601,038 absolute monarchy No
Seychelles 455 $712 $8,694.06 81,895 democracy Yes
Singapore 692 $137,762 $30,723.61 4,553,009 pseudo-democracy Yes
Slovenia 20,151 $37,920 $18,872.76 2,009,245 democracy No
Syria 184,050 $24,260, $1,256.04 19,043,380 dictatorship Yes
Swaziland 17,203 $2,195 $1,937.22 1,131,000 absolute monarchy No
Switzerland 41,285 $386,100 $51,107.52 7,508,700 federal democracy Yes
Taiwan[k]
(Republic of China)
32,260 $681,800 $29,600 22,858,872 democracy Yes
Thailand 511,770 $197,700 $3,038.35 64,232,760 democracy Yes
Tonga 718 $244 $2,086.88 116,921 pseudo-democracy No
Trinidad and Tobago 5,128 $14,900 $14,101.73 1,056,608 democracy No
Turkey 780,580 $635,600 $9,000 71,158,647 democracy Yes
United Kingdom 241,590 $2,346,000 $38,600.61 60,776,238 constitutional monarchy No (except Bermuda Regiment )
United States 9,161,923 $13,210,000 $43,866.65 296,410,400 federal democracy No
Vanuatu 12,200 $341 $1,608.71 211,971 democracy No

Notes: For military service in the meaning of an army as a military defense organization, see armed forces. ... The Bermuda Regiment Band A Command Centre during IS training. ...

  • a  Source: Nationmaster: Land area
  • b  Source: Nationmaster: GDP
  • c  Source: Nationmaster: Per capita GDP
  • d  Source: Nationmaster: Population
  • e  Source: Nationmaster: Government
  • f  Definitions, for purposes of this table (Source: Nationmaster: Government):
Democracy: state in which democratic structures provide for an alternance of power
Pseudo-Democracy: state in which there are democratic structures but without a real chance for an alternance of power
Transition State: a state with a transitional structure
Absolute Monarchy: a one-party state, or a state governed by an absolute monarchy or dictatorship.
Communism: means the country is run by a communist government
  • g  Source: Nationmaster: Conscription
  • h  Conscription was abolished by law in 1973. But the Defence Act 1903 as amended retained a provision that it could be reintroduced by proclamation of the Governor-General. Potentially all Australian residents between the ages of 18 and 60 could be called up in this way. However, the Defence Legislation Amendment Act 1992 further provided that any such proclamation is of no effect until it is approved by both Houses of Parliament. Though actual legislation is not required, the effect of this provision is to make the introduction of conscription impossible without the approval of both the Senate and the House of Representatives.[19]
  • h North Korea, Military Conscription and Terms of Service. Based on the Country Studies Series by Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Retrieved on 2007-08-12.
  • j Korea, North. CIA World Factbook. Retrieved on 2007-08-12. (estimates based on 2006 data)
  • k Taiwan. CIA World Factbook. Retrieved on 2007-12-09. (estimates based on 2006 data)

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Arguments for conscription

Valuable training

Some communitarians argue that peacetime conscription is an ideal tool for teaching a population basic, important skills such as first aid, swimming, wilderness survival and so on. They also argue that conscription makes for a more disciplined and skilled workforce, as men and women leave the military and take the skills which they honed there back to their civilian jobs. Communitarianism as a group of related but distinct philosophies began in the late 20th century, opposing radical individualism, and other similar philosophies while advocating phenomena such as civil society. ...


Rite of passage

In many countries, conscription serves as a rite of passage. The prospective man is tested, to see whether or not he can endure the hardships of military training and earn the right to be called a man. Military service, in countries that have it, may then be seen as the test of manhood. Conscription may inspire camaraderie, unifying a people: all able-bodied males together as a union have had the same experience and are soldiers, and that may create unity and a national spirit. For other uses, see Rite of passage (disambiguation). ...


Draft as protection against democracy-destroying military coups

Some argue that conscription should be connected to democracy. A professional army can possibly become a dangerous state-within-a-state. Military virtues such as obedience to orders and respect for the chain of command can possibly be abused by aspiring dictators. Armed forces can attract — consciously or unconsciously — people who prefer authoritarian systems. The army can even become the only chance for a job and decent life in times of unemployment (this was crucial in the rise of Japanese militarism[citation needed]), or for despised minorities. Such people may come to regard the army as their home and elevate it above the state. Personification of virtue (Greek ἀρετή) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey Virtue (Latin virtus; Greek ) is moral excellence of a person. ... A dictator is an authoritarian, often totalitarian ruler (e. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article applies to political and organizational ideologies. ... Japanese militarism (日本軍國主義/日本軍国主義) refers to militarism in Japan, the philosophical belief that military personnel (army or navy) should exercise full power in Japan. ...


On the other hand, once in power dictators such as Napoleon, Hitler, Stalin, and Saddam Hussein have used conscription. The most significant attempt on Hitler's life was from the professional component of his military. Bonaparte as general Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des Français... Hitler redirects here. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... Claus von Stauffenberg The July 20 Plot was an attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler, the dictator of Germany, on July 20, 1944. ...


Manpower

Small countries have several options to raise a sizeable army. One is to put every able-bodied man under arms. This is how Switzerland managed to stay independent despite repeated attacks throughout history. The Swiss militias were so successful that their fighting style and weapons (especially the halberd) were quickly adopted by their enemies. This in turn made the Swiss very popular as mercenaries; many rulers even raised Swiss Guards. The rich Flemish trade cities of the early 14th century raised huge militias that could even defeat armies of knights. The famous Battle of the Golden Spurs (1302) is a good example. This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... Papal Swiss Guards in traditional uniforms Swiss Guards are Swiss mercenary soldiers who have served as bodyguards, ceremonial guards, and palace guards at foreign European courts from the late 15th century until the present day (in the form of the Papal Swiss Guard). ... The geographical region and former county of Flanders contains not only the two Belgian provinces but also the present-day French département of Nord, in parts of which there is still a Flemish-speaking minority, and the southern part of the Dutch province of Zeeland known as Zeeuws-Vlaanderen... Combatants Flanders France Commanders Willem van Gullik Pieter de Coninc Guy of Namur Robert II of Artois Strength 9,000 8,000 Casualties 100 est. ...


Other options for national defense include membership in a military alliance like NATO, as is the case for countries like Belgium and Luxembourg. Switzerland started out as a military alliance between independent cantons. However, the membership in such alliance decreases the independence of a country, making it dependent on its stronger allies. Several NATO members maintain conscription, so an alliance is not mutually exclusive with conscription. This article is about the military alliance. ... This article is about the military alliance. ...


Also, a wealthy small country could hire a professional mercenary army. This approach does, however, require wealth and men who are willing to hire on. Moreover, it requires some means to control the mercenaries if they became unruly. For other uses, see Mercenary (disambiguation). ...


Due to the attrition inherent in warfare, it is difficult to maintain the numbers needed for a wholly professional military, especially in a lengthy war. Complicating matters is the fact that military service in such times becomes more and more unattractive, even if the war has broad support. It is for this reason that the previously all-volunteer Union Army and the WWI British Army switched to conscription after a few years of combat and its associated losses. The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ... WWI may be an acronym for: World War I World Wrestling Industry This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ...


However, conscription creates numbers but not quality. Niccolò Machiavelli's attempts to raise a conscript army in Florence ended in catastrophe; the conscripts did not have adequate training or experience, and were awkward to perform drill and maneuver. If the conscript army is trained only during the crisis, the limits on time and resources on training enable only rudimentary training; anything else is to be learnt on the battlefield. However, this can be avoided by peace-time conscription to train a large reserve usable in a crisis. The quality of the reserve must be maintained by steady refresher exercises. In several countries where conscription is in use, the length (and quality) of the training is virtually similar to that of professional armies. Machiavelli redirects here. ... Florence (or Firenze, Florentia and Fiorenza) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany, and of the province of Florence. ...


The losses to conscript armies on the battlefield are often large, but waste of manpower is limited by the fact that the supply of able-bodied males in a nation is not inexhaustible. In addition, any government waging a prolonged war with conscripts will risk losing popular support and following loss of power[citation needed]. For a democratic government, this limits the use of conscript forces for wars that are fights for existence. Pursuing national interests or expeditionary wars may still necessitate a large professional army.[citation needed] USS , and HMS Illustrious, two aircraft carriers on a joint patrol. ...


Conscripts can also be used away from combat roles, in such duties as garrisoning important areas, internal security, protection of supply routes, thus relieving the professionals for the front.


Personnel diversity

Perhaps the kind of people who most strongly want to be in the military are not always the only kind of people who are needed in it.[citation needed] Conscripts come from various backgrounds and might have differing opinions and views. A diverse group is arguably more likely to succeed at any task.[citation needed] Still, the frequently lower morale and experience of conscripts may make them less useful in combat.[citation needed] This has been witnessed in the Vietnam War and Soviet-Afghan War. Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan was a 10-year war which wreaked incredible havoc and destruction on Afghanistan. ...


Personnel diversity might be bad for armies in some ways, by inhibiting communication and increasing social tension, but it also helps different people come together and realize the true nature of an all-inclusive society.[citation needed] For example, it helps them understand the problems of other classes, professions, cultures, and educational levels.[citation needed] Similar arguments have been presented in favor of desegregation in schools. Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Affirmative action in the United States Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity...


Conscript quality

The manpower quality of a conscript force is considered poor in many countries[citation needed] and conversely, governments are reluctant to invest in professional-quality training of conscripts, giving poor-quality forces. However, in some countries with conscription, the personnel diversity of the conscript force is considered its greatest strength.[20] Admittedly, there are persons who would not be employed by a professional force, but these are a minority and can be discharged for medical reasons in extreme cases.[original research?]


However, the conscript force may also receive the best of the youth, who would never join a professional army. Many conscripts are from such social strata that they would have much more lucrative employment or would be studying, were they not obliged to serve. These persons provide talented manpower that can easily be trained for technical and leadership duties. As junior NCO and commissioned officer positions are filled with leadership-trained conscripts, the size and cost of the professional cadre is much smaller.[21] As these ex-conscripts, as reservists, mature and lose their fighting fitness, they can be subsequently retrained and given emergency positions corresponding their civilian expertise. For example, a transport manager who is a reserve officer might serve as a battalion logistics chief during wartime.[22][23] The leadership-trained conscripts can also be recruited to the regular forces. The vast improvement of the Egyptian Army in between the Six Day War and the Yom Kippur War has been attributed to the decision to conscript college graduates who were previously exempt. Egyptian troops with other Arab-Joint-Forces during Gulf War The Egyptian Army is the largest service within the Egyptian military establishment. ... The 1967 Arab-Israeli War, also known as the Six-Day War or June War, was fought between Israel and its Arab neighbors Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. ... Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria,  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul Munim...


In wartime especially in a lengthy war like WWII, the differences between concsripts and professionals may disappear over time, during war, commanders look to a soldiers and units combat experience as an indication of quality, and a consript who has seen action will be far more valuable to his/its superiors than a green professional. German soldiers at the Battle of Stalingrad World War II was the most extensive and costly armed conflict in the history of the world, involving the great majority of the worlds nations, being fought simultaneously in several major theatres, and costing tens of millions of lives. ...


The worst problem is that the training must be designed by the physical fitness and the learning ability of the least able of the youth.[citation needed] However, this can be at least partly avoided by differentiating the conscript training. Even the least able can usually fulfill important roles in relatively easy logistics duties, while the most able can be trained quite well as specialists.[24] In many cases the conscript servicemates may have social or societal problems, they may be criminals, bullies or drug abusers, or they may even be sociopaths. Allowing such persons to serve is problematic. They may corrode the capability of the unit, even endangering the safety of the others. Some countries have recognized this problem, and attempt to exclude the potential troublemakers even before they get to serve, using medical discharges, for example.[25] On the other hand, in some countries (like in Russia) the problems with this issue are extremely dire (see dedovschina). There is also the argument that if the problem can be classified as juvenile delinquency, then the military functions as a "men's school".[citation needed] By giving responsibility, youth development is induced, and adolescent-typical criminal behavior ceases.[citation needed] The problem is that the coercion type environment of conscription armies encourage avoidance of responsibility, rather than accepting it, being more likely to promote such antisocial behaviour than to discourage it.[citation needed] For other uses, see Crime (disambiguation). ... A very common image in many schools around the world. ... Comparison of the perceived harm for various psychoactive drugs from a poll among medical psychiatrists specialized in addiction treatment[1] This article is an overview of the nontherapeutic use of alcohol and drugs of abuse. ... Antisocial personality disorder (APD) is a personality disorder which is often characterised by antisocial and impulsive behaviour. ... Dedovshchina (Russian: ) is the name given to the informal system of subjugation of new junior recruits for the Russian armed services, MVD, and border guards to soldiers of the last year of service. ... Juvenile delinquency refers to criminal acts performed by juveniles. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Coercion (disambiguation). ...


Political and moral motives

Jean Jacques Rousseau argued vehemently against professional armies, feeling it was the right and privilege of every citizen to participate to the defense of the whole society and a mark of moral decline to leave this business to professionals. He based this view on the development of the Roman republic, which came to an end at the same time as the Roman army changed from a conscript to professional force.[26] Similarly, Aristotle linked the division of armed service among the populace intimately with the political order of the state.[27] Jean-Jacques Rousseau Jean Jacques Rousseau (June 28, 1712 - July 2, 1778) was a Swiss-French philosopher, writer, political theorist, and self-taught composer of The Age of Enlightenment Biography of Rousseau The tomb of Rousseau in the crypt of the Panthéon, Paris Rousseau was born in Geneva, Switzerland... This article is about the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For the state which existed in the 18th century, see Roman Republic (18th century). ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ...


Some ideologies and cultures, and those based on collectivism or statism, value the society and common good above the life of an individual.[citation needed] Those ideologies and world-views justify the state to force its members to protect itself and risk their lives for the common good. In states based on society-centered ideologies, world-views and religions, conscription is the natural way of raising the army.[original research?] An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Statism (or Etatism) is a term that is used to describe: Specific instances of state intervention in personal, social or economic matters. ...


In the era of total war, the conscription is the only alternative for a small nation to build an army of credible strength without depending on alliances. This is particularly the case when the opposing state is significantly larger. In such a case, a voluntary force often can not, regardless of its quality, stand against the sheer numbers of the opposing force. Total war is a military conflict in which nations mobilize all available resources in order to destroy another nations ability to engage in war. ...


The right of the state to conscript its citizens can be founded on utilitarianist principles.[citation needed] If a greater good would achieved, every thing considered, by sacrificing some soldiers a state should be willing to make this sacrifice.[original research?] This assumes that state have right to use its citizens for achieving greater good for the humankind. Utilitarianism is a suggested theoretical framework for morality, law and politics, based on quantitative maximisation of some definition of utility for society or humanity. ...


Conscription can give the conscripts a lasting patriotic view and readiness to die for the good of the whole.[citation needed] Such readiness should, according to many world-views, be present in a virtuous citizen at all times, but through training, the readiness becomes a grim reality, not rhetoric.[citation needed] This may decrease the admiration of the military, but may also promote militarism and lead into readiness to use violence in everyday life to solve marital problems.[citation needed] On the other hand, the fact that every person understands that a war — any war — means that they themselves, friends, and relatives will be dying or at the least, facing mortal danger, decreases the willingness to enter an armed conflict.[citation needed] In practice, engaging a conscript force in an aggressive war for a prolonged period results in morale degradation both at home and on the front, testified by Afghanistan and Vietnam Wars.[original research?] Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...


Economics

In a very large war, (such as World War II) raising a large enough volunteer military would require dramatic increases in taxes or budget deficits.[citation needed] In such cases conscription can have lower negative impact than the impact of these higher taxes and possibly be more equitable (higher taxes would penalize those out of service much more than those in service).[citation needed] Research into fiscal impacts of conscription in World War II suggest a volunteer army raised to the same size would have had worse economic impact in terms of economic growth.[citation needed] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


It is estimated by the British military that in a professional military, one company deployed for active duty in peacekeeping corresponds to three inactive companies at home. Salaries for each are paid from the military budget.[28] In contrast, volunteers from a trained reserve are in their civilian jobs when they are not deployed.


Whether "Volunteer" is really volunteer

In the United States there have been questions over whether those serving in the military can truly be considered volunteer, since they either have few alternatives to earn a decent living in private life; or did not volunteer for the service they eventually carry out. Representative Charles Rangel raised the question of who was going to war. "When you talk about a war, you're talking about ground troops, you're talking about enlisted people, and they don't come from the kids and members of Congress," said Rangel.[29] Acclaimed author and journalist Gay Talese has spoken about how few other opportunities exist for those who join the military. "[It's] a sad commentary on who has to serve, because it is mercenary," said Talese in an interview. "They are economic mercenaries. They are economically deprived people, without opportunities, and they seek this opportunity and they never imagine how ill-chosen was their choice when they are missing a leg, or witnessing the horror."[30] Nadine Strossen, President of the ACLU, raised a similar point. "I think nobody who volunteered for [the Iraq War] was volunteering for the tours of duty—even forget the danger they are facing—but the extended time, it’s off the charts," said Strossen. "Chuck Hagel today gave us the exact details, so don’t quote me on this because he’s an expert and I’m not, but the order of magnitude used to be 7 months, but now it’s 15 months, or 18 months, or 21 months, and then it’s being doubled and you are not able to have leave in between. So, they volunteered for one type of duty in terms of the amount of time, but they are getting something entirely different from that. Number two is query how realistic the choice is for the people who are going into it if they don’t have many other options—or any other options—to get an education, to get a job, to get the skills and the training..."[31] Charles Bernard Rangel Charles Bernard Rangel (born June 11, American politician. ... Gay Talese Gay Talese (born February 7, 1932) is an American author. ... A portait of Nadine Strossen Professor Nadine Strossen is president of the American Civil Liberties Union. ... The American Civil Liberties Union, or ACLU, is a non_governmental organization devoted to defending civil rights and civil liberties in the United States. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... Charles Timothy Chuck Hagel (born October 4, 1946) is the senior United States Senator from Nebraska. ...


Arguments against conscription

Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Many arguments opposed to conscription, or opposed to gender-discriminated conscription, arise from its violation of the principles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of the United Nations. In particular: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (abbreviated UDHR) is an advisory declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (A/RES/217, 10 December 1948 at Palais de Chaillot, Paris). ... UN redirects here. ...

  • Art.2: Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as (…) sex (…)
  • Art.3: Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.
  • Art.4: No one shall be held in (…) servitude (…)
  • Art.20: (…) No one may be compelled to belong to an association.
  • Art.23: Everyone has the right (…) to free choice of employment (…)

In addition, many constitutions do provide similar rights in countries where there is or has been some form of conscription after World War II or that maintain a possibility of conscription in time of war. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Slavery

Conscription subjects individual personalities to militarism. It is a form of servitude. That nations routinely tolerate it, is just one more proof of its debilitating influence.
Albert Einstein, Sigmund Freud, H.G. Wells, Bertrand Russell and Thomas Mann in Against Conscription and the Military Training of Youth — 1930

Some groups, such as libertarians, say that the draft constitutes slavery, since it is mandatory work[1]. Under the Thirteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, slavery or other involuntary servitude is not allowed unless it is part of punishment for a crime. They therefore see the draft as unconstitutional (at least in the U.S.) and immoral. In 1918, the Supreme Court ruled that the World War I draft did not violate the United States Constitution. Arver v. United States, 245 U.S. 366 (1918)). The Court detailed its conclusion that the limited powers of the federal government included conscription. Its only statement on the Thirteenth Amendment issue reads thus: “Einstein” redirects here. ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... H. G. Wells at the door of his house at Sandgate Herbert George Wells (September 21, 1866 - August 13, 1946) was an English writer best known for his science fiction novels such as The War of the Worlds and The Time Machine. ... Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, advocate for social reform, and pacifist. ... For other persons named Thomas Mann, see Thomas Mann (disambiguation). ... This article deals with the libertarianism as defined in America and several other nations. ... Slave redirects here. ... Amendment XIII in the National Archives The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution officially abolished, and continues to prohibit slavery and, with limited exceptions (those convicted of a crime), prohibits involuntary servitude. ... Constitutionality is the status of a law, a procedure, or an acts accordance with the laws or guidelines set forth in the applicable constitution. ... The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... Amendment XIII in the National Archives The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution officially abolished, and continues to prohibit slavery and, with limited exceptions (those convicted of a crime), prohibits involuntary servitude. ...

Finally, as we are unable to conceive upon what theory the exaction by government from the citizen of the performance of his supreme and noble duty of contributing to the defense of the rights and honor of the nation as the result of a war declared by the great representative body of the people can be said to be the imposition of involuntary servitude in violation of the prohibitions of the Thirteenth Amendment, we are constrained to the conclusion that the contention to that effect is refuted by its mere statement.

In the USSR, most of the conscripts received only very basic training and were used for forced labor unrelated to actual military service — usually digging up potatoes in the field with zero wage cost. This contributed to the lack of incentives for the Soviet planned economy system to produce better combined harvesting machines and Soviet agriculture remained low-tech[citation needed]. Involuntary servitude is the condition of a person laboring to benefit another against his will due to coercive influence directed toward him. ...


In Soviet-bloc Hungary, more than half of pre-1989 conscripts received a mere few weeks of rifle training and were swiftly assigned to "working squadrons," which usually hand-built rail tracks "for free", and in very poor quality. At the same time, railway tracks in Western Europe were being built to high-quality standards by semi-automatic, rail-rolling factories operated by a professional workforce[citation needed]. During the Cold War, the Eastern Bloc (or Soviet Bloc) comprised the following Central and Eastern European countries: Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, East Germany, Poland, Albania (until the early 1960s, see below), the Soviet Union, and Czechoslovakia. ... For other uses, see Rifle (disambiguation). ... Rail tracks. ...


Ageism

Conscription is usually limited to young people, and the burden of conscription is almost never spread equally across all age groups. The youngest people considered qualified are usually conscripted first. Opponents of ageism, and advocates of youth liberation, argue that age-based military conscription is the most severe disparity on the basis of age of any government mandate on individuals. This argument is epitomized by the Phil Ochs song, "I Ain't Marching Any More": "It's always the old who lead us to the war; it's always the young who fall." Even in countries with elected governments, conscripts are often too young to be allowed to vote or participate in decisions on whether to go to war or to impose or set policies for conscription. The Twenty-sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which lowered the voting age to 18, was proposed and approved largely in response to criticism of conscription based on the unfairness of drafting men too young to be allowed to vote. But draft-age voters in the USA are still overwhelmingly outnumbered by voters considered to be too old to be conscripted. Philip David Ochs (December 19, 1940–April 9, 1976) was a U.S. protest singer (or, as he preferred, a topical singer), songwriter, musician and recording artist who was known for his sharp wit, sardonic humor, earnest humanism, political activism, insightful and alliterative lyrics, and haunting voice. ... Amendment XXVI (the Twenty-sixth Amendment) of the United States Constitution was ratified on July 1, 1971. ...


Sexism

Traditionally conscription has been limited to the male population. Women and non-able-bodied males have been exempted from conscription. Many societies have traditionally considered conscription as a test of manhood and a rite of passage from boyhood into manhood. Since young men spend several months or perhaps years in service while young women can at the same time study, work, found families and find their niche in society, conscription can be considered unfair and sexist.[citation needed] Initiation rites are formalized, ceremonial rites of passage as an individual moves from stage to stage within a social career or formally acquires such status. ... For other uses, see Rite of passage (disambiguation). ... The sign of the headquarters of the National Association Opposed To Woman Suffrage Sexism is commonly considered to be discrimination and/or hatred towards people based on their sex rather than their individual merits, but can also refer to any and all systemic differentiations based on the sex of the...


Discipline problems

No military can operate effectively without discipline. Discipline can either be taught from esprit de corps, already-acquired motivation of the personnel or be fundamentally embedded into the troops through guidance from leadership. One can speculate that volunteers manifest less undisciplined behavior, however citizens conscripted might have little motivation to serve. As motivation is based on coercion, the corrective action imposed upon undisciplined conscriptees is often harsh. Capital punishment, usually by firing squad, was used almost universally to maintain discipline in conscript militaries during wartime.[citation needed] Antony Beevor has estimated the executions covered some 1% to 5% of all conscript losses in World War II.[citation needed] This can be best summarized by a statement from Leon Trotsky: Esprit de Corps might refer to: Esprit de Corps - state of mind, Morale. ... For other uses, see Coercion (disambiguation). ... Death penalty, death sentence, and execution redirect here. ... Execution by firing squad is a method of capital punishment, especially in times of war. ... Leon Trotsky (Russian:  , Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (), was a Ukrainian-born Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ...

An army cannot be built without reprisals. Masses of men cannot be led to death unless the command has the death penalty in its arsenal. So long as those malicious tailless apes that are so proud of their technical achievements — the animals that we call men — will build armies and wage wars, the command will always be obliged to place the soldiers between the possible death in the front and the inevitable one in the rear.

Consequently, conscript armies are more likely to mutiny than all-volunteer forces, and can in extreme cases turn against their own (see fragging).[citation needed] Frag is a term from the Vietnam war, most commonly meaning to assassinate an unpopular member of ones own fighting unit by dropping a fragmentation grenade into the victims tent at night. ...


Discipline problems become much worse when the ablest of the youth are forced to serve against their will under the authority of people they consider less intelligent, untalented, or simply because of unquestioned authority.[citation needed] This was seldom a problem in the period of Industrialism when only the upper classes had access to higher education, but proved problematic in the Vietnam War, when college students were conscripted to fight under non-commissioned officers, many of whom had not finished high school and few of whom had any higher education.[citation needed] Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... For other uses, see High school (disambiguation). ...


Nationalism and promoting militarism

The military draft is predicated on the assumption that nations have rights that supersede those of the individual.[citation needed] In the words of Einstein and Gandhi's Anti-Conscription Manifesto, "The State which thinks itself entitled to force its citizens to go to war will never pay proper regard to the value and happiness of their lives in peace." The building of large conscript armies coincided with the rise of virulent nationalism in the 19th and 20th centuries, culminating in World War II.[citation needed] Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


In peacetime, conscription can create an atmosphere of militarism and bigotry in society.[citation needed] Many young men in countries with compulsory conscription develop a cynical stance about militarism because the mandatory nature of conscription creates low morale among soldiers.[citation needed] This is especially true in countries where nationalist feelings are weak to begin with, such as Austria, Germany and Sweden, or where conditions are brutal, such as in Russia.[citation needed] Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. ... For people named Bigot and other meanings, see Bigot (disambiguation). ...


Men who have had military training can also be more ready to use violence to solve conflicts than those who have not.[citation needed] Conscription also may create an atmosphere of chauvinism, sexism and discrimination against those men who haven't served in the armed forces.[citation needed] Chauvinism (IPA:) is extreme and unreasoning partisanship on behalf of a group to which one belongs, especially when the partisanship includes malice and hatred towards a rival group. ... The sign of the headquarters of the National Association Opposed To Woman Suffrage Sexism is commonly considered to be discrimination and/or hatred towards people based on their sex rather than their individual merits, but can also refer to any and all systemic differentiations based on the sex of the... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Affirmative action in the United States Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity...


Justification for attacks on civilians

Conscription is a component of total war, and can also be used as an example of established policy to justify a government's demand that other sacrifices be required of civilians. Once a draft is allowed, Justice Louis Brandeis argued, "all bets are off".[32] Arguably this results in a blurring of the moral distinction between civilians and the military as legitimate military targets, leading to attacks on civilians.[citation needed] Examples would include the indiscriminate bombing of cities conducted by both sides during World War II, the My Lai Massacre. It has been popular recently to call civilian deaths "collateral damage" although their deaths are highly predictable. In fact, during the last century, civilian deaths have grown compared to military deaths in conflict[citation needed]. Total war is a military conflict in which nations mobilize all available resources in order to destroy another nations ability to engage in war. ... Louis Dembitz Brandeis (November 13, 1856 – October 5, 1941) was an American litigator, Supreme Court Justice, advocate of privacy, and developer of the Brandeis Brief. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The My Lai Massacre ( , approximately ) (Vietnamese: ) was the mass murder of 347 to 504 unarmed citizens of the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam), mostly civilians and majority of them women and children, conducted by U.S. Army forces on March 16, 1968. ...


Quality

One of the objections raised is that a conscript force would be of lower quality than a volunteer army.[citation needed] First, short periods of service do not allow for much skill building.[citation needed] Second, there is a possibility of a morale drop in units with conscripts, leading to a reduction in quality as officers and NCOs work to alleviate those problems.[citation needed]


The biggest problem is that the pace of training has to be adjusted to the level of the lowest quality candidate.[citation needed] Combined with the short tour of duty, this renders the skills of the conscripts very low.[citation needed] Therefore the elite units of all armies which have conscription, are composed entirely of selected volunteers, such as Parachute Rangers in the Finnish army. For other uses, see Elite (disambiguation). ... An American Paratrooper using a T-10C series parachute Paratroopers are soldiers trained in parachuting and formed into an airborne force. ...


Likewise, the military training of the conscripts is almost universally very rudimentary.[citation needed] It seldom goes beyond drill, shooting practice, rudimentary specialization on one's service branch and weapons and basic battlefield training.[citation needed] Likewise, many nations have used conscripts simply as indentured, low-cost work force, organized as "work battalions" for agriculture and building infrastructure instead of decent military service.[citation needed] It has been suggested that Drill (military) be merged into this article or section. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Economics

It can be argued that in a cost-to-benefit ratio, conscription during peace time is not worthwhile. Months or years of service amongst the most fit subtracts from the productivity of the economy; add to this the cost of training them, and in some countries paying them. Compared to these extensive costs, some would argue there is very little benefit, if there ever were war conscription and basic training could be completed quickly, and in most countries where conscription is compulsory there is little threat of war in any case. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...


The cost to particularly in times of military duress, such as the current U.S. conflict in Iraq, conscription serves as an instrument through which fresh soldiers may be readied when reserves and voluntary troops have been over utilized. These new troops ultimately provide more efficient use of U.S. economic resources since individuals plan for military involvement as a normal activity. Draft assignments, in contrast, disrupt everyday activity and lead to possibly greater economic shock.


The cost of conscription can be related to the parable of the broken window. Military service can be related to any work. The costs of work do not disappear anywhere even if no salary is paid. The work effort of the conscripts is effectively wasted; unwilling work force is extremely inefficient and the conscripts also lose their the costs of all-volunteer paid force. The impact is especially severe in wartime, when civilian professionals are forced to fight as amateur soldiers. Not only is the work effort of the conscripts wasted and productivity is lost, but professionally-skilled conscripts are also difficult to replace in the civilian work force. Every soldier conscripted in the army is taken away from his civilian work, and away from contributing to the economy which funds the military. This is not a problem in an agrarian or pre-industrialized state where the level of education is universally low, and where a worker is easily replaced by another. However, this proves extremely problematic in a post-industrial society where educational levels are high and where the work force is highly sophisticated and a replacement for a conscripted specialist is difficult to find. Even direr economic consequences result if the professional conscripted as an amateur soldier is killed or maimed for life; his work effort and productivity is irrevocably lost. Not to be confused with the unrelated book Fixing Broken Windows. ... A post-industrial society is a society in which an economic transition has occurred from a manufacturing based economy to a service based economy, a diffusion of national and global capital, and mass privatization. ...


Draft as a tool to subjugate society

Another argument sees conscription as a tool for dictatorships to control and re-educate a population instead of being a means for an oppressed people to infiltrate the military as the porn base for every dictatorship. Especially since the military is inherently based on giving and obeying orders, instead of democracy, it is argued that a draft is a far more effective tool to instill obedience and unconditional following into society than giving a democratic populace the opportunity to control the military. Supporting that argument is the fact, that Nazi Germany changed the Reichswehr from an all-volunteer army in 1934 into the conscription-based Wehrmacht. Also almost all contemporary dictatorships have a military draft (Syria, North Korea, as well as Iraq under Saddam Hussein). Virtually all former military dictatorships relied heavily on conscribing their entire adolescent male populations (with the military dictatorships of Pakistan and Burma being notable exceptions). The former military dictatorships of Turkey, Greece, Spain, Chile, Argentina, Brazil, Indonesia and Libya maintained draft systems throughout their reigns as well as all formerly communist dictatorships and the Soviet Union itself. Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Reichswehr flag (1921-1935). ... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... A military dictatorship is a form of government wherein the political power resides with the military; it is similar but not identical to a stratocracy, a state ruled directly by the military. ...


See also

Theory and practice Issues History Culture By region Lists Related Anarchism Portal Politics Portal ·        Antimilitarism is a doctrine commonly found in the anarchist and, more globally, in the socialist movement, which may be both characterized as internationalist movements. ... Arrière-ban, in French customs, is a general proclamation whereby the king summons to war all his vassals and their vassals. ... The Bermuda Regiment Band A Command Centre during IS training. ... Bevin Boys were young British men conscripted to work in the coal mines of the United Kingdom, from December 1943 until the end of World War II. Chosen at random from among the conscripts, nearly 48,000 Bevin Boys performed vital but largely unrecognised service in the coal mines, many... A conscientious objector is an individual whose personal beliefs are incompatible with military service, or sometimes with any role in the armed forces. ... Conscription in the United States has been employed several times, usually during war but also during the nominal peace of the Cold War. ... Corvée, or corvée labor, is a term used in feudal societies. ... Whipping on a post Flagellation is the act of whipping (Latin flagellum, whip) the human body. ... Michel Foucault (pronounced ) (October 15, 1926 – June 25, 1984) was a French philosopher, historian and sociologist. ... Look up Impressment in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Quota System (also known as The Quod), introduced by Prime Minister William Pitt the Younger in 1795, required each English county to provide a quota of men for the Royal Navy, based on its population and the number of its seaports — London, for example, had to provide 5,704... An indentured servant (also called a bonded laborer) is a labourer unde from the employer in exchange for an extension to the period of their indenture, which could thereby continue indefinitely. ... Involuntary servitude is the condition of a person laboring to benefit another against his will due to coercive influence directed toward him. ... Levée en masse (literally Mass uprising) is a French term for mass conscription. ... Detail of the portrait of Machiavelli, ca 1500, in the robes of a Florentine public official Niccolò Machiavelli (May 3, 1469—June 21, 1527) was an Italian political philosopher during the Renaissance. ... Battlespace Weapons Tactics Strategy Organization Logistics Lists War Portal         Military history is composed of the events in the history of humanity that fall within the category of conflict. ... For military service in the meaning of an army as a military defense organization, see armed forces. ... A Swiss army exercise near Glarus, Switzerland. ... National service is a common name for compulsory or voluntary military service programs. ... Slave redirects here. ... Rousseau redirects here. ... A woman with a sword, from a Medieval manuscript. ... A British Army etc. ... Economic conscription is a term used to describe mechanisms for recruitment of personnel for the armed forces through the use of economic conditions. ...

References

  1. ^ Janissary
  2. ^ Lewis. Race and Slavery in the Middle East
  3. ^ The Turks: History and Culture
  4. ^ In the Service of the State and Military Class
  5. ^ Janissary corps, or Janizary, or Yeniçeri (Turkish military), Encyclopædia Britannica
  6. ^ Janissaries
  7. ^ The Mamluk (Slave) Dynasty (Timeline)
  8. ^ Lewis. Race and Slavery in the Middle East. Oxford Univ Press 1994.
  9. ^ Conscription
  10. ^ Dierk Walter. Preussische Heeresreformen 1807-1870: Militärische Innovation und der Mythos der "Roonschen Reform". 2003, in Citino, p. 130
  11. ^ Military service in Russia Empire
  12. ^ Conscription and Resistance: The Historical Context
  13. ^ Brig. Gen. John S. Brown (August 1, 2007), The Draft, <http://www.ausa.org/webpub/DeptArmyMagazine.nsf/byid/TWAH-759L7H?OpenDocument&Print=1>. Retrieved on 2007-01-15 
  14. ^ Rostker v. Goldberg, Cornell Law School, retrieved 26 Dec. 2006.
  15. ^ Judicial Yuan Interpretation 490 translated by Jiunn-rong Yeh
  16. ^ (Chinese)Attachment of the standard of the class of physical condition of a draftee, Conscription Agency, Ministry of the Interior
  17. ^ a b "France salutes end of military service", BBC News, November 29, 2001. Retrieved 29 September 2006.
  18. ^ , <https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/fr.html>. Retrieved on 9 April 2008 
  19. ^ Gary Brown (12 October 1999). Current Issues Brief 7 1999-2000 — Military Conscription: Issues for Australia. Parliamentary library; Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade Group. Retrieved on 2007-08-10.
  20. ^ Kaskeala, J. Suomalaisten turvallisuutta kohennetaan koetuin konstein 24-1-2005. Retrieved 12-5-2007. (Finnish)
  21. ^ Kaskeala, J. Suomalaisten turvallisuutta kohennetaan koetuin konstein 24-1-2005. Retrieved 12-5-2007. (Finnish)
  22. ^ Puolustusvoimat: Varusmieheksi 2006. Retrieved 2/8/2007. In Finnish
  23. ^ Kaskeala, J. (2006) Vaikka puolustusvoimat supistuu, tarvitsemme yleisen asevelvollisuuden. Retrieved 2/9/2007. In Finnish
  24. ^ Tykistöprikaati: Erikoispalvelutehtävät Retrieved 2/8/2007. In Finnish
  25. ^ "Varusmieskoulutuksen kevennetty alku säästää paukkuja loppusotaan", Turun Sanomat, 26 August, 2006. (Finnish) 
  26. ^ Rousseau, J-J. Social Contract. Chapter "The Roman Comitia]
  27. ^ Aristotle, Politics, Book 6 Chapter VII and Book 4 Chapter XIII.
  28. ^ Gustav Hägglund (2006), Leijona ja kyyhky, Otava, ISBN 9511211617 
  29. ^ Rangel calls for mandatory military service, CNN.com, December 30, 2002.
  30. ^ Interview with Gay Talese, David Shankbone, Wikinews, October 27, 2007.
  31. ^ Interview with Nadine Strossen, David Shankbone, Wikinews, October 30, 2007.
  32. ^ Robert Higgs (April 1, 1996), War and Leviathan in Twentieth-Century America; Conscription as the Keystone, <http://www.independent.org/newsroom/article.asp?id=136>. Retrieved on 2007-12-05 , citing Ronald Schaffer (1991), America in the Great War: The Rise of the War Welfare State, Oxford University Press, p. 52, ISBN 0195049047 

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External links

Look up conscription in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • War Resisters' International
  • Refusing to bear arms: a survey around the world, conducted by "War Resisters' International" about conscription and conscientious objection to military service.
  • Manifesto Against Conscription and the Military System, with an updated list of all signatories from 1993 to 2007.
  • Albert Einstein and Mahatma Gandhi. Manifesto Against Conscription and the Military System.
  • War Resisters League (USA)
  • Resisters.info — the draft, draft registration, and draft resistance in the USA
  • MedicalDraft.info — the medical draft ("Health Care Personnel Delivery System") in the USA
  • Is Conscription Slavery?
  • Campaign to Abolish Mandatory Military Service in Slovakia
  • Rangel calls for mandatory military service
  • The Association for Injured Officers And Soldiers of Mandatory Military Service, Republic of China
  • The European Bureau for Conscientious Objection
  • Campaign Against Conscription in Greece
  • Canadian Newspaper Archives - Conscription
  • Anti-Conscription Web Ring
  • The History Guy:Issues: Military Draft/Conscription: Information and links on the military draft issue.
  • Mothers Against the Draft - list of countries with conscription
  • Shall We Have Universal Military Training? - World War II-era study
Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Conscription (693 words)
Québec would never agree to conscription, he believed, and if he joined the pro-conscription coalition French Canada would be delivered into the hands of Henri BOURASSA and his nationalistes.
As a military measure conscription was a failure; as a political measure it had largely been responsible for the re-election of the Borden government, but it left the Conservative Party with a heavy liability in Québec and in the agricultural West.
Québec's BLOC POPULAIRE continued to fight against conscription by presenting candidates for the Aug 1944 provincial elections and the June 1945 federal elections.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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