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Consciousness defies definition. It may involve thoughts, sensations, perceptions, moods, emotions, dreams, and an awareness of self, although not necessarily any particular one or combination of these.[1] Consciousness is a point of view, an I, or what Thomas Nagel called the existence of "something that it is like" to be something.[2] Julian Jaynes has emphasized that "Consciousness is not the same as cognition and should be sharply distinguished from it. ... The most common error ... is to confuse consciousness with perception." [3] He says, "Mind-space I regard as the primary feature of consciousness. It is the space which you preoptively are 'introspecting on' or 'seeing' at this very moment".[4] For the feeling that one is being watched, see self-consciousness. ... In philosophy, the self is the idea of a unified being which is the source of an idiosyncratic conciousness. ... Thomas Nagel (born July 4, 1937, in Belgrade, Serbia) is University Professor of Philosophy and Law at New York University and member of the Board of Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. ... Julian Jaynes Julian Jaynes (February 27, 1920 - November 21, 1997) was an American psychologist, best known for his book The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind (1976), in which he argues that ancient peoples were not conscious as we consider the term today, and that the...


Ned Block divides consciousness into phenomenal consciousness (similar definition to subjective consciousness), which is subjective experience itself (being something), and access consciousness, which refers to the availability of information to processing systems in the brain (being conscious of something).[5] Ned Block (born 1942) is a philosopher of mind who has made important contributions to matters of consciousness and cognitive science. ... Subjective consciousness refers to a state of consciousness, which connotes deep involvement and feelings not possible to rationally explain such as. ... For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ...


The issue of what consciousness is, and to what extent and in what sense it exists, is the subject of much research in philosophy of mind, psychology, neuroscience, cognitive science, and artificial intelligence. Issues of practical concern include how the presence of consciousness can be assessed in severely ill individuals;[6] to what extent non-humans are self conscious; at what point in fetal development consciousness begins; and whether computers can achieve conscious states.[7][8][9] A phrenological mapping of the brain. ... Psychological science redirects here. ... Drawing of the cells in the chicken cerebellum by S. Ramón y Cajal Neuroscience is a field that is devoted to the scientific study of the nervous system. ... Cognitive science is usually defined as the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence (e. ... AI redirects here. ...


In common parlance, consciousness denotes being awake and responsive to the environment, in contrast to being asleep or in a coma. Being awake is a metabolic state which is marked by catabolic processes and which is characterized by consciousness, the opposite of sleep, an anabolic process. ... For other uses, see Sleep (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Coma (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Etymology

Look up consciousness in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

The word "Consciousness" is derived from Latin conscientia which primarily means moral conscience. In the literal sense, "conscientia" (or "con scientia") means knowledge-with, that is, shared knowledge. The word first appears in Latin juridic texts by writers such as Cicero. Here, conscientia is the knowledge that a witness has of the deed of someone else. In Christian theology, conscience stands for the moral conscience in which our actions and intentions are registered and which is only fully known to God. Medieval writers such as Thomas Aquinas describe the conscientia as the act by which we apply practical and moral knowledge to our own actions.[10] René Descartes has been said to be the first philosopher to use "conscientia" in a way that does not seem to fit this traditional meaning, and, as a consequence, the translators of his writings in other languages like French and English coined new words in order to denote merely psychological consciousness. These are, for instance, conscience, and Bewusstsein.[11] However, it has also been argued that John Locke was in fact the first one to use the modern meaning of consciousness in his Essay Concerning Human Understanding, although it remains closely intertwined with moral conscience (I may be held morally responsible only for the act of which I am conscious of having achieved; and my personal identity - my self - goes as far as my consciousness extends itself). The modern sense of "consciousness" was therefore first found not in Descartes' work - who sometimes used the word in a modern sense, but did not distinguish it as much as Locke would do -, but in Locke's text. The contemporary sense of the word (consciousness associated to the idea of personal identity, which is assured by the repeated consciousness of oneself) was therefore introduced by Locke; but the word "conscience" itself was coined by Pierre Costes, French translator of Locke. Henceforth, the modern sense first appeared in Locke's works, but the word itself first appeared in the French language.[12] Locke's influence upon the concept can be found in Samuel Johnson's celebrated Dictionary, in which Johnson abstains from offering a definition of "consciousness," choosing instead to simply quote Locke. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... François Chifflart (1825-1901), The Conscience (after Victor Hugo) Conscience is an ability or faculty or sense that leads to feelings of remorse when we do things that go against our moral values, or which informs our moral judgment before performing such an action. ... For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ... Aquinas redirects here. ... René Descartes (French IPA:  Latin:Renatus Cartesius) (March 31, 1596 – February 11, 1650), also known as Renatus Cartesius (latinized form), was a highly influential French philosopher, mathematician, scientist, and writer. ... For other persons named John Locke, see John Locke (disambiguation). ... An Essay Concerning Human Understanding is one of John Lockes two most famous works, the other being his Second Treatise on Civil Government. ... Almanac · Categories · Glossaries · Lists · Overviews · Portals · Questions · Site news · Index Art | Culture | Geography | Health | History | Mathematics | People | Philosophy | Science | Society | Technology Wikipedia is an encyclopedia written by its users in over 200 languages worldwide. ... In philosophy, the self is the idea of a unified being which is the source of an idiosyncratic conciousness. ... In philosophy, the issue of personal identity concerns many numbers of loosely related issues, in particular persistence, change, time, and sameness. ... For other persons named Samuel Johnson, see Samuel Johnson (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dictionary (disambiguation). ...


Philosophical approaches

Representation of consciousness from the 17th century.
Representation of consciousness from the 17th century.
Main article: Philosophy of mind

There are many philosophical stances on consciousness, including: behaviorism, dualism, idealism, functionalism, reflexive monism, phenomenalism, phenomenology and intentionality, physicalism, emergentism, mysticism, personal identity etc. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (926x1345, 316 KB) This file was transfered from de. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (926x1345, 316 KB) This file was transfered from de. ... A phrenological mapping of the brain. ... Behaviorism (also called learning perspective) is a philosophy of psychology based on the proposition that all things which organisms do — including acting, thinking and feeling—can and should be regarded as behaviors. ... René Descartes illustration of dualism. ... This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedias quality standards. ... Functionalism is a term with several senses: For functionalism in sociology, see Functionalism (sociology). ... Monism is the view that the universe, at the deepest level of analysis, is one thing or composed of one fundamental kind of stuff. ... In epistemology and the philosophy of perception, phenomenalism is the view that physical objects do not exist as things in themselves but only as perceptual phenomena or sensory stimuli (e. ... This article is about the philosophical movement. ... Intentionality, originally a concept from scholastic philosophy, was reintroduced in contemporary philosophy by the philosopher and psychologist Franz Brentano in his work Psychologie vom Empirischen Standpunkte. ... The term physicalism was coined by Otto Neurath, in a series of early 20th century essays on the subject, in which he wrote According to physicalism, the language of physics is the universal language of science and, consequently, any knowledge can be brought back to the statements on the physical... In philosophy, emergentism is the belief in emergence, particularly as it involves consciousness and the philosophy of mind, and as it contrasts with reductionism. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In philosophy, the issue of personal identity concerns many numbers of loosely related issues, in particular persistence, change, time, and sameness. ...


Phenomenal and access consciousness

Phenomenal consciousness (P-consciousness) is simply experience; it is moving, coloured forms, sounds, sensations, emotions and feelings with our bodies and responses at the center. These experiences, considered independently of any impact on behavior, are called qualia. The hard problem of consciousness was formulated by Chalmers in 1996, dealing with the issue of "how to explain a state of phenomenal consciousness in terms of its neurological basis" (Block 2004). Redness is the canonical quale. ... Unsolved problems in cognitive science: How is it possible to resolve the Hard Problem? The term hard problem of consciousness, coined by David Chalmers[1][2], refers to the hard problem of explaining why we have qualitative phenomenal experiences. ... For the oil company owner, see David B. Chalmers. ...


Access consciousness (A-consciousness) is the phenomenon whereby information in our minds is accessible for verbal report, reasoning, and the control of behavior. So, when we perceive, information about what we perceive is often access conscious; when we introspect, information about our thoughts is access conscious; when we remember, information about the past (e.g., something that we learned) is often access conscious; and so on. Chalmers thinks that access consciousness is less mysterious than phenomenal consciousness, so that it is held to pose one of the easy problems of consciousness. Dennett denies that there is a "hard problem", asserting that the totality of consciousness can be understood in terms of impact on behavior, as studied through heterophenomenology. There have been numerous approaches to the processes that act on conscious experience from instant to instant. Philosophers who have explored this problem include Gerald Edelman, Edmund Husserl and Daniel Dennett. Daniel Dennett (1988) suggests that what people think of as phenomenal consciousness, such as qualia, are judgments and consequent behaviour. He extends this analysis (Dennett, 1996) by arguing that phenomenal consciousness can be explained in terms of access consciousness, denying the existence of qualia, hence denying the existence of a "hard problem." Chalmers, on the other hand, makes a strong case for the hard problem, and shows that all of Dennett's supposed explanatory processes merely address aspects of the easy problem, albeit disguised in obfuscating verbiage. Eccles and others have pointed out the difficulty of explaining the evolution of qualia, or of 'minds' which experience them, given that all the processes governing evolution are physical and so have no direct access to them. There is no guarantee that all people have minds, nor any way to verify whether one does or does not possess one. The possibility has indeed been proposed that those denying the existence of qualia, hence denying the existence of a "hard problem," do so since they do not possess this faculty[13]. In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ... This article is about the psychological process of introspecting. ... For other uses, see Memory (disambiguation). ... Learning is the acquisition and development of memories and behaviors, including skills, knowledge, understanding, values, and wisdom. ... According to Dennett, heterophenomonology (phenomenology of another not oneself), is the process in which you take the vocal sounds emanating from the subjects’ mouths (and your own mouth) and interpret them! He goes on to assert that the total set of details of heterophenomenology, plus all the data we can... Gerald Maurice Edelman (born July 1, 1929) is an American biologist who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1972 for his work on the immune system. ... Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl (IPA: ; April 8, 1859 – April 26, 1938) was a philosopher, known as the father of phenomenology. ... Daniel Clement Dennett (born March 28, 1942 in Boston, Massachusetts) is a prominent American philosopher whose research centers on philosophy of mind, philosophy of science and philosophy of biology, particularly as those fields relate to evolutionary biology and cognitive science. ...


Events that occur in the mind or brain that are not within phenomenal or access consciousness are known as subconscious events. The unconscious mind (or subconscious) is the aspect (or puported aspect) of the mind of which we are not directly conscious or aware. ...


The description and location of phenomenal consciousness

For centuries, philosophers have investigated phenomenal consciousness. René Descartes, who arrived at the famous dictum 'cogito ergo sum', wrote Meditations on First Philosophy in the seventeenth century. He described, extensively, what it is to be conscious. Conscious experience, according to Descartes, included such ideas as imaginings and perceptions laid out in space and time that are viewed from a point, and appearing as a result of some quality (qualia) such as color, smell, and so on. (Modern readers are often confused by this Descartes' notion of interchangeability between the terms 'idea' and 'imaginings.') Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... René Descartes (French IPA:  Latin:Renatus Cartesius) (March 31, 1596 – February 11, 1650), also known as Renatus Cartesius (latinized form), was a highly influential French philosopher, mathematician, scientist, and writer. ... René Descartes (1596–1650) Cogito, ergo sum (Latin: I think, therefore I am) or Dubito, ergo cogito, ergo sum (Latin: I doubt, therefore I think, therefore I am) is a philosophical statement used by René Descartes, which became a foundational element of Western philosophy. ... The title page of the Meditations Meditations on First Philosophy (subtitled In which the existence of God and the real distinction of mind and body, are demonstrated) is a philosophical treatise written by René Descartes first published in Latin in 1641 . ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... For other uses, see Imagination (disambiguation). ... In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ... This article is about the idea of space. ... This article is about the concept of time. ... Redness is the canonical quale. ...


Like Aristotle, Descartes defines ideas as extended things, as in this excerpt from his Treatise on Man: For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ...

Now among these figures, it is not those imprinted on the external sense organs, or on the internal surface of the brain, which should be taken to be ideas - but only those which are traced in the spirits on the surface of gland H [where the seat of the imagination and the 'common sense' is located]. That is to say, it is only the latter figures which should be taken to be the forms or images which the rational soul united to this machine will consider directly when it imagines some object or perceives it by the senses.

Thus Descartes does not identify mental ideas or 'qualia' with activity within the sense organs, or even with brain activity, but rather with interaction between body and the 'rational soul', through the mediating 'gland H'. This organ is now known as the pineal gland. Descartes notes that, anatomically, while the human brain consists of two symmetrical hemispheres the pineal gland, which lies close to the brain's centre, is singular. Thus he extrapolated from this that it was the mediator between body and soul. Redness is the canonical quale. ... This article is about the biological unit. ... The pineal gland (also called the pineal body or epiphysis) is a small endocrine gland in the brain. ... A human brain. ...


Other philosophers agreed with Descartes to varying degrees. They include Nicolas Malebranche, Thomas Reid, John Locke, David Hume and Immanuel Kant. Malebranche, for example, agreed with Descartes that the human being was composed of two elements, body and mind, and that conscious experience resided in the latter. He did, however, disagree with Descartes as to the ease with which we might become aware of our mental constitution, stating 'I am not my own light unto myself'. David Hume and Immanuel Kant also differ from Descartes, in that they avoid mentioning a place from which experience is viewed (see "Further reading" below); certainly, few if any modern philosophers have identified the pineal gland as the seat of dualist interaction. Malebranche redirects here. ... For the Scottish footballer, see Thomas Reid (footballer). ... For other persons named John Locke, see John Locke (disambiguation). ... For other persons named David Hume, see David Hume (disambiguation). ... Kant redirects here. ...


The extension of things in time was considered in more detail by Kant and James. Kant wrote that "only on the presupposition of time can we represent to ourselves a number of things as existing at one and the same time [simultaneously] or at different times [successively]." William James stressed the extension of experience in time and said that time is "the short duration of which we are immediately and incessantly sensible." This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


When we look around a room or have a dream, things are laid out in space and time and viewed as if from a point. However, when philosophers and scientists consider the location of the form and contents of this phenomenal consciousness, there are fierce disagreements. As an example, Descartes proposed that the contents are brain activity seen by a non-physical place without extension (the Res Cogitans), which, in Meditations on First Philosophy, he identified as the soul. This idea is known as Cartesian Dualism. Another example is found in the work of Thomas Reid who thought the contents of consciousness are the world itself, which becomes conscious experience in some way. This concept is a type of Direct realism. The precise physical substrate of conscious experience in the world, such as photons, quantum fields, etc. is usually not specified. The title page of the Meditations Meditations on First Philosophy (subtitled In which the existence of God and the real distinction of mind and body, are demonstrated) is a philosophical treatise written by René Descartes first published in Latin in 1641 . ... Cartesian dualism was Descartess principle of the separation of mind and matter and mind and body. ... For the Scottish footballer, see Thomas Reid (footballer). ... Direct realism is a theory of perception that claims that the senses provide us with direct awareness of the external world. ...


Other philosophers, such as George Berkeley, have proposed that the contents of consciousness are an aspect of minds and do not necessarily involve matter at all. This is a type of Idealism. Yet others, such as Leibniz, have considered that each point in the universe is endowed with conscious content. This is a form of Panpsychism. Panpsychism is the belief that all matter, including rocks for example, is sentient or conscious. The concept of the things in conscious experience being impressions in the brain is a type of representationalism, and representationalism is a form of indirect realism. For the second husband of Henrietta Howard, Countess of Suffolk, see George Berkeley (MP). ... This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedias quality standards. ... Gottfried Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (July 1, 1646 in Leipzig - November 14, 1716 in Hannover) was a German philosopher, scientist, mathematician, diplomat, librarian, and lawyer of Sorb descent. ... Panpsychism, in philosophy, is either the view that all parts of matter involve mind, or the more holistic view that the whole universe is an organism that possesses a mind. ... Representationalism, or the representational theory of perception, is a philosophical doctrine that in any act of perception, the immediate (direct) object of perception is a sense-datum that represents an external object, which is the mediate (indirect) object of perception. ... Indirect Realism is the view in cognitive psychology that perception functions via internal representations of external reality. ...


It is sometimes held that consciousness emerges from the complexity of brain processing. The general label 'emergence' applies to new phenomena that emerge from a physical basis without the connection between the two explicitly specified. A termite cathedral mound produced by a termite colony: a classic example of emergence in nature. ...


Physicalists claim that consciousness must arise from the neuronal interactions in the brain, a hugely complicated machine with about 10 million million neurones, each with thousands of excitatory and inhibitory connections “votes,” with no mystery stuff. These neuronal interactions must use voting mechanisms to deliver outcomes. But voting systems can produce different results from the same voter base and such voting result variations provide the required indeterminacy which provides freedom from rigid deterministic mechanisms (Welsby PD. Problems with voting: the ultimate source? Int Journal of Design & Nature Vol2, No 4, 2007). Sufficiently complex brains will have a coordinating system which, when confronted by such indeterminacy, will become aware that it has been burdened with free will as it has to determine which of the voting systems will be chosen to get the result. This, according to the theory, is the origin of free will; awareness of free will in turn leads to self-awareness, and self-awareness is consciousness. The term physicalism was coined by Otto Neurath, in a series of early 20th century essays on the subject, in which he wrote According to physicalism, the language of physics is the universal language of science and, consequently, any knowledge can be brought back to the statements on the physical... Aleatoric (or aleatory) music or composition, is music where some element of the composition is left to chance. ... Aleatoric (or aleatory) music or composition, is music where some element of the composition is left to chance. ...


Investigators have failed to agree on an anatomical mechanism for consciousness. To those who support the emergence theory, this is predictable because consciousness is not an anatomical feature but a function; one that that emerges from billions of neurones and their voting interactions, in the way that a rainbow emerges from billions of raindrops.


Some theorists hold that phenomenal consciousness poses an explanatory gap. Colin McGinn takes the New Mysterianism position that it can't be solved, and Chalmers criticizes purely physical accounts of mental experiences based on the idea that philosophical zombies are logically possible and supports property dualism. But others have proposed speculative scientific theories to explain the explanatory gap, such as Quantum mind, space-time theories of consciousness, reflexive monism, and Electromagnetic theories of consciousness to explain the correspondence between brain activity and experience. The basic idea of the explanatory gap is that human experience (such as qualia) cannot be fully explained by mechanical processes; that something extra, perhaps even of a different metaphysical type, must be added to fill the gap. The Explanatory Gap has vexed and intrigued philosophers and AI researchers alike... Colin McGinn (born 1950) is a British philosopher currently working at the University of Miami. ... New Mysterianism is a philosophy proposing that certain problems (in particular, consciousness) will never be explained or at the least cannot be explained by the human mind at its current evolutionary stage. ... For the oil company owner, see David B. Chalmers. ... In philosophy, a philosophical zombie or p-zombie is a hypothetical person that, despite a strong likeness to normal human beings, lacks conscious experience or (in other words) has no qualia at all. ... Property dualism is a philosophy of mind, and a subbranch of emergent materialism. ... Quantum mind theories are based on the premise that quantum mechanics is necessary to fully understand the mind and brain, particularly concerning an explanation of consciousness. ... Space-time theories of consciousness relate the geometrical features of conscious experience, such as viewing things in space-time at a point, to the geometrical properties of the universe itself. ... Monism is the view that the universe, at the deepest level of analysis, is one thing or composed of one fundamental kind of stuff. ... The electromagnetic theory of consciousness is a theory that says the electromagnetic field generated by the brain (measurable by EEGs) is the actual carrier of conscious experience. ...


Parapsychologists sometimes appeal to the unproven concepts of psychokinesis or telepathy to support the belief that consciousness is not confined to the brain. Early parapsychological research employed the use of Zener cards in experiments designed to test for possible telepathic communication. ... The term psychokinesis (from the Greek ψυχή, psyche, meaning mind, soul, or breath; and κίνησις, kinesis, meaning motion; literally movement from the mind)[1][2] or PK, also known as telekinesis[3] (Greek + , literally distant-movement referring to telekinesis) or TK, denotes the paranormal ability of the mind to influence matter, time... Telepathy, from the Greek τῆλε, tele, remote; and πάθεια, patheia, to be effected by, describes the hypothetical transfer of information on thoughts or feelings between individuals by means other than the five classical senses. ...


Philosophical criticisms

From the eighteenth to twentieth centuries many philosophers concentrated on relations, processes and thought[citation needed] as the most important aspects of consciousness. These aspects would later become known as "access consciousness"[citation needed] and this focus on relations allowed philosophers such as Marx, Nietzsche and Foucault to claim that individual consciousness was dependent on such factors as social relations, political relations and ideology. Marx is a common German surname. ... Friedrich Nietzsche, 1882 Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 - August 25, 1900) was a highly influential German philosopher. ... See: Léon Foucault (physicist) Foucault pendulum Michel Foucault (philosopher) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Locke's "forensic" notion of personal identity founded on an individual conscious subject would be criticized in the 19th century by Marx, Nietzsche, and Freud following different angles. Martin Heidegger's concept of the Dasein ("Being-there") would also be an attempt to think beyond the conscious subject. Forensics or forensic science is the application of science to questions which are of interest to the legal system. ... Subject (philosophy) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Marx is a common German surname. ... Friedrich Nietzsche, 1882 Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 - August 25, 1900) was a highly influential German philosopher. ... Sigmund Freud His famous couch Sigmund Freud (May 6, 1856 - September 23, 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of the psychoanalytic school of psychology, a movement that popularized the theory that unconscious motives control much behavior. ... Martin Heidegger (September 26, 1889 – May 26, 1976) (IPA ) was a highly influential German philosopher. ... Dasein is a concept forged by Martin Heidegger in his magnum opus Being and Time . ... In ontology, a being is anything that can be said to be, either transcendantly or immanently. ...


Marx considered that social relations ontologically preceded individual consciousness, and criticized the conception of a conscious subject as an ideological conception on which liberal political thought was founded. Marx in particular criticized the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, considering that the so-called individual natural rights were ideological fictions camouflaging social inequality in the attribution of those rights. Later, Louis Althusser would criticize the "bourgeois ideology of the subject" through the concept of interpellation ("Hey, you!"). In philosophy, ontology (from the Greek , genitive : of being (part. ... An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen: Revolutionary patriotism borrows familiar iconography of the Ten Commandments Wikisource has original text related to this article: Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (French: La... For other uses, see Universalism (disambiguation). ... Social inequality refers to disparities in the distribution of material wealth in a society. ... Louis Pierre Althusser (Pronunciation: altuˡseʁ) (October 16, 1918 – October 22, 1990) was a Marxist philosopher. ... Interpellation is a concept first coined by Marxist philosopher Louis Althusser to describe the process by which ideology addresses the (abstract) pre-ideological individual thus effectively producing him as subject proper. ...


Nietzsche, for his part, once wrote that "they give you free will only to later blame yourself", thus reversing the classical liberal conception of free will in a critical account of the genealogy of consciousness as the effect of guilt and ressentiment, which he described in On the Genealogy of Morals. Hence, Nietzsche was the first one to make the claim that the modern notion of consciousness was indebted to the modern system of penalty, which judged a man according to his "responsibility", that is by the consciousness through which acts can be attributed to an individual subject: "I did this! this is me!". Consciousness is thus related by Nietzsche to the classic philosopheme of recognition which, according to him, defines knowledge.[14] Free-Will is a Japanese independent record label founded in 1986. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Ressentiment (pronounced r&-sän-tE-män, or ray-sawn-tea-mawn) is a term used in Psychology and Existentialist Philosophy that comes from the French word ressentiment (meaning resentment: fr. ... On the Genealogy of Morals (German: Zur Genealogie der Moral), subtitled A Polemic (Eine Streitschrift), is a work by the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, composed and first published in 1887. ... Almanac · Categories · Glossaries · Lists · Overviews · Portals · Questions · Site news · Index Art | Culture | Geography | Health | History | Mathematics | People | Philosophy | Science | Society | Technology Wikipedia is an encyclopedia written by its users in over 200 languages worldwide. ... For other uses, see Recognition (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Knowledge (disambiguation). ...


According to Pierre Klossowski (1969), Nietzsche considered consciousness to be a hypostatization of the body, composed of multiple forces (the "Will to Power"). According to him, the subject was only a "grammatical fiction": we believed in the existence of an individual subject, and therefore of a specific author of each act, insofar as we speak. Therefore, the conscious subject is dependent on the existence of language, a claim which would be generalized by critical discourse analysis (see for example Judith Butler). Pierre Klossowski (1905 – August 12, 2001) was a French writer, translator and artist. ... Reification, also called hypostatization, is treating a concept, an abstraction, as if it were a real, concrete thing. ... With regard to living things, a body is the integral physical material of an individual. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a nineteenth-century German philosopher and philologist. ... Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) is an interdisciplinary approach to the study of discourse, which views language as a form of social practice (Fairclough 1989: 20) and focuses on the ways social and political domination is reproduced by text and talk. ... Image:J Butler. ...


Michel Foucault's analysis of the creation of the individual subject through disciplines, in Discipline and Punish (1975), would extend Nietzsche's genealogy of consciousness and personal identity - i.e. individualism - to the change in the juridico-penal system: the emergence of penology and the disciplinization of the individual subject through the creation of a penal system which judged not the acts as it alleged to, but the personal identity of the wrong-doer. In other words, Foucault maintained that, by judging not the acts (the crime), but the person behind those acts (the criminal), the modern penal system was not only following the philosophical definition of consciousness, once again demonstrating the imbrications between ideas and social institutions ("material ideology" as Althusser would call it); it was by itself creating the individual person, categorizing and dividing the masses into a category of poor but honest and law-abiding citizens and another category of "professional criminals" or recidivists. Michel Foucault (pronounced ) (15 October 1926–25 June 1984) was a French philosopher, historian, critic and sociologist. ... Disciplinary institutions (French Institution disciplinaire) is a concept proposed by Michel Foucault in Discipline and Punish (1975). ... Discipline and Punish (subtitled The Birth of the Prison) is a book written by the philosopher Michel Foucault. ... For articles with similar names and topics, see Individual (disambiguation). ... Penology (from the Latin poena, punishment) comprises penitentiary science: that concerned with the processes devised and adopted for the punishment, repression, and prevention of crime, and the treatment of prisoners. ... For a thought or concept, see idea. ... Louis Pierre Althusser (Pronunciation: altuˡseʁ) (October 16, 1918 – October 22, 1990) was a Marxist philosopher. ... Recidivism is the act of a person repeating an undesirable behavior after they have either experienced negative consequences of that behavior, or have been treated or trained to extinguish that behavior. ...


Gilbert Ryle has argued that traditional understandings of consciousness depend on a Cartesian outlook that divides into mind and body, mind and world. He proposed that we speak not of minds, bodies, and the world, but of individuals, or persons, acting in the world. Thus, by saying 'consciousness,' we end up misleading ourselves by thinking that there is any sort of thing as consciousness separated from behavioral and linguistic understandings. Gilbert Ryle (born August 19, 1900 in Brighton, died October 6, 1976 in Oxford), was a philosopher, and a representative of the generation of British ordinary language philosophers influenced by Wittgensteins insights into language, and is principally known for his critique of Cartesian dualism, for which he coined the...


The failure to produce a workable definition of consciousness also raises formidable philosophical questions. It has been argued that when Antonio Damasio[15] defines consciousness as "an organism's awareness of its own self and its surroundings", the definition has not escaped circularity, because awareness in that context can be considered a synonym for consciousness. António C. R. Damásio (IPA: //) (b. ...


The notion of consciousness as passive awareness can be contrasted with the notion of the active construction of mental representations. Maturana and Varela[16] showed that the brain is massively involved with creating worlds of experience for us with meager input from the senses. Evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins[17] sums up the interactive view of experience: "In a way, what sense organs do is assist our brains to construct a useful model and it is this model that we move around in. It is a kind of virtual reality simulation of the world." A mental model is an explanation in someones thought process for how something works in the real world. ... Clinton Richard Dawkins, FRS (born March 26, 1941) is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist and popular science writer who holds the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at the University of Oxford. ...


Consciousness and language

Because humans express their conscious states using language, it is tempting to equate language abilities and consciousness. There are, however, speechless humans (infants, feral children, aphasics, severe forms of autism), to whom consciousness is attributed despite language lost or not yet acquired. Moreover, the study of brain states of non-linguistic primates, in particular the macaques, has been used extensively by scientists and philosophers in their quest for the neural correlates of the contents of consciousness. This article is about the feral child. ... For other uses, see Aphasia (disambiguation). ... Autism is a brain development disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, and restricted and repetitive behavior, all exhibited before a child is three years old. ... For other uses, see Macaca. ... The Neural Correlates of Consciousness (NCC) can be defined as the minimal neuronal mechanisms jointly sufficient for any one specific conscious percept (Crick & Koch, 1990). ...


Julian Jaynes argued to the contrary, in The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind, that for consciousness (which he defines as not merely perception of an object, but awareness that one is an entity which is perceiving it) to arise in a person, language needs to have reached a fairly high level of complexity. According to Jaynes, human consciousness emerged as recently as 1300 BCE or thereabouts. Some philosophers, including W.V. Quine, and some neuroscientists, including Christof Koch, contest this hypothesis, arguing that it suggests that prior to this "discovery" of consciousness, experience simply did not exist.[18] Ned Block argued that Jaynes had confused consciousness with the concept of consciousness, the latter being what was discovered between the Iliad and the Odyssey.[19] Daniel Dennett points out that these approaches misconceive Jaynes's definition of consciousness as more than mere perception or awareness of an object. He notes that consciousness is like money in that having the thing requires having the concept of it, so it is a revolutionary proposal and not a ridiculous error to suppose that consciousness only emerges when its concept does. Julian Jaynes Julian Jaynes (February 27, 1920 - November 21, 1997) was an American psychologist, best known for his book The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind (1976), in which he argues that ancient peoples were not conscious as we consider the term today, and that the... The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind (1976) is a controversial work of popular psychology by Julian Jaynes in which he proposes that consciousness emerged relatively recently in human history. ... W. V. Quine Willard Van Orman Quine (June 25, 1908 - December 25, 2000) was one of the most influential American philosophers and logicians of the 20th century. ... Drawing of the cells in the chicken cerebellum by S. Ramón y Cajal Neuroscience is a field that is devoted to the scientific study of the nervous system. ... Christof Koch (born November 13, 1956) is an American neuroscientist. ... Ned Block (born 1942) is a philosopher of mind who has made important contributions to matters of consciousness and cognitive science. ... Daniel Clement Dennett (born March 28, 1942 in Boston, Massachusetts) is a prominent American philosopher whose research centers on philosophy of mind, philosophy of science and philosophy of biology, particularly as those fields relate to evolutionary biology and cognitive science. ...


Other approaches

Cognitive neuroscience

Modern investigations into and discoveries about consciousness are based on psychological statistical studies and case studies of consciousness states and the deficits caused by lesions, stroke, injury, or surgery that disrupt the normal functioning of human senses and cognition. These discoveries suggest that the mind is a complex structure derived from various localized functions that are bound together with a unitary awareness. Psychological statistics is the application of statistics to psychology. ... One may be faced with the problem of making a definite decision with respect to an uncertain hypothesis which is known only through its observable consequences. ... Case studies involve a particular method of research. ... Skin lesions caused by Chickenpox A lesion is any abnormal tissue found on or in an organism, usually damaged by disease or trauma. ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... Injury is damage or harm caused to the structure or function of the body caused by an outside agent or force, which may be physical or chemical. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... This article is about the senses of living organisms (vision, taste, etc. ... Look up Cognition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Mind (disambiguation). ... The binding problem is, basically, the problem of how the unity of conscious perception is brought about by the distributed activities of the central nervous system (Revonsuo and Newman (1999)). In its most general form it arises whenever information from distinct populations of neurons must be combined. ...


Several studies point to common mechanisms in different clinical conditions that lead to loss of consciousness. Persistent vegetative state (PVS) is a condition in which an individual loses the higher cerebral powers of the brain, but maintains sleep-wake cycles with full or partial autonomic functions. Studies comparing PVS with healthy, awake subjects consistently demonstrate an impaired connectivity between the deeper (brainstem and thalamic) and the upper (cortical) areas of the brain. In addition, it is agreed that the general brain activity in the cortex is lower in the PVS state. Some electroneurobiological interpretations of consciousness characterize this loss of consciousness as a loss of the ability to resolve time (similar to playing an old phonographic record at very slow or very rapid speed), along a continuum that starts with inattention, continues on sleep, and arrives to coma and death [20] . It is likely that different components of consciousness can be teased apart with anesthetics, sedatives and hypnotics. These drugs appear to differentially act on several brain areas to disrupt, to varying degrees, different components of consciousness. The ability to recall information, for example, may be disrupted by anesthetics acting on the hippocampal cortex. Neurons in this region are particularly sensitive to anesthetics at the time loss of recall occurs. Direct anesthetic actions on hippocampal neurons have been shown to underlie EEG effects that occur in humans and animals during loss of recall (MacIver et al 1996; see also: http://www.stanford.edu/group/maciverlab/research.html). A persistent vegetative state (PVS) is a condition of patients with severe brain damage in whom coma has progressed to a state of wakefulness without detectable awareness. ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation). ... Anesthesia (AE), also anaesthesia (BE), is the process of blocking the perception of pain and other sensations. ... Hypnotic drugs are a class of drugs that induce sleep, used in the treatment of severe insomnia. ...


Loss of consciousness also occurs in other conditions, such as general (tonic-clonic) epileptic seizures, in general anaesthesia, maybe even in deep (slow-wave) sleep. At present, the best-supported hypotheses about such cases of loss of consciousness (or loss of time resolution) focus on the need for 1) a widespread cortical network, including particularly the frontal, parietal and temporal cortices, and 2) cooperation between the deep layers of the brain, especially the thalamus, and the upper layers, the cortex. Such hypotheses go under the common term "globalist theories" of consciousness, due to the claim for a widespread, global network necessary for consciousness to interact with non-mental reality in the first place.[citation needed] Epilepsy (often referred to as a seizure disorder) is a chronic neurological condition characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. ... In modern medical practice, general anaesthesia (AmE: anesthesia) is a state of total unconsciousness resulting from general anaesthetic drugs. ... For other uses, see Sleep (disambiguation). ...


Brain chemistry affects human consciousness. Sleeping drugs (such as Midazolam = Dormicum) can bring the brain from the awake condition (conscious) to the sleep (unconscious). Wake-up drugs such as Anexate reverse this process. Many other drugs (such as alcohol, nicotine, Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), heroin, cocaine, LSD, MDMA) have a consciousness-changing effect. Midazolam (marketed under brand names Versed®, Hypnovel®, Dormicum® and Dormonid®, pronounced ) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Flumazenil (flumazepil, Anexate®, Lanexat®, Mazicon®, Romazicon®) is a benzodiazepine antagonist, used as an antidote in the treatment of benzodiazepine overdose. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... THC redirects here. ... For other uses, see Heroin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cocaine (disambiguation). ... Lysergic acid diethylamide, commonly called LSD, LSD-25, or acid. ... ecstasy and religious ecstasy MDMA, most commonly known today by the street name ecstasy, is a synthetic entactogen of the phenethylamine family whose primary effect is to stimulate the brain to rapidly secrete large amounts of serotonin, causing a general sense of openness, empathy, energy, euphoria, and well-being. ...


There is a neural link between the left and right hemispheres of the brain, known as the corpus callosum. This link is sometimes surgically severed to control severe seizures in epilepsy patients. This procedure was first performed by Roger Sperry in the 1960s. Tests of these patients have shown that, after the link is completely severed, the hemispheres are no longer able to communicate, leading to certain problems that usually arise only in test conditions. For example, while the left side of the brain can verbally describe what is going on in the right visual field, the right hemisphere is essentially mute, instead relying on its spatial abilities to interact with the world on the left visual field. Some say that it is as if two separate minds now share the same skull, but both still represent themselves as a single "I" to the outside world.[citation needed] The corpus callosum is a structure of the mammalian brain in the longitudal fissure that connects the left and right cerebral hemispheres. ... ... Split-brain is the condition where the corpus callosum connecting the two halves of the brain is severed to some degree. ...


The bilateral removal of the centromedian nucleus (part of the Intra-laminar nucleus of the Thalamus) appears to abolish consciousness, causing coma, PVS, severe mutism and other features that mimic brain death. The centromedian nucleus is also one of the principal sites of action of general anaesthetics and anti-psychotic drugs. This evidence suggests that a functioning thalamus is necessary, but not sufficient, for human consciousness. In anatomy, the centromedian nucleus, also known as the centrum medianum, (CM or Cm-Pf) is a part of the intralaminar nucleus (ILN) of the thalamus. ... Brain death is defined as a complete and irreversible cessation of brain activity. ...


Neurophysiological studies in awake, behaving monkeys point to advanced cortical areas in prefrontal cortex and temporal lobes as carriers of neuronal correlates of consciousness. Christof Koch and Francis Crick argued that neuronal mechanisms of consciousness are intricately related to prefrontal cortex — the most advanced cortical area. Rodolfo Llinas proposes that consciousness results from recurrent thalamo-cortical resonance where the specific (dorsal thalamus) thalamocortical system (content) and the non-specific (centromedial thalamus) thalamocortical system (context) interact at gamma band frequency via time coincidence. According to this view the "I" represents a global predictive function required for intentionality.[21][22] Experimental work of Steven Wise, Mikhail Lebedev and their colleagues supports this view. They demonstrated that activity of prefrontal cortex neurons reflects illusory perceptions of movements of visual stimuli. Nikos Logothetis and colleagues made similar observations on visually responsive neurons in the temporal lobe. These neurons reflect the visual perception in the situation when conflicting visual images are presented to different eyes (i.e., bistable percepts during binocular rivalry). The studies of blindsight — vision without awareness after lesions to parts of the visual system such as the primary visual cortex — performed by Lawrence Weiskrantz and David P. Carey provided important insights on how conscious perception arises in the brain. In recent years the theory of two visual streams, vision for perception versus vision for action was developed by Melvyn Goodale, David Milner and others. According to this theory, visual perception arises as the result of processing of visual information by the ventral stream areas (located mostly in the temporal lobe), whereas the dorsal stream areas (located mostly in the parietal lobe) process visual information unconsciously. For example, quick catching of the ball would engage mostly the dorsal stream areas, and viewing a painting would be handled by the ventral stream. Overall, these studies show that conscious versus unconscious behaviors can be linked to specific brain areas and patterns of neuronal activation.[citation needed]. However, neuroscience only focuses on the neural correlates of consciousness. The hard problem of consciousness is to explain how all these flows and electrochemical processes in the brain give rise to the inner experience of subjective awareness. Christof Koch (born November 13, 1956) is an American neuroscientist. ... Francis Harry Compton Crick OM FRS (8 June 1916 – 28 July 2004), (Ph. ... The Neural Correlates of Consciousness (NCC) can be defined as the minimal neuronal mechanisms jointly sufficient for any one specific conscious percept (Crick & Koch, 1990). ... Rodolfo Llinás (1934-) is the Thomas and Suzanne Murphy Professor of Neuroscience and Chairman of the department of Physiology & Neuroscience at the NYU School of Medicine. ... Recurrent thalamo-cortical resonance, as proposed by Rodolfo Llinas, is a dynamic time coherent event involving intrinsic neuronal properties at the thalamus and cerebral cortex and specific connectivity between such cellular groups. ... Mikhail A. Lebedev (Михаил Альбертович Лебедев) is a Russian-born (1963) Neuroscientist known for his neurophysiological studies of cerebral cortex. ... Visual processing in the brain goes through a series of processing stages. ... The Neural Correlates of Consciousness (NCC) can be defined as the minimal neuronal mechanisms jointly sufficient for any one specific conscious percept (Crick & Koch, 1990). ... Unsolved problems in cognitive science: How is it possible to resolve the Hard Problem? The term hard problem of consciousness, coined by David Chalmers[1][2], refers to the hard problem of explaining why we have qualitative phenomenal experiences. ... For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ...


One of the promising approaches in modern Neuroscience is Operational Architectonicstheory of brain-mind functioning developed by Andrew and Alexander Fingelkurts. This theory states that whenever any pattern of phenomenality (including reflective thought) is instantiated, there is neuro-physiological pattern (revealed directly by EEG) of appropriate kind that corresponds to it.[23][24] These neuron-physiological EEG patterns (expressed as the virtual operational modules) are brought to existence by joint operations of many functional and transient neuronal assemblies in the brain.[25] The activity of neuronal assemblies per se is 'hidden' in the complex nonstationary structure of EEG field.[26] Therefore, a proper EEG analysis is needed that would be able to reveal the EEG architecture which reflects or instantiates the kind of phenomenal world (considering that there should be the ‘well-defined’ and ‘well-detected’ EEG phenomena) which humans subjectively experience. Currently available EEG methods can reveal the EEG architecture which is amazingly similar to the architecture of a phenomenal world of consciousness (see review on EEG and Operational Architectonics). Andrew and Alexander Fingelkurts (identical twins, November 23, 1969) are neuroscientists known in the fields of academic cognitive neuroscience, psychophysiology, and clinical research, with a considerable number of publications in scientific journals, book chapters and a lecturing practice. ...


Evolutionary biology

Evolutionary biology, which by its own definition is strictly concerned with the origin of species from a common descent, does not know of any natural mechanism that could have produced the trait of self awareness. Evolutionary biologists who try to explain the origins of consciousness from an evolutionary perspective, do so under the assumption that consciousness was a product of evolution. For the feeling that one is being watched, see self-consciousness. ...


Consciousness can be viewed from the evolutionary biology approach as an adaptation because it is a trait that increases the fitness of its possessor. [27] Consciousness also adheres to John Alcock's theory of animal behavioral adaptations because it possesses both proximate and ultimate causes. [28] Evolutionary biology is a sub-field of biology concerned with the origin of species from a common descent, and descent of species; as well as their change, multiplication, and diversity over time. ... For other uses, see Adaptation (disambiguation). ... Look up trait in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up fitness in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... There have been several well-known people named John Alcock, including: John Alcock (aviator) John Alcock (bishop) John Alcock (composer) John Alcock (producer) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


The proximate causes for consciousness, i.e. how consciousness evolved in organisms, was elucidated by John C. Eccles in his paper "Evolution of consciousness." In it, he stated that special anatomical and physical properties of the mammalian cerebral cortex gave rise to consciousness. [29] This is further evidenced by the work of Gerhard Roth, who stated that "Among all features of vertebrate brains, the size of cortex or structures homologous to the mammalian cortex as well as the number of neurons and synapses contained in these structures correlate most clearly with the complexity of cognitive functions including states of consciousness."[30] Roth also states that the high-order consciousness possessed by humans is most likely the result of a very large number of cortical neurons, a prolonged period of ontogenetic plasticity of cortical synapses, and the presence of centers underlying syntactical language.[30]However, it can be assumed that all vertebrates with larger cortex-like structures, particularly those with cortices showing cross-modality information transfer, have awareness about what is going on around them.[30] Self-recognition, being able to recognize one's self in a mirror, requires a large associative, including prefrontal, cortex. [30] The evolution of a special type of prefrontal cortex was the basis for an increased capability for action planning, syntactical language, imitation, and understanding the behavior of others.[30] For other uses, see Cortex. ... This article is about cells in the nervous system. ...


The ultimate causes of consciousness tell why consciousness has evolved in animals and the advantages that consciousness confers to its possessors. Human consciousness evolved as a response to the selective pressure upon an intelligent, group-dwelling animal to anticipate and counter the social strategems of others.[31] One theory for the evolution of consciousness and language is that it was an evolutionary "arms race" driven by the counter one's rivals within society.[31] Another theory, proposed by Shaun Nichols and Todd Grantham, proposes that is unnecessary to know the evolutionary or causal role of phenomenal consciousness because the complexity of phenomenal consciousness implies that it is an adaptation.[32]Regardless of the adaptive complexity theory, several functions of consciousness were outlined by Bernard J. Baars.[33]

Functions of Consciousness
Function Purpose
Definition and context-setting Relating global input to its contexts, thereby defining input and removing ambiguities
Adaptation and learning Representing and adapting to novel and significant events
Editing, flagging, and debugging Monitoring conscious content, editing it, and trying to change it if it is consciously "flagged" as an error
Recruiting and control function Recruiting subgoals and motor systems to organize and carry out mental and physical actions
Prioritizing and access control Control over what will become conscious
Decision making or executive function Recruiting unconscious knowledge sources to make proper decisions, and making goals conscious to allow widespread recruitment of conscious and unconscious "votes" for or against it
Analogy-forming function Searching for a partial match between contents of unconscious systems and a globally displayed (conscious) message
Metacognitive or self-forming function Reflection upon and control of our own conscious and unconscious functioning
Auto-programming and self-maintenance function Maintenance of maximum stability in the face of changing inner and outer conditions

Physical

Even at the dawn of Newtonian science, Leibniz and many others were suggesting physical theories of consciousness. Modern physical theories of consciousness can be divided into three types: theories to explain behaviour and access consciousness, theories to explain phenomenal consciousness and theories to explain the quantum mechanical (QM) Quantum mind. Theories that seek to explain behaviour are an everyday part of neuroscience, some of these theories of access consciousness, such as Edelman's theory, contentiously identify phenomenal consciousness with reflex events in the brain. Theories that seek to explain phenomenal consciousness directly, such as Space-time theories of consciousness and Electromagnetic theories of consciousness, have been available for almost a century, but have not yet been confirmed by experiment. Theories that attempt to explain the QM measurement problem include Pribram and Bohm's Holonomic brain theory, Hameroff and Penrose's Orch-OR theory and the Many-minds interpretation. Some of these QM theories offer descriptions of phenomenal consciousness, as well as QM interpretations of access consciousness. None of the quantum mechanical theories has been confirmed by experiment, and there are philosophers who argue that QM has no bearing on consciousness. Leibniz redirects here. ... Gottfried Leibnizs theory of pre-established harmony is a philosophical theory about causation under which every substance only affects itself, but all the substances (both bodies and minds) in the world nevertheless seem to causally interact with each other because they have been programmed by God in advance to... Quantum mind theories are based on the premise that quantum mechanics is necessary to fully understand the mind and brain, particularly concerning an explanation of consciousness. ... Drawing of the cells in the chicken cerebellum by S. Ramón y Cajal Neuroscience is a field that is devoted to the scientific study of the nervous system. ... Gerald Maurice Edelman (born July 1, 1929) is an American biologist who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1972 for his work on the immune system. ... Space-time theories of consciousness relate the geometrical features of conscious experience, such as viewing things in space-time at a point, to the geometrical properties of the universe itself. ... The electromagnetic theory of consciousness is a theory that says the electromagnetic field generated by the brain (measurable by EEGs) is the actual carrier of conscious experience. ... Karl H. Pribram (born February 25, 1919 in Vienna, Austria) is a research professor of Psychology and Cognitive Science at Georgetown University, Washington DC. He trained as a neurosurgeon and became a professor at Stanford University, where he did pioneering work on the cerebral cortex. ... David Bohm. ... The holonomic brain theory, originated by Karl Pribram and initially developed in collaboration with David Bohm, models cognitive function as being guided by a matrix of neurological wave interference patterns situated temporally between holographic Gestalt perception and discrete, affective, quantum vectors derived from reward anticipation potentials. ... Stuart Hameroff, MD, is an anesthesiologist and professor at the University of Arizona known for his promotion of the scientific study of consciousness, and his speculative theories of the mechanisms of consciousness. ... Sir Roger Penrose, OM, FRS (born 8 August 1931) is an English mathematical physicist and Emeritus Rouse Ball Professor of Mathematics at the Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford and Emeritus Fellow of Wadham College. ... Orch OR (“Orchestrated Objective Reduction”) is a theory of consciousness put forth in the mid-1990s by British theoretical physicist Sir Roger Penrose and American anesthesiologist Stuart Hameroff. ... The many-minds interpretation of quantum mechanics extends the many-worlds interpretation by proposing that the distinction between worlds should be made at the level of the mind of an individual observer. ...


There is also a concerted effort in the field of Artificial Intelligence to create digital computer programs that can simulate consciousness. AI redirects here. ... Artificial consciousness (AC), also known as machine consciousness (MC) or synthetic consciousness, is a field related to artificial intelligence and cognitive robotics whose aim is to define that which would have to be synthesized were consciousness to be found in an engineered artifact. ...


Functions

We generally agree that our fellow human beings are conscious, and that much simpler life forms, such as bacteria, are not. Many of us attribute consciousness to higher-order animals such as dolphins and primates; academic research is investigating the extent to which animals are conscious. This suggests the hypothesis that consciousness has co-evolved with life, which would require it to have some sort of added value, especially survival value. People have therefore looked for specific functions and benefits of consciousness. Bernard Baars (1997), for instance, states that "consciousness is a supremely functional adaptation" and suggests a variety of functions in which consciousness plays an important, if not essential, role: prioritization of alternatives, problem solving, decision making, brain processes recruiting, action control, error detection, planning, learning, adaptation, context creation, and access to information.[citation needed] Antonio Damasio (1999) regards consciousness as part of an organism's survival kit, allowing planned rather than instinctual responses.[citation needed] He also points out that awareness of self allows a concern for one's own survival, which increases the drive to survive, although how far consciousness is involved in behaviour is an actively debated issue. Many psychologists, such as radical behaviorists, and many philosophers, such as those that support Ryle's approach, would maintain that behavior can be explained by non-conscious processes akin to artificial intelligence, and might consider consciousness to be epiphenomenal or only weakly related to function. Bernard J. Baars is a senior fellow of the Neurosciences Institute in La Jolla, CA. He is best known for his book, A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness (1988) in which he outlines his view of Global Workspace Theory as a model for consciousness. ... António C. R. Damásio (IPA: //) (b. ... Behaviorism (also called learning perspective) is a philosophy of psychology based on the proposition that all things which organisms do — including acting, thinking and feeling—can and should be regarded as behaviors. ... Gilbert Ryle (born August 19, 1900 in Brighton, died October 6, 1976 in Oxford), was a philosopher, and a representative of the generation of British ordinary language philosophers influenced by Wittgensteins insights into language, and is principally known for his critique of Cartesian dualism, for which he coined the... AI redirects here. ... Epiphenomenalism is a view in philosophy of mind according to which some or all mental states are mere epiphenomena (side-effects or by-products) of physical states of the world. ...


Regarding the primary function of conscious processing, a recurring idea in recent theories is that phenomenal states somehow integrate neural activities and information-processing that would otherwise be independent (see review in Baars, 2002). This has been called the integration consensus. However, it has remained unspecified which kinds of information are integrated in a conscious manner and which kinds can be integrated without consciousness. Obviously not all kinds of information are capable of being disseminated consciously (e.g., neural activity related to vegetative functions, reflexes, unconscious motor programs, low-level perceptual analyses, etc.) and many kinds can be disseminated and combined with other kinds without consciousness, as in intersensory interactions such as the ventriloquism effect (cf., Morsella, 2005).


Ervin Laszlo argues that self-awareness, the ability to make observations of oneself, evolved. Emile Durkheim formulated the concept of so called collective consciousness, which is essential for organization of human, social relations. The accelerating drive of human race to explorations, cognition, understanding and technological progress[34] can be explained by some features of collective consciousness (collective self - concepts) and collective intelligence Dr. Ervin Laszlo is a Hungarian philosopher of science, systems theorist, integral theorist, founder of the Club of Budapest, and editor of World Futures: The Journal of General Evolution. ... For the feeling that one is being watched, see self-consciousness. ... David Émile Durkheim (April 15, 1858 - November 15, 1917) is known as the founder of modern sociology. ... The French social theorist Émile Durkheim (1858-1917) used the term collective consciousness in his The Rules of Sociological Method (1895), Suicide (1897), and The Elementary Forms of Religious Life (1912). ... The French social theorist Émile Durkheim (1858-1917) used the term collective consciousness in his The Rules of Sociological Method (1895), Suicide (1897), and The Elementary Forms of Religious Life (1912). ... It has been suggested that symbiotic intelligence be merged into this article or section. ...


Tests

As there is no clear definition of consciousness and no empirical measure exists to test for its presence, it has been argued that due to the nature of the problem of consciousness, empirical tests are intrinsically impossible. However, several tests have been developed which attempt to provide an operational definition of consciousness and try to determine whether computers and other non-human animals can demonstrate through their behavior, by passing these tests, that they are conscious. An operational definition is a showing of something—such as a variable, term, or object—in terms of the specific process or set of validation tests used to determine its presence and quantity. ...


In medicine, several neurological and brain imaging techniques, like EEG and fMRI, have proven useful for physical measures of brain activity associated with consciousness. This is particularly true for EEG measures during anesthesia[35] that can provide an indication of anesthetic depth, although with still limited accuracies of ~ 70 % and a high degree of patient and drug variability seen. The electroencephalogram (EEG) exhibits stereotypic changes as anesthetic depth increases. ...


Turing

See also: Turing test and philosophy of artificial intelligence

Though often thought of as a test for consciousness, the Turing test (named after computer scientist Alan Turing, who first proposed it) is actually a test to determine whether or not a computer satisfied his operational definition of "intelligent" (which is actually quite different from a test for consciousness or self-awareness). This test is commonly cited in discussion of artificial intelligence. The essence of the test is based on "the Imitation Game", in which a human experimenter attempts to converse, via computer keyboards, with two others. One of the others is a human (who, it is assumed, is conscious) while the other is a computer. Because all of the conversation is via keyboards (teletypes, in Turing's original conception) no cues such as voice, prosody, or appearance will be available to indicate which is the human and which is the computer. If the human is unable to determine which of the conversants is human, and which is a computer, the computer is said to have "passed" the Turing test (satisfied Turing's operational definition of "intelligent"). For the Doctor Who novel named after the test, see The Turing Test (novel). ... The philosophy of artificial intelligence concerns questions of artificial intelligence (AI) such as: What is intelligence? How can one recognize its presence and applications? Is it possible for machines to exhibit intelligence? Does the presence of human-like intelligence imply consciousness and emotions? Is creating human-like artificial intelligence moral... For the Doctor Who novel named after the test, see The Turing Test (novel). ... Alan Mathison Turing, OBE, FRS (pronounced ) (23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English mathematician, logician and cryptographer. ... AI redirects here. ...


The Turing test has generated a great deal of research and philosophical debate. For example, Daniel Dennett and Douglas Hofstadter argue that anything capable of passing the Turing test is necessarily conscious,[36] while David Chalmers, argues that a philosophical zombie could pass the test, yet fail to be conscious.[37] Daniel Clement Dennett (born March 28, 1942 in Boston, Massachusetts) is a prominent American philosopher whose research centers on philosophy of mind, philosophy of science and philosophy of biology, particularly as those fields relate to evolutionary biology and cognitive science. ... Douglas Richard Hofstadter (born February 15, 1945 in New York, New York) is an American academic. ... For the oil company owner, see David B. Chalmers. ... In philosophy, a philosophical zombie or p-zombie is a hypothetical person that, despite a strong likeness to normal human beings, lacks conscious experience or (in other words) has no qualia at all. ...


It has been argued that the question itself is excessively anthropomorphic. Edsger Dijkstra commented that "The question of whether a computer can think is no more interesting than the question of whether a submarine can swim", expressing the view that different words are appropriate for the workings of a machine to those of animals even if they produce similar results, just as submarines are not normally said to swim. Edsger Dijkstra Edsger Wybe Dijkstra (Rotterdam, May 11, 1930 – Nuenen, August 6, 2002; IPA: ) was a Dutch computer scientist. ...


Philosopher John Searle developed a thought experiment, the Chinese room argument, which is intended to show problems with the Turing Test.[38] Searle asks the reader to imagine a non-Chinese speaker in a room in which there are stored a very large number of Chinese symbols and rule books. Questions are passed to the person in the form of written Chinese symbols via a slot, and the person responds by looking up the symbols and the correct replies in the rule books. Based on the purely input-output operations, the "Chinese room" gives the appearance of understanding Chinese. However, the person in the room understands no Chinese at all. This argument has been the subject of intense philosophical debate since it was introduced in 1980, even leading to edited volumes on this topic alone. John Rogers Searle (born July 31, 1932 in Denver, Colorado) is the Slusser Professor of Philosophy at the University of California, Berkeley, and is noted for contributions to the philosophy of language, philosophy of mind and consciousness, on the characteristics of socially constructed versus physical realities, and on practical reason. ... In philosophy, physics, and other fields, a thought experiment (from the German Gedankenexperiment) is an attempt to solve a problem using the power of human imagination. ... The Chinese Room argument is a thought experiment and associated arguments designed by John Searle (Searle 1980) to show that a symbol processing machine like a computer can never be properly described as having a mind or understanding, regardless of how intelligently it may behave. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngwén) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: Hànyǔ, Huáyǔ, or Zhōngwén) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ...


The application of the Turing test to human consciousness has even led to an annual competition, the Loebner Prize with "Grand Prize of $100,000 and a Gold Medal for the first computer whose responses were indistinguishable from a human's." For a summary of research on the Turing Test, see here.


Mirror

See also the concept of the Mirror stage by Jacques Lacan child and mirror The mirror stage was the subject of Jacques Lacans first official contribution to psychoanalytic theory (Fourteenth International Psychoanalytical Congress at Marienbad in 1936). ... Jacques-Marie-Émile Lacan (French pronounced ) (April 13, 1901 – September 9, 1981) was a French psychoanalyst, psychiatrist, and doctor, who made prominent contributions to the psychoanalytic movement. ...


With the mirror test, devised by Gordon Gallup in the 1970s, one is interested in whether animals are able to recognize themselves in a mirror. The classic example of the test involves placing a spot of coloring on the skin or fur near the individual's forehead and seeing if they attempt to remove it or at least touch the spot, thus indicating that they recognize that the individual they are seeing in the mirror is themselves. Humans (older than 18 months), great apes (except for most gorillas[39]), bottlenose dolphins, pigeons[40], elephants[41] and magpies[42] have all been observed to pass this test. The test is usually carried out with an identical 'spot' being placed elsewhere on the head with a non-visible material as a control, to assure the subject is not responding to the touch stimuli of the spot's presence. Proponents of the hard problem of consciousness claim that the mirror test only demonstrates that some animals possess a particular cognitive capacity for modelling their environment, but not for the presence of phenomenal consciousness per se. The mirror test is a measure of self-awareness developed by Gordon Gallup Jr in 1970. ... Gordon G. Gallup, Jr. ... Genera The hominids are the members of the biological family Hominidae (the great apes), which includes humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. ... For other uses, see Gorilla (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Montagu, 1821 Bottlenose Dolphin range (in blue) The Bottlenose Dolphin is one of the most common and well-known dolphins. ... Pigeon redirects here. ... For other uses, see Elephant (disambiguation). ... This article is about the birds in the family Corvidae. ... Unsolved problems in cognitive science: How is it possible to resolve the Hard Problem? The term hard problem of consciousness, coined by David Chalmers[1][2], refers to the hard problem of explaining why we have qualitative phenomenal experiences. ...


Delay

One problem researchers face is distinguishing nonconscious reflexes and instinctual responses from conscious responses. Neuroscientists Francis Crick and Christof Koch have proposed that by placing a delay between stimulus and execution of action, one may determine the extent of involvement of consciousness in an action of a biological organism. Francis Harry Compton Crick OM FRS (8 June 1916 – 28 July 2004), (Ph. ... Christof Koch (born November 13, 1956) is an American neuroscientist. ...


For example, when psychologists Larry Squire and Robert Clark combined a tone of a specific pitch with a puff of air to the eye, test subjects came to blink their eyes in anticipation of the puff of air when the appropriate tone was played. When the puff of air followed a half of a second later, no such conditioning occurred. When subjects were asked about the experiment, only those who were asked to pay attention could consciously distinguish which tone preceded the puff of air.


Ability to delay the response to an action implies that the information must be stored in short-term memory, which is conjectured to be a closely associated prerequisite for consciousness. However, this test is only valid for biological organisms. While it is simple to create a computer program that passes, such success does not suggest anything beyond a clever programmer.[18]


See also

Cognitive science
Spirituality
Philosophy
Physical hypotheses about consciousness
Groups
Portals
  • Portal:Thinking
  • Portal:Philosophy

This article is about psychological concept of attention. ... Binocular rivalry is a phenomenon of visual perception in which perception alternates between different images presented to each eye. ... Visual processing in the brain goes through a series of processing stages. ... Change Blindness (also known as Change Detection) is a phenomenon in visual perception where large changes in a visual scene are not noticed by the viewer. ... Cognitive science is usually defined as the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence (e. ... Iconic memory is a type of short term visual memory, named by George Sperling in 1960. ... hdhdhdhdhdhdh ... Examples of visually ambiguous patterns. ... The Neural Correlates of Consciousness (NCC) can be defined as the minimal neuronal mechanisms jointly sufficient for any one specific conscious percept (Crick & Koch, 1990). ... The term Neural Darwinism is used in two different ways. ... Primary consciousness is a term coined by the American biologist Gerald Edelman to describe the ability, found in humans and some animals, to integrate observed events with memory to create an awareness of the present and immediate past of the world around them. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... The reticular activating system is the name given to part of the brain (the Reticular Formation and its connections) believed to be the centre of arousal and motivation in animals (including humans). ... Short-term memory, sometimes referred to as primary or active memory, is that part of memory which stores a limited amount of information for a limited amount of time (roughly 30-45 seconds). ... The Society of Mind is the book and theory of natural intelligence as written and developed by Marvin Minsky. ... Split-brain is a lay term to describe the result when the corpus callosum connecting the two halves of the brain is severed to some degree. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In the study of vision, visual short-term memory (VSTM) is one of three broad memory systems including iconic memory and long-term memory. ... Vijñāna (Sanskrit; Devanagari: विज्ञान) or viññāa (Pāli; Devanagari: विञ्ञान) is translated as consciousness or life force or simply mind.[1][2] This article considers the Buddhist concept primarily in terms of Early Buddhisms Pali literature as well as in the literature of other Buddhist schools. ... Higher consciousness, also called super consciousness (Yoga), objective consciousness (Gurdjieff), Buddhic consciousness (Theosophy), cosmic consciousness, God-consciousness (Sufism and Hinduism) and Christ consciousness (New Thought) -to name but a few--are expressions used in various spiritual traditions to denote the consciousness of a human being who has reached a higher... This article needs cleanup. ... The 8-Circuit Model of Consciousness is a heuristic model of consciousness proposed by Timothy Leary. ... Bodymind is a compound conjunction of body and mind and may be used differently in different traditions, disciplines and knowledges. ... There are two Donald Davidsons: Donald Davidson (poet) Donald Davidson (philosopher) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Swamp man is the title given to a philosophical thought experiment about causality and personal identity, first put forward in this form by Donald Davidson: Suppose Don goes hiking in the swamp and is struck and killed by a lightning bolt. ... While people dream, they usually do not realize they are dreaming (in non-lucid dreams). ... For the existentialist treatment of the same concept, see bad faith False consciousness is the Marxist thesis that material and institutional processes in capitalist society mislead the proletariat — and other classes — about the real relations of forces between those classes and of the actual states of affairs with respect to... Freedom of thought (also called freedom of conscience and freedom of ideas) is the freedom of an individual to hold or consider a fact, viewpoint, or thought, regardless of anyone elses view. ... The concept of a homunculus (Latin for little man, sometimes spelled homonculus, plural homunculi) is often used to illustrate the functioning of a system. ... The Mental Body is one of the Subtle Bodies in Theosophy and New Age thought. ... For other uses, see Mind (disambiguation). ... Mind at Large is a concept from The Doors of Perception and Heaven and Hell by Aldous Huxley. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Daniel Dennetts Multiple Drafts Theory or Model of Consciousness is a physical theory of consciousness based upon the proposal that the brain acts as an information processor. ... The Society of Mind is the book and theory of natural intelligence as written and developed by Marvin Minsky. ... New Mysterianism is a philosophy proposing that certain problems (in particular, consciousness) will never be explained or at the least cannot be explained by the human mind at its current evolutionary stage. ... In colloquial English, person is often synonymous with human. ... A phrenological mapping of the brain. ... The philosophy of perception concerns how mental processes and symbols depend on the world internal and external to the perceiver. ... // Consciousness typically refers to the idea of a being who is self-aware. ... Redness is the canonical quale. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... In philosophy, supervenience is a well-defined dependency relation between higher-level (. mental) and lower-level (. physical) properties. ... The phrase theory of mind (often abbreviated as ToM) is used in several related ways: general categories of theories of mind - theories about the nature of mind, and its structure and processes; theories of mind related to individual minds; in recent years, the phrase theory of mind has more commonly... Orch OR (“Orchestrated Objective Reduction”) is a theory of consciousness put forth in the mid-1990s by British theoretical physicist Sir Roger Penrose and American anesthesiologist Stuart Hameroff. ... The electromagnetic theory of consciousness is a theory that says the electromagnetic field generated by the brain (measurable by EEGs) is the actual carrier of conscious experience. ... The holonomic brain theory, originated by Karl Pribram and initially developed in collaboration with David Bohm, models cognitive function as being guided by a matrix of neurological wave interference patterns situated temporally between holographic Gestalt perception and discrete, affective, quantum vectors derived from reward anticipation potentials. ... Quantum mind theories are based on the premise that quantum mechanics is necessary to fully understand the mind and brain, particularly concerning an explanation of consciousness. ... Space-time theories of consciousness relate the geometrical features of conscious experience, such as viewing things in space-time at a point, to the geometrical properties of the universe itself. ... Simulated reality is the idea that reality could be simulated — often computer-simulated — to a degree indistinguishable from true reality. ... Image:Aceassociation. ... The Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness is a scientific membership organization that aims to encourage research on consciousness in cognitive science, neuroscience, philosophy, and other relevant disciplines in the sciences and humanities, directed toward understanding the nature, function, and underlying mechanisms of consciousness. ... Joan Halifax with the 14th Dalai Lama at a 2007 Mind and Life conference The Mind and Life Institute is a non-profit organization dedicated in exploring the relationship of science and Buddhism as methodologies in understanding the nature of reality. ... The Mind Science Foundation is a private operating scientific foundation in San Antonio, Texas. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Flanagan, Owen. "Consciousness" in Honderich, Ted. The Oxford Companion to Philosophy, University of Oxford Press, 1995, p. 152.
  2. ^ Nagel, Thomas. "What it is like to be a bat," The Philosophical Review, LXXXIII, 4, October 1974, pp. 435-450.
  3. ^ Jaynes, Julian, "The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind, 2d ed. 1990, p. 447, Houghton Mifflin Co., 2000, ISBN 0-618-05707-2; 1st ed. 1979
  4. ^ ibid. p. 450
  5. ^ Block, Ned. "On a Confusion about a Function of Consciousness" in The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1995.
  6. ^ Late recovery from the minimally conscious state: ethical and policy implications. Fins JJ, Schiff ND, Foley KM. Neurology. 2007 Jan 23;68(4):304-7. Abstract at Pubmed, retrieved 27 February 2007
  7. ^ Samuel Butler first raised the possibility of mechanical consciousness in an article signed with the nom de plume Cellarius and headed "Darwin among the Machines", which appeared in the Christchurch, New Zealand, newspaper The Press on 13 June 1863: retrieved from PREFACE TO THE REVISED EDITION, Project Gutenberg eBook Erewhon, by Samuel Butler. Release Date: March 20, 2005.
  8. ^ Stuart Shieber (ed): The Turing test : verbal behavior as the hallmark of intelligence, Cambridge, Mass, MIT Press, 2004, ISBN 978-0-262-69293-9
  9. ^ Steven Marcus: Neuroethics: mapping the field. Dana Press, New York 2002. ISBN 978-0-9723830-0-4.
  10. ^ See Aquinas, De Veritate 17,1 c.a.
  11. ^ See Catherine G. Davies, Conscience as Consciousness, Oxford 1990, and Hennig, Cartesian Conscientia.
  12. ^ See Etienne Balibar, Identité et différence. Le chapitre II, xxvii de l'Essay concerning Human Understanding de Locke. L'invention de la conscience. Paris: Editions du Seuil, 1998. ISBN 978-2-02-026300-9
  13. ^ Avi Rabinowitz Mindless Materialists: A Controversial Proposition
  14. ^ See Friedrich Nietzsche, The Gay Science, §355.
  15. ^ Damasio. A. 1999. The Feeling of What Happens: Body and Emotion in the Making of Consciousness. New York: Harcourt Brace. p. 4.
  16. ^ Maturana, H. R. and F. J. Varela. 1980. Autopoesis and Cognition: The Realization of the Living. Boston: D. Reidel.
  17. ^ Dawkins, R. 2003. A Devil's Chaplain; Reflections on Hope, Lies, Science, and Love. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, p. 46.
  18. ^ a b Christof Koch, The Quest for Consciousness: A Neurobiological Approach. Englewood, Colorado: Roberts and Company Publishers.
  19. ^ Ned Block, "What is Dennett's Theory a Theory of?" Philosophical Topics 22, 1994.
  20. ^ Mariela Szirko: "Effects of relativistic motions in the brain and their physiological relevance", Chapter 10 (pp. 313-358) in: Helmut Wautischer, editor, Ontology of Consciousness: Percipient Action, A Bradford Book: The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1st edition, 2007.
  21. ^ Llinas R.. (2001) "I of the Vortex. From Neurons to Self" MIT Press, Cambridge
  22. ^ Llinas R.,Ribary,U. Contreras,D. and Pedroarena, C. (1998) "The neuronal basis for consciousness" Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London, B. 353:1841-1849
  23. ^ Fingelkurts An.A. and Fingelkurts Al.A. Operational architectonics of the human brain biopotential field: Towards solving the mind-brain problem. Brain and Mind, vol. 2, pp. 261-296, 2001.
  24. ^ Fingelkurts An.A. and Fingelkurts Al.A. Timing in cognition and EEG brain dynamics: discreteness versus continuity. Cognitive Proces., vol. 7, pp. 135-162, 2006.
  25. ^ Fingelkurts An.A. and Fingelkurts Al.A. Mapping of the brain operational architectonics, in Focus on Brain Mapping Research, Chapter 2, F.J. Chen, Ed. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2005, pp. 59-98.
  26. ^ Fingelkurts An.A. and Fingelkurts Al.A. Making complexity simpler: multivariability and metastability in the Brain. Int. J. Neurosci., vol. 114, pp. 843-862, 2004.
  27. ^ Freeman and Herron. Evolutionary Analysis. 2007. Pearson Education, NJ.
  28. ^ Alcock, J. Animal Behavior 5th Ed. 1993. Sinauer Assoc. Cunderland, MA
  29. ^ Eccles, John C. "Evolution of consciousness." 1992. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA Vol. 89 pp. 7320-7324
  30. ^ a b c d e Roth, Gerhard. "The Evolution of Consciousness." Brain Evolution and Cognition. 2001. New York, NY.
  31. ^ a b Budiansky, Stephen. If a Lion Could Talk: Animal Intelligence and the Evolution of Consciousness. 1998. The Free Press, NY.
  32. ^ Nichols, Shaun, and Grantham, Todd."Adaptive Complexity and Phenomenal Consciousness." 2000. Philosophy of Science Vol. 67 pp. 648-670.
  33. ^ Baars, Bernard J. A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness. 1993. Cambridge University Press.
  34. ^ http://math.tulane.edu/~tipler/
  35. ^ http://www.stanford.edu/group/maciverlab/research.html
  36. ^ Dennett, D.C. and Hofstadter, D. (1985). The Mind's I: Fantasies and reflections on self and soul (ISBN 978-0-553-34584-1)
  37. ^ Chalmers, D. (1997) The Conscious Mind: In Search of a Fundamental Theory. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-511789 Please check ISBN|0195117891
  38. ^ Searle, J. (1980) "Minds, Brains and Programs" Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3, 417-424.
  39. ^ http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spiegeltest#Artverhalten
  40. ^ http://ww2.lafayette.edu/~allanr/mirror.html
  41. ^ http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn10402-elephants-see-themselves-in-the-mirror.html
  42. ^ "Was Elstern wahrnehmen" german article

Samuel Butler is the name of several notable persons: Samuel Butler (1612-1680), author of Hudibras Samuel Butler (1774-1839), classical scholar Samuel Butler (1835-1902), grandson of the scholar, author of Erewhon This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the... The word mechanical can mean one of several things: A device or principle described as mechanical relates to a mechanism or machine, or the realm of Newtonian mechanics. ... A pen name or nom de plume is a pseudonym adopted by an author. ... Cellarius, usually a Latin form of the surname Keller, may be Andreas Cellarius, cartographer Christoph Cellarius, classical scholar This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article is about the city in New Zealand. ... The Press is a daily broadsheet newspaper published in Christchurch, New Zealand. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... Étienne Balibar is a French philosopher, who first rose to prominence as one of Louis Althussers pupils at the École Normale Supérieure, particularly as a participant in Althussers seminar on Marxs Capital. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a nineteenth-century German philosopher and philologist. ... The Gay Science [German: Die fröhliche Wissenschaft (la gaya scienza)], is a book written by Friedrich Nietzsche, first published in 1882 and followed by a second edition, which was published after the completion of Thus Spoke Zarathustra and Beyond Good and Evil, in 1887. ... Christof Koch (born November 13, 1956) is an American neuroscientist. ... Ned Block (born 1942) is a philosopher of mind who has made important contributions to matters of consciousness and cognitive science. ...

Further reading and external links

Wikibooks
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of
  • Baars, B. (1997). In the Theater of Consciousness: The Workspace of the Mind. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. 2001 reprint: ISBN 978-0-19-514703-2
  • Baars, Bernard J and Stan Franklin. 2003. How conscious experience and working memory interact. Trends in Cognitive Science 7: 166–172.
  • Bar-Yam, Yaneer (2003). Dynamics of Complex Systems, Chapter 3. 
  • Blackmore, S. (2003). Consciousness: an Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-515343-9
  • Block, N. (2004). The Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science.
  • Carter, Rita. (2002) Exploring Consciousness. UC Berkeley Press. ISBN 0-520-23737-4
  • Chalmers, D. (1996). The Conscious Mind: In Search of a Fundamental Theory. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-511789-9
  • Charlton, Bruce G. "Evolution and the Cognitive Neuroscience of Awareness, Consciousness and Language"
  • Cleermans, A. (Ed.) (2003). The Unity of Consciousness: Binding, Integration, and Dissociation. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-850857-1
  • Rodney M. J. Cotterill (1998). Enchanted Looms : Conscious networks in brains and computer. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521794626. 
  • Damasio, A. (1999). The Feeling of What Happens: Body and Emotion in the Making of Consciousness. New York: Harcourt Press. ISBN 978-0-15-601075-7
  • Dennett, D. (1991). Consciousness Explained, Boston: Little & Company. ISBN 978-0-316-18066-5
  • Eccles, J.C. (1994), How the Self Controls its Brain, (Springer-Verlag).
  • Franklin, S, B J Baars, U Ramamurthy, and Matthew Ventura. 2005. The role of consciousness in memory. Brains, Minds and Media 1: 1–38, pdf.
  • Halliday, Eugene, Reflexive Self-Consciousness, ISBN 0-872240-01-1
  • Harnad, S. (2005) What is Consciousness? New York Review of Books 52(11).
  • James, W. (1902) The Varieties of Religious Experience
  • Immanuel Kant (1781). Critique of Pure Reason. Trans. Norman Kemp Smith with preface by Howard Caygill. Pub: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Koch, C. (2004). The Quest for Consciousness. Englewood, CO: Roberts & Company. ISBN 978-0-9747077-0-9
  • John Locke (1689). An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
  • Libet, B., Freeman, A. & Sutherland, K. ed. (1999). The Volitional Brain: Towards a neuroscience of free will. Exeter, UK: Short Run Press, Ltd.
  • Llinas R.,Ribary,U. Contreras,D. and Pedroarena, C. (1998) "The neuronal basis for consciousness" Phil. Tranns. R. Soc. London, B. 353:1841-1849
  • Llinas R. (2001) "I of the Vortex. From Neurons to Self" MIT Press, Cambridge
  • Metzinger, T. (2003). Being No One: the Self-model Theory of Subjectivity. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Metzinger, T. (Ed.) (2000). The Neural Correlates of Consciousness. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-13370-8
  • Morgan, John H. (2007. In the Beginning: The Paleolithic Origins of Religious Consciousness. Cloverdale Books, South Bend. ISBN 978-1-929569-41-0
  • Morsella, E. (2005). The Function of Phenomenal States: Supramodular Interaction Theory. Psychological Review, 112, 1000-1021.
  • Penrose, R., Hameroff, S. R. (1996), 'Conscious Events as Orchestrated Space-Time Selections', Journal of Consciousness Studies, 3 (1), pp. 36-53.
  • Pharoah, M.C. (online). Looking to systems theory for a reductive explanation of phenomenal experience and evolutionary foundations for higher order thought Retrieved Dec.14 2007.
  • Sanz, R., López, I., Rodríguez, M. and Hernández, C. (2007) 'Principles for Consciousness in Integrated Cognitive Control'. Neural Networks, 20, pp. 938-946.
  • Scaruffi, P. (2006). The Nature Of Consciousness. Omniware.
  • Searle, J. (2004). Mind: A Brief Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Sternberg, E. (2007) Are You a Machine? The Brain, the Mind and What it Means to be Human. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.
  • Velmans, M. (2000) Understanding Consciousness. London: Routledge/Psychology Press.
  • Velmans, M. and Schneider, S. (Eds.)(2006) The Blackwell Companion to Consciousness. New York: Blackwell.
Academic journals & newsletters
  • Anthropology of Consciousness
  • Journal of Consciousness Studies
  • Consciousness and Cognition
  • Psyche
  • Science & Consciousness Review
  • ASSC e-print archive containing articles, book chapters, theses, conference presentations by members of the ASSC.
Philosophy resources
  • Publications of the Tufts Center for Cognitive Studies, including Daniel Dennett
  • David Chalmers' directory of online papers on consciousness
  • Intuitions about Consciousness: Experimental Studies an article describing the folk intuitions about what is a conscious agent
  • Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy:
    • Consciousness (General)
    • Animal Consciousness
    • Higher Order Theories of Consciousness
    • Consciousness and Intentionality
    • Representational Theory of Consciousness
    • Unity of Consciousness
  • Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy:
    • Consciousness
    • Higher-Order Theories of Consciousness
Miscellaneous sites
  • History of Consciousness Graduate Program, ("consciousness as forms of human expression and social action manifested in historical, cultural, and political contexts") at the University of California, Santa Cruz, headed by Dr. Angela Davis* Online lecture videos, from an undergraduate course taught by Christof Koch at Caltech on the neurobiological basis of consciousness in 2004.
  • Piero Scaruffi's annotated bibliography on the mind
  • Anesthesia and Drug effects on consciousness
  • Brain Atlas, Brain Maps, Neuroinformatics
  • Online course in consciousness at University of Virginia
  • A survey course at University of Florida
  • Edinburgh thesis (.ps) on consciousness including up-to-date reviews
  • Consciousness-Related Engineering Anomaly Princeton
  • Thy Mystery of Consciousness TIME.com
  • Helen Keller Language and Consciousness
  • Theory of the Red Blood Cells
Video
  • Swami Radhananda discusses subtlety and consciousness
  • Jill Bolte Taylor - My Stroke of Insight
Philosophy portal
Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... Rodney Michael John Cotterill Order of the Dannebrog (27 September 1933 – 24 June 2007[1]) was a English-Danish physicist, and neuroscientist, who was educated at University College London (B.Sc. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... Professor Stevan Harnad Professor Stevan Harnad (Hernád István, Hesslein István) - born in Budapest - is a Hungarian-born cognitive scientist. ... The New York Review of Books (or NYRB) is a biweekly magazine on literature, culture, and current affairs published in New York which takes as its point of departure that the discussion of important books is itself an indispensable literary activity. ... Cloverdale Corporation has for 29 years been involved in publishing scholarly research for the scientific community. ... Understanding Consciousness is a philosophical text written by Max Velmans, Professor of Psychology at Goldsmiths College, University of London. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Angela Yvonne Davis (born January 26, 1944 in Birmingham, Alabama) is an American socialist organizer, professor who was associated with the Black Panther Party (BPP) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). ... Christof Koch (born November 13, 1956) is an American neuroscientist. ... California Institute of Technology The California Institute of Technology (commonly known as Caltech) is a private, coeducational university located in Pasadena, California, in the United States. ... The University of Virginia (also called U.Va. ... -1... Image File history File links Socrates. ...

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The contention, however, that all states of consciousness, though not "secretions" or "products" of matter, are yet forms of activity which have their ultimate source in the brain and are intrinsically and absolutely dependent on the latter is not disposed of by this reasoning.
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