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Encyclopedia > Conscientious objector
John T. Neufeld was a WWI conscientious objector sentenced to 15 years hard labour in the military prison at Leavenworth. He was paroled to do dairy work and released after serving five months of his sentence.
John T. Neufeld was a WWI conscientious objector sentenced to 15 years hard labour in the military prison at Leavenworth. He was paroled to do dairy work and released after serving five months of his sentence.

A conscientious objector (CO) or coward is an individual following the religious, moral or ethical dictates of his or her conscience that are incompatible with being a combatant in military service, or being part of the armed forces as a combatant organization. In the first case, conscientious objectors may be willing to accept non-combatant roles during conscription or military service. In the second case, the objection is to any role within armed forces and results in complete rejection of conscription or military service and, in some countries, assignment to an alternative civilian service as a substitute for conscription or military service. Some conscientious objectors may consider themselves either pacifist or antimilitarist. This is not to be confused with 'Persistent Objectors', which are nations whose persistent stance against a particular rule exempts them from that rule under customary international law. Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... See also Conscientious objection and Conscription. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (400x705, 79 KB) Summary Photo (ca. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (400x705, 79 KB) Summary Photo (ca. ... A view of the United States Disciplinary Barracks. ... Military service in its simplest sense, is service by an individual or group in an army or other military organisation, whether as a chosen job or as a result of an involuntary draft (conscription). ... Alternate cover US 1979 and 2002 reissue cover, also known as paint spatter cover For the military meaning, see Armed forces. ... Military service in its simplest sense, is service by an individual or group in an army or other military organisation, whether as a chosen job or as a result of an involuntary draft (conscription). ... Alternate cover US 1979 and 2002 reissue cover, also known as paint spatter cover For the military meaning, see Armed forces. ... Civilian service is service to a government made as a civilian, particularly such service as an option for anti-militarists and pacifists who object to military service. ... Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes or gaining advantage. ... Antimilitarism is a doctrine commonly found in the anarchist and socialist movement, which may be both characterized as internationalist movements. ...

Contents

Introduction

Historically, many conscientious objectors have been executed, imprisoned, or sanctioned when their beliefs led to actions conflicting with their society's legal system or government. The legal definition and status of conscientious objection has varied over the years and from nation to nation. Religious beliefs were a starting point in many nations for legally granting conscientious objection status. Acceptable grounds for granting conscientious objector status have broadened in many countries.


A 1971 United States Supreme Court decision broadened U.S. rules beyond religious belief but denied the inclusion of objections to specific wars as grounds for conscientious objection.[1] Some desiring to include the objection to specific wars distinguish between wars of offensive aggression and defensive wars while others contend that religious, moral, or ethical opposition to war need not be absolute or consistent but may depend on circumstance or political conviction. Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the...


Currently, the U.S. Selective Service System states, "Beliefs which qualify a registrant for conscientious objector status may be religious in nature, but don't have to be. Beliefs may be moral or ethical; however, a man's reasons for not wanting to participate in a war must not be based on politics, expediency, or self-interest. In general, the man's lifestyle prior to making his claim must reflect his current claims."[2] In the US, this applies to primary claims, that is, those filed on initial SSS registration. On the other hand, those who apply after either having registered without filing, and/or having attempted or effected a deferral, are specifically required to demonstrate a discrete and documented change in belief, including a precipitant, that converted a non-CO to a CO. The male reference is due to the current "male only" basis for conscription in the United States. The United States has employed conscription (mandatory military service, also called the draft) several times, usually during war but also during the nominal peace of the Cold War. ...


In the United States, there are three criteria for classification as a conscientious objector. First, the objector must be opposed to war in any form, Gillette v. United States, 401 U.S. 437. Second, he must show that this opposition is based upon religious training and belief, as the term has been construed by the Supreme Court, United States v. Seeger, 380 U.S. 163 and Welsh v. United States, 398 U.S. 333. Third, the objection must be sincere, Witmer v. United States, 348 U.S. 375. Holding --- Court membership Case opinions Laws applied --- United States v. ... Holding Court membership Case opinions Witmer v. ...


COs willing to perform non-combatant military functions are classed 1-A-O by the U.S.; those unwilling to serve at all are 1-O.


Conscientious objection and doing civilian service has, in many countries, evolved into a veritable institution. Today in Germany, civil servants who are fulfilling their service in the nursing or social domain bear a huge part of the respective workload. It is believed that abolishing the draft—and with that, the compulsory civil service for objectors—would plunge hospitals and nursing homes into severe trouble.


Religious motives

The reasons for refusing to serve are varied. Many conscientious objectors are so for religious reasons. Members of the Historic Peace Churches are pacifist by doctrine. Jehovah's Witnesses, while not pacifist in the strict sense, refuse to participate in the armed services on the grounds that they believe Christians should be neutral in worldly conflicts and they follow God's command at Isaiah 2:4 to " Not learn war anymore" . Other objections can stem from a deep sense of responsibility toward humanity as a whole, or from simple denial that any government should have that kind of moral authority. Peace churches are Christian churches, groups or communities advocating pacifism. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ...


There are divergent views about the degree of pacifism in the early Christian Church. Within the Roman Empire avoiding military service was not a problem, because the legions and other armed forces were largely composed of volunteers. Some legionaries who converted to Christianity were able to reconcile warfare with their Christian beliefs which is formalized in the Just War theory. This option became more normal after Theodosius I made Christianity an official religion of the Empire. In the 11th century, there was a further shift of opinion in the Latin-Christian tradition with the crusades, strengthening the idea and acceptability of Holy War. Objectors became a minority. For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Just War theory is the attempt to distinguish between justifiable and unjustifiable uses of organized armed forces. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Holy war may refer to: Jihad, war fought to spread the religion of Islam. ...


Feudalism imposed various forms of military obligation, before and after the crusading movement (which was composed of volunteers). But the demand was to send someone rather than any particular person. Those who did not wish to fight, for whatever reason, were left alone if they could pay or persuade someone else to go. Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century), in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval European political system comprised of a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the...


Because of their conscientious objection to participation in military service, whether armed or unarmed, Jehovah's Witnesses have often faced imprisonment or other penalties. In Greece, for example, before the introduction of alternative civilian service in 1997, hundreds of Witnesses were imprisoned, some for three years or even more for their refusal. In Armenia, young Jehovah's Witnesses have been imprisoned (and remain in prison) because of their conscientious objection to military service. In Switzerland, virtually every Jehovah's Witness is exempted from military service. The Finnish government exempts Jehovah's Witnesses from the draft completely. In 1996 the May 1 p.20 Watchtower reversed its stance and "civilian service" is now accepted. For the band, see 1997 (band). ... “Conscript” redirects here. ...


For believers in Dharmic Religions, the opposition to warfare may be based on either the general idea of ahimsa, non-violence, or on an explicit prohibition of violence by their religion, e.g., for a Buddhist, one of the five precepts is "Pānātipātā veramaṇi sikkhāpadam samādiyāmi," or "I undertake the precept to refrain from destroying living creatures," which is in obvious opposition to the practice of warfare. The 14th Dalai Lama, the highest religious authority in Tibetan Buddhism, has stated that war "should be relegated to the dustbin of history." On the other hand, many Buddhist sects, especially in Japan, have been thoroughly militarized, warrior monks (yamabushi or sóhei) participating in the civil wars. Hindu beliefs do not go against the concept of war, as seen in the Gita. Both Sikhs and Hindus believe war should be a last resort and should be fought to sustain life and morality in society. The image above is proposed for deletion. ... Ahimsa (Devanagari: ; IAST ) is a Sanskrit term meaning non-violence (literally: the avoidance of violence - himsa). ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... This article is about the Buddhist concept; see Pancasila Indonesia for the Indonesian state philosophy. ... (Redirected from 14th Dalai Lama) Tenzin Gyatso is the fourteenth and current Dalai Lama. ... Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim and Ladakh), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ...


Some practitioners of pagan religions, particularly Wicca, may object on the grounds of the Wiccan rede, which states "An it harm none, do what ye will" (or variations). The threefold law may also be grounds for objection. Pagan and heathen redirect here. ... The Wiccan Rede is a saying that was formulated to sum up the ethics of the neo-Pagan religion Wicca. ... The rule of three (or threefold law) is an important tenet in Wicca. ...


Alternatives for objectors


Some conscientious objectors are unwilling to serve the military in any capacity, while others accept noncombatant roles. Alternatives to military or civilian service include serving an imprisonment or other punishment for refusing conscription, falsely claiming unfitness for duty by feigning an allergy or a heart condition, delaying conscription until the maximum drafting age, or seeking refuge in a country which does not extradite those wanted for military conscription. Avoiding military service is sometimes labeled draft dodging, particularly if the goal is accomplished through dishonesty or evasive maneuvers. However, many people who support conscription will distinguish between "bona fide" conscientious objection and draft dodging, which they view as evasion of military service without a valid excuse. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Shortcut: WP:NPOVD Articles that have been linked to this page are the subject of an NPOV dispute (NPOV stands for Neutral Point Of View; see below). ... Their actions were criminal offences and once they had left the country draft dodgers could not return or they would be arrested. ... In law, good faith (in Latin, bona fides) is the mental and moral state of honest, even if objectively unfounded, conviction as to the truth or falsehood of a proposition or body of opinion, or as to the rectitude or depravity of a line of conduct. ...


United States

During the American Revolutionary War exemptions varied by state. Pennsylvania required conscientious objectors, who would not join companies of voluntary soldiers called Associations, to pay a fine roughly equal to the time they would have spent in military drill.[3] Quakers who refused this extra tax had their property confiscated. This article is about military actions only. ...


The first conscription in the United States came with the Civil War. Although conscientious objection was not part of the draft law, individuals could provide a substitute or pay $300 to hire one.[4] By 1864 the draft act allowed the $300 to be paid for the benefit of sick and wounded soldiers. Conscientious objectors in Confederate States initially had few options. Responses included moving to northern states, hiding in the mountains, joining the army but refusing to use a weapon or imprisonment. Between late 1862 and 1864 a payment of $500 into the public treasury exempted conscientious objectors from Confederate military duty.[5] Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Religion...

We were cursed, beaten, kicked, and compelled to go through exercises to the extent that a few were unconscious for some minutes. They kept it up for the greater part of the afternoon, and then those who could possibly stand on their feet were compelled to take cold shower baths. One of the boys was scrubbed with a scrubbing brush using lye on him. They drew blood in several places.


Mennonite from Camp Lee, Virginia, United States, 16 July 1918.[6] is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...

In the United States during World War I, conscientious objectors were permitted to serve in noncombatant military roles. About 2000 absolute conscientious objectors refused to cooperate in any way with the military.[7] These men were imprisoned in military facilities such as Fort Lewis (Washington), Alcatraz Island (California) and Fort Leavenworth (Kansas). The government failed to take into account that some conscientious objectors viewed any cooperation with the military as contributing to the war effort. Their refusal to put on a uniform or cooperate in any way caused difficulties for both the government and the COs. The mistreatment[8] received by these absolute COs included short rations, solitary confinement and physical abuse so severe as to cause the deaths of two Hutterite draftees.[9] “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Hutterite women at work Hutterites are a communal branch of Anabaptists who, like the Amish and Mennonites, trace their roots to the Radical Reformation of the 16th century. ...


Eventually, because of the shortage of farm labor, the conscientious objectors were granted furloughs either for farm service or relief work in France under the American Friends Service Committee. A limited number performed alternative service as fire fighters in the Cascade Range in the vicinity of Camp Lewis, Washington[10] and in a Virginia psychiatric hospital.[11]
During World War II, all registrants were sent a questionnaire covering basic facts about their identification, physical condition, history and also provided a checkoff to indicate opposition to military service because of religious training or belief. Men marking the latter option received a DSS 47 form with ten questions:[12] American Friends Service Committee logo The American Friends Service Committee (AFSC) is a Religious Society of Friends (Quaker) affiliated organization which works for social justice, peace and reconciliation, abolition of the death penalty, and human rights, and provides humanitarian relief. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

  1. Describe the nature of your belief which is the basis of your claim.
  2. Explain how, when, and from whom or from what source you received the training and acquired the belief which is the basis of your claim.
  3. Give the name and present address of the individual upon whom you rely most for religious guidance.
  4. Under what circumstances, if any, do you believe in the use of force?
  5. Describe the actions and behavior in your life which in your opinion most conspicuously demonstrate the consistency and depth of your religious convictions.
  6. Have you ever given public expression, written or oral, to the views herein expressed as the basis for your claim made above? If so, specify when and where.
  7. Have you ever been a member of any military organization or establishment? If so, state the name and address of same and give reasons why you became a member.
  8. Are you a member of a religious sect or organization?
  9. Describe carefully the creed or official statements of said religious sect or organization as it relates to participation in war.
  10. Describe your relationships with and activities in all organizations with which you are or have been affiliated other than religious or military.
Civilian Public Service firefighting crew at Snowline Camp near Camino, California, 1945.
Civilian Public Service firefighting crew at Snowline Camp near Camino, California, 1945.

Civilian Public Service (CPS) provided conscientious objectors in the United States an alternative to military service during World War II. From 1941 to 1947 nearly 12,000 draftees,[13] unwilling to do any type of military service, performed work of national importance in 152 CPS camps throughout the United States and Puerto Rico. The work was initially done in areas isolated from the general population both because of the government's concern that pacifist philosophy would spread and conscientious objectors would not be tolerated in neighboring communities. A constant problem through the duration of the program, especially in camps located in national forests for fire control, was make-work projects designed to occupy the men's time in the off-season and between fires. For instance, men at a camp on the Blue Ridge Parkway in Virginia shoveled snow from an unused roadway while a snowplow was parked nearby. The uselessness of this type of work lead to low morale and loss of experienced men as they requested transfers to other camps hoping for more meaningful work. Draftees from the historic peace churches and other faiths worked in areas such as soil conservation, forestry, fire fighting, agriculture, social services, and mental health. Image File history File links CPS31firecrew. ... Image File history File links CPS31firecrew. ... Civilian Public Service (CPS) provided conscientious objectors in the United States an alternative to military service during World War II. From 1941 to 1947 nearly 12,000 draftees, unwilling to do any type of military service, performed work of national importance in 152 CPS camps throughout the United States and... Blue Ridge Parkway route map The Blue Ridge Parkway is a National Parkway and All-American Road in the United States, noted for its scenic beauty. ...


The CPS men served without wages and minimal support from the federal government. The cost of maintaining the CPS camps and providing for the needs of the men was the responsibility of their congregations and families. CPS men served longer than regular draftees, not being released until well past the end of the war. Initially skeptical of the program, government agencies learned to appreciate the men's service and requested more workers from the program. CPS made significant contributions to forest fire prevention, erosion and flood control, medical science and especially in revolutionizing of the state-run mental health institutions which had previously been very inhumane and often cruel.


Alternatives to war bonds and war savings stamps were provided for those who could not conscientiously help fund the WWII. National Service Board for Religious Objectors offered civilian bonds and Mennonite Central Committee offered Civilian Public Service stamps and War Sufferers' Relief stamps. Categories: Stub ... The war savings stamp (WSS) was a patriotic program used by the United States Treasury to help fund participation in World War II, and was principally aimed at school-age children. ... The Center on Conscience & War (CCW) is a United States non-profit anti-war organization dedicated to defending and extending the rights of conscientious objectors. ... Mennonite Central Committee logo. ...


Civilian Public Service was disbanded in 1947. By the early 1950s a replacement program, 1-W service, was in place for conscientious objectors classified as 1-W by Selective Service. The new program eliminated the base camps of CPS and provided wages for the men.


1-W service was divided into several categories. The Earning Service involved working in institutions such as hospitals for fairly good wages. Voluntary Service was nonpaying work done in similar institutions, mostly within North America. Pax Service was a nonpaying alternative with assignments overseas. 1-W Mission Supporting Service was like the Earning Service but the wages were used for the support of mission, relief or service projects of the draftees choice. The nonpaying services were promoted by church agencies as a sacrifice to enhance the peace witness of conscientious objectors.[14]


Canada

Mennonites in Canada were automatically exempt from any type of service during World War I by provisions of the Order in Council of 1873. With pressure of public opinion, the Canadian government barred entry of additional Mennonite and Hutterite immigrants, rescinding the privileges of the Order in Council.[15] During World War II, Canadian conscientious objectors were given the options of noncombatant military service, serving in the medical or dental corps under military control or working in parks and on roads under civilian supervision. Over 95% chose the latter and were placed in Alternative Service camps.[16] Initially the men worked on road building, forestry and firefighting projects. After May 1943, as the labour shortage developed within the nation, men were shifted into agriculture, education and industry. The 10,700 Canadian objectors were mostly Mennonites (63%) and Dukhobors (20%).[17] The Mennonites are a group of Christian Anabaptist denominations based on the teachings and tradition of Menno Simons. ... Prime Minister of Canada Robert Borden at the outbreak at the Great War. ... An Order-in-Council is a type of legislation in the United Kingdom and in the Commonwealth of Nations which is formally made in the name of the Queen by the Privy Council (Queen-in-Council), or the Governor-General in a Commonwealth realm or Governor by the Executive Council... A recruiting poster in Canada. ... The Doukhobors (Duchobozetz, Duchobortzi) (Russian: ) are a Christian dissenting sect of Russian origin. ...


Eastern Europe

Tsarist Russia allowed Russian Mennonites to run and maintain forestry service units in South Russia in lieu of their military obligation. The program was under church control from 1881 through 1918, reaching a peak of 7000 conscientious objectors during World War I. An additional 5000 Mennonites formed complete hospital units and transport wounded from the battlefield to Moscow and Ekaterinoslav hospitals.[18] After the Russian Revolution of 1917, Leon Trotsky issued a decree allowing alternative service for religious objectors whose sincerity was determined upon examination.[19] Vladimir Tchertkov, a follower of Leo Tolstoy, chaired the United Council of Religious Fellowships and Groups, which successfully freed 8000 conscientious objectors from military service during the Russian Civil war. The law was not applied uniformly and hundreds of objectors were imprisoned and over 200 were executed. The United Council was forced to cease activity in December 1920, but alternative service was available under the New Economic Policy until it was abolished in 1936.[20] Unlike the earlier forestry and hospital service, later conscientious objectors were classified "enemies of the people" and their alternate service was performed in remote areas in a gulag-like environment in order to break their resistance and encourage enlistment.[21] The Russian Mennonites are a group of Mennonites descended from Dutch and mainly Germanic Prussian Anabaptists who established colonies in South Russia (present-day Ukraine) beginning in 1789. ... The forestry service[1] was a form of national service offered to Russian Mennonites in lieu of military service in Russia from 1881 to 1918. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Dnipropetrovsk (Ukrainian: Дніпропетровськ, Dnipropetrovs’k; Russian: Днепропетро́вск, Dnepropetrovsk, formerly Екатериносла́в, Yekaterinoslav) is Ukraines third largest city with 1. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... Leon Trotsky (Russian:  , Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (), was a Ukrainian-born Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ... Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy(Lyof, Lyoff) (September 9 [O.S. August 28] 1828 – November 20 [O.S. November 7] 1910) (Russian: , IPA:  ), commonly referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian writer – novelist, essayist, dramatist and philosopher – as well as pacifist Christian anarchist and educational reformer. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Gulag ( , Russian: ) was the government body responsible for administering prison camps across the former Soviet Union. ...


After World War II, conscientious objectors in the Soviet Union and the German Democratic Republic were typically assigned to construction units, in the absence of a fully civilian alternative to military service.[22][23] In Czechoslovakia, those not willing to enter mandatory military service could avoid it by signing a contract for work lasting years in unattractive occupations, such as mining. Those who didn't sign were imprisoned. Both numbers were tiny. After the communist party lost its power in 1989, alternative civil service was established. As of 2006, both the Czech Republic and Slovakia have abolished conscription. “East Germany” redirects here. ... Non-violent protesters face armed policemen The Velvet Revolution (Czech: , Slovak: ) (November 16 – December 29, 1989) refers to a non-violent revolution in Czechoslovakia that saw the overthrow of the Communist government there;[1] it is seen as one of the most important of the Revolutions of 1989. ...


Western Europe

United Kingdom

Conscientious Objector memorial in Tavistock Square Gardens, London — dedicated on 15 May 1994
Conscientious Objector memorial in Tavistock Square Gardens, London — dedicated on 15 May 1994

Britain's armed services had for centuries been all-volunteer forces, though press gangs took sailors for the Royal Navy in the Napoleonic War. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (640x853, 174 KB) Summary Inscribed on the memorial to conscientious objectors: [Around the left, top, and right edges] TO COMMEMORATE MEN & WOMEN CONSCIENTIOUS OBJECTORS TO MILITARY SERVICE ALL OVER THE WORLD & IN EVERY AGE [In the centre] TO ALL THOSE WHO... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (640x853, 174 KB) Summary Inscribed on the memorial to conscientious objectors: [Around the left, top, and right edges] TO COMMEMORATE MEN & WOMEN CONSCIENTIOUS OBJECTORS TO MILITARY SERVICE ALL OVER THE WORLD & IN EVERY AGE [In the centre] TO ALL THOSE WHO... Tavistock Square Tavistock Square is a square in Bloomsbury, London. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Impressment is the act of kidnapping people to serve as sailors. ...


In World War I, Britain introduced conscription with the Military Service Act of 1916. This meant that objections on religious or ethical grounds became an issue. Of those 'called up', about 16,000 refused to fight. Quakers, traditionally pacifist, played a large role.[24] Many objectors accepted non-combat service. Some worked as stretcher-bearers, which was dangerous even though no one intentionally shot at them. UK Military Service Act In January, 1916 David Lloyd George introduced the Military Service Act for the UK. Previous to this Act, the British Government had been relying on voluntary registration called the Derby Scheme. ... The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ...


Objectors had to prove their right not to fight.

8,608 appeared before Military Tribunals. Over 4,500 were sent to do work of national importance such as farming. However, 528 were sentenced to severe penalties. This included 17 who were sentenced to death (afterwards commuted), 142 to life imprisonment, three to 50 years imprisonment, four to 40 years and 57 to 25 years. Conditions were made very hard for the conscientious objectors and 69 of them died in prison.[25]

In World War II, there were nearly 60,000 registered Conscientious Objectors. Tests were much less harsh; it was generally enough to say that you objected to "warfare as a means of settling international disputes," a phrase from the Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928. Objectors were required to do work that was either war-related or classified as 'useful'. Conscription was continued (as National service) until 1960. President Calvin Coolidge, Herbert Hoover, and Frank B. Kellogg, standing, with representatives of the governments who have ratified the Treaty for Renunciation of War (Kellogg-Briand Pact), in the East Room of the White House. ... National service is a common name for compulsory or voluntary military service programs. ...


Note that British conscription never applied to Ireland; see Conscription Crisis of 1918. The various parts of the British Empire and Commonwealth had their own rules. The Conscription Crisis of 1918 stemmed from a move by the Government of the United Kingdom to impose conscription in Ireland, and contributed to pivotal events in early 20th century politics in Ireland, galvanising popular support for parties favouring separation from the United Kingdom. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2007 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Kamalesh Sharma Appointed 24 November 2007 Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total...


See also Conscientious objection throughout the world, which includes sections on Britain, Spain and Finland. See also Conscientious objection and Conscription. ...


Finland

Finland introduce conscription in 1881, but its enforcement was suspended as part of Russification in 1903. During the Finnish Civil War in 1918, conscription was reintroduced, and it was mandatory to all able-bodied Finnish males. In 1922, noncombatant military service was allowed, but those who refused to serve in the military were imprisoned. Only after the struggle of Arndt Pekurinen, a law of alternative non-military service during peacetime was introduced 1931. The law applied to only peacetime. After the beginning of the Winter War, Pekurinen and other conscientious objectors were imprisoned immediately as they were considered dangerous to national security. After the break of Continuation War, Pekurinen was sent to the front lines. As he still refused from taking arms and dressing in uniform, he was extra-judicially executed by an officer. Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Russification is an adoption of the Russian language or some other Russian attribute (whether voluntarily or not) by non-Russian communities. ... Combatants Whites: White Guards, German Empire, Swedish volunteers Reds: Red Guards, Russian SFSR Commanders C.G.E. Mannerheim Ali Aaltonen, Eero Haapalainen, Eino Rahja, Kullervo Manner Strength 80,000–90,000 Finns, 550 Swedish volunteers, 13,000 Germans[1] 80,000–90,000 Finns, 4,000–10,000 Russians[1... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Strength 250,000 men 30 tanks 130 aircraft[1][2] 1,000,000 men 6,541 tanks [3] 3,800 aircraft[4][5] Casualties 26,662 dead 39,886 wounded 1,000 captured[6] 126,875 dead... Combatants  Finland Germany Italy1  Soviet Union  United Kingdom2 Commanders C.G.E. Mannerheim Kirill Meretskov Leonid Govorov Strength 530,000 Finns[1] 220,000 Germans 900,000–1,500,000[2] Casualties 58,715 dead or missing 158,000 wounded 1,500 civilian dead[3] 200,000 dead or missing...


After WWII, the tour of duty for the conscientious objectors was often twice the length of shortest conscription, 16 months. The objectors had to prove their conviction, and should they fail to prove their conviction, they were forced to serve in the armed service. The period was shortened to 13 months (395 days) in 1987. At the same time, the Conviction Inspection Board was abolished. Any person liable for conscription (i.e. other than women, men living in demilitarised Åland and Jehovah's Witnesses as well as physically unfit men) can apply for civilian service at any time before or during their service, the application being automatically accepted. Females serving voluntarily in army can also apply to the civilian service, if they have served more than 45 days and are thereby not able to quit their military service without consequences anymore.


The right to conscientious objection is still today acknowledged only in peacetime. In recent years, several international bodies[1] (for example, the UN's Human Rights Committee[2]), who are overseeing the implementation of human rights agreements, have demanded Finland to take measures to improve its legislation concerning COs, since it has been found to be discriminatory. Sources of criticism have among other things been the punitive length of the civilian alternative to military service, the release of conscientious objectors from military duty only during peacetime and the negligence in arranging accommodation for the servicemen according to the law. Since 1999, Amnesty International[3] has considered Finnish total objectors, who have refused to carry out non-military service, as prisoners of conscience, because of the punitive length of civilian service. UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amnesty international Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience... Prisoner of conscience (POC) is a term coined by the human rights pressure group Amnesty International in the early 1960s. ...


Germany

According to Article 4(3) of the German constitution (Grundgesetz): "No person shall be compelled against his conscience to render military service involving the use of arms. Details shall be regulated by a federal law." The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitution of modern Germany. ...


According to Article 12a, every adult male is obligated to military service called Wehrdienst. The draftee can apply for an alternative service called "Zivildienst" (civilian service), if he declares conscience reasons. The civil service may not last longer than military service. This rule has been applied since October 1, 2004. Before that date the civilian service was longer than military service, because soldiers could later be called to military exercises (Wehrübungen). In wartime, civilian draftees are expected to replace those on active military duty in their civilian professions. According to the German constitution, no one may be forced into military service. The Wehrdienst is getting increasingly controversial, because only young men are getting drafted which some consider a violation of the third article of the constitution, that every person is equal before the law, but women are not affected by the Wehrdienst. However, the German constitution also states in Article 12a section 4 that no woman may be forced to serve in the armed forces. Therefore the different treatment of men and women actually has a constitutional basis. Badge of Zivildienst (Austria, 1982) Zivildienst (German, translates roughly into Civilian Service) is the name for the civilian branch of the national service systems in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Italy

Until 2004 conscription was mandatory to all able-bodied Italian males. Those who were born in the last months of the year typically used to serve in the Navy, unless judged unable for ship service (in this case they could be sent back to Army or Air Force). Until 1972, objectors were considered as traitors and tried by a military tribunal. Since 1972, objectors could choose an alternative civilian service, which was eight months longer than standard military service (15 months, then 12, as for Army and Air Force, 24 months, then 18, then 12 as for the Navy)[citation needed]. Since such length was judged too punitive, an arrangement was made to make the civilian service as long as the military service. Since 2004, Italian males no longer need to object because military service has been turned into volunteer for both males and females. Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Treason (disambiguation) or Traitor (disambiguation). ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Civilian service is service to a government made as a civilian, particularly such service as an option for anti-militarists and pacifists who object to military service. ...


Africa and the Middle East

South Africa

During the 1980s, hundreds[26] of South African "white" males dodged the draft, refused the call-up or objected to conscription in the South African Defence Force. Some simply deserted, or joined organisations such as the End Conscription Campaign, an anti-war movement banned in 1988, while others fled into exile and joined the Committee on South African War Resistance. Most lived in a state of internal exile, forced to go underground within the borders of the country until a moratorium on conscription was declared in 1993. Opposition to the Angolan War, "South Africa's Vietnam," was rife in English-speaking campuses, and later the war in the townships became the focus of these groupings. South African resistance to war has a long tradition, and a history that includes conscientious objectors, pacifists, deserters and draft dodgers, as well as those whose objections are based upon the notion of just war as opposed to unjust or illegal war. ... The South African Defence Force (SADF) were the South African armed forces from 1957 until 1994. ... The End Conscription Campaign was an anti-apartheid organisation of conscientious objectors in South Africa. ... The Committee on South African War Resistance (COSAWR), an organisation of exiled conscientious objectors, pacifists, anti-militerists and deserters from the SADF, was formed in the aftermath of South Africa’s invasion of Angola in 1975 and the Soweto uprising the following year. ... Combatants Republic of Angola, Republic of Cuba, SWAPO, USSR, East Germany, Republic of Zambia Republic of South Africa, UNITA Scope of operations Operational Area: The South African Border War The South African Border War refers to the conflict that took place from 1966 to 1989 in South-West Africa (now...


Turkey

The issue is highly controversial in Turkey. Turkey and Azerbaijan are the only two countries refusing to recognize conscientious objection and sustain their membership in the Council of Europe. In January 2006, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found Turkey had violated article 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights (prohibition of degrading treatment) in a case dealing with conscientious objection.[27] In 2005, Mehmet Tarhan was sentenced to four years in a military prison as a conscientious objector (he was unexpectedly released in March 2006). Journalist Perihan Magden was tried by a Turkish court for supporting Tarhan and advocating conscientious objection as a human right; but later, she was acquitted. Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 5 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General Terry Davis  -  President of the Parliamentary Assembly Rene van der Linden... European Court of Human Rights building in Strasbourg The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), often referred to informally as the Strasbourg Court, was created to systematise the hearing of human rights complaints against States Parties to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, adopted by... Mehmet Tarhan (born 1978) is a gay anarchist and a conscientious objector who was imprisoned for refusing military service in Turkey. ... Perihan Magden (born 1960) is a Turkish writer of prose and poetry and a columnist for the newspaper Radikal. ...


Israel

Israel has a long history of individuals and groups refusing military service. Such acts are recorded since the state's foundation in 1948, but during the country's first decades involved mainly a few isolated individuals, usually of a pacifist persuasion, due to pervasive public feeling that the country was fighting for its survival and that the IDF was a "Defense Force" in fact as well as in name. Some left-wingers, especially communists, refused to take part in the 1956 Sinai War, which they perceived as an Israeli alliance with a last effort by Britain and France to keep a colonial hold over Egypt, but this remained a small-scale, isolated phenomenon.[citation needed] Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes or gaining advantage. ... Emblem of the IDF The Israel Defense Forces are part of the Israeli Security Forces. ... This article is about communism as a form of society, as an ideology advocating that form of society, and as a popular movement. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Suez Crisis, also known as the Suez War, Suez Campaign or Kadesh Operation was a war fought on Egyptian territory in 1956. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ...


The view of the IDF as an army of defense came into serious question only following the occupation of the West Bank and Gaza Strip in 1967, when the army took up the job of keeping a sizable Palestinian population under Israeli rule by force, often involving what were perceived by a considerable number of Israelis as violations of human rights. Moreover, a growing amount of the troops' time and energy was devoted to the safeguarding of an increasing number of settlements erected on formerly Palestinian land acquired in ways which many in the Israeli society considered highly questionable. Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Map of Israeli settlements (magenta) in the West Bank. ...


The invasion of Lebanon in 1982 was launched with the proclaimed goal of "creating a new order in the Middle East"[citation needed] and without a visible existential threat to Israel, precipitated a mass anti-war movement (comparable in many ways to the American movement against the Vietnam War) of which a major component was an organised movement by thousands of soldiers (especially reserve soldiers) refusing service in Lebanon. This movement was continued during the First Intifada, the Second Intifada and the Second Lebanon War of 2006, and has become a permanent feature of Israeli social and political life up to the present. Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Combatants  Israel Unified National Leadership ot the Uprising Commanders Yitzhak Shamir Yasser Arafat Casualties 160 (5 children) 1,162 (241 children) The First Intifada (1987 - 1993) (also intifada and war of the stones) was a mass Palestinian uprising against Israeli rule[1] that began in Jabalia refugee camp and quickly... For other uses, see al-Aqsa (disambiguation). ... Combatants Hezbollah Amal LCP  Israel Commanders Hassan Nasrallah (Secretary General of Hezbollah) Imad Mughniyeh (Commander of Hezbollahs armed wing)[5] Dan Halutz (CoS) Moshe Kaplinsky[12] Udi Adam (Regional) Strength 600-1,000 active fighters 3,000-10,000 reservists[6] 30,000 ground troops (plus IAF & ISC)[13... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


While some of the individuals and groups involved fit with the definition of conscientious objection common in other countries, the phenomenon of "selective refusal," soldiers who remain in the army but refuse particular orders or postings, especially to Lebanon or the Occupied Territories, seems more widespread in Israel than anywhere else. A longstanding debate continues, of which there is no definitive conclusion, on whether or not this constitutes conscientious objection in a strict sense or should be treated as a separate phenomenon.

Further information: Refusal to serve in the Israeli military and Israeli peace camp

Refusal to serve in the Israeli military includes both refusal to obey specific orders and refusal to serve in the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) in any capacity due to pacifistic or antimilitaristic views or disagreement with the policies of the Israeli government as implemented by the army. ... The Israeli peace camp is a collection of political and non-political movements which desire to promote peace, mainly with the Arab neighbours of Israel (the Palestinians, Syria and Lebanon) and encourage co-existence with the Arab citizens of Israel. ...

Other Countries

As of 2005, COs in several countries may serve as field paramedics in the army (although some do not consider this a genuine alternative, as they feel it merely helps to make war more humane instead of preventing it). Alternatively, they may serve without arms, although this, too, has its problems. In certain European countries such as Austria, Germany, Greece and Switzerland, there is the option of performing Civilian Service, subject to the review of a written application or after a hearing about the state of conscience (see below). In Greece, Civilian Service is twice as long as the corresponding military service and in Switzerland, the Civilian Service is one-half times longer. In 2005, the Swiss parliament considered whether willingness to serve one and a half times longer than an army recruit was sufficient proof of sincerity, citing that the cost of judging the state of conscience of a few thousand men per year was too great. Civilian service is a Swiss institution, created in 1996 as an alternative to military service. ...


Hearings about the state of the conscience

In the United States, military personnel who come to a conviction of conscientious objection during their tour of duty must appear in front of a panel of experts, which consists of psychiatrists, military chaplains and officers. In Switzerland, the panel consists entirely of civilians, and military personnel have no authority whatsoever. In Germany, objections to military service are filed in writing, and an oral hearing is scheduled only if the written testimonials have been unconvincing; in practice, due to the heavy workload—about half of all draftees in a given year file as conscientious objectors—the competent authority reviews written applications only summarily, and it denies the alternative of a civilian service only in cases of grave shortcomings or inconsistencies in the written testimonials. Commonly, once an objector is summoned to a hearing, he has to explain what experiences drove him to recognize a conflict concerning his conscience.


Common questions at hearings

  • In general: How and when did you decide against the military service? Why can't you arrange military service with your conscience? What prohibits you from serving in the military?
  • Military service: Do you fear having to fight, or to use force? Do you want to abolish the army? What do you think about the phrase "We have the army to defend us, not to kill others?"
  • Use of force: What would you do if you were attacked? What do you feel when you see that others are attacked? What is violence, exactly? Would you rather experience losses than having to use force?
  • Belief: What does your belief say? Would you describe yourself as a pacifist? What basic values, besides objecting to violence, do you have? What entity gives you the certainty that your thinking and your feelings are right?
  • Implementation of your beliefs: Why didn't you choose to go into prison if your conscience is that strong? Why didn't you use medical reasons to avoid military service? What do you actually do to further peace, or is your attitude the only peaceful thing about you?
  • Personality: Who is in charge of defending your children in case of an armed conflict? Do you live your ethical principles inside your family? What books do you read? What do you demand from yourself? Are you merely a leader, a follower or a loner?

These are common questions from Swiss hearings.[28] By and large, these are asked in many other countries. They help to determine if the objector is politically motivated or if he is just too lazy to serve the country; or if he truly has a conflict stemming from his conscience. Arguments like "The army is senseless," "It is not just to wage wars," or opposition to involvement in a specific war (World War II, the Vietnam War, the Iraq War; a hypothetical war of West Germany against fellow Germans from the GDR during the Cold War) will hardly ever be accepted. He has only, and convincingly, to show that his conscience does not allow participation in an organisation which is intended to use violence. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


Criticism of such hearings

Hypothetical situations

In hearings about one's personal conflicts of conscience, certain subtleties may arise. One example from interrogations in Germany is about a plank of wood floating on the sea, and you, shipwrecked, need cling to it in order to save your life. Another person swims nearby and he also is in need of this plank. If you deny him the plank, you are, according to the interrogators ready to accept the death of a fellow human being, and therefore able to serve in the military. Otherwise, if you are willing to allow the other person use of the plank you are willing to die and therefore not credible.


In other examples, the interviewers would ask if one was ready to kill in self-defense or in the defense of a friend or family member or why one had not revoked their driver's license, for driving carries a risk of accidentally killing someone.


In Britain during World War I, there was an argument put forth by a conscientious objector of note. He asked the people who were part of the tribunal if they were Christian, when they all replied in the positive he then remarked, "Could you imagine Christ in khaki running out into no-mans land?" None of the panelists could, and the man was given total exemption due to 'religious beliefs'.[29] “The Great War ” redirects here. ... This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ...


In various places, questions about such hypothetical situations have come into disuse because they do not explore the present-day state of the objector's conflict of conscience, but possible future actions which, with a great probability, will never take place. In the 1980s, these types of questions were abolished in Germany after the Federal Constitutional Court found them unconstitutional.[citation needed] The Bundesverfassungsgericht The Federal Constitutional Court (in German: Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) is a special court established by the German constitutional document, the Grundgesetz (Basic Law). ...


Similar hearings and questions about hypothetical situations were in use in Finland for most of the history of Finnish conscientious objection, from its introduction in the 1930s to the 1980s, when they were abolished. Today, draftees have to specify whether they are objecting for religious or ethical reasons by marking the appropriate checkbox on a form, but hearings are no longer held. If conscripts turn into conscientious objectors during their service, the Defense Force will inquire of their reasons for internal research purposes, but the objectors are not required to answer unless they wish to do so. Usually, a conscientious objector will be released from the military within a few hours of making the claim.


See also

Wikisource has original text related to this article:

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... American Friends Service Committee logo The American Friends Service Committee (AFSC) is a Religious Society of Friends (Quaker) affiliated organization which works for social justice, peace and reconciliation, abolition of the death penalty, and human rights, and provides humanitarian relief. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amnesty international Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience... The Baptist Peace Fellowship of North America (BPFNA) is an organization of Baptist Christians for uniting in efforts for peace throughout the world. ... Medical Cadet Corps The Medical Cadet Corps is an organization based on the beliefs and doctrines of the Seventh-day Adventist Church (Adventist church). ... The Central Committee for Conscientious Objectors (CCCO) is a United States organization founded in 1948 and dedicated to helping people avoid or escape military enlistment. ... Christian anarchism is any of several traditions which combine anarchism with Christianity. ... Peace churches are Christian churches, groups or communities advocating pacifism. ... The Center on Conscience & War (CCW) is a United States non-profit anti-war organization dedicated to defending and extending the rights of conscientious objectors. ... See also Conscientious objection and Conscription. ... Conscientious objection to military taxation (COMT) is a legal theory that attempts to extend the concessions to conscientious objectors that many governments allow in the case of conscription to the realm of taxation — thereby allowing conscientious objectors to insist that their tax payments not be spent on the military. ... The United States has employed conscription (mandatory military service, also called the draft) several times, usually during war but also during the nominal peace of the Cold War. ... The Fellowship of Reconciliation (FoR or FOR) is the name used by a number of religious nonviolent organizations, particularly in English-speaking countries. ... The Friends Ambulance Unit was a volunteer ambulance service, founded by British Quakers, and mostly staffed by conscientious objectors, that operated from 1914-1919, 1939-1946 and 1946-1959 in twenty-five countries around the world. ... The following is a list of military personnel who have refused to serve in the Iraq War, broadly categorized by the reasons they themselves give. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes or gaining advantage. ... Peace churches are Christian churches, groups or communities advocating pacifism. ... An Australian anti-conscription poster from World War One A peace movement is a social movement that seeks to achieve ideals such as the ending of a particular war (or all wars), minimize inter-human violence in a particular place or type of situation, often linked to the goal of... Refusal to serve in the Israeli military includes both refusal to obey specific orders and refusal to serve in the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) in any capacity due to pacifistic or antimilitaristic views or disagreement with the policies of the Israeli government as implemented by the army. ... A tax resister resists or refuses payment of a tax because of opposition to the institution collecting the tax, or to some of that institution’s policies. ... The War Resisters League (WRL) was formed in 1923 by men and women who had opposed World War I. It is a section of the London-based War Resisters’ International. ... Parisi v. ... The Long Watch is a science fiction short story by Robert A. Heinlein. ...

References

  • Gillette v. U.S. 401 U.S. 437 (1971), [4]
  • Selective Service, "Conscientious Objection and Alternative Service: Who Qualifies", [5]
  • Bennett, Scott H. (2005). Army GI, Pacifist CO: The World War II Letters of Frank and Albert Dietrich (Fordham Univ. Press).
  • Bennett, Scott H. (2003). Radical Pacifism: The War Resisters League and Gandhian Nonviolence in America, 1915-1963. (Syracuse Univ. Press).
  • Keim, Albert N. (1990). The CPS Story: An Illustrated History of Civilian Public Service, pp. 75-79. Good Books. ISBN 1-56148-002-9
  • Gingerich, Melvin (1949), Service for Peace, A History of Mennonite Civilian Public Service, Mennonite Central Committee.
  • Hallock, Dan The Martyrs of Alcatraz; Religious Persecution in the Land of the Free, Bruderhoff Communities, retrieved 2006-01-05.
  • Krahn, Cornelius, Gingerich, Melvin & Harms, Orlando (Eds.) (1955). The Mennonite Encyclopedia, Volume I, pp. 76-78. Mennoniite Publishing House.
  • Mock, Melanie Springer (2003). Writing Peace: The Unheard Voices of Great War Mennonite Objectors, Cascadia Publishing House. ISBN 1-931038-09-0
  • Pannabecker, Samuel Floyd (1975), Open Doors: A History of the General Conference Mennonite Church, Faith and Life Press. ISBN 0-87303-636-0
  • Quakers in Britain — Conscientious Objectors.
  • Smith, C. Henry (1981). Smith's Story of the Mennonites. Newton, Kansas: Faith and Life Press, 299-300, 311. ISBN 0-87303-069-9. 
  • Spartacus Education Pacifism page.
  • Rick Tejada-Flores, Judith Ehrlich (2000), "The good war and those who refused to fight it" [videorecording]; Paradigm Productions in association with the Independent Television Service, aired on PBS.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Gillette v. United States, 401 U.S. 437
  2. ^ Selective Service
  3. ^ Gingerich p. 2.
  4. ^ Gingerich p. 3.
  5. ^ Gingerich p. 4.
  6. ^ Gingerich p. 10.
  7. ^ Gingerich p. 11.
  8. ^ Mock.
  9. ^ Hallock.
  10. ^ Gingerich p. 147.
  11. ^ Gingerich p. 213.
  12. ^ Gingerich pp. 77-78.
  13. ^ Gingerich p. 452.
  14. ^ Pannabacker pp. 260-269.
  15. ^ Smith, p. 321. This was overturned in the 1920s, allowing immigrants to escape Soviet repression.
  16. ^ Gingerich p. 420.
  17. ^ Krahn, pp. 76-78.
  18. ^ Smith, p. 311.
  19. ^ The decree was issued in October 1918. Smith, p. 329.
  20. ^ Braun, Abraham, Th. Block and Lawrence Klippenstein (1989). Forsteidienst, Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online. Retrieved 2006-11-07, from http://www.gameo.org/encyclopedia/contents/F6717ME.html.
  21. ^ Smith, p. 330.
  22. ^ Bernd Eisenfeld: Das Verhältnis der Partei- und Staatsführung der DDR zu den Bausoldaten a) die agitatorische Diskriminierung der Bausoldaten b) die substantielle Diskriminierung der Bausoldaten. Pp. 115-125. in: Kriegsdienstverweigerung in der DDR - ein Friedensdienst? Genesis, Befragung, Analyse, Dokumente. 190 Seiten + Anhang. Hrsg. Haag + Herchen, Frankfurt 1978. ISBN 3-88129-158-X. In German
  23. ^ [ * Sergej Kaledin: Das Baubataillon.Übersetzung der russischen Originalausgabe "Strojbat" (1991). Verlag Volk & Welt. Berlin 1992. ISBN 3-353-00927-2. In German
  24. ^ Quakers in Britain.
  25. ^ Spartacus Education Pacifism page.
  26. ^ The National Registry of Conscientious Objectors launched in 1989, listed some 700 plus objectors for that year alone. Source: Argus, Thursday, September 21, 1989
  27. ^ "Chamber Judgement Ulke vs. Turkey" , Accessed June 7, 2006.
  28. ^ Beratungsstelle für Militärverweigerung und Zivildienst.
  29. ^ The anecdote is represented in, or is coming from Cronin's 1935 novel The Stars Look Down.

Archibald Joseph Cronin (July 19, 1896–January 6, 1981) was a Scottish novelist, dramatist, and nonfiction writer who was one of the most renowned storytellers of the twentieth century. ... The Stars Look Down is a novel by A. J. Cronin, initially published in 1935. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
conscientious objector: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (6940 words)
The problem of conscientious objectors, although present in different forms since the beginning of the Christian era, became acute in World Wars I and II because of the urgent demands for manpower of the warring governments.
Most were successful in gaining conscientious objector status for their clients, who were normally ordered to perform an alternative service of two years of low-paying work in the public sector in a location beyond commuting distance from home.
A conscientious objector (CO) is an individual following the religious, moral or ethical dictates of his or her conscience that are incompatible with being a combatant in military service, or being part of the armed forces as a combatant organization.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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