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Encyclopedia > Conquistadors

Conquistador (Spanish: kōn-kē-stŏ-dōr) (meaning "Conqueror" in the Spanish language) is the term used to refer to the soldiers, explorers, and adventurers who brought much of the Americas and Asia Pacific under Spanish colonial rule between the 15th and 17th centuries, starting with the 1492 settlement established in modern-day Cuba by Christopher Columbus. This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ... World map showing the Americas The Americas commonly refers to the landmass in the Western Hemisphere consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Map of the Pacific Rim and List of the Pacific Rim Nations The Pacific Rim is a political and economic term used to designate the countries on the edges of the Pacific Ocean, as well as the various island nations within the region. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... 1492 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Christopher Columbus (October 30, 1451? – 20 May 1506) was an explorer and trader who crossed the Atlantic Ocean and reached the Americas on October 12, 1492 under the flag of Castile. ...

Contents


Background

The leaders of Spanish expeditions to the New World called themselves conquistadores, a name expressing the similarity of conquests in the New World to the recently accomplished reconquista, the Christian crusades to conquer or (re)conquer the Iberian peninsula from the Muslim Moors, recently sealed with the conquest of Granada, 1492). The conquistadors also invoked the name of Santiago Matamoros ("St James the Moor-killer") before going into battle against the native population of the Americas, who were considered without rights as long as they were "pagan" not converted to Catholicism: their lands were annexed as belonging to Christendom with papal blessing, the only rival claim to be taken seriously was that of the Portuguese, settled after papal arbitration in the Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494. Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, c. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Christianity is a monotheistic religion centered on the life, teachings, and actions of Jesus of Nazareth, known by Christians as Jesus Christ, as recounted in the New Testament. ... topographic map of the Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم is an adherent of Islam. ... The Moors were the medieval Muslim inhabitants of al-Andalus (the Iberian Peninsula including the present day Spain and Portugal) and the Maghreb, whose culture is often called Moorish. A usual misconception is to relate them to the inhabitants of modern day Mauritania to which they are only related by... Granada is a city and the capital of the province of Granada, in the community of Andalusia, Spain. ... 1492 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For people and places called Saint James, see the diambiguation page. ... It has been suggested that Sexual Victimization of Native American Women be merged into this article or section. ... Pagan may refer to: A believer in Paganism or Neopaganism. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... There are English source documents for or relating to this article that could be added to Wikipedias sister project, Wikisource. ... 1494 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Many conquistadores were poor, including some nobles (hidalgos) seeking a fortune in the West Indies, since there were limited prospects in Europe, the Crusades having ended. Hispanic honor rules for nobility banned them from manual work. An hidalgo or fidalgo was a member of the lower Spanish nobility. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Honor (or honor) comprises the reputation, self-perception or moral identity of an individual or of a group. ...


Some were also fleeing the religious repression caused by the Spanish Inquisition. Pedro Berruguete. ...


History

New World

Hernán Cortés, Conquistador of the Aztec Empire
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Hernán Cortés, Conquistador of the Aztec Empire

The first Spanish conquest in the Americas was the island of Hispaniola (presently shared by Haiti and the Dominican Republic). From there, Juan Ponce de León conquered Puerto Rico and Diego Velázquez took Cuba. The first settlement on the mainland was Darién in Panama, settled by Vasco Núñez de Balboa in 1512. As these Caribbean regions proved no great treasury or endless supply of priceless spices, the 'disappointment' motivated further exploration, rather than a serious effort to make the best of the 'virgin' colonies, a foretaste of monumental economic mismanagement. Download high resolution version (424x640, 44 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (424x640, 44 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Americas (sometimes referred to as America) is the area including the land mass located between the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean, generally divided into North America and South America. ... Early map of Hispaniola The island of Hispaniola (from Spanish, La Española) is the second-largest island of the Antilles, lying east of Cuba. ... Hi ... Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar (1465 – 1524) was a Spanish conquistador. ... Darién can also refer to places in Panama: Darién Province The town of Darién, founded by Vasco Núñez de Balboa. ... Headline text Vasco Núñez de Balboa Vasco Núñez de Balboa (c. ... 1512 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The first immensely successful conquistador was Hernán Cortés. Between 1520 and 1521, Cortés, along with some Native American allies, conquered the mighty Aztec empire, thus bringing present day Mexico under the dominion of the Spanish empire, as New Spain. Of comparable importance was the conquest of the South American Inca Empire by Francisco Pizarro. Both were helped by smallpox and other European plagues that weakened the native populations. The diseases also killed the current leader of the Inca at the time facilitating the war that Pizarro walked into upon his arrival. Both Pizarro and Cortés massacred droves of Incan and Aztec in an effort to frighten and terrorize the populations, which was not successful in either case. Combined with far greater forces of native allies, Cortés' forces managed to besiege the Aztec capital city and destroy it. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... mary elline m. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... It has been suggested that Sexual Victimization of Native American Women be merged into this article or section. ... Sculpture commemorating the moment when Aztecs found the sign for Tenochtitlan foundation place given by Huitzilopochtli. ... Spain created the earliest of global empires. ... Flag of New Spain Viceroyalty of New Spain (Spanish: Nueva España) was the name given to one of the viceroy-ruled territories of the Spanish Empire from 1525 to 1821. ... A view of Machu Picchu, the Lost City of the Incas, now an archaeological site. ... Francisco Pizarro ( 1475–June 26, 1541) was a Spanish conquistador, conqueror of the Inca Empire and founder of the city of Lima, the modern-day capital of Peru. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a highly contagious disease unique to humans. ... In epidemiology, an epidemic (from Greek epi- upon + demos people) is a disease that appears as new cases in a given human population, during a given period, at a rate that substantially exceeds what is expected, based on recent experience (the number of new cases in the population during a...

Francisco Pizarro. Conquistador of the Inca Empire
Francisco Pizarro. Conquistador of the Inca Empire

Rumours of golden cities (Cíbola in North America and "El Dorado" in South America) caused several more expeditions to leave for the Americas, but many returned without finding any gold, finding less gold than expected, or finding Fool's Gold. The ransom that Sapa Inca Atahualpa paid Pizarro for his freedom, was taken back to Spain, leading to additional Conquistador expeditions in South America and the Pacific. Francisco Pizarro, This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Francisco Pizarro, This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... // The origin of the legend Quivira and Cíbola are two of the fantastic Seven Cities of Gold existing only in a myth that originated around the year 1150 when the Moors conquered Mérida, Spain. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... El Dorado (Spanish for the gilded one) is a legend that began with the story of a South American tribal chief who covered himself with gold dust. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, is iron disulfide, FeS2. ... Sapa Inca is the title of the ruler of the Inca Empire. ... Atahualpa, the 13th and last Inca emperor Atahualpa (Quechua Atawallpa or Ataw Wallpa, literally happiness fowl, a totemic bird) (c. ...


Emboldened by the seemingly endless rising imports of silver and gold the Spanish Habsburg imperial rule became uncompromising, leading to the unwise use of the crown's share of the colonial proceeds that would bankrupt a constantly overstretched Spain, repeatedly. The influx of precious metal also caused towering inflation in Europe (particularly in Spain), thereby undermining the domestic economy (which was the main source of revenue), greatly contributing to the ultimate loss of the war against Protestant rebels and Catholic France, and, finally, after a long, slow, decline, led to the loss of imperial prominence to its northern rivals. Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Used generally to describe a series of economic events from the second half of the 15th century to the first half of the 17th, the price revolution refers most specifically to the high rate of inflation that characterized the period across Western Europe, with prices on average rising perhaps sixfold...


The Spanish Conquest in Asia - Pacific

The discovery of the Strait of Magellan in 1520 by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan in the tip of South America led to Spanish interest in the Pacific. The first of the Conquistadors to sail the vast Pacific Ocean was Miguel López de Legazpi in 1564 and arrived in the Philippine archipelago on 1565. Legazpi and his men destroyed the native settlements and conquered the islands for Spain. This paved the way for Spanish settlements in the Pacific. The Strait of Magellan, near Punta Arenas The Strait of Magellan is a navigable route immediately south of mainland South America. ... mary elline m. ... Ferdinand Magellan (Portuguese: Fernão de Magalhães, IPA pronunciation: //; Spanish: Fernando or Hernando de Magallanes; Spring 1480–April 27, 1521[1]) was a Portuguese maritime explorer who led the first successful attempt to circumnavigate the Earth. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ... [[Image:http://www. ... Miguel López de Legazpi (b. ... Events March 27 — Naples bans kissing in public under the penalty of death June 22 — Fort Caroline, the first French attempt at colonizing the New World September 10 — The Battle of Kawanakajima Ottoman Turks invade Malta Modern pencil becomes common in England Conquistadors crossed the Pacific Spanish founded a colony... Events March 1 - the city of Rio de Janeiro is founded April 27 - Cebu City is established becoming the first Spanish settlement in the Philippines. ...


Debate on the Human Rights of Natives

Most of the conquistadores cruelly mistreated the inhabitants of the regions they visited or conquered; killing, enslaving, raping and otherwise abusing them. Some Spaniards, notably the priest Bartolomé de Las Casas, defended Native Americans against the abuses of conquistadores. In 1542, Bartolomé de las Casas published A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies (Brevísima relación de la destrucción de las Indias). His account is largely responsible for the passage of the new Spanish colonial laws known as the New Laws of 1542, which was used in an attempt to protect the rights of Native inhabitants (the governor and men sent to enforce them were killed by rebellious conquistadores). In 1615, Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala sent the 1200 page New Chronicle and Good Government (El primer nueva corónica i buen gobierno) to the King of Spain. This was a history of the Incas, their conquest, and their mistreatment written by a former Inca noble who had a guilty conscience in his old age about helping the Conquistadores and wanted to inform the King of the problems. It was lost to history until 1908, when it was discovered in the personal library of the Royal house of Denmark. Bartolomé de Las Casas Bartolomé de Las Casas, O.P. (1474 – July 17, 1566) was a 16th century Spanish priest, and the first resident Bishop of Chiapas. ... It has been suggested that Sexual Victimization of Native American Women be merged into this article or section. ... Events War resumes between Francis I of France and Emperor Charles V. This time Henry VIII of England is allied to the Emperor, while James V of Scotland and Sultan Suleiman I are allied to the French. ... A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies (Spanish: Brevísima relación de la destrucción de las Indias) is an account written by friar Bartolomé de las Casas in 1552 about the mistreatment of American Indians in colonial times and sent to King Philip II of Spain. ... During the Spanish colonization of the Americas, the New Laws of 1542 were created to prevent the exploitation of the indigenous people by the encomenderos. ... Blasco Núñez Vela was the first Spanish viceroy of Peru Blasco Núñez Vela (1490 - 1546) was the first viceroy of Peru (1544–46). ... Events June 2 - First Récollet missionaries arrive at Quebec City, from Rouen, France. ... Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala, best known as Guaman Poma, (c. ... 1908 (MCMVIII) is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... A modern-style library in Chambéry In the traditional sense of the word, a library is a collection of books and periodicals. ...


Accounts of the behavior of Spanish Conquistadors from both inside and out were part of the source material for the stereotype of Spanish cruelty that came to be known as the Black Legend. The neutrality of this article is disputed. ...


List of Famous Conquistadores and Explorers

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Baja California (highlighted) Alternative use: Baja California (state) Baja California or Lower California is a peninsula in the west of Mexico. ... Francisco Pizarro ( 1475–June 26, 1541) was a Spanish conquistador, conqueror of the Inca Empire and founder of the city of Lima, the modern-day capital of Peru. ... Francisco Vásquez de Coronado (ca. ... Diego de Almagro Diego de Almagro (b. ... Headline text Vasco Núñez de Balboa Vasco Núñez de Balboa (c. ... Hi ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 22nd 170 451 km² 260 km 800 km 17. ... Pedro de Alvarado y Contreras (Badajoz, c. ... Events March 4 - Hernán Cortés lands in Mexico. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... Events April - Battle of Villalar - Forces loyal to Emperor Charles V defeat the Comuneros, a league of urban bourgeois rebelling against Charles in Spain. ... Events January 5 - Felix Manz, co-founder of the Swiss Anabaptists, was drowned in the Limmat River in Zürich by the Zürich Reformed state church. ... Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca (c. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Lucas Vásquez de Ayllón (1475? - 1526) Spanish explorer A licentiate and sugar planter on Hispaniola, Lucas Vásquez de Ayllón commanded six vessels with 500 colonists, supplies and livestock, sailing from Santo Domingo in mid-July, 1526. ... Sebastián de Belalcázar was a Spanish conquistador. ... Gonzalo Pizarro (b. ... Juan Pizarro (died 1536) was a Spanish conquistador who accompanied his brothers Francisco, Gonzalo, and Hernándo Pizarro for the conquest of Peru in 1532. ... Francisco Hernández de Córdoba (died 1517) was a Spanish conquistador, known to history mainly for the ill-fated expedition he led in 1517, in the course of which the Yucatán Peninsula was discovered by Europeans. ... Yucatán is the name of one of the 31 states of Mexico, located on the north of the Yucatán Peninsula. ... Martín de Goiti (b. ... Manilas President Manuel Roxas Boulevard also known as the Baywalk Manila (Filipino: Maynila) is the capital of the Philippines. ... Hernándo Pizarro (1508-1608?) was a Spanish conquistador and one of the Pizarro brothers who ruled over Peru. ... Juan de Grijalva (born around 1489 in Cuéllar - January 21, 1527) was a Spanish conquistador. ... The Yucatán Peninsula separates the Caribbean Sea from the Gulf of Mexico. ... Oil portrait of Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada (unknown artist, Museo Nacional da Colombia, Bogota) GONZALO JIMENEZ QUESADA Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada (1509–1579) was a Spanish explorer and conquistador in Colombia. ... Miguel López de Legazpi (b. ... Francisco de Montejo (c. ... The Yucatán Peninsula separates the Caribbean Sea from the Gulf of Mexico. ... Events January 5 - Felix Manz, co-founder of the Swiss Anabaptists, was drowned in the Limmat River in Zürich by the Zürich Reformed state church. ... // Events Spanish conquest of Yucatan Peace between England and France Foundation of Trinity College, Cambridge by Henry VIII of England Katharina von Bora flees to Magdeburg Science Architecture Michelangelo Buonarroti is made chief architect of St. ... Juan de Salcedo (b. ... Nikolaus Federmann (1501–1542) was a German adventurer in Venezuela and Colombia. ... Pánfilo de Narváez (1470 – 1528) was a Spanish conqueror and soldier in the Americas. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 22nd 170 451 km² 260 km 800 km 17. ... Diego de Nicuesa was a Spanish conquistador and explorer. ... Cristóbal de Olid (1492-1542) was a Spanish adventurer, conquistador and rebel who played a part in the conquest of Mexico and Honduras. ... A Spanish postal stamp featuring Orellana Francisco de Orellana (c1500-c1549) was a Spanish explorer and conquistador. ... The Amazon River (occasionally River Amazon; Spanish: Río Amazonas, Portuguese: Rio Amazonas) of South America is one of the two longest rivers on Earth, the other being the Nile in Africa. ... Hernando de Soto Hernando de Sotò (born 1500? in Barcarrota, Spain, died 21 May 1542, probably on a branch of the Mississippi river near present-day Lake Village, Arkansas) was a Spanish navigator and conquistador. ... Inés de Suárez (1507(?) - 1580) was a Spanish conquistadora (female conquistador). ... Events The first official translation of the entire Bible in Swedish February 12 - Pedro de Valdivia founds Santiago de Chile. ... Martin de Ursua was a Spanish conquistador. ... El Petén is a department of the nation of Guatemala. ... The year 1696 had the earliest equinoxes and solstices for 400 years in the Gregorian calendar, because this year is a leap year and the Gregorian calendar would have behaved like the Julian calendar since March 1500 had it have been in use that long. ... Events September 20 - The Treaty of Ryswick December 2 – St Pauls Cathedral opened in London Peter the Great travels in Europe officially incognito as artilleryman Pjotr Mikhailov Use of palanquins increases in Europe Christopher Polhem starts Swedens first technical school. ... Pedro de Valdivia Pedro de Valdivia (c. ... Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar (1465 – 1524) was a Spanish conquistador. ... Don Pedro Menendez de Aviles Pedro Menendez de Aviles (born 1519 in Avilés, Spain, dead in Santander on September 17, 1574), was the first Spanish governor of Florida. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 22nd 170 451 km² 260 km 800 km 17. ...

See also

There lies Peru with its riches; Here, Panama and its poverty. ... Spanish conquest and colonization of the Americas began with the arrival in America of Christopher Columbus in 1492. ... The encomienda system was a trusteeship system used during the Spanish colonization of the Americas, whereby conquistadors were granted the towns of the indigenous people they conquered. ... The Repartimiento was a colonial labor system imposed upon the indigenous population of Spanish America. ... See also conquistador Spanish colonization of the Americas Encomienda This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ...

References

John Charles Chasteen, Born In Blood And Fire: Concise History of Latin America Summary of the history of Latin America.


"Conquistadors" in market-directed culture

Conquistadors were a featured unique unit for the Spanish civilization in the expansion to the computer game Age of Empires II; featured a scenario in which the player commands Spanish fleet against the Turkish armada, a reenactment of the Battle of Lepanto, they also appear in Civilization III Play the World in which the player commands Spanish crown in the times of Spanish colonization of the Americas. Also, they are an upgrade for Spanish explorers in Age of Empires III that can be sent from the home city (typically Seville). It allows the explorer to train more war dogs than normal and makes him stronger. Image File history File links This is a screenshot of a copyrighted computer game or video game. ... Image File history File links This is a screenshot of a copyrighted computer game or video game. ... Civilization III: Play the World, released in 2002, is the first expansion pack for Sid Meiers award winning Civilization III. Play the World not only brings back civilizations from the original game, but there is also a new multiplayer feature and new game modes including elimination, regicide, and capture... Motto: Plus Ultra (Latin: Further Beyond) Anthem: Marcha Real Capital Madrid Largest city Madrid Official language(s) Spanish1 Government King Pres. ... A computer game is a game composed of a computer-controlled virtual universe that players interact with in order to achieve a defined goal or set of goals. ... Age of Empires II: The Age of Kings (or simply Age of Kings) is a real-time strategy game set in the middle ages, released in 1999. ... Reenactors of the American Civil War Historical reenactment is an activity in which participants recreate some aspects of a historical event or period. ... Three battles have been known as the Battle of Lepanto: Battle of Lepanto (1499) during the Turkish-Venetian Wars Battle of Lepanto (1500) during the Turkish-Venetian Wars Battle of Lepanto (1571) defeat of the Turkish fleet An earlier battle near modern Lepanto was called the Battle of Naupactus (429... Civilization III: Play the World, released in 2002, is the first expansion pack for Sid Meiers award winning Civilization III. Play the World not only brings back civilizations from the original game, but there is also a new multiplayer feature and new game modes including elimination, regicide, and capture... The Coat of Arms of the King of Spain The Spanish monarchy, referred to as the Crown of Spain (Corona de España) in the Spanish Constitution of 1978, is the office of the King or Queen of Spain. ... Spanish conquest and colonization of the Americas began with the arrival in America of Christopher Columbus in 1492. ... Age of Empires III (AoE III) is the sequel to Age of Empires II and the third title of the history-based real-time strategy Age of Empires series of computer games. ... Seville (Spanish: Sevilla, see also different names) is the artistic, cultural, and financial capital of southern Spain, crossed by the river Guadalquivir (, ). It is the capital of Andalusia and of the province of Sevilla. ...


The Rock group Procol Harum had a hit single with a song called Conquistador. This was also the title of the Portuguese entry in the 1989 Eurovision Song Contest. Procol Harum Procol Harum is a British progressive rock band, formed in the early 1960s. ... Eurovision Song Contest logo. ...


Usage

According to WordCount.Org, "conquistdor" is the least used word in the English language behind "recrossed" and "workless."


  Results from FactBites:
 
Conquistador Magazine - The World of Spanish Horses (207 words)
Conquistador Magazine features the Andalusian and Lusitano from the Iberian Peninsula, the Peruvian Paso from the land of the Incas, the Paso Fino from the enchanted islands of the Caribbean and Colombia, Criollos from Argentina and Mangalarga Marchadores from Brazil, Aztecas from Mexico and the North American Spanish Mustangs and Barbs.
Conquistador Magazine is published in full color four times per year and enjoys the cooperation of many experts in the equine field.
Editorials cover the history, breeding, training, riding and equitation, equine art and culture related to these great horses, successors of the famous 15th century Jennet of Spain and Portugal.
Conquistadores - Way of the Conquistador (444 words)
A Conquistador is equally comfortable dining in the upper west side, laboring in the ghetto, or force marching through the wilderness.
A Conquistador understands that, within his circle of trust, blunt truth and clarity of purpose are the foundation for effective action but he knows that correcting the ignorance of fools is a fool's errand.
A Conquistador measures himself by the loyalty and love of his friends, the respect and adulation of his acquaintances, and the fear and animosity of his enemies.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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