FACTOID # 17: Though Rhode Island is the smallest state in total area, it has the longest official name: The State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Conquest of the Desert
History of Argentina
Pre-Columbian times
Indigenous peoples
Spanish rule
Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata
British invasions
An independent nation
May Revolution
Argentine War of Independence
Congress of Tucumán
Building a nation
Argentine Constitution of 1853
Conquest of the Desert
Generation of '80
Immigration in Argentina
The Age of Perón
Juan and Eva Perón
Montoneros and Triple A
Military government
Dirty War
Falklands/Malvinas War
Democracy and crisis
Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo
Trial of the Juntas
Carapintadas
The Argentinazo
Present day Argentina
Modern Argentina
Topical
Military history of Argentina
Timeline of Argentine history

The Conquest of the Desert (Spanish: Conquista del desierto) was a military campaign directed mainly by General Julio Argentino Roca in the 1870s, which established Argentine dominance over Patagonia, which was inhabited by indigenous peoples. This article is about the history of Argentina. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... Native Americans redirects here. ... Created in 1776, the Viceroyalty of La Plata (in Spanish, Virreinato del Río de la Plata) was the last and most shortlived viceroyalty created by Spain. ... The British invasions of the Río de la Plata (Spanish: Invasiones Inglesas al Río de la Plata) were a series of unsuccessful British attempts at military control of the Spanish colonies located around the Río de la Plata basin in South America, between 1806 and 1807, as... La Revolución de Mayo (the May Revolution) was the first attempt at independence in the Viceroyalty of the River Plate, which contains present-day Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay. ... The Argentine War of Independence was fought from 1814 to 1816 by Argentine forces under José de San Martín against realista forces loyal to the Spanish crown. ... The Congress of Tucumán was the representative assembly of the United Provinces of the River Plate formed in 1816, initially meeting in Tucumán. ... Cover of the original manuscript of the 1853 Constitution The Argentine Constitution of 1853 was the first constitution of Argentina, approved with the support of the governments of the provinces —though without that of the Buenos Aires Province, who remained separated of the Argentine Confederation until 1859, after the modification... The Generation of 80 (Spanish: Generación del 80) was the governing elite in Argentina from 1880 to 1916. ... Non-native population in Argentina, 1869–1991 There is a theory that the original inhabitants of Argentina were descendants of Asian peoples that crossed the Bering Land Bridge into North America and then, over thousands of years, reached the southern end of South America. ... Juan Domingo Perón (October 8, 1895 – July 1, 1974) was an Argentine soldier and politician, elected three times as President of Argentina and serving from 1946 to 1955 and from 1973 to 1974. ... María Eva Duarte de Perón (May 7, 1919 – July 26, 1952) was the second wife of Argentine President Juan Domingo Perón (1895–1974) and the First Lady of Argentina from 1946 until her death in 1952. ... Official logo of Montoneros The Movimiento Peronista Montonero was an Argentinian radical leftist nationalist-catholic guerrilla group, active during the 1970s. ... The Alianza Anticomunista Argentina (Argentine Anticommunist Alliance, usually known as Triple A or AAA) was a far-right death squad active in Argentina during the mid-1970s, linked to the military junta led by Jorge Rafael Videla. ... Jorge Rafael Videla, first president of the Proceso Proceso de Reorganización Nacional (Spanish, National Reorganization Process, often simply Proceso) was the name given by its leaders to the dictatorial regime that ruled Argentina from 1976 to 1983. ... Poster by the Madres de la Plaza de Mayo NGO with photos of disappeared. This article especially refers to the Argentine dirty war; however, the term has been used in other contexts, for example in Morocco; see also lead years. ... Combatants Argentina United Kingdom Commanders President Leopoldo Galtieri Vice-Admiral Juan Lombardo Brigadier-General Ernesto Crespo Brigade-General Mario Menéndez Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher Admiral Sir John Fieldhouse Rear-Admiral John “Sandy” Woodward Major-General Jeremy Moore Casualties 649 killed 1,068 wounded 11,313 taken prisoner 75 fixed... The white shawl of the Mothers, painted on the floor in Plaza de Mayo, Buenos Aires. ... The Juicio a las Juntas (Spanish, Trial of the Juntas) was the judicial trial of the members of the de facto military government that ruled Argentina during the dictatorship of the Proceso de Reorganización Nacional, which lasted from 1976 to 1983. ... The Carapintadas (Spanish: Painted Faces) were a group of mutineers in the Argentine Army, who took part in uprisings during the presidency of Raúl Alfonsín in Argentina. ... The December 2001 riots were a period of civil unrest and rioting in Argentina, which took place during December 2001, with the most violent incidents taking place on December 19 and December 20 in the capital, Buenos Aires. ... For other uses, see Argentina (disambiguation). ... This article is in need of attention. ... This is a timeline of Argentine history. ... Alejo Julio Argentino Roca Paz (July 17, 1843 - October 19, 1914) was an army general who served as President of Argentina from 12 October 1880 to 12 October 1886 and again from 12 October 1898 to 12 October 1904. ... Patagonia, as most commonly defined (in orange). ... Native Americans redirects here. ...


Jens Andermann has noted that the contemporary sources on campaign indicate that it was a genocide by the Argentine government against the indigenous tribes.[1] Others perceive the campaign as intending to suppress specifically those groups of aboriginals that refused to submit to the white government and carried out attacks on the white and mestizo civilian settlements.[2] This recent argument – usually summarized as "Civilization or Genocide?"[3]– questions whether the Conquest of the Desert was really intended to exterminate the aboriginals. Native Americans redirects here. ... Central New York City. ... Genocide is the deliberate and systematic destruction of an ethnic or national group. ...

Contents

Background

The arrival of the Spanish colonists on the shores of the Río de la Plata and the foundation of the city of Buenos Aires during the 16th century led directly to the first confrontations between the Spanish and the local aboriginal tribes, mainly the Pampas. The Spanish colonization of the Americas began with the arrival in the Western Hemisphere of Christopher Columbus (Cristóbal Colón) in 1492. ... Río de la Plata in relation to Uruguay and Argentina A satellite view of the estuary The Río de la Plata (Spanish: Silver River) — which is often referred to in English-speaking countries as the River Plate (as in the Battle of the River Plate), or sometimes as... For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ...


The Buenos Aires hinterland was acquired (some would say "stolen") from the aboriginies to be used for cattle raising, which also displaced most of the animals hunted by the aboriginal people. The natives responded by liberating cows and horses from the farms and, in retaliation, the European colonists built fortresses and defended their assets from the attack of the frequent aboriginal malones. For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Malon(es) were raids conducted by some indian tribes of Argentina. ...


The line dividing the colonial farms and the free territories moved outwards from Buenos Aires; at the end of the 18th century the Salado River (Buenos Aires) became the limit between both civilizations. Many aboriginals were forced to abandon their tribes to work at the farms and mixed with the white population; this is the way the gauchos were born. The Salado River at the north of the Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, begins at the El Chañar Lake on the border with Santa Fe Province, 40 meters above mean sea level, to later flow mostly to the Southeast for 640 kilometres before reaching the Atlantic Ocean at the Samboromb... For other uses, see Gaucho (disambiguation). ...


After the independence in 1816 there were many internal political conflicts between the provinces, but once settled there was certain urgency effectively occupy the lands claimed by the young republic, as well as increase the national production and incentive the immigration offering new lands. 1816 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


In 1833 coordinated offensives by Juan Manuel de Rosas in Buenos Aires Province and other military leaders in the Cuyo region attempted to exterminate resistant tribes, but only Rosas had any success. General de Rosas Juan Manuel de Rosas (born Juan Manuel José Domingo Ortiz de Rozas y López de Osornio, 1793-1877) was a conservative Argentine politician who ruled Argentina from 1829 to 1852. ... Cuyo is the name given to the wine-producing, mountainous area of north-west Argentina, comprising the provinces of San Juan, San Luis and Mendoza. ...


By the time Chile founded Punta Arenas in Magellan Strait in 1845, threatening the Argentine claims in Patagonia. Later in 1861 Chile begun the occupation of the Araucanía which alarmed Argentine authorities about Chile's growing influence in the zone. The now defeated Mapuches in Chile had strong ties to the nomadic tribes in the east side of the Andes, they even speak the same language. City of Punta Arenas Punta Arenas in Tierra del Fuego Sunrise view of the Strait of magellan Punta Arenas is the main city on the Strait of Magellan and the capital of the Región de Magallanes y la Antártica Chilena, Chile, and depending on the definition of city... The Strait of Magellan, near Punta Arenas The Strait of Magellan is a navigable route immediately south of mainland South America. ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Patagonia, as most commonly defined (in orange). ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Map showing the old and the new frontier established by 1870 The Occupation of the Araucania (1861-1883) were a series of military campaigns, agreements and penetration by the Chilean Army and settlers that lead to the incorporation of the Araucanía to the national territory. ... Mapuche test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator Mapuche (Mapudungun; Che, People + Mapu, of the Land) are the Indigenous inhabitants of Central and Southern Chile and Southern Argentina. ... The Araucanization (Spanish: Araucanización) was the process of expansion of Mapuche culture and language into the patagonic plains. ... This article is about the mountain system in South America. ... The Araucanization (Spanish: Araucanización) was the process of expansion of Mapuche culture and language into the patagonic plains. ...


The decision of planning and executing the Conquest of the Desert was probably triggered by the 1872 attack of Cufulcurá and his 6,000 followers on the cities of General Alvear, Veinticinco de Mayo and Nueve de Julio, where 300 criollos were killed, and 200,000 heads of cattle stolen. Gral. ... Nueve de Julio (or 9 de Julio) means 9 July in Spanish. ... The term Creole and its cognates in other languages — such as crioulo, criollo, créole, kriolu, criol, kreyol, kriulo, kriol, krio, etc. ...


The cattle stolen in the incursions (malones) would later be taken to Chile through the mountain passes and traded for goods, especially alcoholic beverages. There is evidence that Chilean authorities knew and consented this, expecting to strengthen their influence over patagonian territories they expected to eventually occupy in the future.


Alsina's campaign

In 1875 Adolfo Alsina, Minister of War under President Nicolás Avellaneda, presented the government with a plan which he later described as aiming to populate the desert, and not to destroy the Indians[4]. 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Adolfo Alsina Adolfo Alsina (born January 4, 1829 in Buenos Aires - died December 29, 1877) was an Argentine lawyer and Unitarian politician, and one of the founders of the Partido Autonomista and the Partido Autonomista Nacional. ... Current President Néstor Kirchner The President of Argentina (full title: President of the Argentine Nation, Spanish: Presidente de la Nación Argentina) is the head of state of Argentina. ... Nicolás Remigio Aurelio Avellaneda Silva (1837-1885) was an Argentine politician and journalist, and president of Argentina from 1874 to 1880. ...


The first step was to connect Buenos Aires and the Fortines (fortresses) with telegraph lines. Then a peace treaty was signed with cacique Juan José Catriel, only to be broken shortly after when he attacked, together with cacique Namuncurá, Tres Arroyos, Tandil, Azul, and other towns and farms in an even bloodier attack than that of 1872. Tres Arroyos is a city in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. ... Tandil is a city in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, about 360 km away from Buenos Aires. ... Azul is a city located at the center of the Buenos Aires province in Argentina. ...


Alsina answered by attacking the aboriginals, forcing them to fall back, and leaving fortines on his way south to protect the conquered territories. He also constructed the 374 km long trench named Zanja de Alsina ("Alsina's trench") that in theory would serve as a limit to the unconquered territories. With its three metre width and two metre depth, it served as an obstacle for the transport of stolen cattle.


The aboriginals continued stealing cattle from farms in the Buenos Aires Province and south of the Mendoza Province, but found it difficult to escape as the animals slowed their march, and had to face the patrolling units that would follow them. As the war went on, some aboriginals eventually signed peace treaties and settled among the "cristianos" behind the lines of forts. Some tribes even allied with the Argentine government and either stood neutral or fought for the Argentine army. In return, they were granted periodical shipments of cattle and food. After Alsina died in 1877, Julio Argentino Roca was named the new Minister of War, and decided to change Alsinas strategy. Mendoza is one of the 23 provinces of Argentina, located in the western central part of the country in the Cuyo region. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Alejo Julio Argentino Roca Paz (July 17, 1843 - October 19, 1914) was an army general who served as President of Argentina from 12 October 1880 to 12 October 1886 and again from 12 October 1898 to 12 October 1904. ...


Roca's campaign

Julio Argentino Roca, in contrast to Alsina, believed that the only solution against the aboriginal threat was to extinguish, subdue or expel them. Roca set the following task for himself:

Our self-respect as a virile people obliges us to put down as soon as possible, by reason or by force, this handful of savages who destroy our wealth and prevent us from definitely occupying, in the name of law, progress and our own security, the richest and most fertile lands of the Republic.[5]

At the end of 1878 he started the first wave to "clean" the area between the Alsina trench and the Río Negro River by continuous and systematic attacks to the aboriginals' settlements. 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... // Negro River (Spanish: Río Negro) is the most important river of the Argentine province of Río Negro. ...


With 6,000 soldiers armed with new breech-loading Remington rifles supplied by the United States, in 1879 he began the second wave reaching Choele Choel in two months, where the local aboriginals surrendered without giving battle. From other points, southbound companies made their way down to the Negro River and the Neuquén River, a northern tributary of the Negro River. Together, both rivers marked the natural frontier from the Andes to the Atlantic Ocean[6]. This attack led to a large migration of Mapuches into the zone around Pucón, Chile. 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Choele Choel is the capital of the department of Avellaneda in the Argentine province of Río Negro, and the most important settlement within the Valle Medio (Middle Valley) agricultural area of the Río Negro River in Patagonia Information Choele Choel, with a population of 9. ... The Neuquén River is the second most important river of the province of Neuquén in the Argentine Patagonia, after the Limay River. ... This article is about the mountain system in South America. ... Volcano and Lake Villarrica. ...


Many settlements were built on the basin of these two rivers, as well as a number on the Colorado River. By sea, some settlements were erected on the southern basin of the Santa Cruz River mainly by Welsh colonists. The Colorado River (Spanish: Río Colorado) is a river in the south of Argentina. ... Santa Cruz River (Spanish:Río Santa Cruz) is a river from the Argentine province of Santa Cruz. ... The Welsh settlement in Argentina began in the 19th century. ...


The final campaign

Roca followed Nicolás Avellaneda as president. He thought it was imperative to conquer the territory south of the Negro River as soon as possible, and ordered the 1881 campaign under the control of colonel Conrado Villegas. Current President Néstor Kirchner The President of Argentina (full title: President of the Argentine Nation, Spanish: Presidente de la Nación Argentina) is the head of state of Argentina. ... // Negro River (Spanish: Río Negro) is the most important river of the Argentine province of Río Negro. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Within a year Villegas conquered the Neuquén Province (he reached the Limay River). The campaign continued to push the aboriginal resistance further south, to fight the last battle on October 18, 1884. The last rebel group of over 3,000 members under the command of caciques Inacayal and Foyel surrendered two months later in present Chubut Province. Neuquén is a province of Argentina, located in the west of the country, at the northern end of Patagonia. ... The Limay River is an important river in the northwestern Argentine Patagonia (the region of Comahue). ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Chubut is a province in the southern part of Argentina, that lies between the 42nd Parallel South (forming the border with the Río Negro Province) and 46th Parallel South (bordering Santa Cruz Province), the Andes range separating Argentina from Chile, and the Atlantic ocean. ...


See also

The Araucanization (Spanish: Araucanización) was the process of expansion of Mapuche culture and language into the patagonic plains. ... Map showing the old and the new frontier established by 1870 The Occupation of the Araucania (1861-1883) were a series of military campaigns, agreements and penetration by the Chilean Army and settlers that lead to the incorporation of the Araucanía to the national territory. ... The Kingdom of Araucania and Patagonia (also called New France) was a self-proclaimed independent state or micronation founded by a French lawyer and adventurer named Orelie-Antoine de Tounens in southern South America in the mid 19th century. ... Terra nullius (English pronunciation , Latin pronunciation IPA: ) is a Latin expression deriving from Roman Law meaning no mans land, i. ... Millions of indigenous people lived in the Americas when the 1492 voyage of Christopher Columbus began an historical period of large-scale European contact with the Americas. ...

References

  1. ^ Andermann, Jens. Argentine Literature and the 'Conquest of the Desert', 1872-1896, Birkbeck College. "It is this sudden acceleration, this abrupt change from the discourse of 'defensive warfare' and 'merciful civilization' to that of 'offensive warfare' and of genocide, which is perhaps the most distinctive mark of the literature of the Argentine frontier."
  2. ^ See for details: Rock, David. State Building and Political Movements in Argentina, 1860-1916. Stanford University Press, 2002. Pages 93-94.
  3. ^ "Civilización o genocidio, un debate que nunca se cierra" by Cacho Fernández – Qollasuyu Tawaintisuyu Indymedia (Spanish)
  4. ^ "Reseña sobre la historia de Neuquén" Government of the Neuquén Province (Spanish)
  5. ^ Quoted from: Kenneth M. Roth. Annihilating Difference: The Anthropology of Genocide. University of California Press, 2002. Page 45.
  6. ^ "Poblamiento Pampeano" – Ministry of Culture of the La Pampa Province (Spanish)

Further reading

  • "Nicolás Avellaneda", biography by Felipe Pigna (Spanish)
  • "Economical consequences of the Conquest of the Desert" - Universidad del CEMA (Spanish)
  • "Efective occupation of the Patagonic region by the Argentine governent" - Universidad del CEMA (Spanish)
  • "Campaña del Desierto" - Olimpiadas Nacionales de Contenidos Educativos en Internet (Spanish)
  • "La Guerra del Desierto", different views by Juan José Cresto, Osvaldo Bayer and others - ElOrtiba.org (Spanish)
  • Hasbrouck, Alfred. The Conquest of the DesertThe Hispanic American Historical Review, Vol. 15, No. 2 (May, 1935), pp. 195-228
  • Staff, Conquest-of-the-Desert and effect on colonization in Patagonia Encyclopaedia Britannica

  Results from FactBites:
 
Conquest of the Desert - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (883 words)
The Conquest of the Desert (Spanish: Conquista del desierto) was a controversial campaign by the Argentine government, executed mainly by General Julio Argentino Roca, to wrest Patagonia from the control of the region's aboriginal tribes at the end of the 19th century.
The arrival of the Spanish colonists on the shores of the River Plate and the foundation of the city of Buenos Aires during the 16th century led directly to the first confrontations between the Spanish and the local aboriginal tribes, mainly the Pampas.
Probably, the decision of planning and executing the Conquest of the Desert was triggered by the 1872 attack of Cufulcurá and his 6,000 followers on the cities of Alvear, Veinticinco de Mayo and Nueve de Julio, where 300 criollos where killed, and 200,000 heads of cattle.
Desert Food Chain Part 7 (2449 words)
The desert shrubs began their drive to botanical dominance in the Southwest’s basins during the final millennia of the last ice age, about 10,000 to 12,000 years ago.
Faced with the steady advance of the desert shrubs, the pinyon-juniper-oak woodlands retreated from the basins into the mountain foothills, and the spruce-fir-conifer forests withdrew from the mountain foothills to the higher mountain elevations.
Across the three deserts, shrubs grow in mosaics with highly varied populations, with the mix and relative abundances of species reflecting factors such as elevation, climate, water and nutrient availability, soil conditions, competition, predation, the immediate environment’s health, and sheer chance.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m