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Encyclopedia > Conn syndrome
Conn's syndrome
Classification & external resources
Aldosterone
ICD-10 E26.0
ICD-9 255.1
DiseasesDB 3073
MedlinePlus 000330
eMedicine med/432 
MeSH D006929

Conn's syndrome is overproduction of the mineralocorticoid hormone aldosterone by the adrenal glands. Aldosterone causes sodium and water retention and potassium excretion in the kidneys, leading to arterial hypertension (high blood pressure). It is a rare but recognised cause of nonessential hypertension. It is the most common form of primary hyperaldosteronism. Aldosterone is a steroid hormone synthesized from cholesterol by the enzyme aldosterone synthase. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following codes are used with International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... // E00-E35 - Endocrine diseases (E00-E07) Disorders of thyroid gland (E00) Congenital iodine-deficiency syndrome (E01) Iodine-deficiency-related thyroid disorders and allied conditions (E02) Subclinical iodine-deficiency hypothyroidism (E03) Other hypothyroidism (E030) Congenital hypothyroidism with diffuse goitre (E031) Congenital hypothyroidism without goitre (E032) Hypothyroidism due to medicaments and other... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Mineralocorticoids is a class of steroids characterised by their similarity to aldosterone and their influence on salt and water metabolism. ... Norepinephrine A hormone (from Greek όρμή - to set in motion) is a chemical messenger from one cell (or group of cells) to another. ... Aldosterone is a steroid hormone synthesized from cholesterol by the enzyme aldosterone synthase. ... In mammals, the adrenal gland (also known as suprarenal glands) are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit atop the kidneys; their name indicates that position (ad, near or at + renes, kidneys). They are chiefly responsible for regulating the stress response through the synthesis of corticosteroids and catecholamines, including cortisol... General Name, Symbol, Number sodium, Na, 11 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 3, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 22. ... General Name, Symbol, Number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 39. ... It has been suggested that Renal anomalies and Renal plasma threshold be merged into this article or section. ... Arterial hypertension, or high blood pressure is a medical condition where the blood pressure is chronically elevated. ...

Contents

Signs, symptoms and findings

Apart from high blood pressure, the symptoms may include muscle cramps and headaches (due to the low potassium), metabolic alkalosis (due to increased secretion of H+ ions by the kidney). The high pH of the blood makes calcium less available to the tissues and causes symptoms of hypocalcemia (low calcium levels). Myalgia means muscle pain and is a symptom of many diseases and disorders. ... A headache is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... Metabolic alkalosis results from altered metabolism. ... The correct title of this article is . ... Calcium plays a vital role in the anatomy, physiology and biochemistry of organisms and of the cell, particularly in signal transduction pathways. ... In medicine, hypocalcaemia is the presence of less than a total calcium of 2. ...


It can be mimicked by liquorice ingestion (glycyrrhizin) and Liddle syndrome. Binomial name Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Liquorice or licorice (see spelling differences) (pronounced IPA: licorish) is the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra, from which a sweet flavour can be extracted. ... Glycyrrhizin, glycyrrhizinic acid or glycyrrhizic acid, is the active principle of liquorice root. ... Liddles Syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder that mimics hyperaldosteronism. ...


Diagnosis

Measuring aldosterone alone is not considered adequate to diagnose Conn's syndrome. Rather, both renin and aldosterone are measured, and the ratio is diagnostic.[1][2] Renin, also known as angiotensinogenase, is a circulating enzyme (EC 3. ...


Usually, renin levels are suppressed, leading to a very low renin-aldosterone ratio (<0.05). This test is confounded by antihypertensive drugs, which have to be stopped up to 6 weeks.


If there is biochemic proof of hyperaldosteronism, CT scanning can confirm the presence of an adrenal adenoma. CT apparatus in a hospital Computed axial tomography (CAT), computer-assisted tomography, computed tomography, CT, or body section roentgenography is the process of using digital processing to generate a three-dimensional image of the internals of an object from a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around...


Causes

The syndrome is due to:

  • aldosterone-secreting adrenal adenoma (benign tumor, 50-60%)
  • hyperplasia of the adrenal gland (40-50%)
  • rare forms

Aldosterone is a steroid hormone synthesized from cholesterol by the enzyme aldosterone synthase. ... Hyperplasia (or hypergenesis) is a general term for an increase in the number of the cells of an organ or tissue causing it to increase in size. ...

Therapy

Surgical removal of the offending adrenal (adrenalectomy) takes away the source of the excess hormones. Meanwhile, the blood pressure can be controlled with spironolactone (a diuretic that counteracts the actions of aldosterone) and other antihypertensives. Adrenalectomy is the surgical removal of one or both (bilateral adrenalectomy) adrenal glands. ... Spironolactone (marketed as Aldactone®, Novo-Spiroton®, Spiractin®, Spirotone®, or Berlactone®) is a synthetic 17-lactone steroid which is a renal competitive aldosterone antagonist in a class of pharmaceuticals called potassium-sparing diuretics, used primarily to treat ascites in patients with liver disease, low-renin hypertension, hypokalemia, and Conns syndrome. ... A diuretic (colloquially called a water pill) is any drug or herb that elevates the rate of bodily urine excretion (diuresis). ...


Eponym

It is named after Dr Jerome W. Conn (1907-1981), the American endocrinologist who first described the condition in 1955. [3] 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Reference

  1. ^ Tiu S, Choi C, Shek C, Ng Y, Chan F, Ng C, Kong A (2005). "The use of aldosterone-renin ratio as a diagnostic test for primary hyperaldosteronism and its test characteristics under different conditions of blood sampling". J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90 (1): 72-8. PMID 15483077. 
  2. ^ http://www.ubht.nhs.uk/pathology/ChemicalPathology/TestProtocols/16Renin.html
  3. ^ Conn JW, Louis LH. Primary aldosteronism: a new clinical entity. Trans Assoc Am Physicians 1955;68:215-31; discussion, 231-3. PMID 13299331.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Conns syndrome - (319 words)
Conn's syndrome is overproduction of the mineralocorticoid hormone aldosterone by the adrenal glands.
conns syndrome It is a rare but recognised cause of secondary hypertension.
Measuring aldosterone alone is not considered adequate to diagnose Conn's syndrome.
Conn's syndrome (1109 words)
Conn's syndrome is important because it is a potentially curable cause of high blood pressure (hypertension).
Traditional teaching has been to limit investigation for Conn's syndrome to patients who have a low blood potassium, or in whom blood pressure which is moderate to severe (>160/110mmHg), or is difficult to control with medication.
In Conn's syndrome, the aldosterone level is elevated and the renin level is low or undetectable.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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