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Encyclopedia > Congress of Vienna
The Congress of Vienna by Jean-Baptiste Isabey, 1819.
The Congress of Vienna by Jean-Baptiste Isabey, 1819.

The Congress of Vienna was a conference of ambassadors of the major powers of Europe, chaired by the Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich and held in Vienna from November 1, 1814, to June 8, 1815. Image File history File links CongressVienna. ... Image File history File links CongressVienna. ... Jean-Baptiste Isabey (April 11, 1767 - 1853), French painter, was born at Nancy. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Klemens Wenzel von Metternich Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar Fürst von Metternich-Winneburg-Beilstein (May 15, 1773 – June 11, 1859) was an Austrian politician, statesman and one of the most important diplomats of his era. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ...


Its purpose was to settle issues and redraw the continent's political map after the defeat of Napoleonic France the previous spring, which would also reflect the change in status by the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire eight years before. The discussions continued despite the ex-Emperor Napoleon I's return from exile and resumption of power in France in March 1815, and the Congress's Final Act was signed nine days before his final defeat at Waterloo on June 18, 1815. Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... This article is about the medieval empire. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Combatants French Empire Seventh Coalition: United Kingdom Prussia United Netherlands Hanover Nassau Brunswick Commanders Napoleon Bonaparte, Michel Ney Duke of Wellington, Gebhard von Blücher Strength 73,000 67,000 Anglo-Allies 60,000 Prussian (48,000 engaged by about 18:00) Casualties 25,000 killed or wounded 7,000... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ...


One might note that the "Congress of Vienna" never actually occurred, as the Congress never met in plenary session, with most of the discussions occurring in informal sessions among the Great Powers meeting without the greater number of delegates from the lesser states. Plenary session is a term often used in conferences to define the part of the conference when all members of all parties are in attendance. ... One of the hallmarks of contemporary great power status is permanent membership on the United Nations Security Council. ...


The Congress was concerned with determining the entire shape of Europe after the Napoleonic wars, with the exception of the terms of peace with France between the belligerents, which had already been decided by the Treaty of Paris, signed a few months earlier, on May 30, 1814 returning the Bourbon monarchy and re-setting the borders to their 1792 locations. That outcome was widely unpopular with the population of France, and led indirectly to the resumption of power by Napoleon during the Hundred Days. The Treaty of Paris of 1814, signed on May 30, 1814, ended the war between France and the Sixth Coalition of the United Kingdom, Russia, Austria, Sweden and Prussia. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Hundred Days (French Cent-Jours) or the Waterloo Campaign commonly refers to the period between 20 March 1815, the date on which Napoleon Bonaparte arrived in Paris after his return from Elba, and 8 July 1815, the date of the restoration of King Louis XVIII. The phrase Cent jours...

Contents

Participants

At the Congress, Britain was represented first by its Foreign Secretary, Viscount Castlereagh; after Castlereagh's return to England in February 1815, by the Duke of Wellington; and in the last weeks, after Wellington left to face Napoleon in the Hundred Days, by the Earl of Clancarty. Lord Castlereagh Foreign Secretary 1812–1822 Robert Stewart, 2nd Marquess of Londonderry, KG, GCH, PC (18 June 1769 in Dublin – 12 August 1822 at Loring Hall, Kent), known until 1821 by his courtesy title of Viscount Castlereagh, was an Anglo-Irish politician born in Dublin who represented the United Kingdom... Italic text His Grace Field Marshal the Most Noble Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, KG, GCB, GCH, PC, FRS (c. ... The Hundred Days (French Cent-Jours) or the Waterloo Campaign commonly refers to the period between 20 March 1815, the date on which Napoleon Bonaparte arrived in Paris after his return from Elba, and 8 July 1815, the date of the restoration of King Louis XVIII. The phrase Cent jours... He was a twat ...


Austria was represented by Prince Klemens Wenzel von Metternich, the Foreign Minister, and by his deputy, Baron Wessenberg. Metternich redirects here. ...


Prussia was represented by Prince Karl August von Hardenberg, the Chancellor, and the diplomat and scholar Wilhelm von Humboldt. For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... Karl August von Hardenberg Karl August Fürst von Hardenberg (en: Prince Charles Augustus von Hardenberg) (May 31, 1750 - November 26, 1822), was a Prussian statesman. ... Wilhelm von Humboldt Friedrich Wilhelm Christian Karl Ferdinand Freiherr von Humboldt (June 22, 1767 - April 8, 1835), government functionary, foreign diplomat, philosopher, founder of Humboldt Universität in Berlin, friend of Goethe and especially of Schiller, is especially remembered as a German linguist who introduced a knowledge of the Basque...


Louis XVIII's France was represented by its foreign minister, Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord. Louis XVIII (17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824), was a King of France and Navarre. ... Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord, 1st Sovereign Prince de Bénévent (February 2, 1754 – May 17, 1838), the Prince of Diplomats,[2] was a French diplomat. ...


Although Russia's official delegation was led by the foreign minister, Count Nesselrode, Czar Alexander I for the most part acted on his own behalf. Count Karl Robert Nesselrode (December 14, 1780 - March 23, 1862) was a Russian diplomat and a leading European conservative statesman of the Holy Alliance. ... Alexander I of Russia (Russian: Александр I Павлович / Aleksandr I Pavlovich) (December 23, 1777 – December 1?, 1825) served as Emperor of Russia from 23 March 1801 to 1 December 1825 and Ruler of Poland from 1815 to 1825, as well as the first Grand Duke of Finland. ...


Initially, the representatives of the four victorious powers hoped to exclude the French from serious participation in the negotiations, but Talleyrand managed to skillfully insert himself into "her inner councils" in the first weeks of negotiations. He allied himself to a Committee of Eight powers (Spain, France, Sweden, and Portugal) to control the negotiations. Talleyrand was able to use this to make himself a part of the inner negotiations. He then left his committee.

Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord.
Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord.

The major Allies' indecision on how to conduct their affairs without provoking a united protest from the lesser powers led to the calling of a preliminary conference on protocol, to which both Talleyrand and the Marquis of Labrador, Spain's representative, were invited on September 30, 1814. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord, 1st Sovereign Prince de Bénévent (February 2, 1754 – May 17, 1838), the Prince of Diplomats,[2] was a French diplomat. ... The Congress of Vienna. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Congress Secretary Friedrich von Gentz (1764–1832) would report that "The intervention of Talleyrand and Labrador has hopelessly upset all our plans. Talleyrand protested against the procedure we have adopted and soundly [be]rated us for two hours. It was a scene I shall never forget."[1] Friedrich von Gentz (1764-1832), German publicist and statesman, was born at Breslau on the 2nd of May 1764. ...


The embarrassed representatives of the Allies replied that the document concerning the protocol they had arranged actually meant nothing. "If it means so little, why did you sign it?" snapped Labrador.


Talleyrand’s policy, directed as much by national as personal ambitions, demanded the close but by no means amicable relationship he had with Labrador. Talleyrand regarded Labrador with "Olympian disdain"[2]; of Talleyrand, the testy Spaniard would remark: "that cripple, unfortunately, is going to Vienna."[3]


Talleyrand skirted additional articles suggested by Labrador: he had no intention of handing over the 12,000 afrancesados ("frenchified" Spanish fugitives who had sworn fealty to Joseph Bonaparte), with whom he had shady business connections, nor the bulk of the documents, paintings, pieces of fine art, and works of hydrography and natural history that had been looted from the archives, palaces, churches and cathedrals of Spain.[4] Joseph Bonaparte Coat of arms of Joseph Bonaparte as King of Spain (1808-1813). ...


Most of the work at the Congress was performed by the five main powers (United Kingdom, Russia, Prussia, Austria, France).


On some issues, these powers cooperated with:

  • Spain (represented by the Marquis of Labrador)
  • Portugal (represented by Pedro de Sousa Holstein, Count of Palmela; António Saldanha da Gama; Joaquim Lobo da Silveira).
  • Sweden (represented by Count Carl Löwenhielm)
  • The Netherlands (represented by the British Ambassador at the Dutch court, the Earl of Clancarty)[5]
  • Switzerland (represented by Charles Pictet de Rochemont)
  • On German issues, with the states of Hanover (a personal union with the British crown of the day), Bavaria, and Württemberg. It is of no little interest that as a constant belligerent, King George III had refused to recognize the abolishment of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806 and maintained a separate diplomatic staff to conduct the affairs of the family estate (Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg) as Elector of Hannover until the results of the congress were concluded establishing the Kingdom of Hanover.
  • The Iroquois Confederacy participated in the congress as it had been an ally of the British during the War of 1812 which was viewed by the British as part of the Napoleonic Wars.

The Congress of Vienna. ... Pedro de Sousa Holstein, Count, Marquess and Duke of Palmela, Duke of Faial (1781-1850) was a Portuguese diplomat and statesman who served as Prime Minister. ... Count Carl Löwenhielm, (1772-1861) was a Swedish military officer, diplomat and politician; member of the Swedish cabinet 1822–1839. ... Richard Le Poer Trench, 2nd Earl of Clancarty GCB, GCH, PC (19 May 1767 – 24 November 1837), was a diplomat. ... Charles Pictet de Rochemont 21 September 1755 - 28 December 1824 was a statesman and diplomat who prepared the declaration of Switzerlands permanent neutrality ratified by the great powers in 1815. ... Arms of the Dukes of Brunswick and Lüneburg Brunswick-Lüneburg was a historical state within the Holy Roman Empire (Germany) during the late Early Modern era. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... Arms of the Kingdom of Württemberg The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Wuerttemberg. ... George III redirects here. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Hanover (German Hannover) is a historical territory in todays Germany. ... Hanover (German Hannover) is a historical territory in todays Germany. ... The Iroquois Confederacy (also known as the League of Peace and Power) is a group of First Nations/Native Americans. ... This article is about the U.S.–U.K. war. ... Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack...

Elements of the Treaty

Coat of arms Map of the Duchy of Warsaw after 1809. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km... Coat of arms Map of the Duchy of Warsaw after 1809. ... Flag The Grand Duchy was administrated as the Province of Posen, within the Kingdom of Prussia. ... For alternative meanings of Gdańsk and Danzig, see Gdansk (disambiguation) and Danzig (disambiguation) The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. ... For other places named Westphalia, see Westphalia (disambiguation). ... The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... The Southern Netherlands (Dutch: , Spanish: , French: ) were a part of the Low Countries controlled by Spain (Spanish Netherlands, 1579-1713), Austria (Austrian Netherlands, 1713-1794) and captured by France (1794-1815). ... The House of Orange-Nassau (in Dutch: Huis van Oranje-Nassau), a branch of the German House of Nassau, has played a central role in the political life of the Netherlands - and at times in Europe - since William I of Orange (also known as William the Silent and Father of... The Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and Limburg in 1839 1, 2 and 3 United Kingdom of the Netherlands (until 1830) 1 and 2 Kingdom of the Netherlands (after 1830) 2 Duchy of Limburg (In the German Confederacy after 1839 as compensation for Waals-Luxemburg) 3 and 4 Kingdom of Belgium (after... The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is a tiny landlocked state in the north-west of the continental Europe, bordered by France, Germany and Belgium. ... It has been suggested that Dynastic union be merged into this article or section. ... The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... Denmark–Norway is the historiographical name for a former political entity, union, consisting of the kingdoms of Denmark and Norway, including the Norwegian dependencies of Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands. ... It has been suggested that Dynastic union be merged into this article or section. ... Swedish Pomerania (Swedish: Svenska Pommern) was a Dominion under the Swedish Crown from the 17th to the 19th century, situated on the German Baltic Sea coast. ... Hanover (German Hannover) is a historical territory in todays Germany. ... Lauenburg (in full Herzogtum Lauenburg, Duchy of Lauenburg) is a district in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. ... The Bishopric of Münster was an ecclesiastical principality in the Holy Roman Empire, located in the northern part of todays North Rhine-Westphalia and western Lower Saxony. ... The landscape to the north of Greetsiel, in East Frisia. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... Arms of the Kingdom of Württemberg The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Wuerttemberg. ... Baden is a historical state in the southwest of Germany, on the right bank of the Rhine. ... The Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt came into existence in 1568, as the portion of George, youngest of the four sons of Landgrave Philip I of Hesse. ... ... Mediatization, defined broadly, is the annexation of one monarchy by another monarchy in such a way that the ruler of the annexed state keeps his or her noble title, and sometimes a measure of power. ... The Palatinate (German: Pfalz), historically also Rhenish Palatinate (German: Rheinpfalz), is a region in south-western Germany. ... The Grand Duchy of Frankfurt was a German state of Napoleonic creation. ... Mainz is a city in Germany and the capital of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. ... Tyrol (Tirol in German) is a federal state or Bundesland, located in the west of Austria. ... This article is about the capital of the Austrian state of Salzburg. ... Illyrian Provinces (French Provinces illyriennes) were formed in 1809 when Austria ceded with the Treaty of Schoenbrunn its lands Carinthia, Carniola, Croatia southwest of the river Sava, Gorizia and Trieste to France after the defeat at the Battle of Wagram. ... Lombardy-Venetia was a kingdom created by the 1815 Congress of Vienna to combine the territories of Lombardy (ruled by Austria in 1713-96) and Venetia (under Austrian rule since 1797) under the Austrian Habsburg dynasty. ... Ragusa can refer to: The city of Ragusa in Sicily, Italy. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ... The Grand Duchy of Tuscany was a state in central Italy which came into existence in 1569, replacing the Duchy of Florence, which had been created out of the old Republic of Florence in 1532, and which annexed the Republic of Siena in 1557. ... The Duchy of Modena (in full, the Duchies of Modena and Reggio) was a small Italian state that existed (with a break between 1796 and 1814) from 1452 to 1859. ... Coat of arms Map of the Papal States; the reddish area was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1860, the rest (grey) in 1870. ... For the Municipality in Quebec, see Avignon Regional County Municipality, Quebec. ... The Comtat Venaissin, often called the Comtat for short, was the name formerly given to the region around the city of Avignon in Provence, in what is now southern France. ... Anthem: God Save the Queen Cape Colony Capital Cape Town Language(s) English and Dutch1 Religion Dutch Reformed Church, Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Last Monarch King George VI Last Prime Minister  - 1908 – 1910 John X. Merriman Last Governor  - 1901 - 1910 Walter Hely-Hutchinson Historical era 19th century  - Dutch East India... Castara village beach looking south, Tobago Tobago is the smaller of the two main islands that make up the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. ... The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (ශ්රී ලංකා in Sinhala / இலங்கை in Tamil) (known as Ceylon before 1972) is a tropical island nation off the southeast coast of the Indian subcontinent. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Kingdom of Sardinia, in 1839: Mainland Piedmont with Savoy, Nice, and Sardinia in the inset. ... For other uses, see Piedmont (disambiguation). ... This article is about the French city. ... Flag of Savoy This article is about the historical region of Savoy. ... For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... The Republic of Genoa, in full the Most Serene Republic of Genoa (known as the Ligurian Republic from 1798 to 1805) was an independent state in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast from ca. ... The Duchy of Parma was created in 1545 from that part of the Duchy of Milan south of the Po River, as a fief for Pope Paul IIIs illegitimate son, Pier Luigi Farnese, centered around the city of Parma. ... Marie Louise (full name: Maria Ludovica Leopoldina Franziska Therese Josepha Lucia von Habsburg-Lothringen, later after 1817 in Italian Maria Luigia dAsburgo-Lorena, Duchessa di Parma, Piacenza, e Guastalla) (b. ... King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies (January 12, 1751 - January 4, 1825). ... Capital Naples Government Monarchy King  - 1285-1309 Charles II  - 1815-1816 Ferdinand I History  - Established 1285  - Union with Sicily 1816 The Kingdom of Naples was an informal name of the polity officially known as the Kingdom of Sicily which existed on the mainland of southern Italy after of the secession... Joachim Murat, King of Naples, Marshal of France. ... The Hundred Days (French Cent-Jours) or the Waterloo Campaign commonly refers to the period between 20 March 1815, the date on which Napoleon Bonaparte arrived in Paris after his return from Elba, and 8 July 1815, the date of the restoration of King Louis XVIII. The phrase Cent jours... This article is about the military conflict between Austria and Naples in 1815. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine, or CCNR (French: Commission Centrale pour la Navigation du Rhin) is the worlds oldest international organization. ...

Polish-Saxon crisis

The most contentious subject at the Congress was the so-called Polish-Saxon Crisis. The Russians and Prussians proposed a deal in which much of the Prussian and Austrian shares of the partitions of Poland would go to Russia, which would create an independent Polish Kingdom in personal union with Russia with Alexander as king. In exchange, the Prussians would receive as compensation all of Saxony, whose King was considered to have forfeited his throne because he had not abandoned Napoleon soon enough. The Austrians, French, and British did not approve of this plan, and, at the inspiration of Talleyrand, signed a secret treaty on January 3, 1815, agreeing to go to war, if necessary, to prevent the Russo-Prussian plan from coming to fruition. Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ...

Although none of the three powers was particularly ready for war, the Russians did not call the bluff, and an amicable settlement was set on 24 October 1814, by which Russia received most of the Napoleonic Duchy of Warsaw as a "Kingdom of Poland" (called Congress Poland), but did not receive the district of Poznań (Grand Duchy of Poznań), which was given to Prussia, nor Kraków, which became a free city. Prussia received 40% of Saxony (later known as the province of Saxony), with the remainder returned to King Frederick Augustus I (kingdoms of Saxony). Image File history File links Franz Kruger. ... Image File history File links Franz Kruger. ... Alexander I of Russia (Russian: Александр I Павлович / Aleksandr I Pavlovich) (December 23, 1777 – December 1?, 1825) served as Emperor of Russia from 23 March 1801 to 1 December 1825 and Ruler of Poland from 1815 to 1825, as well as the first Grand Duke of Finland. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Coat of arms Map of the Duchy of Warsaw after 1809. ... Map of Congress Poland. ... Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina PoznaÅ„ Established 8th century City Rights 1253 Government  - Mayor Ryszard Grobelny Area  - City 261. ... Grand Duchy of PoznaÅ„ (Polish: Wielkie KsiÄ™stwo PoznaÅ„skie, German: Großherzogtum Posen) was an autonomous province of the Kingdom of Prussia in the Polish lands commonly known as Great Poland between the years 1815-1848. ... For other uses, see Krakow (disambiguation). ... The Free City of Kraków (Polish: Wolne Miasto Kraków), also known as Republic of Kraków (Rzeczpospolita Krakowska), was a city-state created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 and controlled by its three neighbors, Russia, Prussia and Austria until 1846. ... Frederick Augustus I of Saxony. ...


Other changes

The Congress's principal results, apart from its confirmation of France's loss of the territories annexed in 1795–1810, which had already been settled by the Treaty of Paris, were the enlargement of Russia, (which gained most of the Duchy of Warsaw) and Prussia, which acquired Westphalia and the northern Rhineland. The consolidation of Germany from the nearly 300 states of the Holy Roman Empire (dissolved in 1806) into a much more manageable thirty-nine states was confirmed. These states were formed into a loose German Confederation under the leadership of Prussia and Austria. The Treaty of Paris was signed on May 30, 1814 and ended the war between France and the Sixth Coalition of the United Kingdom, Russia, Austria, Sweden, Portugal and Prussia. ... Coat of arms Map of the Duchy of Warsaw after 1809. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... For other places named Westphalia, see Westphalia (disambiguation). ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ...


Representatives at the Congress agreed to numerous other territorial changes. Norway was transferred from Denmark to Sweden, this sparked the nationalist movement which led to the establishment of the short-lived Kingdom of Norway on May 17, 1814. Austria gained Lombardy-Venetia in Northern Italy, while much of the rest of North-Central Italy went to Habsburg dynasties (the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, the Duchy of Modena, and the Duchy of Parma). The Pope was restored to the Papal States. The Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia was restored to its mainland possessions, and also gained control of the Republic of Genoa. In Southern Italy, Napoleon's brother-in-law, Joachim Murat, was originally allowed to retain his Kingdom of Naples, but following his support of Napoleon in the Hundred Days, he was deposed, and the Bourbon Ferdinand IV was restored to the throne. The Kingdom of Norway is a Nordic country on the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, bordering Sweden, Finland and Russia, with territorial waters bordering Danish and British waters. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia (Italian: ; German: ) (1815 - 1866) was established after the defeat of Napoleon, according to the decisions of the Congress of Vienna (9 June 1815). ... The Grand Duchy of Tuscany was a state in central Italy which came into existence in 1569, replacing the Duchy of Florence, which had been created out of the old Republic of Florence in 1532, and which annexed the Republic of Siena in 1557. ... The Duchy of Modena (in full, the Duchies of Modena and Reggio) was a small Italian state that existed (with a break between 1796 and 1814) from 1452 to 1859. ... The Duchy of Parma was created in 1545 from that part of the Duchy of Milan south of the Po River, as a fief for Pope Paul IIIs illegitimate son, Pier Luigi Farnese, centered around the city of Parma. ... Coat of arms Map of the Papal States; the reddish area was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1860, the rest (grey) in 1870. ... For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... Joachim Murat, King of Naples, Marshal of France. ... Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... The Hundred Days (French Cent-Jours) or the Waterloo Campaign commonly refers to the period between 20 March 1815, the date on which Napoleon Bonaparte arrived in Paris after his return from Elba, and 8 July 1815, the date of the restoration of King Louis XVIII. The phrase Cent jours... King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies (January 12, 1751 - January 4, 1825). ...


A large United Kingdom of the Netherlands was created for the Prince of Orange, including both the old United Provinces and the formerly Austrian-ruled territories in the Southern Netherlands. There were other, less important territorial adjustments, including significant territorial gains for the German Kingdoms of Hanover (which gained East Frisia from Prussia and various other territories in Northwest Germany) and Bavaria (which gained the Rhenish Palatinate and territories in Franconia). The Duchy of Lauenburg was transferred from Hanover to Denmark, and Swedish Pomerania was annexed by Prussia. Switzerland was enlarged, and Swiss neutrality was guaranteed. The Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and Limburg in 1839 1, 2 and 3 United Kingdom of the Netherlands (until 1830) 1 and 2 Kingdom of the Netherlands (after 1830) 2 Duchy of Limburg (In the German Confederacy after 1839 as compensation for Waals-Luxemburg) 3 and 4 Kingdom of Belgium (after... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ... Hanover (German Hannover) is a historical territory in todays Germany. ... The landscape to the north of Greetsiel, in East Frisia. ... Anthem Königsstrophe Kingdom of Bavaria within the German Empire. ... For other uses, see Franconia (disambiguation). ... Lauenburg (in full Herzogtum Lauenburg, Duchy of Lauenburg) is a district in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. ... Swedish Pomerania (Swedish: Svenska Pommern) was a Dominion under the Swedish Crown from the 17th to the 19th century, situated on the German Baltic Sea coast. ...


During the wars, Portugal had lost its province of Olivença to Spain and, at the Congress of Vienna, wanted it back. Portugal was historically a friend of Great Britain, and with its support succeeded in having their right to the re-incorporation of Olivença decreed in Article 105 of the Treaty, which stated that the Congress "understood the occupation of Olivença to be illegal and recognized Portugal's rights". Portugal ratified the Treaty in 1815 but the Spanish would not sign. Thus Spain became the most important hold-out against the Congress of Vienna. Deciding in the end that it was better to become part of Europe than stand aside alone, Spain finally accepted the Treaty on May 7, 1817, however, Olivença and its surroundings have never actually returned to portuguese control and this question is still unsolved..[7] [8]The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland received parts of the West Indies at the expense of the Netherlands and Spain and kept the former Dutch colonies of Ceylon and the Cape Colony, and also kept Malta and Heligoland. Under the Treaty of Paris, Britain obtained the protectorate over the United States of the Ionian Islands and the Seychelles. Olivença can be: The Portuguese name of the town and of the territory named Olivenza in the castilian, or spanish language, situated near the portuguese town of Elvas and the spanish city of Badajoz. ... Olivença can be: The Portuguese name of the town and of the territory named Olivenza in the castilian, or spanish language, situated near the portuguese town of Elvas and the spanish city of Badajoz. ... Olivença can be: The Portuguese name of the town and of the territory named Olivenza in the castilian, or spanish language, situated near the portuguese town of Elvas and the spanish city of Badajoz. ... Olivença can be: The Portuguese name of the town and of the territory named Olivenza in the castilian, or spanish language, situated near the portuguese town of Elvas and the spanish city of Badajoz. ... This article is about the historical state called the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801–1927). ... The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (ශ්රී ලංකා in Sinhala / இலங்கை in Tamil) (known as Ceylon before 1972) is a tropical island nation off the southeast coast of the Indian subcontinent. ... Anthem: God Save the Queen Cape Colony Capital Cape Town Language(s) English and Dutch1 Religion Dutch Reformed Church, Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Last Monarch King George VI Last Prime Minister  - 1908 – 1910 John X. Merriman Last Governor  - 1901 - 1910 Walter Hely-Hutchinson Historical era 19th century  - Dutch East India... For the landscape in Norway, see Helgeland. ... The Treaty of Paris of 1815 was signed on November 20, 1815, following the defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo, 18 June. ... Capital Corfù[1] Largest city  - 1856 (est. ...


Later criticism

The Congress of Vienna was frequently criticized by nineteenth-century and more recent historians for ignoring national and liberal impulses, and for imposing a stifling reaction on the continent. The Congress of Vienna was an integral part in what became known as the Conservative Order, in which peace and stability were traded for the liberties and civil rights associated with the American and French Revolutions. Reactionary (or reactionist) is a political epithet, generally used as a pejorative, originally applied in the context of the French Revolution to counter-revolutionaries who wished to restore the real or imagined conditions of the monarchical Ancien Régime. ... The Conservative Order is a term applied to European political history after the defeat of Napoleon in 1815. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on...


In the 20th century, however, many historians have come to admire the statesmen at the Congress, whose work had prevented another European general war for nearly a hundred years (1815–1914). Among these is Henry Kissinger, whose doctoral dissertation was on the Congress of Vienna. Prior to the opening of the Paris peace conference of 1918, the British Foreign Office commissioned a history of the Congress of Vienna to serve as an example to its own delegates of how to achieve an equally successful peace. Besides, the decisions of the Congress were made by the Five Great Powers (Austria, France, Prussia, Russia and the United Kingdom), and not all the countries of Europe could extend their rights at the Congress. For example, Italy became a mere "geographical expression" as divided into eight parts (Parma, Modena, Tuscany, Lombardy, Venetia, Piedmont-Sardinia, the Papal States, Naples-Sicily) under the control of different powers, while Poland was under the influence of Russia after the Congress. The arrangements that made the Five Great Powers finally led to future disputes. The Congress of Vienna preserved the balance of power in Europe, but it could not check the spread of revolutionary movements on the continent. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American politician, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ...


See also

Klemens Wenzel von Metternich The Age of Metternich refers to the period of European politics in between the final defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo in 1815 and the Revolutions of 1848. ... The Concert of Europe also known as the Congress System was the result of a custom, following the era of Napoleon and the French Revolution, adopted by the old great powers of Europe of meeting from time to time in an International Conference, or Congress, in order to plan a... This is a chronological list of international treaties, historic agreements, peaces, edicts, pacts, etc. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ Susan Mary Alsop, The Congress Dances (New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1984), 120.
  2. ^ Wenceslao Ramírez de Villa-Urrutia, Marqués de Villa-Urrutia, España en el Congreso de Viena según la correspondencia de D. Pedro Gómez Labrador, Marqués de Labrador. Segunda Edición Corregida y Aumentada (Madrid: Francisco Beltrán, 1928), 13.
  3. ^ Antonio Rodríguez-Moñino (ed.), Cartas Políticas (Badajoz: Imprenta Provincial, 1959), 14 (Letter IV, July 10, 1814). Labrador’s letters are full of such pungent remarks, and include his crotchety opinions on bad diplomats, the state of the postal system and the weather, and his non-existent salary and coach and accompanying livery for the Congress.
  4. ^ Villa-Urrutia, España en el Congreso de Viena, 61-2. The French had stripped an enormous amount of art from the country. Joseph had left Madrid with an enormous baggage train containing innumerable pieces of art, tapestries, and mirrors. The most rapacious of the French was Marshal Nicolas Soult, who left Spain with entire collections, which have disappeared to unknown, separate locations around the world. At least, sighs Juan Antonio Gaya Nuño, "[the paintings] have come to spread the prestige of Spanish art around the whole word."
  5. ^ Couvée, D.H.; G. Pikkemaat (1963). 1813-15, ons koninkrijk geboren. Alphen aan den Rijn: N. Samsom nv, 123-124. 
  6. ^ Couvée, D.H.; G. Pikkemaat (1963). 1813-15, ons koninkrijk geboren. Alphen aan den Rijn: N. Samsom nv, 127-130. 
  7. ^ An Auxiliary Agreement to the Congress of Vienna Treaty, Signed by George IV , http://www.raabcollection.com/manuscript/AnAuxiliaryAgreementtotheCongressofVienn271.aspx
  8. ^ Grounds for the Portuguese rights http://www.geocities.com/capitolhill/2382/fundirpi.htm

Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult, duc de Dalmatie (March 29, 1769 – November 26, 1851) was a French general and statesman, named Marshal of France in 1804. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Congress of Vienna - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1921 words)
The Congress of Vienna was a conference between ambassadors from the major powers in Europe that was chaired by the Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich and held in Vienna, Austria, from September 1, 1814, to June 9, 1815.
The Congress was concerned with determining the entire shape of Europe after the Napoleonic wars, with the exception of the terms of peace with France, which had already been decided by the Treaty of Paris, signed a few months earlier, on May 30, 1814.
The Congress of Vienna was frequently criticized by 19th century and more recent historians for ignoring national and liberal impulses, and for imposing a stifling reaction on the continent.
Vienna - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4284 words)
Vienna is Austria's primate city; with a population of about 1.6 million (2.2 million within the metro area), Vienna is by far the largest city in Austria as well as its cultural, economic and political centre.
Vienna is the seat of the Viennese Roman Catholic archdiocese, and its acting Archbishop is Cardinal Christoph Schönborn.
Nearly all of Vienna's drinking water is brought to the city via two large water pipelines, built in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and stretching 120km (75 miles) and 200km (124 miles), respectively, from the Alps to the city's Hietzing district.
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