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Encyclopedia > Congress of Laibach

The Congress of Laibach was a conference of the allied sovereigns or their representatives. It was held in Ljubljana (Laibach is the German name of the city) , in what is now Slovenia but was then a part of Austrian Empire, from January 26 until May 12, 1821. Tromostovje (Tromostovje) and Franciscan church (Frančiškanska cerkev) in baroque style in the back Ljubljana (IPA ), German Laibach (), Italian Lubiana () is the capital of Slovenia, situated on the outfall of the river Ljubljanica into the Sava, in central Slovenia, between the Alps and the Mediterranean. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy, the Austrian Empire until 1867 and of the Austrian part of Austria-Hungary until 1918. ... January 26 is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... May 12 is the 132nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (133rd in leap years). ... 1821 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


Before the break-up of the Congress of Troppau it had been decided to adjourn it till the following January, and to invite the attendance of the king of Naples, Laibach being chosen as the place of meeting. Castlereagh, in the name of Britain, had cordially approved this invitation, as implying negotiation and therefore as a retreat from the position taken up in the Troppau Protocol. Before leaving Troppau, however, the three autocratic powers, Russia, Austria and Prussia, had issued, on the December 8, 1820, a circular letter, in which they reiterated the principles of the Protocol, i.e. the right and duty of the powers responsible for the peace of Europe to intervene to suppress any revolutionary movement by which they might conceive that peace to be endangered (Hertslet, No. 105). Against this view Castlereagh once more protested in a circular despatch of the January 19, 1821, in which he clearly differentiated between the objectionable general principles advanced by the three powers, and the particular case of the unrest in Italy, the immediate concern not of Europe at large, but of Austria and of any other Italian powers which might consider themselves endangered (Hertslet, No. 107). The Congress of Troppau was a conference of the allied sovereigns or their representatives to discuss a concerted policy with regard to the questions raised by the revolution in Naples of July 1820. ... Location within Italy Naples (Italian Napoli, Neapolitan Napule, from Greek Νέα Πόλις - Néa Pólis - meaning New City; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is the largest city in southern Italy and capital of Campania Region. ... The Congress of Troppau was a conference of the allied sovereigns or their representatives to discuss a concerted policy with regard to the questions raised by the revolution in Naples of July 1820. ... The coat of arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 The word Prussia (German: Preußen, Polish: Prusy, Lithuanian: Prūsai, Latin: Borussia) has had various (often contradictory) meanings: The land of the Baltic Prussians (in what is now parts of southern Lithuania, the Kaliningrad exclave of Russia and... December 8 is the 342nd day (343rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is the worlds second-smallest continent in terms of area, with an area of 10,600,000 km² (4,140,625 square miles), making it larger than Australia only. ... A revolution is a relatively sudden, and absolutely drastic change (a complete turn-around). This may be a change in the social or political institutions over a relatively short period of time, or a major change in its culture or economy. ... The Most Honourable Robert Stewart, 2nd Marquess of Londonderry, (June 18, 1769 – August 12, 1822), known until 1821 by his courtesy title of Viscount Castlereagh, was an Anglo-Irish politician born in Dublin who represented the United Kingdom at the Congress of Vienna. ... January 19 is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1821 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


The conference opened on the January 26, 1821, and its constitution emphasized the divergences revealed in the above circulars. The emperors of Russia and Austria were present in person, and with them were Counts Nesselrode and Capo d'Istria, Metternich and Baron Vincent; Prussia and France were represented by plenipotentiaries. But Britain, on the ground that she had no immediate interest in the Italian question, was represented only by the Viscount Castlereagh, the ambassador at Vienna, who was not armed with full powers, his mission being to watch the proceedings and to see that nothing was done beyond or in violation of the treaties. Of the Italian princes, Ferdinand of Naples and the duke of Modena came in person; the rest were represented by plenipotentiaries. January 26 is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1821 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Count Karl Robert Nesselrode (December 14, 1780 - March 23, 1862) was a Russian diplomat and a leading European conservative statesman of the Holy Alliance. ... John Capodistria John Capodistria (in Greek Ioannis Kapodistrias or Ιωάννης Καποδίστριας, and in Italian Giovanni Capo dIstria, Count Capo dIstria) (February 11, 1776 – October 9, 1831) was a Greek-born diplomat of the Russian Empire and later first head of state of independent Greece. ... Klemens Wenzel von Metternich Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar Fürst von Metternich-Winneberg-Beilstein (May 15, 1773 – June 11, 1858) (sometimes rendered in English as Prince Klemens Metternich) was an Austrian politician and statesman and perhaps the most important diplomat of his era. ... Robert Stewart, 2nd Marquess of Londonderry, (June 18, 1769 - August 12, 1822), known until 1821 by his courtesy title of Viscount Castlereagh, was an Anglo-Irish politician born in Dublin who represented the United Kingdom at the Congress of Vienna. ... King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies (January 12, 1751 - January 4, 1825). ...


It was soon clear that a more or less open breach between Britain and the other powers was inevitable. Metternich was anxious to secure an apparent unanimity of the powers to back the Austrian intervention in Naples, and every device was used to entrap the English representative into subscribing a formula which would have seemed to commit Britain to the principles of the other allies. When these devices failed, attempts were made unsuccessfully to exclude Lord Stewart from the conferences on the ground of defective powers. Finally he was forced to an open protest, which he caused to be inscribed on the journals, but the action of Capo d'Istria in reading to the assembled Italian ministers, who were by no means reconciled to the large claims implied in the Austrian intervention, a declaration in which as the result of the intimate union established by solemn acts between all the European powers the Russian emperor offered to the allies the aid of his arms, should new revolutions threaten new dangers, an attempt to revive that idea of a universal union based on the Holy Alliance against which Britain had consistently protested. The Holy Alliance was a coalition of Russia, Austria and Prussia created in 1815 at the behest of Tsar Alexander I of Russia, ostensibly to uphold Christianity in European political life but in practice as a bastion against revolution. ...


The objections of Britain were, however, not so much to an Austrian intervention in Naples as to the far-reaching principles by which it was sought to justify it. King Ferdinand had been invited to Laibach, according to the circular of the 8th of December, in order that he might be free to act as mediator between his erring peoples and the states whose tranquillity they threatened. The cynical use he made of his freedom to repudiate obligations solemnly contracted is described elsewhere (see Naples, History). The result of this action was the Neapolitan declaration of war and the occupation of Naples by Austria, with the sanction of the congress. This was preceded, on the 10th of March, by the revolt of the garnison of Alessandria and the military revolution in Piedmont, which in its turn was suppressed, as a result of negotiations at Laibach, by Austrian troops. It was at Laibach, too, that, on the 19th of March, the emperor Alexander received the news of Ypsilanti's invasion of the Danubian principalities, which heralded the outbreak of the Greek War of Independence, and from Laibach Capo d'Istria (himself of greek origin) addressed to the Greek leader the tsar's repudiation of his action. Emperor Ferdinand Ferdinand I Karl Leopold Joseph Franz Marchlin Emperor of Austria King of Hungary and Bohemia (April 19, 1793 – June 29, 1875) succeeded his father (Franz II Holy Roman Emperor/Franz I of Austria) as Emperor and King in 1835 and was forced to abdicate in 1848. ... Location within Italy Naples (Italian Napoli, Neapolitan Napule, from Greek Νέα Πόλις - Néa Pólis - meaning New City; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is the largest city in southern Italy and capital of Campania Region. ... Piedmont is a region of northwestern Italy. ... Aleksander Pavlovich Romanov or Tsar Alexander I (The Blessed), (Russian: Александр I Павлович) (December 23, 1777–December 1, 1825), was Emperor of Russia from March 23, 1801–December 1, 1825 and King of Poland from 1815–1825. ... Alexander Ypsilanti (1792 - January 31, 1828) was a Greek military commander and national hero. ... The Danube (Donau in German; Dunaj in Slovak; Duna in Hungarian; Dunav in Croatian and Serbian; Дунав in Bulgarian; Dunăre in Romanian; Дунай (Dunay) in Ukrainian; Danuvius in Latin) is Europes second-longest river (after the Volga). ... The Declaration of the War by Bishop Germanos at St Lavra on March 25, 1821 The Greek War of Independence, also known as the Greek Revolution of 1821, was a war against the Ottoman Empire for independence, which started that year. ...


The conference closed on the May 12, 1821, on which date Russia, Austria and Prussia issued a declaration (Hertslet, No. 108) to proclaim to the world the principles which guided them in coming to the assistance of subdued peoples, a declaration which once more affirmed the principles of the Troppau Protocol. In this lay the European significance of the Laibach conference, of which the activities had been mainly confined to Italy. The issue of the declaration without the signatures of the representatives of Britain and France proclaimed the disunion of the alliance; within which, to use Lord Stewart's words, there existed a triple understanding which bound the parties to carry forward their own views in spite of any difference of opinion between them and the two great constitutional governments. May 12 is the 132nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (133rd in leap years). ... 1821 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Congress of Troppau was a conference of the allied sovereigns or their representatives to discuss a concerted policy with regard to the questions raised by the revolution in Naples of July 1820. ...


No separate history of the congress exists, but innumerable references are to be found in general histories and in memoirs, correspondence, 8w., of the time. See:

  • Sir E. Hertslet, Map of Europe (London, I 875); Castlereagh, Correspondence;
  • Metternich, Memoirs;
  • N. Bianchi, Storia documentata della diplomazia Europea in Italia (8 vols., Turin, 1865-1872);
  • Gentzs correspondence;
  • Valuable unpublished correspondence is preserved at the Record Office in the volumes marked F. 0., Austria, Lord Stewart, January to February 1821, and March to September 1821. (W. A. P.)

Friedrich von Gentz (1764-1832), German publicist and statesman, was born at Breslau on the 2nd of May 1764. ...

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