FACTOID # 1: Idaho produces more milk than Iowa, Indiana and Illinois combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Congress of Berlin

The Congress of Berlin (June 13 - July 13, 1878) was a meeting of the European Great Powers' and the Ottoman Empire's leading statesmen in Berlin in 1878. In the wake of the Russo-Turkish War, 1877–78, the meeting's aim was to reorganize the countries of the Balkans. Otto von Bismarck, who led the Congress, undertook to balance the distinct interests of Great Britain, Russia and Austria-Hungary. As a consequence, however, differences between Russia and Austria-Hungary intensified, as did the nationality question in the Balkans. This article is about the capital of Germany. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Plevna Monument near the walls of Kitai-gorod. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... “Bismarck” redirects here. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ...


The congress was aimed at the revision of the Treaty of San Stefano and at keeping Constantinople in Ottoman hands. It effectively disavowed Russia's victory over the decaying Ottoman Empire in the Russo-Turkish War, 1877-78. The Congress of Berlin redistributed back to the Ottoman Empire certain Bulgarian territories that the previous treaty had given to the Principality of Bulgaria, most notably Macedonia. Borders of Bulgaria according to the Treaty of San Stefano of March 3rd, 1878 The Treaty of San Stefano was a treaty between Russia and the Ottoman Empire at the conclusion of the Russo-Turkish War, 1877-78. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878 had its origins in the Russian goal of gaining access to the Mediterranean Sea and dominating Constantinople (Istanbul) and the adjacent Turkish Straits. ... The Treaty of San Stefano of March 3, 1878 provided for an independent Bulgarian state, which spanned over the geographical regions of Moesia, Thrace and Macedonia. ...

Anton von Werner. Congress of Berlin.
Anton von Werner. Congress of Berlin.

Contents

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (988x500, 67 KB) Summary Painting by Anton von Werner First uploaded to de. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (988x500, 67 KB) Summary Painting by Anton von Werner First uploaded to de. ... Selbstbildnis - self portrait, 1885 Anton Alexander von Werner (May 9, 1843 – January 4, 1915)[1], Prussian painter, was born at Frankfurt (Oder), on May 9, 1843. ...

Proceedings

The Congress was attended by the British Empire, Austria-Hungary, France, the German Empire, Italy, the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire. Delegates from Greece, Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro attended the sessions in which their states were concerned, but were not members of the congress. The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... For other uses, see Ottoman (disambiguation). ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to... Anthem Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, Bright Dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Demonym Montenegrin Government Republic  -  President Filip Vujanović  -  Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence due to the dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   -  Declared June 3, 2006...


The congress was solicited by the rivals of the Russian Empire, particularly by Austria-Hungary and Britain, and hosted in 1878 by Otto von Bismarck. The Congress of Berlin proposed and ratified the Treaty of Berlin. The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... “Bismarck” redirects here. ... The separate Bulgaria after The Treatry of Berlin - Lithography Nikolay Pavlovich The Treaty of Berlin was the final Act of the Congress of Berlin (June 13-July 13, 1878), by which the United Kingdom, Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Russia and the Ottoman government under Sultan Hamid revised the Treaty...


The meetings were held at Bismarck's chancellory, the former Radziwill Palace, from June 13, 1878 until July 13, 1878. The congress revised or eliminated 18 of the 29 articles in the Treaty of San Stefano. Furthermore, using as a foundation the treaties of Paris (1856) and London (1871), the treaty effected a rearrangement of the Eastern situation. Radziwill Palace is a common name of the palaces once belonged to Radziwill family. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Borders of Bulgaria according to the Treaty of San Stefano of March 3rd, 1878 The Treaty of San Stefano was a treaty between Russia and the Ottoman Empire at the conclusion of the Russo-Turkish War, 1877-78. ... The Treaty of Paris of 1856 settled the Crimean War between Russia and Ottoman Empire and its allies France and Britain. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...

Map of Bulgaria - in 1878 - borders after the peace of San Stefano (3rd March, 1878) and the Berlin congress (June, 1878).
Map of Bulgaria - in 1878 - borders after the peace of San Stefano (3rd March, 1878) and the Berlin congress (June, 1878).

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (786x613, 229 KB) A map of liberated Bulgaria (1878) - borders after the Treaty of San Stefano (3 March 1878) and the Congress of Berlin (June 1878). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (786x613, 229 KB) A map of liberated Bulgaria (1878) - borders after the Treaty of San Stefano (3 March 1878) and the Congress of Berlin (June 1878). ...

Main issues

The principal mission of the World Powers at the congress was to deal a fatal blow to the burgeoning movement of pan-Slavism. The movement caused serious concern in Berlin and particularly in Vienna, which was afraid that the repressed Slavic nationalities would revolt against the Habsburgs. London and Paris were nervous about the diminishing influence of the Ottoman Empire in the south and about Russian cultural expansion to the south, where both Britain and France were poised to colonize Egypt and Palestine. Pan-Slavism was a movement in the mid 19th century aimed at unity of all the Slavic people. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... “Wien” redirects here. ... Habsburg (sometimes spelled Hapsburg, but never so in official use) was one of the major ruling houses of Europe. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... It has been suggested that List of visitor attractions in Paris be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Ottoman (disambiguation). ... The Holy Land or Palestine Showing not only the Old Kingdoms of Judea and Israel but also the 12 Tribes Distinctly, and Confirming Even the Diversity of the Locations of their Ancient Positions and Doing So as the Holy Scriptures Indicate, a geographic map from the studio of Tobiae Conradi...


Through the Treaty of San Stefano, the Russians, led by chancellor Alexander Gorchakov, had managed to create the Bulgarian autonomous principality under Ottoman Empire's nominal rule, thus sparking British well-entrenched fears of growing Russian influence in the East. This state had access to the Aegean Sea and comprised a very large portion of Macedonia that could have at any time threatened the Straits that separate the Black Sea from the Mediterranean. Pushkins portrait of Alexander Gorchakov Alexander Mikhailovich Gorchakov (1798-1883) was a Russian statesman from the Gorchakov princely family. ... For other uses, see Ottoman (disambiguation). ... The Great Game is a term, usually attributed to Arthur Connolly, used to describe the rivalry and strategic conflict between the British Empire and the Tsarist Russian Empire for supremacy in Central Asia. ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


This arrangement was not acceptable to the British Empire, which considered the entire Mediterranean to be, in effect, a British sphere of influence, and saw any Russian attempt to gain access there as a grave threat to its power. Just a week before the Congress, Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli had concluded a secret alliance with the Ottomans against Russia, whereby Britain was allowed to occupy the strategically placed island of Cyprus. This agreement predetermined Disraeli's position during the Congress and led him to issue threats to unleash a war against Russia if she did not comply with Turkish demands. The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... A sphere of influence (SOI) is an area or region over which an organization or state exerts some kind of indirect cultural, economic, military or political domination. ... Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield (December 21, 1804 - April 24, British Conservative Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and author. ... The Cyprus Convention of June 4, 1878 was an agreement reached between the United Kingdom and the Ottoman Empire which granted control of Cyprus to Great Britain in exchange for their support of the Ottomans in the Russian-Turkish war. ...


Ceding to Russia's pressure, Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro were declared independent principalities. The full independence of Bulgaria, however, was denied. It was promised autonomy, and guarantees were made against Turkish interference, but these were largely ignored. The Dobruja was given to Romania; Montenegro obtained Niksic, Podgorica, Bar, and Plav-Gusinje. The Turkish government, or Porte, agreed to obey the specifications contained in the Organic Law of 1868, and to guarantee the civil rights of non-Muslim subjects. Bosnia and Herzegovina were placed under the administration of Austria-Hungary. Map of Romania with Northern Dobruja highlighted in orange and Bulgaria with Southern Dobruja highlighted in yellow. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Coordinates Mayor Dr. Miomir MugoÅ¡a (DPS - SDP) Municipality area 1,441 km² Population (2003 census)  - city  - municipality  - density 136,473 169,132 117,4 pop per km² Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Founded Before 12th Century as Birziminium Area code +382 81 Car... Coordinates Mayor Žarko Pavićević (DPS - SDP) Municipality area 598 km² Population (2003 census)  - city  - municipality  - density 13,719 40,037 67. ... Plav-Gusinje (Serbian Cyrillic: Плав-Гусиње) is a name for the geographical region in north-eastern Montenegro, Serbia and Montenegro. ... Synonym of the government of the Ottoman Empire. ...


Russia agreed that Bulgaria should be split up into three parts. The southwestern part remained under Turkish rule. Eastern Rumelia became an autonomous province and the remainder was the new state of Bulgaria. Russia retained southern Bessarabia and Austria received the right to "occupy and administer" Bosnia and Herzegovina, a controversial clause which eventually precipitated the Bosnian crisis of 1908. Proposed flag of Eastern Rumelia. ... The Bosnian Crisis of 1908-1909 was caused by the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by Austria-Hungary in October, 1908. ...

Bulgarian autonomy after the Treaty of Berlin.
Bulgarian autonomy after the Treaty of Berlin.

Image File history File links Litografia. ... Image File history File links Litografia. ... Bulgarian autonomy after the Treaty of Berlin - Lithography Nikolay Pavlovich. ...

Bismarck as host

The Congress of Berlin is frequently viewed as the culmination of the "Battle of Chancellors" involving Alexander Gorchakov of Russia and Otto von Bismarck of Germany. They were able to effectively persuade other European leaders that a free and independent Bulgaria would greatly improve the security risks posed by a disintegrating Ottoman Empire. According to German historian Erich Eyck, Bismarck supported Russia's persuasion that "Turkish rule over a Christian community (Bulgaria) was an anachronism which undoubtedly gave rise to insurrection and bloodshed and should therefore be ended."[1] He used the Great Eastern Crisis of 1875 as proof of growing animosity in the region. Pushkins portrait of Alexander Gorchakov Alexander Mikhailovich Gorchakov (1798-1883) was a Russian statesman from the Gorchakov princely family. ... “Bismarck” redirects here. ... A European is primarily a person who was born into one of the countries within the continent of Europe. ... For other uses, see Ottoman (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Look up Anachronism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Insurrection could refer to: * in a general sense, it means Rebellion * it is also a title of a Star Trek film, see Star Trek: Insurrection ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Animosity is a Dirty South Crunk hip hop album by thug rapper White Dawg, released in 2002 (see 2002 in music). ...


Bismarck's ultimate goal during the Congress of Berlin was not to upset Germany's status on the international platform. He did not wish to disrupt the Three Emperor's League by choosing between Russia and Austria as an ally.[2] In order to maintain peace in Europe, Bismarck sought to convince other European diplomats on dividing up the Balkans so as to foster greater stability. During the process of division, Russia began to feel short-changed even though she eventually gained independence for Bulgaria. One can therefore see the underpinnings of the alliance problems in Europe prior to the First World War. The League of the Three Emperors, also known as the Three Emperors League (German: ), was an 1873 alliance among the emperors of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia, the three largest powers in Eastern and Central Europe at the time. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ...


One reason why Bismarck was able to mediate the various tensions present at the Congress of Berlin stemmed from his diplomatic persona. He was an ardent pacifist when international affairs did not pertain to Germany directly. On the other hand, Bismarck seethed with aggression whenever Germany's national interest was on the line. And at the Congress of Berlin, "Germany could not look for any advantage from the crisis" that had occurred in the Balkans back in 1875.[3] As a result, Bismarck claimed impartiality on behalf of Germany at the Congress. This claim enabled him to preside over the negotiations with a keen eye for foul play. Persona literally means mask , although it does not usually refer to a literal mask but to the social masks all humans supposedly wear. ... Pacifist may mean: an advocate of pacifism. ... The national interest, often referred to by the French term raison détat, is a countrys goals and ambitions whether economic, military, or cultural. ... Impartiality is a principle of justice holding that decisions should be based on objective criteria, rather then on the basis of bias, prejudice, or preferring the benefit to one person over another for improper reasons. ... Foul Play is a 1978 comedy/thriller film by Colin Higgins (the director of the cult classic Harold and Maude) starring Goldie Hawn and Chevy Chase. ...


Legacy

Italy was dissatisfied with the results of the Congress, and the situation between Greece and Ottoman Empire was left unresolved. The Bosnians and Herzegovinans would also prove to be a problem to the Austro-Hungarian Empire in later decades. The League of Three Emperors, established in 1873, was destroyed, as Russia saw lack of German support on the issue of Bulgaria's full independence as a breach of loyalty and alliance. The establishment of a border between Greece and Turkey failed to be accomplished. In 1881, after protracted negotiations, a compromise border was accepted after a naval demonstration of the Powers. For other uses, see Ottoman (disambiguation). ... Motto None Anthem Intermeco Bosnia and Herzegovina() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Sarajevo Official languages Bosnian Croatian Serbian Government Parliamentary democracy  -  Presidency members Željko KomÅ¡ić1 NebojÅ¡a Radmanović2 Haris Silajdžić3  -  Chairman of the Council of Ministers Nikola Å pirić  -  High Representative 4 Independence... Official languages Latin, German, Hungarian Established church Roman Catholic Capital & Largest City Vienna pop. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Neither nation was satisfied, however, and tensions continued until the Porte declared a war on Greece on April 17th, 1897. Fighting continued until Russia demanded that it be stopped, and an armistice was concluded on May 18, 1897. However more fighting lay ahead in the twentieth century. So, the congress sowed the seeds of further conflicts, including the Balkan Wars, and the First World War, and later events connected to these conflicts, such as the Armenian Genocide. Indeed, subsequent events vindicated Bismarck's famous parting words to a Turkish delegate: "This is your last chance—and if I know you, you will not take it." So, the congress sowed the seeds of further conflicts, including the Balkan Wars, and the First World War. Synonym of the government of the Ottoman Empire. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants  Ottoman Empire Balkan League: Bulgaria Greece Serbia Montenegro Commanders Ottoman Empire: Nizam PaÅŸa, Zeki PaÅŸa, Esat PaÅŸa, Abdullah PaÅŸa, Ali Rıza PaÅŸa Bulgaria: Vladimir Vazov, Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev Greece:Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis Serbia:Radomir Putnik, Petar... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Armenian Genocide photo. ... Alternate meanings: See Bismarck (disambiguation). ... Combatants  Ottoman Empire Balkan League: Bulgaria Greece Serbia Montenegro Commanders Ottoman Empire: Nizam PaÅŸa, Zeki PaÅŸa, Esat PaÅŸa, Abdullah PaÅŸa, Ali Rıza PaÅŸa Bulgaria: Vladimir Vazov, Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev Greece:Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis Serbia:Radomir Putnik, Petar... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ...


Delegates

Great Britain

Russia Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield (December 21, 1804 - April 24, British Conservative Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and author. ... Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury (February 3, 1830–August 22, 1903). ...

Germany Pushkins portrait of Alexander Gorchakov Alexander Mikhailovich Gorchakov (1798-1883) was a Russian statesman from the Gorchakov princely family. ... Count Peter Andreyevich Shuvalov (Schouvaloff) (Пётр Андреевич Шувалов in Russian) (1827 - 1889) was a Russian diplomat. ...

Austria-Hungary “Bismarck” redirects here. ... Prince Chlodwig Karl Victor zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst (31 March 1819–6 July 1901) was a German statesman and Chancellor of the German Empire. ... Bernhard Ernst von Bulöw (1815-1879), Danish and German statesman, was the son of Adolf von Bulow, a Danish official, and was born at Cismar in Holstein on the 2nd of August 1815. ...

France Gyula Andrássy (by Gyula Benczúr, 1884) Gyula, Count Andrássy de Csíkszentkirály et Krasznahorka (csíkszentkirályi és krasznahorkai gróf Andrássy Gyula in Hungarian) (born Kassa, Kingdom of Hungary (now Košice, Slovakia), March 3, 1823 – died Volosca, February 18, 1890) was a Hungarian... Count Alajos Károlyi de Nagykároly (1825-1889), Austro-Hungarian diplomatist, was born in Vienna on the 8th of August 1825. ... Baron Heinrich Karl von Haymerle (1828–1881) was an Austrian statesman. ...

Italy William Henry Waddington, French statesman William Henry Waddington (December 11, 1826 - January 13, 1894) was a French statesman who was Prime Minister in 1879. ...

Ottoman Empire Lodovico, Count Corti (October 24, 1823 - February 19, 1888), Italian diplomat, was born at Gambarano. ...

Romania Alexander Karatheodori Pasha (1833-1906) was a Turkish statesman who was born at Constantinople and studied in Paris. ... This article is about the Ottoman soldier. ...

  • Ion C. Brătianu
  • Mihail Kogălniceanu

Greece Ion C. Brătianu (June 2, 1821-May 16, 1891), Romanian statesman, was born at Piteşti in Walachia. ... Mihail Kogălniceanu Mihail Kogălniceanu (September 6, 1817, Iasi - July 1, 1891, Paris) was a Romanian statesman, historian and publicist, he became the first Prime minister of Romania October 11, 1863, after the union of Moldavian and Wallachian principalities. ...

Serbia Theodoros Deligiannis (in Greek: Θεόδωρος Δηλιγιάννης)(1820 - 13 June 1905) was a Greek statesman. ...

  • Jovan Ristić


Montenegro also sent delegates. Jovan Ristić, or Ristitch (1831-1899) was a Serbian statesman born at Kragujevac in 1831. ...


References

  1. ^ Erich Eyck, Bismarck and the German Empire (New York: W.W. Norton, 1964), 245-46.
  2. ^ Erich Eyck, Bismarck and the German Empire (New York: W.W. Norton, 1964), 245-46.
  3. ^ Erich Eyck, Bismarck and the German Empire (New York: W.W. Norton, 1964), 245-46.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Congress of Berlin (1254 words)
The Congress was attended by the British Empire, Austria-Hungary, France, the German Empire, Italy, the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire.
The Congress of Berlin proposed and ratified the Treaty of Berlin.
The Congress of Berlin is frequently viewed as the culmination of the "Battle of Chancellors" involving Alexander Gorchakov of Russia and Otto von Bismarck of Germany.
Congress of Berlin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (824 words)
The congress was aimed at the revision of the Treaty of San Stefano and at keeping Constantinople in Muslim hands.
The Congress was attended by the United Kingdom, Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Russia and Turkey.
The Congress of Berlin proposed and ratified the Treaty of Berlin.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m