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Encyclopedia > Congress Poland
Królestwo Polskie
Царство Польское

Kingdom of Poland

Client state of the Russian Empire Anthem: God Save the Tsar! Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq mi Population  - 1897...

Coat of arms
1815 – 1915 Coat of arms
Coat of arms
Flag Coat of arms
Map of Congress Poland. Congress Poland is light green. Dark line shows borders of pre-partition Poland.
Capital Warsaw
Language(s) Polish, Russian
Government Constitutional monarchy
King
 - 1815-1825 Alexander I
 - 1825-1831 Nicholas I (deposed)
 - 1894-1916 Nicholas II (renounced)
Namestnik See list
Legislature Sejm
History
 - Established June 91815
 - November Uprising November 29, 1831
 - January Uprising January 22, 1863
 - Collapsed 1915
Area
 - Varied 128,500 km2
49,614 sq mi
Population
 - Varied est. 3,300,000 
     Density 25.7 /km² 
66.5 /sq mi

Congress Poland (Polish: Kongresówka) or Kingdom of Poland (Polish: Królestwo Polskie, Russian: Царство Польское, Tsarstvo Polskoye)[1] was a puppet state[2] [3] under Russian imperial rule from 1814 to 1915, constitutionally in personal union. It was also informally known as the Russian Poland. Location Official languages Polish Established church Roman Catholic Capital Warsaw Largest City Warsaw Head of state Duke of Warsaw Area about 155,000 km² Population about 4. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (449x623, 279 KB) Duchy of Warsaw Coat of Arms author:user:Mathiasrex Maciej SzczepaÅ„czyk File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Frederick Augustus I of Saxony Duchy... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (730x810, 414 KB) Coat of Arms of Piast dynasty The eagle was cropped from some {{Polishsymbol}} coat of arms made by Halibutt in Blender and GIMP Based on the excellent French Wikipédia:Projet/Blasons and help from w:User:Snargle... The Kingdom of Poland, also informally called Regency Kingdom of Poland (Polish: ), was the state proclaimed by the Act of November 5 issued by Imperial Germany and Austria-Hungary. ... Image File history File links Kongresówka. ... Image File history File links Kongresowka. ... Civil flag of the Republic of Poland State flag with coat of arms of the Republic of Poland. ... Flag of Poland with the coat of arms The coat of arms of Poland consists of a white eagle on a red shield. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (900x770, 113 KB) From Estonian Wikipedia. ... This is a list of national capitals of the world in alphabetical order. ... Warsaw (Polish: , , in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: ) is the capital of Poland, its largest city, and a gamma world city. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Mieszko I. BolesÅ‚aw I Chrobry. ... Aleksandr I Pavlovich (Russian: Александр I Павлович) (December 23, 1777–December 1, 1825), was Emperor of Russia from March 23, 1801–December 1, 1825 and King of Poland from 1815–1825, as well as the first Grand Duke of Finland. ... Nicholas I (Russian: Николай I Павлович, Nikolai I Pavlovich), July 6 (June 25, Old Style), 1796–March 2 (February 18, Old Style), 1855), was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855. ... Nicholas II of Russia (18 May [O.S. 6 May] 1868 – 17 July [O.S. 4 July] 1918) (Russian: , Nikolay II) was the last Emperor of Russia, King of Poland,[1] and Grand Duke of Finland. ... Namestnik of the Kingdom of Poland (Polish: ) was the title of the official representatives of the king of Poland (i. ... Namestnik of the Kingdom of Poland (Polish: ) was the title of the official representatives of the king of Poland (i. ... A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... The Sejm building in Warsaw. ... The Congress of Vienna by Jean-Baptiste Isabey, 1819. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... November 29 is the 333rd (in leap years the 334th) day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Polonia (Poland), 1863, by Jan Matejko, 1864, oil on canvas, 156 × 232 cm, National Museum, Kraków. ... January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar). ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... Population density by country, 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... A personal union is a relationship of two or more entities that are considered separate, sovereign states, which, through established law, share the same person as their respective head of state. ...

Contents

History

Congress Poland was created out of the Duchy of Warsaw at the Congress of Vienna in 1815, when European states reorganised Europe following the Napoleonic wars. The importance of the Congress lent its name to the state, which was often known as Congress Poland.[4][5]While this kingdom lost its status as a semi-independent state in 1831 and was from then on ever more closely integrated with Russia, its administrative organisation was sufficiently distinct for its name to remain in official Russian use, although in the later years of Russian rule it was often replaced, albeit unofficially [6], with a more generic and derogatory[citation needed] term, "Vistula Land", after all of its separate institutions and administrative arrangements were abolished. However, even after this formalised annexation, the territory retained some degree of distinctiveness within the Russian Empire and continued to be referred to informally as Congress Poland until the Russian rule there ended as a result of the advance by the armies of the Central Powers in 1915 during the First World War. Location Official languages Polish Established church Roman Catholic Capital Warsaw Largest City Warsaw Head of state Duke of Warsaw Area about 155,000 km² Population about 4. ... The Congress of Vienna by Jean-Baptiste Isabey, 1819. ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... The Napoleonic Wars lasted from 1804 until 1815. ... A state is a set of institutions that possess the authority to make the rules that govern the people in one or more societies, having internal and external sovereignty over a definite territory. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Vistulan Country or (Russian: ; Polish: ) was the name for the lands of the Congress Poland incorporated into Imperial Russia after the fall of the November Uprising. ... Anthem: God Save the Tsar! Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq mi Population  - 1897... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Triple Alliance. ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ...


Originally, the kingdom had an area of roughly 128,500 km² (compared with over 1 million km² of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) and a population of approximately 3.3 million (in 1816) (compared with approximately 10 million Commonwealth citizens). The new state would be one of the smallest Polish states ever, smaller than the preceding Duchy of Warsaw and much smaller than the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.[5] Its population increased to 6.1 million in 1870 and 10 million in 1900. Most of the ethnic Poles in the Russian Empire lived in the Congress Kingdom, but it did contain some areas where Poles were not in the majority. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... 1816 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Location Official languages Polish Established church Roman Catholic Capital Warsaw Largest City Warsaw Head of state Duke of Warsaw Area about 155,000 km² Population about 4. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar, but a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... Ethnic Poles (usually simply called Poles or Polonia) are those who are considered, by themselves or others, to be ethnically Polish rather than anything else but who do not live within the country of Poland nor hold its citizenship. ... Anthem: God Save the Tsar! Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq mi Population  - 1897...


Congress Poland largely emerged as a result of the efforts of Russian foreign affairs minister Adam Jerzy Czartoryski[7], a Pole who aimed to resurrect the Polish state in alliance with Russia. Formally, the Kingdom of Poland was one of the few contemporary constitutional monarchies in Europe, with the Emperor of Russia as Polish King; his title in chief of Poland, in Russian, was Tsar, as in a few fully integrated parts of the empire (Georgia, Kazan, Siberia). The main problem was that the tsars, who had absolute power ― with the formal title Autocrat — in Russia, similarly wanted no restrictions on their rule in Poland, while the country was given one of the most liberal constitutions in 19th century Europe.[7] Congress Poland had a parliament (sejm) which could vote laws and was responsible to the tsar. It had also its own army, Polish currency (złoty), budget, penal code and a customs boundary separating it from the rest of Russian lands. In reality all opposition to the emperor was persecuted and the law was disregarded at will by Russian officials[8]. Poland also had democratic traditions (Golden Liberty) and the Polish nobility (szlachta) deeply valued personal freedom, which made the autocratic and absolute rule demanded by Russia difficult to establish. Prince Adam Jerzy Czartoryski, in English: Adam George Czartoryski (January 14, 1770 — July 15, 1861), Polish szlachcic, statesman and author, son of Prince Adam Kazimierz Czartoryski and Izabela Fleming (it is rumoured he was a fruit of her liaison with Russian ambassador to Poland Nikolai Repnin[1]). He was known... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Poland was ruled by dukes (c. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... An autocrat is generally speaking any ruler with absolute power; the term is now usually used in a negative sense (cf. ... // Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland was granted to the Congress Kingdom of Poland by tsar of Russia and king of Poland, Alexander I of Russia who was obliged to issue a constitution to the newly recreated Polish state under his domain as specified by the Congress of Vienna. ... The Sejm building in Warsaw. ... ZÅ‚oty (literally meaning golden, plural: zÅ‚ote or zÅ‚otych, depending on the number) is the Polish currency unit. ... Budget generally refers to a list of all planned expenses and revenues. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Criminal Code. ... Golden Liberty (latin: Aurea Libertas, Polish: Złota Wolność, sometimes used in plural form; this phenomena can be also reffered to as Golden Freedoms, Nobles Democracy or Nobles Commonwealth, Polish: Rzeczpospolita Szlachecka) refers to a unique democratic political system in the Kingdom of Poland and later, after... Polish szlachcic. ... Golden Liberty (latin: Aurea Libertas, Polish: Złota Wolność, sometimes used in plural form; this phenomena can be also reffered to as Golden Freedoms, Nobles Democracy or Nobles Commonwealth, Polish: Rzeczpospolita Szlachecka) refers to a unique democratic political system in the Kingdom of Poland and later, after...


Congress Poland in its original form of a semi-independent state separate from Russia with its own distinct institutions, in personal union with Russia through the rule of the Russian tsar, lasted for a mere 15 years. Initially Alexander I was crowned as the King of Poland and observed the constitution. However, in time the situation changed and he granted the viceroy, Grand Duke Konstantin Pavlovich, almost dictatorial powers.[4] His successor, Nicholas I declined to be crowned Polish monarch and instead continued to limit the liberties of Poland. In 1831, in reply to the breaches of Constitution, the Polish parliament deposed the Tsar as King of Poland in response to his repeated curtailment of its constitutional rights. The Tsar reacted by sending Russian troops into Poland and the so-called November Uprising broke out.[9] Aleksandr I Pavlovich (Russian: Александр I Павлович) (December 23, 1777–December 1, 1825), was Emperor of Russia from March 23, 1801–December 1, 1825 and King of Poland from 1815–1825, as well as the first Grand Duke of Finland. ... Constantine was known for his repugnant physical features which resembled those of his father, Emperor Paul. ... Nicholas I (Russian: Николай I Павлович, Nikolai I Pavlovich), July 6 (June 25, Old Style), 1796–March 2 (February 18, Old Style), 1855), was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The Sejm building in Warsaw. ... Poland was ruled by dukes (c. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


The end of Congress Poland as a semi-independent entity came with the crushing of the uprising following an 11-month military campaign, and from then on it gradually became an integral part of the Russian Empire. This was formalised through the issuing of the Organic Statute of the Kingdom of Poland by the Emperor in 1832, which abolished the 1815 constitution used previously in the kingdom. As a result the kingdom's army and legislative assembly (Sejm) were abolished. In the next 30 years a series of measures bound Congress Poland ever more closely to Russia. 1832 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... The Sejm building in Warsaw. ...


In 1863 the January Uprising broke out, but was crushed by 1865. As a direct result any remaining separate status of Congress Poland was removed and the political entity was directly incorporated into the Russian Empire — later even the country's official name was changed into "Vistulan Country" (Russian: Привислинский Край). It was a namestnichestvo until 1875 and later Governorate General. 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar). ... Polonia (Poland), 1863, by Jan Matejko, 1864, oil on canvas, 156 × 232 cm, National Museum, Kraków. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Anthem: God Save the Tsar! Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq mi Population  - 1897... Vistulan Country (Russian Привислинский Край, Privislinskiy Kray) was an informal name of the Polish lands incorporated into Imperial Russia after the fall of the November Uprising. ... Namestnik (Russian: ) was an office position in the history of Russia. ... Guberniya (Russian: IPA: ) (also gubernia, guberniia, gubernya) was a major administrative subdivision of the Imperial Russia, usually translated as governorate or province. ...


In the 1880s, the official language of Congress Poland was changed to Russian, the Polish language was banned both from the office and education, and the process of liquidating the autonomy was finished. // Development and commercial production of electric lighting Development and commercial production of gasoline-powered automobile by Karl Benz, Gottlieb Daimler and Maybach First commercial production and sales of phonographs and phonograph recordings. ... Polish (język polski, polszczyzna) is the official language of Poland. ...

Polish Statehood


In 1912 the southeastern part, around Chełm, was constituted a separate entity and incorporated into core Russia. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (730x810, 414 KB) Coat of Arms of Piast dynasty The eagle was cropped from some {{Polishsymbol}} coat of arms made by Halibutt in Blender and GIMP Based on the excellent French Wikipédia:Projet/Blasons and help from w:User:Snargle... The Kingdom of Poland of the first Piasts was the Polish state in the years between the coronation of BolesÅ‚aw I the Brave in 1025 and the death of BolesÅ‚aw III the Wrymouth in 1138. ... Coat of arms Poland during the Period of Fragmentation Capital Kraków, PoznaÅ„ Language(s) Polish (spoken) Latin (written) Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy History  - Established 1138  - Disestablished 1320 The Kingdom of Poland during period of fragmentation was the Polish state in the years between the death of BolesÅ‚aw... The Kingdom of Poland of the later Piasts was the Polish state in the years between the coronation of WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw I the Elbow-high in 1320 and the death of Kazimierz III the Great in 1370. ... The Kingdom of Poland of the Jagiellons was the Polish state in the years between the death of Casimir III in 1370 and the Union of Lublin in 1569. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Galicia (Ukrainian: Галичина (Halychyna), Polish: Galicja, German: Galizien, Slovak: Halič, Romanian: Galiţia, Hungarian: Gácsország) is the name of a region of Central Europe. ... Location Official languages Polish Established church Roman Catholic Capital Warsaw Largest City Warsaw Head of state Duke of Warsaw Area about 155,000 km² Population about 4. ... The Free City of Kraków (Polish: Wolne Miasto Kraków), also known as Republic of Kraków (Rzeczpospolita Krakowska), was a city-state created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 and controlled by its three neighbors, Russia, Prussia and Austria until 1846. ... Grand Duchy of Poznań (Polish: Wielkie Księstwo Poznańskie, German: Grossherzogtum Posen) was province of Prussia in the Polish lands commonly known as Great Poland between the years 1815-1849. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Kingdom of Poland, also informally called Regency Kingdom of Poland (Polish: ), was the state proclaimed by the Act of November 5 issued by Imperial Germany and Austria-Hungary. ... Anthem: Mazurek DÄ…browskiego Capital Warsaw Language(s) Polish Government Republic President List Prime minister List Legislature Sejm Historical era Interwar period  - World War I November 11, 1918  - Invasion November 2, 1939 Area  - 1939 388,600 km2 150,039 sq mi Population  - 1939 est. ... Polish Secret State (also known as Polish Underground State; Polish Polskie Państwo Podziemne) is a term coined by Jan Karski in his book Story of a Secret State; it is used to refer to all underground resistance organizations in Poland during World War II, both military and civilian. ... The Peoples Republic of Poland or Polish Peoples Republic (Polish: Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL) was the official name of Poland from 1952 to 1989, during its period of rule by the Communist party, officially called the Polish United Workers Party (Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza, or PZPR). ... Motto: none1 Anthem: Mazurek DÄ…browskiego(Polish) DÄ…browskis Mazurka Poland() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() [] Capital (and largest city)  Warsaw Official languages Polish2 Government Parliamentary republic  - President Lech KaczyÅ„ski  - Prime minister JarosÅ‚aw KaczyÅ„ski Formation  - Christianisation4 966   - Redeclared November 11, 1918  Accession to... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... CheÅ‚m ( ; Ukrainian: , Kholm) is a town in eastern Poland with 72,595 inhabitants (2005). ...


During First World War Congress Poland was looted and abandoned by the retreating Russian army in 1915 and the following year the occupying Central Powers created the Kingdom of Poland out of most of its territory. Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... In russian, word army means armed forces in general. ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Triple Alliance. ... Kingdom of Poland was the state proclaimed by the Imperial Germany and Austria-Hungary from the areas of the former Congress Poland on November 5, 1916. ...


Government

Map from 1902
Map from 1902

The government of the Congress of Poland was outlined in the Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland from 1815. The Emperor of Russia was the Polish King. The local government was headed by the Namestnik of the Kingdom of Poland and the Council of State (an important part of which was the Administrative Council. There was also a parliament (Sejm). Download high resolution version (2572x3522, 1315 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2572x3522, 1315 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... // Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland was granted to the Congress Kingdom of Poland by tsar of Russia and king of Poland, Alexander I of Russia who was obliged to issue a constitution to the newly recreated Polish state under his domain as specified by the Congress of Vienna. ... Poland was ruled by dukes (c. ... Namestnik of the Kingdom of Poland (Polish: ) was the title of the official representatives of the king of Poland (i. ... Council of State Polish: of Congress Kingdom of Poland was an important state institution of Poland that existed in the 18th century. ... Administrative Council (Polish: ) was a part of Council of State of the Congress Poland. ... A parliament is a legislature, especially in those countries whose system of government is based on the Westminster system modelled after that of the United Kingdom. ... The Sejm building in Warsaw. ...


In theory, the government was one of the most liberal in contemporary Europe[7], but in practice the Congress Poland was a Russian puppet state, and the liberal provisions of the constitution, and the scope of the autonomy, were often disregarded by the Russian officials.[7][5][8]


See also

Although the majority of the szlachta was reconciled to the end of the Commonwealth in 1795, the possibility of Polish independence was kept alive by events within and without Poland throughout the nineteenth century. ... The Grand Duchy of Finland was a state that existed 1809–1917 as part of the Russian Empire. ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Namestniks of Kingdom of Poland (Polish: ) was the title of the official representatives of the king of Poland (i. ...

References

  1. ^ Although Kingdom of Poland was the state's official name, to distinguish it from other Kingdoms of Poland, it was and is usually referred to as Congress Poland. Throughout the 19th century the term Congress Poland continued to be used in relation to these territories, although the political entity they were connected with no longer existed. The term Kongresówka is currently used in the Polish language as a slightly derogatory term for all inhabitants of central Poland, who are considered by some inhabitants of former Austrian Galicia as rude, uneducated and barbarian.[citation needed]
  2. ^ Harold Nicolson, The Congress of Vienna: A Study in Allied Unity: 1812-1822 , Grove Press, 2001, ISBN 080213744X, Google Print, p.171
  3. ^ Alan Warwick Palmer, Twilight of the Habsburgs: The Life and Times of Emperor Francis Joseph, Atlantic Monthly Press, 1997, ISBN 0871136651, Google Print, p.7
  4. ^ a b Czesław Miłosz, The history of a Polish literature, University of California, 1983, ISBN 0520044770, [[1] Google Print, p.196]
  5. ^ a b c Harold Nicolson, The Congress of Vienna: A Study in Allied Unity: 1812-1822, Grove Press, 2001, ISBN 080213744X, Google Print, p.179 and p.180
  6. ^ The Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedia (1890-1906) article on The Kingdom of Poland. Retrieved on 2006-07-27.
  7. ^ a b c d Rett R. Ludwikowski, Constitution-making in the Region of Former Soviet Dominanc, Duke University Press, 1996, ISBN 0822318024, Google Print, p.12, 13
  8. ^ a b (Polish) konstytucja Królestwa Polskiego PWN Encyklopedia. Last accessed on 19 January 2006
  9. ^ Danuta Przekop, Maciej Janowski, Polish Liberal Thought Up to 1918, Central European University Press, 2004, ISBN 9639241180, Google Print, p.74

In the period following its emergence in the 10th century, the Polish nation was led by a series of strong rulers who converted the Poles to Christianity, created a strong Central European state and integrated Poland into European culture. ... Coat-of-arms of Galicia or Galicja Galicia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , German: , Hungarian: , Czech: , Turkish: ) is an historical region in East Central Europe, currently divided between Poland and Ukraine. ... Sir Harold Nicolson (November 21, 1886 – May 1, 1968) was a British diplomat, author and politician. ... Czesław Miłosz in September 1999 Czesław Miłosz (1911-2004), Cracow (Poland), December 1998 Czesław Miłosz( ); (June 30, 1911 – August 14, 2004) was a Polish poet and essayist. ... Sir Harold Nicolson (November 21, 1886 – May 1, 1968) was a British diplomat, author and politician. ... Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary (35 volumes, small; 86 (?) volumes, large) was published in Imperial Russia in 1890-1906. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 27 is the 208th day (209th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 157 days remaining. ... Encyklopedia PWN can refer to several encyclopedias published by Polish publisher Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe Wielka Encyklopedia Powszechna PWN - published from 1962 to 1970 Wielka Encyklopedia PWN - published from 2001 to 2005 Internetowa encyklopedia PWN, also reffered to as Nowa encyklopedia powszechna PWN, is a free Internet Encyclopedia published by...

Further reading

  • Arcadius Kahan, Russian Economic History: The Nineteenth Century, University of Chicago Press, 1989, ISBN 0-226-42243-7, Google Print
Russian/Soviet territorial dominions
Metropolitan power: Russian Empire - Soviet Union
Monarchies in personal union with imperial Russia: Kingdom of Congress Poland (1815-1831) | Grand Duchy of Finland (1809-1917)

Concession territories: Russian: Kwantung Leased Territory & Chinese Eastern Railway Zone in China | Soviet: Hanko & later Porkkala (Baltic Sea peninsulas in Finland) | Arcadius Kahan (January 16, 1920-1982) was a noted 20th century economic historian and Professor at the University of Chicago. ... Image File history File links Romanov_Flag. ... Anthem: God Save the Tsar! Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq mi Population  - 1897... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... The Grand Duchy of Finland was a state that existed 1809–1917 as part of the Russian Empire. ... The Kwantung Leased Territory (Chinese: 关东州, Guandongzhou, Japanese: 関東州; Kantoushu) was a composite territory in historic Eastern Manchuria that existed in the first half of the 20th century, from 1898 through 1945. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Hanko (IPA: ) (Hangö in Swedish, or Гангут in Russian), is a small bilingual port city on the south coast of Finland, 130 km west of Helsinki. ... Porkkala, is a peninsula in the Gulf of Finland, located at Kirkkonummi in Southern Finland. ...


Russian imperial protectorate: Manchuria Manchuria (Manchu: Manju; Traditional Chinese: 滿洲; Simplified Chinese: 满洲; pinyin: Mǎnzhōu, Russian: ) is a vast territorial region in northeast Asia. ...


Soviet occupation zones in partitioned countries after World war II: Germany Soviet Zone & Berlin Soviet Zone | Austria Soviet Zone - Vienna Soviet Zone) Flag Occupation zones in Germany (1945)   Capital Berlin (de jure) Government Military occupation History  - Allied Control Council 5 July, 1945  - West Germany 23 May 1949  - East Germany 7 October 1949  - Final Settlement 12 September, 1990 The Allied powers who defeated Germany in World War II divided the country west of... Berlin is the capital city of reunited Germany. ... This is the history of Austria. ... The history of Vienna has been long and varied, beginning when the Roman Empire created a military camp in the area covered by Viennas city centre. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Congress Poland - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (524 words)
Congress Poland largely emerged as a result of the efforts of Adam Czartoryski, the Russian foreign affairs minister and a Pole who aimed to resurrect the Polish state in alliance with Russia.
Congress Poland had a parliament which could vote on laws and was responsible to the tsar.
In the 1880's, the official language of Congress Poland was changed to Russian, the Polish language was banned both from the office and education, and the process of liquidating the autonomy was finished.
Station Information - Congress Poland (305 words)
Congress Poland largely emerged as a result of the efforts of Adam Czartoryski, the Russian foreign affairs minister, who was a Pole and who aimed to resurrect the Polish state in alliance with Russia.
Formally, Congress Poland was one of the few contemporary constitutional monarchies in Europe, with the Tsar of Russia as Polish King.
The Congress Poland was abandoned by the Russian army in 1915.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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