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Encyclopedia > Congo Crisis
Congo Crisis
Date June 1960 to November 1965
Location Democratic Republic of Congo
Result National independence from Belgium

Republic of the Congo (Léopoldville) established
Country maintained as a unitary state
Mobutu dictatorship established Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... Motto (French for Peace - Justice - Work) Anthem Capital Léopoldville Language(s) French (Lingala, Kongo language, Swahili, Tshiluba were national languages) Government Republic President  - 1960-1965 Joseph Kasa-Vubu Prime Minister  - 1960 Patrice Lumumba  - 1961-64 Cyrille Adoula  - 1965 Évariste Kimba Historical era Cold War  - Independence July 1, 1960  - Kasai... Mobutu Sese Seko Nkuku Ngbendu wa Za Banga (October 14, 1930 – September 7, 1997), known commonly as Mobutu, or Mobutu Sese Seko, born Joseph-Désiré Mobutu, was the President of Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo) for 32 years (1965–1997), in which he rose to power...

Combatants
Congo

ONUC
Flag of Cuba Cuba Image File history File links Flag_of_Congo_Kinshasa_1960. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Nations. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cuba. ...

Flag of Belgium Belgium
Katanga
South Kasai
CIA
Commanders
Patrice Lumumba
Pierre Mulele
Laurent-Désiré Kabila
Flag of the United Nations Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi
Flag of Cuba Che Guevara
Moise Tshombe
Flag of Zaire Joseph Mobutu
Flag of Belgium Mike Hoare
Flag of Belgium Charles Laurent
Albert Kalonji
History of DR Congo
Flag of Congo Kinshasa (1963–1966) Flag of Zaire (1971–1997)
Flag of Congo Kinshasa (1997–2006) Flag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (since 2006)
v  d  e

The Congo Crisis (1960-1965) was a period of turmoil in the First Republic of the Congo that began with national independence from Belgium and ended with the seizing of power by Joseph Mobutu. At various points it had the characteristics of anti-colonial struggle, a secessionist war with the province of Katanga, a United Nations peacekeeping operation, and a Cold War proxy battle between the United States and the Soviet Union. In recognition of the failure of the word "crisis" to convey this complexity, some authors[attribution needed] write Congo "Crisis" or "Congo Crisis". Because of it, The Crisis led to the assassination of Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba, as well as a traumatic setback to the United Nations following the death of UN Secretary General Dag Hammarskjöld in a plane crash as he sought to mediate. Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Katanga. ... Capital Lubumbashi Created June 1960 Dissolved January 1963 Demonym Katangan Currency Katanga franc Katanga is the southern province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, regional capital Lubumbashi (formerly Elizabethville). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Kasai. ... Flag of South Kasai South Kasai was a secessionist region in the area of south central Congo (Kinshasa) during the early 1960’s. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... CIA redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Congo_Kinshasa_1960. ... Patrice Émery Lumumba (2 July 1925 – 17 January 1961) was an African anti-colonial leader and the first legally elected Prime Minister of the Republic of the Congo after he helped to win its independence from Belgium in June 1960. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Congo_Kinshasa_1960. ... Pierre Mulele (August 11, 1929 - October 3 [or October 9, depending on the source], 1968) was a Congolese revolutionary who was briefly minister of education in Patrice Lumumbas cabinet. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Congo_Kinshasa_1960. ... Laurent-Désiré Kabila (November 27, 1939 – January 16, 2001) was President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo from May 1997, when he overthrew longtime dictator Mobutu Sese Seko after 32 years of ruling Zaire until his assassination in January 2001, succeeded by his son Joseph. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Nations. ... JTU Aguiyi-Ironsi Johnson Thomas Umananke Aguiyi-Ironsi (1924 - 1966) was a Nigerian Igbo political figure. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cuba. ... Ernesto Guevara de la Serna (June 14,[1] 1928 – October 9, 1967), commonly known as Che Guevara, El Che or just Che was an Argentine-born Marxist revolutionary, medical doctor , political figure, and leader of Cuban and internationalist guerrillas. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Katanga. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Zaire. ... Mobutu Sese Seko Nkuku Ngbendu wa Za Banga (October 14, 1930 – September 7, 1997), known commonly as Mobutu, or Mobutu Sese Seko, born Joseph-Désiré Mobutu, was the President of Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo) for 32 years (1965–1997), in which he rose to power... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Thomas Michael Hoare 1920- is a mercenary leader known for his exploits in Africa and the Indian Ocean. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Kasai. ... Albert Kalongi (b. ... Early history Migration & states Colonization Stanley (1867–1885) Congo Free State Leopold II (1885–1908) Belgian Congo (1908–1960) Congo Crisis First Republic (1960–1965) Zaire Mobutu regime (1965–1996) First Congo War Kabilas rise (1996–1998) Second Congo War Africas Great War (1998–2003) Transitional government Towards... Image File history File links Flag_of_Congo_Kinshasa_1963. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Zaire. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Congo_Kinshasa_1997. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Democratic_Republic_of_the_Congo. ... Early Congolese History starts with waves of Bantu migrations from 2000 BC to 500 AD moving into the area now known as the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... Early history Migration & states Colonization Stanley (1867–1885) Congo Free State Leopold II (1885–1908) Belgian Congo (1908–1960) Congo Crisis First Republic (1960–1965) Zaire Mobutu regime (1965–1996) Shaba I (1977) Shaba II (1978) First Congo War Kabilas rise (1996–1998) Second Congo War Africas Great... Capital Boma Government Monarchy Ruler and owner Leopold II of Belgium Historical era New Imperialism  - Established 1885  - Annexation by Belgium 15 November, 1908 The Congo Free State was a corporate state privately controlled by Leopold II, King of the Belgians through a dummy non-governmental organization, the Association Internationale Africaine. ... Motto: Travail et Progres (Work and Progress) The Belgian Congo Capital Léopoldville/Leopoldstad Political structure Colony Governor  - 1908-1910 Baron Wahis  - 1946-1951 Eugène Jacques Pierre Louis Jungers  - 1958-1960 Henri Arthur Adolf Marie Christopher Cornelis History  - Established 15 November, 1908  - Congolese independence 30 June, 1960 The Belgian... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Combatants Zaire France Belgium Front for the National Liberation of the Congo (FNLC) Commanders Mobutu Sese Seko Nathaniel Mbumba Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown Unknown Shaba II is a proxy war that occurred in 1978 when the FNLC, Shaba separatists, encouraged by the governments of Angola and Cuba, invaded Shaba... Combatants AFDL, Uganda, Rwanda Zaire Commanders Laurent-Désiré Kabila Mobutu Sésé Seko Casualties Civilians killed: 200,000+ The First Congo War was a conflict from late 1996 to 1997 in which Zairean President Mobutu Sésé Seko was overthrown by rebel forces backed by foreign powers such as... Combatants Democratic Republic of the Congo, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Angola, Chad, Mai-Mai, Hutu-aligned forces Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Movement for the Liberation of Congo Congolese Rally for Democracy Tutsi-aligned forces Commanders Laurent-Désiré Kabila (Congo), Joseph Kabila (Congo), Sam Nujoma Robert Mugabe José Eduardo dos Santos Idriss D... Early history Migration & states Colonization Stanley (1867–1885) Congo Free State Leopold II (1885–1908) Belgian Congo (1908–1960) Congo Crisis First Republic (1960–1965) Zaire Mobutu regime (1965–1996) Shaba I (1977) Shaba II (1978) First Congo War Kabilas rise (1996–1998) Second Congo War Africas Great... Mobutu Sese Seko Nkuku wa za Banga (or Mobutu Sese Seko Koko Ngbendu Wa Za Banga; October 14, 1930 - September 7, 1997) was the President of Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo) from 1965 to 1997. ... Capital Lubumbashi Created June 1960 Dissolved January 1963 Demonym Katangan Currency Katanga franc Katanga is the southern province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, regional capital Lubumbashi (formerly Elizabethville). ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... A proxy war is a war where two powers use third parties as a supplement or a substitute for fighting each other directly. ... Patrice Émery Lumumba (2 July 1925 – 17 January 1961) was an African anti-colonial leader and the first legally elected Prime Minister of the Republic of the Congo after he helped to win its independence from Belgium in June 1960. ... The United Nations Secretary-General is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal divisions of the United Nations. ... Dag Hjalmar Agne Carl Hammarskjöld ( ) (July 29, 1905 – September 18, 1961) was a Swedish diplomat and the second Secretary-General of the United Nations. ...

Contents

Background

Prior to the establishment of the First Republic in 1960, the native Congolese elites had formed semi-political organizations which gradually evolved into the main parties striving for independence. These organizations were formed on one of three foundations: ethnic kinship, connections formed in schools, and urban intellectualism. An intellectual is a person who uses his or her intellect to study, reflect, and speculate on a variety of different ideas. ...


The largest of these was Association des Bakongo (ABAKO), founded in 1950, which was an ethnic association which promoted the interests and language of the Bakongo (or Kongo) people, as well as Bakongo-related ethnic groups. ABAKO, led by Joseph Kasa-Vubu during the Crisis, was at the forefront of the more insistent demands for both independence and federalism. Other less successful ethnic associations included the Liboke lya Bangala, who championed the needs of the Bangala ethno-linguistic group (a grouping created by Western ethnographers), and the Fédékaléo – who included people from the Kasai region. Fédékaléo later split into several groups. Though these organizations represented ethnic groups from all over the Congo, they usually based themselves in Leopoldville (now Kinshasa), since one reason for their existence was the need to maintain ethnic ties after the mass migration to urban areas. ABAKO or Association des Bakongo was a cultural and political organization, headed by Joseph Kasavabu, which emerged in the late 1950s as vocal opponent of Belgian colonial rule in what today is the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... The Bakongo people (aka. ... Joseph Kasa-Vubu (1910 (other sources have 1913, 1915 and 1917) – March 24, 1969) was the first President (1960–1965) of the Republic of Congo (Congo-Léopoldville), which was later renamed Zaire (1971-97) and still later the Democratic Republic of the Congo (1997-present). ... Bibliography Edama, Atibakwa Baboya (1994) Dictionnaire bangála - français - lingála. ... Ethnography ( ethnos = people and graphein = writing) is the genre of writing that presents varying degrees of qualitative and quantitative descriptions of human social phenomena, based on fieldwork. ... Kasai may be Kasai, Hyogo in Japan the Kasai River in Angola and the Democratic Republic of the Congo Kasai province in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, now divided into eastern and western districts This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might... Kinshasa (formerly Léopoldville or, before 1960, also Leopoldstad) is the capital and largest city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ...


Another source of political groupings was the various Alumni Associations - whose membership came from former students of colonial Christian schools in the Congo. Most of the major politicians of the period were Alumni members, and the associations were used to create networks of advisors and supporters.


The third political tributary were the Cercles, urban associations that sprang up in the cities of the Congo, which were designed to foster solidarity amongst the évolués (the educated, westernized middle class). In the words of Patrice Lumumba, the head of the Cercles of Stanleyville (now Kisangani), the Cercles were created to "improve intellectual, social, moral and physical formation" of the évolués. Évolué is a French term (literally, evolved, or developed) used in the colonial era to refer to Congolese who had evolved through education or assimilation and accepted European values and patterns of behavior. ... Patrice Émery Lumumba (2 July 1925 – 17 January 1961) was an African anti-colonial leader and the first legally elected Prime Minister of the Republic of the Congo after he helped to win its independence from Belgium in June 1960. ... Kisangani, formerly Stanleyville, (population 500,000) is a city in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in Central Africa. ...


In 1958, together with Cyrille Adoula and Joseph Ileo, Lumumba founded the Mouvement National Congolais (MNC), a national independence party intended to be non-tribal. It later split into two, MNC-L led by Lumumba and the MNC-K led by Albert Kalonji in Kasai. Cyrille Adoula (born September 13, 1921 in Léopoldville – died May 24, 1978 in Lausanne, Switzerland) was a Congolese politician. ... The Mouvement National Congolais (English: Congolese National Movement, MNC) is a pro-independence group that emerged in the colonized Belgian Congo. ... Albert Kalongi (b. ...


The thirty year plan

In the early 1950s Belgium came under increasing pressure to transform the Belgian Congo into a self-governing state. Belgium had ratified article 73 of the United Nations Charter, which advocated self-determination, and both superpowers put pressure on Belgium to reform its Congo policy. The Belgian government's response was largely dismissive. However, Belgian professor A.J. van Bilsen, in 1955, published a treatise called Thirty Year Plan for the Political Emancipation of Belgian Africa. The timetable called for gradual emancipation of the Congo over a thirty year period - the time Van Bilsen expected it would take to create an educated elite who could replace the Belgians in positions of power. The Belgian government and many of the évolués were suspicious of the plan — the former because it meant eventually giving up the Congo, and the latter because Belgium would still be ruling Congo for another three decades. A group of Catholic évolués responded positively to the plan with a manifesto in a Congolese journal called Conscience Africaine, with their only point of disagreement being the amount of native Congolese participation. The ethnic association ABAKO decided to distance themselves from the plan, in part because most of the Catholic évolués who wrote the Conscience Africaine manifesto were not from the Kongo ethnic group favoured by ABAKO, but also because they had decided to take a more radical, less gradualist approach to ending colonialism. ABAKO demanded immediate self-government for Congo. ha ha ha The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ... Motto: Travail et Progres (Work and Progress) The Belgian Congo Capital Léopoldville/Leopoldstad Political structure Colony Governor  - 1908-1910 Baron Wahis  - 1946-1951 Eugène Jacques Pierre Louis Jungers  - 1958-1960 Henri Arthur Adolf Marie Christopher Cornelis History  - Established 15 November, 1908  - Congolese independence 30 June, 1960 The Belgian... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Antoine Van Bilsen proposed a thirty-year plan for creating an Independent Congo (1955). ...


1959 Leopoldville Riots

ABAKO gathered steam over the following few years, consolidating political control over much of the lower Congo and Léopoldville. By early 1959, much of the lower Congo was beyond the control of Belgian authorities. The Belgian authorities prohibited ABAKO from meeting and this caused widespread rioting in Léopoldville from January 4-7. On January 12 Kasa Vubu was arrested and the Belgians stated that he would be released on March 13 of the same year. Subsequently, the Belgian government announced constitutional reforms intended to bring more Congolese into government, but only in an advisory capacity. They also indicated that the end result of the process would eventually be independence. With this plan the Belgians hoped to satisfy the demands of the more moderate Congolese for inclusion in the political process while neutralizing the more extreme Congolese nationalists with the promise of eventual independence. The end result was the opposite of what was intended. There was a surge of political activity, over fifty political parties were registered, nearly all of them based on tribal groups. Nationalist demands grew more extreme as parties competed with each other. There was further rioting in Stanleyville in October after a meeting of Lumumba's MNC and he was arrested. is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Joseph Kasa Vubu Joseph Kasa Vubu (1917–March 24, 1969) was the first President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo for a period of 5 years, (1960–1965). ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Roundtable Conference, Brussels 1960

Faced with increasing instability, the Belgians held a "Roundtable Conference" in Brussels for the leaders of the different Congolese parties. The MNC demanded that Lumumba should be released from prison so he could attend. The Belgians agreed to independence but tried to negotiate for a transitional period of three to four years. The Congolese insisted that independence be granted immediately and the most that they would concede was a few months. In the end it was agreed to hold elections in May with a transfer of power one month later in June. The experience of the French in the ongoing Algerian War for independence was something the Belgians desperately wanted to avoid. Combatants FLN (1954-62) MNA (1954-62) France (1954-62) FAF (1960-61) OAS (1961-62) Commanders Mostefa Benboulaïd Ferhat Abbas Hocine Aït Ahmed Ahmed Ben Bella Krim Belkacem Larbi Ben MHidi Rabah Bitat Mohamed Boudiaf Messali Hadj Paul Cherrière (1954-55) Henri Lorillot (1955-56...


May 1960 Elections

In order to create political institutions to govern Congo after its independence on June 30, 1960, elections were held in Congo in May 1960. In order to create political institutions to govern the country after its independence from Belgium on June 30 1960, elections were held in Belgian Congo in May 1960. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Only the two biggest parties presented themselves in more than one province:

  • The MNC-L (Patrice Lumumba) had won the elections: with about a quarter of the seats it ended first. It obtained a majority in the Eastern (Orientale) province.
  • The Parti National du Progrès or PNP, was second, was defeated as national party by the MNC-L. It was favoured by the Belgians.

Every other party was based in only one province; their strongholds followed ethnic divisions: The Congolese National Movement-Lumumba (French: Mouvement National Congolais/ Lumumba) is a political party in Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... Patrice Émery Lumumba (2 July 1925 – 17 January 1961) was an African anti-colonial leader and the first legally elected Prime Minister of the Republic of the Congo after he helped to win its independence from Belgium in June 1960. ... The abbreviation or acronym PNP may refer to: Plug-and-play Principles and parameters (P&P) - a linguistics framework A particular polarity of Transistor Partido Nuevo Progresista, Puerto Rican political party Peoples National Party, the ruling political party in Jamaica Philippine National Police One of the two fundamental types...

  • In the province of Léopoldville, Parti Solidaire Africain or PSA (Antoine Gizenga) narrowly defeated ABAKO (Joseph Kasa-Vubu).
  • In the province of Katanga, Confédération des Associations Tribales de Katanga or (CONAKAT) led by Moise Tshombé narrowly defeated Association Générale des Baluba de Katanga or BALUBAKAT (Jason Sendwe).
  • In the province of Kivu, Centre de Regroupement Africain, CEREA (Anicet Kashamura) won but didn't obtain a majority; MNC-L came second.
  • In the province of Kasaï, MNC-L and MNC-K (Albert Kalonji, Joseph Iléo and Cyrille Adoula) fought a duel over the first place. MNC-L could count on two smaller parties (UNC and Coalition Kasaienne (COAKA).
  • In the Eastern province, MNC-L won a clear majority; the PNP was its only adversary.
  • In the province of the Equator, parties were very weak, but PUNA (Jean Bolikango) and UNIMO (Justin Bomboko) could be called the local parties.

In the national parliament, Lumumba could count on a coalition of (in order of loyalty) MNC-L, UNC and COAKA (Kasaï), CEREA (Kivu), PSA (Léopoldville) and BALUBAKAT (Katanga). It was opposed by PNP, MNC-K (Kasaï), ABAKO (Léopoldville), CONAKAT (Katanga), PUNA and UNIMO (Equator) and RECO (Kivu). Antoine Gizenga (born 5 October 1925) is a Congolese (DRC) politician, and the Prime Minister of the country since December 30, 2006. ... Joseph Kasa-Vubu (1910 (other sources have 1913, 1915 and 1917) – March 24, 1969) was the first President (1960–1965) of the Republic of Congo (Congo-Léopoldville), which was later renamed Zaire (1971-97) and still later the Democratic Republic of the Congo (1997-present). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Congolese National Movement-Lumumba (French: Mouvement National Congolais/ Lumumba) is a political party in Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... The Mouvement National Congolais-Kalonji was Congolese political party and splinter group of the Mouvement National Congolais, with whom it cut ties in 1959. ... Albert Kalongi (b. ... Cyrille Adoula (born September 13, 1921 in Léopoldville – died May 24, 1978 in Lausanne, Switzerland) was a Congolese politician. ... The Congolese National Movement-Lumumba (French: Mouvement National Congolais/ Lumumba) is a political party in Democratic Republic of the Congo. ...


As part of a deal, on June 24, 1960, Kasa-Vubu was elected president and the Lumumba government obtained the confidence of Chamber and Senate. is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Independence

The independent Republic of the Congo was declared on 30 June 1960, with Joseph Kasa-Vubu as President and Patrice Lumumba as Prime Minister. It shared a name with the neighboring Republic of the Congo to the west, a French colony that also gained independence in 1960, and the two were normally differentiated by also stating the name of the relevant capital city, so Congo (Léopoldville) versus Congo (Brazzaville). is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Joseph Kasa-Vubu (1910 (other sources have 1913, 1915 and 1917) – March 24, 1969) was the first President (1960–1965) of the Republic of Congo (Congo-Léopoldville), which was later renamed Zaire (1971-97) and still later the Democratic Republic of the Congo (1997-present). ... Patrice Émery Lumumba (2 July 1925 – 17 January 1961) was an African anti-colonial leader and the first legally elected Prime Minister of the Republic of the Congo after he helped to win its independence from Belgium in June 1960. ...


some things were bad that they did


Course of the Crisis

The First Republic

Territorial Control in Congo (1960-61) Color KeyYellow: National Government based in LéopoldvilleRed: Rival National Government based in StanleyvilleGreen: Katanga (Independent)Blue: Mining State of South Kasai (Autonomous)
Territorial Control in Congo (1960-61)
Color Key
  • Yellow: National Government based in Léopoldville
  • Red: Rival National Government based in Stanleyville
  • Green: Katanga (Independent)
  • Blue: Mining State of South Kasai (Autonomous)

Image File history File links Congo_CrisisMap. ... Image File history File links Congo_CrisisMap. ...

Independence Day

On June 30, at the independence day ceremony King Baudouin I of Belgium made a speech praising King Leopold II's "genius" and "tenacious courage".[1] This speech was widely seen as patronising and disregarding of the undisputed historical brutality of the period of Leopold II. President Kasa-Vubu altered his prepared speech to exclude ending remarks of praise for King Baudouin. Prime Minister Lumumba was not due to give a speech; according to some reports this was a deliberate exclusion. However, he rose and gave a speech which extolled the independence struggle "of tears, fire and blood". He attacked the Belgian Congo's "regime of injustice, oppression and exploitation". "Nous ne sommes plus vos singes" (We are no longer your monkeys), Lumumba told Baudouin.[2] This speech was well received by the Congolese who heard it. For many Congolese, hearing a European being addressed in this way was extraordinary, much less a king. For the king and his entourage, this speech was an insult. Baudouin I (French: or Dutch: ) (7 September 1930 – 31 July 1993) reigned as Prince Royal from 1950 to 1951 and as King of the Belgians from 1951 to 1993. ... Leopold II (Léopold Louis Philippe Marie Victor (French) or Leopold Lodewijk Filips Marie Victor (Dutch) (April 9, 1835 – December 17, 1909) was King of the Belgians. ...


Mutiny

Despite gaining political independence, the new country had few military officers so it kept many foreign officers as it trained its own military leadership. On 5 July 1960, the army (the Force Publique) near Léopoldville mutinied against its white officers and attacked numerous European targets. Armed bands of mutineers roamed the capital looting and terrorizing the white population. This caused the flight of thousands of European refugees to Brazzaville and Stanleyville. The credibility of the new government was ruined as it proved unable to control its own armed forces. is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Force Publique (FP) was the official armed force for what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo from 1885, (when the territory was known as the Congo Free State), through the period of direct Belgian rule (1908-60), until the beginning of the Second Republic in 1965. ...


This led to a military intervention into Congo by Belgium in an ostensible effort to secure the safety of its citizens. Whilst the danger to Belgian citizens was real, the reentry of these forces was a violation of the national sovereignty of the new nation, as it had not requested Belgian assistance. Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme authority over a geographic region or group of people, such as a nation or a tribe. ...


In the midst of the mutiny, the Congolese government decided to "Africanize" the army. All personnel were promoted by one rank and its name was changed the Armée Nationale Congolaise or ANC.


The flight of officers left the 25,000 man force still armed but totally uncontrolled. This left the new country without an effective instrument of central control and was an important causative factor in the rapid descent of the country into chaos.


Secession of Katanga

Main article: Katanga

On 11 July 1960, with the support of Belgian business interests and over 6000 Belgian troops, the province of Katanga in the southeast declared independence under the leadership of Moise Tshombe, leader of the local CONAKAT party. Tshombe was known to be close to the Belgian industrial companies which mined the rich resources of copper, gold and uranium. Katanga was one of the richest and most developed areas of the Congo. Without Katanga, Congo would lose a large part of its mineral assets and consequently government income. In defense of the decision to declare independence, Tshombe said Katanga was "seceding from chaos". In particular Tshombe believed if he allowed the mutinous ANC to enter it would result in lawlessness and bloodshed. With Belgian assistance Katanga's Gendarmerie was converted into an effective military force. At the core of the Katangan forces were several hundred European mercenaries many of which were recruited in Belgium. Almost from the beginning, the new state faced a rebellion in the north in Luba areas. This was led by a political party called Association of the Luba People of Katanga (BALUBAKAT). In January 1961, Katanga faced a secession crisis of its own when BALUBAKAT leaders declared independence from Katanga. Throughout the period of the secession, Katangan forces were never able to completely control the province. Capital Lubumbashi Created June 1960 Dissolved January 1963 Demonym Katangan Currency Katanga franc Katanga is the southern province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, regional capital Lubumbashi (formerly Elizabethville). ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Capital Lubumbashi Created June 1960 Dissolved January 1963 Demonym Katangan Currency Katanga franc Katanga is the southern province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, regional capital Lubumbashi (formerly Elizabethville). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... For other uses, see Mercenary (disambiguation). ...


UN Military Intervention

On 14th July 1960, in response to requests by Prime Minister Lumumba, the UN Security Council adopted Resolution 143. This called upon Belgium to remove its troops and provide 'military assistance' to the Congolese forces to allow them 'to meet fully their tasks'. Lumumba demanded that Belgium remove its troops immediately, threatening to seek help from the Soviet Union if they did not leave within two days. The UN reacted quickly and established United Nations Operation in the Congo (ONUC). The first UN troops arrived the next day but there was instant disagreement between Lumumba and the UN over the new force's mandate. Because the Congolese army had been in disarray since the mutiny, Lumumba wanted to use the UN troops to subdue Katanga by force. Referring to the resolution, Lumumba wrote to UN Secretary General Dag Hammarskjöld, ‘From these texts it is clear that, contrary to your personal interpretation, the UN force may be used to subdue the rebel government of Katanga.’[3] Secretary General Hammarskjöld refused. To Hammarskjöld, the secession of Katanga was an internal Congolese matter and the UN was forbidden to intervene by Article 2 of the United Nations Charter. Disagreements over what the UN force could and could not do continued throughout its deployment, despite the passage of two further Security Council resolutions. Passed on 22 July, Security Council Resolution 145 affirmed that Congo should be a unitary state and strengthened the call for Belgium to withdraw its forces. On 9th August, Security Council Resolution 146 mentioned Katanga for the first time, and explicitly allowed UN forces to enter Katanga whilst forbidding their use to 'intervene in or influence the outcome of any internal conflict'.[4] United Nations Security Council Resolution 143, adopted on July 14, 1960, after a report by the Secretary General and a request for military assistance by the President and Prime Minister of the Republic of the Congo the Council called upon Belgium to withdraw its troops from the territory and authorized... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In international law, a mandate is a binding obligation issued from an inter-governmental organization like the United Nations to a country which is bound to follow the instructions of the organization. ... Dag Hjalmar Agne Carl Hammarskjöld ( ) (July 29, 1905 – September 18, 1961) was a Swedish diplomat and the second Secretary-General of the United Nations. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Secession of South Kasai

Main article: South Kasai

The South Kasai region sought independence in similar circumstances to neighboring Katanga during the crisis. Ethnic conflicts and political tensions between leaders of the central government and local leaders plagued the diamond-rich region. On 14 June 1960, days before the colony was to become independent, officials declared the independence of Kasai (not of Congo) and proclaimed the Federal State of South Kasai. On 8 August 1960, the autonomous Mining State of South Kasai was proclaimed with its capital at Bakwanga. Albert Kalonji was named president of South Kasai and Joseph Ngalula was appointed head of government. Lumumba was determined to quickly subdue the renegade provinces of Kasai and Katanga. Dissatisfied with the UN, Lumumba followed through on his threat to request military assistance from the Soviet Union, who responded with an airlift of Congolese troops to invade Kasai. A bloody campaign ensued causing the deaths of hundreds of Baluba tribesmen and the flight of a quarter of a million refugees. Lumumba's decision to accept Soviet help angered the US who via the CIA, increasingly supported Mobutu and Kasa-Vubu. Flag of South Kasai South Kasai was a secessionist region in the area of south central Congo (Kinshasa) during the early 1960’s. ... Flag of South Kasai South Kasai was a secessionist region in the area of south central Congo (Kinshasa) during the early 1960’s. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mbuji-Mayi, formerly known as Bakwanga, is the capital of the province East-Kasai in the Democratic Republic of Congo. ... Albert Kalongi (b. ... United States may refer to: Places: United States of America SS United States, the fastest ocean liner ever built. ...


Political Disintegration

On September 5, state president Joseph Kasa-Vubu announced over Leopoldville radio that prime minister Patrice Lumumba was dismissed. In his place, Kasa-Vubu appointed Joseph Ileo, a respected moderate. Lumumba, in turn, announced that Kasa-Vubu was deposed, also over the radio. Ileo tried to form a new government but did not manage to get his new government approved by parliament. In contrast, Lumumba's position was confirmed by a parliamentary vote of confidence. There was therefore no clear political authority. is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Joseph Kasa-Vubu (1910 (other sources have 1913, 1915 and 1917) – March 24, 1969) was the first President (1960–1965) of the Republic of Congo (Congo-Léopoldville), which was later renamed Zaire (1971-97) and still later the Democratic Republic of the Congo (1997-present). ... Patrice Émery Lumumba (2 July 1925 – 17 January 1961) was an African anti-colonial leader and the first legally elected Prime Minister of the Republic of the Congo after he helped to win its independence from Belgium in June 1960. ...


In order to instill calm, the UN closed all Congolese airports under their control along with the radio station in Leopoldville. This halted the Soviet supported airlift of Congolese troops to Kasai. Kasa-Vubu was able to continue broadcasts from Brazzaville across the border and made a further announcement on September 10 that the Lumumba government was dissolved. This article is about the city named Brazzaville. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On September 12, forces loyal to Mobutu placed Lumumba under house arrest at the prime minister's residence, however he was soon released by Congolese troops loyal to him. is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On September 14, with CIA help, Joseph Mobutu seized power in a military coup, suspending parliament and the constitution. Mobutu kept Kasa-Vubu as President. All Soviet advisors were ordered to leave. Lumumba was again placed under house arrest, but this time with a guard of UN troops for his protection. is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... Mobutu Sese Seko Nkuku wa za Banga (or Mobutu Sese Seko Koko Ngbendu Wa Za Banga; October 14, 1930 - September 7, 1997) was the President of Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo) from 1965 to 1997. ...


Following the dismissal of Lumumba, his Vice Prime Minister Antoine Gizenga set up a rival government in the eastern city of Stanleyville with the help of pro-Lumumba forces. Antoine Gizenga (born 5 October 1925) is a Congolese (DRC) politician, and the Prime Minister of the country since December 30, 2006. ... Kisangani, formerly Stanleyville, (population 500,000) is a city in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in Central Africa. ...


There were now four different regimes in the former Belgian Congo:

  • Joseph Mobutu in Leopoldville was supported by Western governments
  • Gizenga in Stanleyville, supported by the Soviet bloc and Nasser in Cairo, Egypt
  • Kalonji in South Kasai
  • Tshombe in Katanga, also supported by Belgium and western mining interests

Gamal Abdel Nasser (Arabic: - ; Masri: جمال عبد الناصر - also transliterated as Jamal Abd al-Naser, Jamal Abd an-Nasser and other variants; January 15, 1918 – September 28, 1970) was the President of Egypt from 1954 until his death in 1970. ...

Lumumba executed in Katanga

Main article: Patrice Lumumba#Death of Lumumba

On 27 November Lumumba left house arrest and attempted to reach his supporters in Stanleyville. On December 1 he was captured in Kasai by soldiers loyal to Mobutu. Patrice Émery Lumumba (2 July 1925 – 17 January 1961) was an African anti-colonial leader and the first legally elected Prime Minister of the Republic of the Congo after he helped to win its independence from Belgium in June 1960. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Kisangani, formerly Stanleyville, (population 500,000) is a city in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in Central Africa. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Mobutu Sese Seko Nkuku wa za Banga (or Mobutu Sese Seko Koko Ngbendu Wa Za Banga; October 14, 1930 - September 7, 1997) was the President of Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo) from 1965 to 1997. ...


Even in captivity, Lumumba was a threat to Mobutu. He was a figurehead for the regime in Stanleyville and Mobutu feared a pro-Lumumba coup. There was a mutiny (over pay) in Thysville barracks where Lumumba was being held and there were fears that he would turn the guards to his side. Belgian advisors convinced Mobutu that Lumumba was a liability that needed to be eliminated.


On 17 January 1961 Mobutu sent Lumumba to Élisabethville (now Lubumbashi), capital of Katanga, where he was tortured and executed shortly after arrival. Belgian officers, under Katangan command, were present at the execution. is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Location in the Congo Province Katanga Government  - Governor Moise Katumbi Area  - City 747 km²  (288. ...


UN authorised to use force

The UN Security Council met in the wake of Lumumba's death in a highly emotional atmosphere charged with anti-colonial feeling and rhetoric. The Soviet Government even went as far as to blame Hammarskjöld for Lumumba's death, calling for his dismissal. Hammarskjöld refused to resign and remained in office. On 21 February 1961 the Security Council adopted resolution 161, which authorised 'all appropriate measures' to 'prevent the occurrence of civil war in the Congo, including ... the use of force, if necessary, in the last resort'.[5] This resolution demanded the expulsion from the Congo of all Belgian troops and mercenaries, but did not explicitly mandate the UN to conduct offensive operations. This resolution was ultimately interpreted by the local UN forces justify military operations to end the secession of Katanga. In death, Lumumba had finally succeeded in getting UN support for his campaign against Katanga. Despite this new resolution, during the next six months the UN undertook no major military operations, instead concentrating on facilitating several rounds of political negotiations. is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Political Negotiations, election of Cyrille Adoula

Between January and May, 1961, several conferences were held to resolve the constitutional crisis brought on by the dismissal of Lumumba by President Kasa-Vubu. In January, roundtable talks were held in Leopoldville. In March a conference was held in Tananarive, Madagascar. The Tananarive conference was boycotted by pro-Lumumbist Antoine Gizenga. This conference recommended a loose confederation of states and was opposed by the central government in Leopoldville. At a third conference was held in Coquilhatville, capital of the Equateur province, the leaders agreed to form a federal state of Congolese provinces. This was opposed by Tshombe who wanted more independence for Katanga. In April Tshombe was arrested for criticizing President Kasa-Vubu but was released in June after pledging to reunite Katanga with the Congo. On August 2, the parliament voted to elect Cyrille Adoula as Prime Minister, ostensibly bringing stability to the central government. Antananarivo, population 802,000 (1997), is the capital of Madagascar, in Antananarivo province. ... Antoine Gizenga (born 5 October 1925) is a Congolese (DRC) politician, and the Prime Minister of the country since December 30, 2006. ... Mbandaka, formerly known as Coquilhatville is a city on the Congo River in the Democratic Republic of Congo, lying near the confluence of the Congo and Ruki Rivers. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Cyrille Adoula (born September 13, 1921 in Léopoldville – died May 24, 1978 in Lausanne, Switzerland) was a Congolese politician. ...


UN launches Operation Rumpunch

By the end of August, it was clear that Tshombe had no intention of implementing his pledge to reunite Katanga with the rest of the country. In particular, he had not complied with the UN security council resolution demanding the expulsion of foreign mercenaries. On August 28th, under "Operation Rumpunch," UN forces started to disarm Katangan troops, capture key Katangan military assets and arrest all the foreign mercenaries who formed the core of the Katangan gendarmerie. This operation was initially successful, but stopped when the Belgian consul in Elizabethville persuaded the local UN officials that he would complete the operation. This was a ruse, however, as ultimately only regular Belgian officers and not mercenaries were expelled from the province. Many mercenaries who were repatriated found their way back into Katanga via Rhodesia. This article is about the former British colony of Southern Rhodesia, todays Zimbabwe. ...


UN launches Operation Morthor

On September 9, when it became clear that Tshombe's mercenaries were still in control of the Katangan gendarmerie, the UN launched "Operation Morthor" (Hindi for "smash") to again round up foreign mercenaries and political advisors. In addition the Congolese central government issued the UN with arrest warrants for Tshombe and other key Katangan officials. The UN was able to act on these warrants because the new government of Cyrille Adoula was the internationally recognized authority. Operation Morthor was a political and military fiasco. It went badly from the start. The Katangan gendarmerie were forewarned and mounted resistance to UN attempts to gain control. The UN did manage to capture the post office and radio station, and arrested the Vice President, however, through miscommunication or confusion, the Presidential Palace was never secured and Tshombe was able to escape. At the end of the first day of the operation, the UN special representative announced over Katangan radio that the secession was at an end. This statement was premature and caused controversy because the UN was not specifically mandated to end the secession, only to prevent civil war and expel foreign mercenaries. On 13 September Tshombe fled to Ndola in Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia) from where he urged the gendarmerie to continue resistance. Reports of UN attacks on civilian installations came from Elizabethville and caused anger in Europe. A battalion of 155 UN troops from Ireland was attacked and trapped in Jadotville. Katangan forces made use of a Fouga Magister jet, piloted by a Belgian mercenary, to strafe the battalion and prevent resupply. is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... View of Jadotville (now Likasi), c1930. ... A two seat turbojet powered trainer aircraft, the first Magister prototype flew on 23 July 1952. ...


Death of Dag Hammarskjöld and Military Standoff

Main article: Dag Hammarskjöld#Death

In the midst of Operation Morthor, UN Secretary General Dag Hammarskjöld decided to intervene personally and negotiate a ceasefire with Tshombe. His plane crashed en route to Ndola, killing him. The next day the besieged UN battalion at Jadotville, after holding out for 6 days, surrendered to the Katangan Gendamerie after running out of water and ammunition (See Siege of Jadotville). A ceasefire was quickly agreed upon and on September 20 Tshombe returned to Elizabethville. The UN troops remained in Katangan custody until October 25 when a prisoner swap was agreed. On October 30, Congolese government forces attacked Katanga but were repulsed with heavy casualties. Dag Hjalmar Agne Carl Hammarskjöld ( ) (July 29, 1905 – September 18, 1961) was a Swedish diplomat and the second Secretary-General of the United Nations. ... Dag Hjalmar Agne Carl Hammarskjöld ( ) (July 29, 1905 – September 18, 1961) was a Swedish diplomat and the second Secretary-General of the United Nations. ... Ndola is the second-largest city in Zambia, with a population of 374,757 (2000 census}. It is the main hub of the Copperbelt, a region in which Zambias copper is mined. ... Combatants Irish United Nations troops serving in ONUC Katangese fighters loyal to Moise Tshombe and mercenary troops Commanders Commandant Quinlan  ? Strength 150 4000 Casualties 5 wounded 55 killed, c250 wounded In 1961, during the United Nations intervention in the Katanga conflict in the Congo, central Africa, a company of Irish... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


UN Security Council Resolution 169, Operation Unokat

UN Security Council Resolution 169 was adopted November 24, 1961 “to take vigorous action, including the use of the requisite measure of force, if necessary,” to remove foreign military and other personnel not under the U.N. Command. The UN discovered that the gendarmerie were planning an offensive against them and launched operation Unokat on December 5, taking control of strategic positions around Elizabethville. On December 18, Tshombe agreed to unity talks which would last a year without reaching agreement. is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Congolese Forces Re-conquer South Kasai

On December 30, 1961, after a four month military campaign, troops of the Congolese central government re-conquered South Kasai and arrested Kalonji, thus ending the South Kasai secession. is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Gizenga Deposed

Antoine Gizenga remained head of the breakaway Eastern (Orientale) province throughout most of 1961. After the death of Lumumba, several African and Eastern European governments recognized the Stanleyville government as legitimate. Gizenga's government also received arms from China. Following talks with Prime Minister Cyrille Adoula, Gizenga agreed to join the central government under the understanding that it would follow the policies of Lumumba, however relations broke down and on January 14, 1962 ANC forces defeated the Stanleyville gendarmerie and arrested Gizenga. Antoine Gizenga (born 5 October 1925) is a Congolese (DRC) politician, and the Prime Minister of the country since December 30, 2006. ... Cyrille Adoula (born September 13, 1921 in Léopoldville – died May 24, 1978 in Lausanne, Switzerland) was a Congolese politician. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


UN Operation Grand Slam Ends Katanga Secession

Throughout 1962, Tshombe maintained the independence of Katanga. In August, UN Secretary General U Thant proposed a plan that Katanga become an autonomous region in a federal state. Tshombe initially agreed with the proposal but agreement was never concluded. In December 1962 the UN launched "Operation Grand Slam" on Katanga's political and military infrastructure. This proved to be a decisive attack and by January, 1963 Elizabethville was under full UN control. This ended the secession of Katanga. U Thant (Burmese: ; 22 January 1909 – 25 November 1974) was a Burmese diplomat and the third Secretary-General of the United Nations, from 1961 to 1971. ...


Rural Insurgencies in Eastern Provinces

In early 1964, a new crisis broke out as Congolese rebels calling themselves "Simba" (Swahili for "Lion") rebelled against the government. They were led by Pierre Mulele, Gaston Soumialot and Christophe Gbenye who were former members of Gizenga's Parti Solidaire Africain (PSA). The rebellion affected Kivu and Eastern (Orientale) provinces. By August they had captured Stanleyville and set up a rebel government there. As the rebel movement spread, discipline became more difficult to maintain, and acts of violence and terror increased. Thousands of Congolese were executed, including government officials, political leaders of opposition parties, provincial and local police, school teachers, and others believed to have been Westernized. Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Pierre Mulele (August 11, 1929 - October 3 [or October 9, depending on the source], 1968) was a Congolese revolutionary who was briefly minister of education in Patrice Lumumbas cabinet. ...


In July 1964, Moise Tshombe replaced Cyrilla Adoula as Prime Minister of a new national government with a mandate to end the regional revolts. Tshombe had been the leader of Katanga when that province tried to secede. It was therefore highly ironic that he was chosen to lead the Congolese central government in a war against another rebellious province. Among his first moves, Tshombe recalled the exiled Katangan gendarmerie and recruited white mercenaries, integrating them with the ANC. Many of these mercenaries had fought for Katanga when Tshombe was leader of the breakaway province. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


By early August, 1964 the Congolese, with the help of groups of white mercenaries under their own command, was making headway against the Simba rebellion. Fearing defeat, the rebels started taking hostages of the local white population in areas under their control. Several hundred hostages were taken to Stanleyville and placed them under guard in the Victoria Hotel. Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ...


Operation Dragon Rouge

Belgian paracommandos preparing for a hostage rescue operation, November 1964
Belgian paracommandos preparing for a hostage rescue operation, November 1964

The Congolese government turned to Belgium and the United States for help. In response, the Belgian army sent a task force to Leopoldville, airlifted by the 322nd US Air Force Division. Image File history File links Congo_Crisis_Belgians_at_Kamina. ... Image File history File links Congo_Crisis_Belgians_at_Kamina. ...


Washington and Brussels tried to come up with a rescue plan. Several ideas were considered and discarded, while attempts at negotiating with the Simbas failed.

Belgian soldier lying in front of dead hostages, November 1964 in Stanleyville
Belgian soldier lying in front of dead hostages, November 1964 in Stanleyville

The task force was led by the Belgian colonel Charles Laurent.[1] On 24 November 1964, a squadron of planes including fifteen US Air Force C-130 transports dropped 550 Belgian paratroopers onto the airfield at Stanleyville. Once the paratroopers had secured the airfield and cleared the runway they made their way to the hotel, prevented Simbas from killing the hostages, and evacuated the hostages via the airfield. Over the next two days over 1800 American and Europeans were evacuated as well as around 400 Congolese. Image File history File links Congo_Crisis_dead_hostages. ... Image File history File links Congo_Crisis_dead_hostages. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... The Lockheed C-130 Hercules, a four-engine turboprop aircraft, is the main tactical air transport aircraft of the United States and UK military forces. ...


The operation coincided with the arrival of ANC and other mercenary units at Stanleyville which was quickly captured. It took until the end of the year to completely put down the remaining areas of rebellion.


Tshombe's prestige was damaged by the joint Belgian-US operation which saw white mercenaries and western forces intervene once again in the Congo. In particular Tshombe had lost the support of both Kasa-Vubu and Mobutu.


Mobutu seizes power

On 25 November 1965, with the help of the CIA, Mobutu seized power from President Kasa-Vubu. Mobutu had the political and military support of Western countries, who saw him as an ally against communism in Africa. He established a one-party state, banning all other political organizations except his. Tshombe was charged with treason and fled the country once again, this time to Spain. is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... Mobutu Sese Seko Nkuku wa za Banga (or Mobutu Sese Seko Koko Ngbendu Wa Za Banga; October 14, 1930 - September 7, 1997) was the President of Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo) from 1965 to 1997. ...


Around this time, Che Guevara arrived in the Congo. Che saw himself as serving as a military assistant to young Laurent-Désiré Kabila, a leader who would eventually come to power 30 years later. In Che's opinion, his adventure in the Congo was a fiasco, and he was eventually forced to return to Cuba. Kabila, thirty years later, would lead a military campaign to oust Mobutu. Ernesto Guevara de la Serna (June 14,[1] 1928 – October 9, 1967), commonly known as Che Guevara, El Che or just Che was an Argentine-born Marxist revolutionary, medical doctor , political figure, and leader of Cuban and internationalist guerrillas. ... Laurent-Désiré Kabila (November 27, 1939 – January 16, 2001) was President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo from May 1997, when he overthrew longtime dictator Mobutu Sese Seko after 32 years of ruling Zaire until his assassination in January 2001, succeeded by his son Joseph. ...


Aftermath

Mutinies

Although Mobutu succeeded in taking power, his position was soon threatened by the Kisangani Mutinies, also known as the Stanleyville Mutinies or Mercenaries' Mutinies, which were a direct continuation of the Congo Crisis and involved the same political actors. The First Kisangani Mutiny (or First Stanleyville Mutiny or First Mercenaries' Mutiny) was in 1966, the Second was in 1967.


Amid rumours that the ousted prime minister Tshombe was plotting a comeback from his exile in Spain, some 2,000 of Tshombe's former Katanga gendarmes, led by mercenaries, mutinied in Kisangani (formerly Stanleyville) in July 1966. The mutiny was unsuccessful and was crushed. Capital Lubumbashi Created June 1960 Dissolved January 1963 Demonym Katangan Currency Katanga franc Katanga is the southern province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, regional capital Lubumbashi (formerly Elizabethville). ... Kisangani, formerly Stanleyville, (population 500,000) is a city in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in Central Africa. ...


Exactly a year after the failure of the first mutiny, another broke out, again in Kisangani, apparently triggered by the news that Tshombe's airplane had been hijacked over the Mediterranean and forced to land in Algiers, where he was held prisoner. Led by a Belgian settler named Jean Schramme and involving approximately 100 former Katanga gendarmes and about 1,000 Katangese, the mutineers held their ground against the 32,000-man Congolese National Army (Armée Nationale Congolaise; ANC) until November 1967, when Schramme and his mercenaries crossed the border into Rwanda and surrendered to the local authorities. The country settled into a semblance of political stability for the next several years, allowing Mobutu to focus on his unsuccessful strategies for economic progress. Jean Schramme (March 25, 1929, Bruges, Belgium - December 14, 1988, Rondonopolis, Brazil)) was a Belgian colonel who became a mercenary while on a mission in Katanga in 1967. ...


Mobutu and the Second Republic

Main article: Zaire

Over the next three decades, Mobutu led one of the most enduring regimes in Africa; it was also one of the most dictatorial and corrupt.


Despite the country's obvious natural resources, including copper, gold and diamonds, much of Zaire's population continued sank further into poverty. Mobutu amassed a personal fortune estimated to be as much as USD$5 billion, while the country's infrastructure built up over the colonial period was left to decay.


After changing the country's name to Zaire in 1971, Mobutu also pursued a policy expunging remnants of colonialism. In addition to changing the names of the country and many of its cities, major industries were nationalized.


End of Mobutu era

Main article: First Congo War

As the Cold War waned in the early 1990s, so did Western support for Mobutu. In light of allegations of human rights abuses and rampant corruption, Belgium, France and the United States all suspended military and financial assistance to the regime. Combatants AFDL, Uganda, Rwanda Zaire Commanders Laurent-Désiré Kabila Mobutu Sésé Seko Casualties Civilians killed: 200,000+ The First Congo War was a conflict from late 1996 to 1997 in which Zairean President Mobutu Sésé Seko was overthrown by rebel forces backed by foreign powers such as... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


As the economic and political situation worsened, Laurent Kabila, began a military drive from eastern Zaire in October 1996 to depose Mobutu. As the rebels advanced, Mobutu - who had been out of the country receiving medical treatment - returned to Zaire, vowing to crush the rebellion. Laurent-Désiré Kabila (November 27, 1939 – January 16, 2001) was President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo from May 1997, when he overthrew longtime dictator Mobutu Sese Seko after 32 years of ruling Zaire until his assassination in January 2001, succeeded by his son Joseph. ...


But by May of the following year, with his regime in shambles, Mobutu fled, first to Togo and then to Morocco. He had reportedly requested permission to travel to France for medical treatment, but the French government refused. Less than four months after he was forced into exile, Mobutu died in September of 1997 in Morocco. For the band, see 1997 (band). ...


Notes

  1. ^ Guardian Article on Independence Day Speeches. Guardian Unlimited. Retrieved on August 3, 2006.
  2. ^ Patrice Lumumba's Independence Day Speech. Africa Within. Retrieved on August 3, 2006.
  3. ^ The UN in the Congo. Keith Kyle. Retrieved on September 12, 2006.
  4. ^ Security Council Resolutions 1960. United nations. Retrieved on September 20, 2006.
  5. ^ Security Council Resolutions 1961. United Nations. Retrieved on September 20, 2006.

Bibliography

  • Cruise O'Brien, Conor (1962) To Katanga and Back, London, Hutchinson.
  • De Witte, Ludo. (2001) The Assassination of Lumumba, Verso. Publication of book resulted in Belgian parliamentary commission and official apology from Belgium for role in the assassination of Lumumba.
  • Epstein, Howard (ed). (1974) Revolt in the Congo, 1960-1964, Armor Books. Essays by various authors.
  • Gondola, Ch. Didier. (2002) The History of Congo, Greenwood Press, ISBN 0-313-31696-1.
  • Kanza, Thomas. (1979) The Rise and Fall of Patrice Lumumba, Schenkman.
  • Legum, Colin. (1961) Congo Disaster, Penguin Books.
  • Lemarchand, René, (1964) Political Awakening in the Belgian Congo, University of California Press.
  • Lumumba, Patrice. (1962) Congo, My Country, Pall Mall Press. Speeches and selected writing by Lumumba.
  • Meredith, Martin. (2005) The State of Africa: A History of Fifty Years Since Independence, The Free Press.
  • Weiss, Herbert. (1967) Political Protest in the Congo: The Parti Solidaire Africain during the Independence Struggle, Princeton University Press.
  • Weissman, Stephen R. (1974) American Foreign Policy in the Congo, 1960-1964, Cornell University Press.
  • Young, Crawford (1965) Politics in the Congo, Princeton University Press

Conor Cruise OBrien (Irish: ; born 3 November 1917) is an Irish politician, writer and academic. ...

See also

Early history Migration & states Colonization Stanley (1867–1885) Congo Free State Leopold II (1885–1908) Belgian Congo (1908–1960) Congo Crisis First Republic (1960–1965) Zaire Mobutu regime (1965–1996) First Congo War Kabilas rise (1996–1998) Second Congo War Africas Great War (1998–2003) Transitional government Towards... DRC redirects here. ... Combatants Irish United Nations troops serving in ONUC Katangese fighters loyal to Moise Tshombe and mercenary troops Commanders Commandant Quinlan  ? Strength 150 4000 Casualties 5 wounded 55 killed, c250 wounded In 1961, during the United Nations intervention in the Katanga conflict in the Congo, central Africa, a company of Irish... For other uses, see Mercenary (disambiguation). ... Thomas Michael Hoare 1920- is a mercenary leader known for his exploits in Africa and the Indian Ocean. ... Kisangani, formerly Stanleyville, (population 500,000) is a city in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in Central Africa. ...

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