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Encyclopedia > Confucius
Chinese philosophy
Ancient philosophy
孔夫子

Name This page lists some links to ancient philosophy, although for Western thinkers prior to Socrates, see Pre-Socratic philosophy. ... Image File history File links Confucius_02. ...

孔丘 Kong Qiu Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ...

Birth

September 28, 551 BCE is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Death

479 BCE

School/tradition

Founder of Confucianism A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ...

Main interests

Moral philosophy, Social philosophy, Ethics Ethics is a general term for what is often described as the science (study) of morality. In philosophy, ethical behavior is that which is good or right. ... Social philosophy is the philosophical study of interesting questions about social behavior (typically, of humans). ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ...

Notable ideas

Confucianism A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ...

Influences

Zhou Era Chinese Thought This article is about the ancient Chinese dynasty. ...

Influenced

Many Eastern philosophers Eastern philosophy refers very broadly to the various philosophies of Asia, including Indian philosophy, Chinese philosophy, Persian philosophy, Japanese philosophy, and Korean philosophy. ...

This article contains Chinese text.
Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters.

Confucius (Chinese: 孔夫子; pinyin: Kǒng Fūzǐ; Wade-Giles: K'ung-fu-tzu), lit. "Master Kung,"[1] 551 BCE – 479 BCE) was a Chinese thinker and social philosopher, whose teachings and philosophy have deeply influenced Chinese, Korean, Japanese, and Vietnamese thought and life. Image File history File links Zhongwen. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Hán tá»±: A Chinese character or Han character (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... Eastern philosophy refers very broadly to the various philosophies of Asia, including Indian philosophy, Chinese philosophy, Persian philosophy, Japanese philosophy, and Korean philosophy. ... Eastern philosophy refers very broadly to the various philosophies of Asia, including Indian philosophy, Chinese philosophy, Persian philosophy, Japanese philosophy, and Korean philosophy. ...


His philosophy emphasized personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships, justice and sincerity. These values gained prominence in China over other doctrines, such as Legalism (法家) or Taoism (道家) during the Han Dynasty.[2][3][4] Confucius' thoughts have been developed into a system of philosophy known as Confucianism (儒家). It was introduced to Europe by the Jesuit Matteo Ricci, who was the first to Latinise the name as "Confucius." For the government in parliamentary systems, see Executive (government) A government is a body that has the power to make and the authority to enforce rules and laws within a civil, corporate, religious, academic, or other organization or group . ... Morality (from the Latin manner, character, proper behavior) has three principal meanings. ... Social relation can refer to a multitude of social interactions, regulated by social norms, between two or more people, with each having a social position and performing a social role. ... This article is about the concept of justice. ... In the modern world, sincerity is the elusive virtue of speaking truly about ones feelings, thoughts, desires. ... Legalism, in the Western sense, is an approach to the analysis of legal questions characterized by abstract logical reasoning focusing on the applicable legal text, such as a constitution, legislation, or case law, rather than on the social, economic, or political context. ... Taoism (or Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical traditions and concepts. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ... Seal of the Society of Jesus. ... Matteo Ricci. ... In linguistics, romanization or latinization is a system for representing a word or language with the Roman (Latin) alphabet, where the original word or language used a different writing system. ...


His teachings may be found in the Analects of Confucius (論語), a collection of "brief aphoristic fragments", which was compiled many years after his death. Modern historians do not believe that any specific documents can be said to have been written by Confucius,[5][6] but for nearly 2,000 years he was thought to be the editor or author of all the Five Classics[7][8] such as the Classic of Rites (editor), and the Spring and Autumn Annals (春秋) (author). Engraving of Confucius. ... The Five Classics (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a corpus of five ancient Chinese books used by Confucianism as the basis of studies. ... Classic of Rites The Classic of Rites (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) was one of the Five Classics of the Confucian canon. ... The Spring and Autumn Annals (春秋 ChÅ«n QiÅ«, also known as 麟經 Lín JÄ«ng) is the official chronicle of the state of Lu covering the period from 722 BCE to 481 BCE. It is the earliest surviving Chinese historical text to be arranged on annalistic principles. ...

Contents

Personal life and family

According to tradition, Confucius was born in 551 BC. Spring and Autumn Period, at the beginning of the Hundred Schools of Thought philosophical movement. Confucius was born in or near the city of Qufu, in the Chinese State of Lu (now part of Shandong Province). Early accounts say that he was born into a noble family that had fallen on hard times and had become quite poor.[9] There are several reports of unusual religious childbirths. ... The Spring and Autumn Period (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) was a period in Chinese history, which roughly corresponds to the first half of the Eastern Zhou dynasty (from the second half of the 8th century BC to the first half of the 5th century). ... The Hundred Schools of Thought (諸子百家 Pinyin: zhÅ« zǐ bÇŽi jiā) was an era of great cultural and intellectual expansion in China that lasted from 770 BCE to 222 BCE. Coinciding with the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods, and also known as the Golden Age of Chinese thought... Qufu (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chü1-fu4) is a city in Shandong Province, China. ... Lu ( Chinese: 魯國; pinyin: ) was an ancient state in China during the Spring and Autumn Period. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-tung) is a coastal province of eastern Peoples Republic of China. ...


The Records of the Grand Historian (史記), compiled some four centuries later, indicate that the marriage of Confucius' parents did not conform to Li (禮) and therefore was a yehe (野合), or "illicit union",[10] for when they got married, his father was a very old man and past proper age for marriage but his mother only in her late teens. His father died when he was three,[11] and he was brought up in poverty by his mother. His social ascendancy linked him to the growing class of shì (士), a class whose status lay between that of the old nobility and the common people, comprised of men who sought social position on the basis of talents and skills, rather than heredity. The Records of the Grand Historian or the Records of the Grand Historian of China (Chinese: 史記; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shih-chi; literally Historical Records), written from 109 BCE to 91 BCE, was the magnum opus of Sima Qian, in which he recounted Chinese history from the time of the mythical... Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ...


As a child, Confucius was said to have enjoyed putting ritual vases on the sacrifice table.[10] He married a young girl named Qi Quan (亓官) at nineteen and she had their first child Kong Li (孔鯉) when he was twenty. Confucius is reported to have worked as a shepherd, cowherd, clerk and book-keeper.[12] When Confucius was twenty-three, his mother died and he entered three years of mourning. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


He is said to have risen to the position of Justice Minister (大司寇) in Lu at fifty-three.[13] According to the Records of the Grand Historian, the neighboring state of Qi (齊) was worried that Lu was becoming too powerful. Qi decided to sabotage Lu's reforms by sending one hundred good horses and eighty beautiful dancing girls to the Duke of Lu. The Duke indulged himself in pleasure and did not attend to official duties for three days. Confucius was deeply disappointed and resolved to leave Lu and seek better opportunities. Yet to leave at once would expose the misbehavior of the Duke and therefore bring public humiliation to the ruler Confucius was serving, so Confucius waited for the Duke to make a lesser mistake. Soon after, the Duke neglected to send to Confucius a portion of the sacrificial meat that was his due according to custom, and Confucius seized this pretext to leave both his post and the state of Lu.[10][14] The Records of the Grand Historian or the Records of the Grand Historian of China (Chinese: 史記; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shih-chi; literally Historical Records), written from 109 BCE to 91 BCE, was the magnum opus of Sima Qian, in which he recounted Chinese history from the time of the mythical... State of Qi (small seal script, 220 BC) See Qi (disambiguation) for other meanings of Qi. Qi (齊; pinyin: qi2) was a relatively powerful state during the Spring and Autumn Period and Period of the Warring States. ...


While some early sources picture the state of Lu as well regulated, due, in part, to the wise administration of Confucius[citation needed], many scholars think this is unlikely, and hold that Confucius in fact never held any major position, either in Lu or anywhere else.


According to tradition, after Confucius's resignation, he began a long journey (or set of journeys) around the small kingdoms of northeast and central China, including the states of Wei (魏), Song (宋), Chen (陳) and Cai (蔡).[15] At the courts of these states, he espoused his political beliefs but did not see them implemented. State of Wei (small seal script, 220 BC) The Wei (Chinese: 魏; pinyin: Wèi) was a state during the Warring States Period in China. ... Sòng (宋國) was a state during the Eastern Zhou Spring and Autumn Period (770 - 476 BC). ... Chen (陳 Trần) was a minor state of the Spring and Autumn Period in Ancient China. ...


According to the Zuo Commentary to the Spring and Autumn Annals, at sixty-eight[13] Confucius returned home. The Analects pictures him spending his last years teaching disciples and transmitting the old wisdom via a set of texts called the Five Classics.[16][17] The Five Classics (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a corpus of five ancient Chinese books used by Confucianism as the basis of studies. ...


Burdened by the loss of both his son and his favorite disciples,[18][19] he died at the age of 72 (or 73).[20]


Teachings

In the Analects论语, Confucius presents himself as a "transmitter who invented nothing".[7] He put the greatest emphasis on the importance of study,[21][22] and it is the Chinese character for study (or learning) that opens the text. In this respect, he is seen by Chinese people as the Greatest Master.[23] Far from trying to build a systematic theory of life and society or establish a formalism of rites, he wanted his disciples to think deeply for themselves and relentlessly study the outside world,[24] mostly through the old scriptures and by relating the moral problems of the present to past political events (like the Annals) or past expressions of feelings by common people and reflective members of the elite (preserved in the poems of the Book of Odes[25]).[26] Engraving of Confucius. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Hán tá»±: A Chinese character or Han character (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... This article is about life in general. ... For other uses, see Society (disambiguation). ... The term formalism describes an emphasis on form over content or meaning in the arts, literature, or philosophy. ... Many religions and spiritual movements hold certain written texts (or series of spoken legends not traditionally written down) to be sacred. ... The Book of Odes may refer to one of the following: The Chinese Shi Jing The Christian Book of Odes (Bible) The Arabic Kitab al-Aghani Category: ...


In times of division, chaos, and endless wars between feudal states, he wanted to restore the Mandate of Heaven “天命” that could unify the "world" (i.e. China) and bestow peace and prosperity on the people.[27] Because his vision of personal and social perfections was framed as a revival of the ordered society of earlier times, Confucius is often considered a great proponent of conservatism, but a closer look at what he proposes often shows that he used (and perhaps twisted) past institutions and rites to push a new political agenda of his own: a revival of a unified royal state, whose rulers would succeed to power on the basis of their moral merit, not their parentage;[28][29] these would be rulers devoted to their people, reaching for personal and social perfection.[30] Such a ruler would spread his own virtues to the people instead of imposing proper behavior with laws and rules.[31] Mandate of Heaven (天命 PÄ«nyÄ«n: Tiānmìng) was a traditional Chinese sovereignty concept of legitimacy used to support the rule of the kings of the Zhou Dynasty and later the Emperors of China. ... Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favor tradition and gradual change, where tradition refers to religious, cultural, or nationally defined beliefs and customs. ... For other uses, see Perfection (disambiguation). ...


One of the deepest teachings of Confucius may have been the superiority of personal exemplification over explicit rules of behavior. Because his moral teachings emphasise self-cultivation, emulation of moral exemplars, and the attainment of skilled judgment rather than knowledge of rules, Confucius's ethics may be considered a type of virtue ethics. His teachings rarely rely on reasoned argument, and ethical ideals and methods are conveyed more indirectly, through allusions, innuendo, and even tautology. This is why his teachings need to be examined and put into proper context in order to be understood.[32][33] A good example is found in this famous anecdote: This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Categories: | ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In rhetoric, a tautology is an unnecessary (and usually unintentional) repetition of meaning, often utilising words from different languages. ...

厩焚。子退朝,曰:“伤人乎?”不问马。
When the stables were burnt down, on returning from court, Confucius said, "Was anyone hurt?" He did not ask about the horses.
Analects X.11, tr. A. Waley

The anecdote is not long, but it is of paramount importance. In his time horses were perhaps 10 times more expensive than stablemen[citation needed]. The passage conveys the lesson that by not asking about the horses, Confucius demonstrated that a sage values human beings over property; readers of this lesson are led to reflect on whether their response would follow Confucius's, and to pursue ethical self-improvement if it would not. Confucius, an exemplar of human excellence, serves as the ultimate model, rather than a deity or a universally true set of abstract principles. For these reasons, according to many Eastern and Western commentators, Confucius's teaching may be considered a Chinese example of humanism.[34] Humanism is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appeal to universal human qualities—particularly rationality. ...


Perhaps his most famous teaching was the Golden Rule stated in the negative form, often called the silver rule: The ethic of reciprocity or The Golden Rule is a fundamental moral principle which simply means It is arguably the most essential basis for the modern concept of human rights. ... Related to the ethical principle of the golden rule, the silver rule states Treat others in the way that they wish to be treated. ...

子貢問曰、有一言、而可以終身行之者乎。子曰、其恕乎、己所 不欲、勿施於人。
Adept Kung asked: "Is there any one word that could guide a person throughout life?"
The Master replied: "How about 'shu': never impose on others what you would not choose for yourself?"

Analects XV.24, tr. David Hinton

Confucius's teachings were later turned into a very elaborate set of rules and practices by his numerous disciples and followers who organised his teachings into the Analects. In the centuries after his death, Mencius[35] and Xun Zi[36] both composed important teachings elaborating in different ways on the fundamental ideas associated with Confucius. In time, these writings, together with the Analects and other core texts came to constitute the philosophical corpus known in the West as Confucianism. After more than a thousand years, the scholar Zhu Xi created a very different interpretation of Confucianism which is now called Neo-Confucianism, to distinguish it from the ideas expressed in the Analects. Neo-Confucianism held sway in China and Vietnam[37] until the 1800s. Engraving of Confucius. ... Mencius (Romanization; 孟子, pinyin: Mèng Zǐ; Wade-Giles: Meng Tzu; most accepted dates: 372 – 289 BCE; other possible dates: 385 – 303/302 BCE) was a Chinese philosopher who was arguably the most famous Confucian after Confucius himself. ... Xunzi Xún Zǐ (荀子, or Hsün Tzu c. ... A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ... Zhu Xi or Chu Hsi (born October 18, 1130, Yuxi, Fujian province, China – died April 23, 1200, China) was a Song Dynasty (960-1279) Confucian scholar who became the leading figure of the School of Principle and the most influential rationalist Neo-Confucian in China. ... Neo-Confucianism (traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: )/(traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a form of Confucianism that was primarily developed during the Sung Dynasty, but which can be traced back to Han Yu and Li Ao in the Tang Dynasty. ...


Names

Confucius (illustration from Myths & Legends of China, 1922, by E.T.C. Werner)
Confucius (illustration from Myths & Legends of China, 1922, by E.T.C. Werner)
  • The Jesuits, while translating Chinese books into Western languages, translated 孔夫子 as Confucius. This Latinised form has since been commonly used in Western countries.
  • In systematic Romanisations:
    • Kǒng Fūzǐ (or Kǒng fū zǐ) in pinyin.
    • K'ung fu-tzu in Wade-Giles (or, less accurately, Kung fu-tze).
      • Fūzǐ means teacher. Since it was disrespectful to call the teacher by name according to Chinese culture, he is known as just "Master Kong", or Confucius, even in modern days.
      • The character 'fu' is optional; in modern Chinese he is more often called Kong Zi.

(In Wade-Giles translation by D. C. Lau, this name appears as Kung Ch'iu.) Confucius - Project Gutenberg eText 15250 From http://www. ... Confucius - Project Gutenberg eText 15250 From http://www. ... Seal of the Society of Jesus. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... A Chinese surname, also called a clan name or family name (姓, pinyin: x ng; or 氏, shi), is one of the over seven hundred family names used by Han Chinese and Sinicized Chinese ethnic groups. ...

  • His courtesy name was 仲尼, Zhòng Ní.
  • In 1 CE (first year of the Yuanshi period of the Han Dynasty), he was given his first posthumous name: 褒成宣尼公, Lord Bāochéngxūan, which means "Laudably Declarable Lord Ni."
  • His most popular posthumous names are
    • 至聖先師, 至圣先师,Zhìshèngxiānshī, meaning "The Former Teacher who Arrived at Sagehood" (comes from 1530, the ninth year of the Jianing period of the Ming Dynasty);
    • 至聖,至圣, Zhìshèng, "the Greatest Sage";
    • 先師,先师, Xiānshī, literally meaning "first teacher". It has been suggested that '先師' can be used, however, to express something like, "the Teacher who assists the wise to their attainment".[38]
  • He is also commonly known as 萬世師表, 万世师表,Wànshìshībiǎo, "the Model Teacher" in Chinese.

Cha can also refer to a Latin American dance, also called the Cha-cha-cha. ... The Yuanshi era lasted from the 1st century CE to the 5th. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Hán tá»±: A posthumous name (諡號) is an honorary name given to royalty, nobles, and sometimes others, in some cultures after the persons death. ... For other uses, see Ming. ...

Philosophy

Main article: Confucianism
A portrait of Confucius, by Tang Dynasty artist Wu Daozi (680-740).
A portrait of Confucius, by Tang Dynasty artist Wu Daozi (680-740).

Although Confucianism is often followed in a religious manner by the Chinese, arguments continue over whether it is a religion. Confucianism lacks an afterlife, its texts express complex and ambivalent views concerning deities, and it is relatively unconcerned with some spiritual matters often considered essential to religious thought, such as the nature of the soul. A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Portrait painting is a genre in painting, where the intent is to depict the visual appearance of the subject, mostly a person, whereas the portrait is expected to show the essence of the subject. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Afterlife (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Soul (disambiguation). ...


Confucius' principles gained wide acceptance primarily because of their basis in common Chinese tradition and belief. He championed strong familial loyalty, ancestor worship, respect of elders by their children (and, according to later interpreters, of husbands by their wives), and the family as a basis for an ideal government. He expressed the well-known principle, "Do not do to others what you do not want done to yourself" (similar to the Golden Rule). He also looked nostalgically upon earlier days, and urged the Chinese, particularly those with political power, to model themselves on earlier examples. "The superior man seeks for it in himself. The petty man seeks for it in others" Ancestor worship, also ancestor veneration, is a religious practice based on the belief that ones ancestors possess supernatural powers. ... The ethic of reciprocity or The Golden Rule is a fundamental moral principle which simply means It is arguably the most essential basis for the modern concept of human rights. ...


Because no texts survive that are demonstrably authored by Confucius, and the ideas associated with him most closely were elaborated in writings that accrued over the period between his death and the foundation of the first Chinese empire in 221 BCE, many scholars are very cautious about attributing specific assertions to Confucius himself.


Ethics

The Confucian theory of ethics as exemplified in is based on three important conceptual aspects of life: ceremonies associated with sacrifice to ancestors and deities of various types, social and political institutions, and the etiquette of daily behavior. It was believed by some that originated from the heavens. Confucius's view was more nuanced. His approach stressed the development of through the actions of sage leaders in human history, with less emphasis on its connection with heaven. His discussions of seem to redefine the term to refer to all actions committed by a person to build the ideal society, rather than those simply conforming with canonical standards of ceremony. In the early Confucian tradition, , though still linked to traditional forms of action, came to point towards the balance between maintaining these norms so as to perpetuate an ethical social fabric, and violating them in order to accomplish ethical good. These concepts are about doing the proper thing at the proper time, and are connected to the belief that training in the that past sages have devised cultivates in people virtues that include ethical judgment about when must be adapted in light of situational contexts. Li (禮 pinyin: Lǐ) is a classical Chinese ideograph which finds its most extensive use in Confucian and post-Confucian Chinese philosophy. ...


In early Confucianism, (義 [义]) and are closely linked terms. can be translated as righteousness, though it may simply mean what is ethically best to do in a certain context. The term contrasts with action done out of self-interest. While pursuing one's own self-interest is not necessarily bad, one would be a better, more righteous person if one based one's life upon following a path designed to enhance the greater good, an outcome of . This is doing the right thing for the right reason. is based upon reciprocity. Righteousness in this article refers to the important theological concept in Islam, Judaism and Christianity. ... Self-interest can refer to any of the following concepts: Egoism Selfishness Ethical egoism Psychological egoism Individualism Objectivist ethics Hedonism Epicureanism Enlightened self-interest This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Self-interest can refer to any of the following concepts: Egoism Selfishness Ethical egoism Psychological egoism Individualism Objectivist ethics Hedonism Epicureanism Enlightened self-interest This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Just as action according to should be adapted to conform to the aspiration of adhering to , so is linked to the core value of rén (仁). Rén is the virtue of perfectly fulfilling one's responsibilities toward others, most often translated as "benevolence" or "humaneness"; translator Arthur Waley calls it "Goodness" (with a capital G), and other translations that have been put forth include "authoritativeness" and "selflessness." Confucius's moral system was based upon empathy and understanding others, rather than divinely ordained rules. To develop one's spontaneous responses of rén so that these could guide action intuitively was even better than living by the rules of . To cultivate one's attentiveness to rén one used another Confucian version of the Golden Rule: one must always treat others just as one would want others to treat oneself. Virtue, in this Confucian view, is based upon harmony with other people, produced through this type of ethical practice by a growing identification of the interests of self and other. Li (禮 pinyin: Lǐ) is a classical Chinese ideograph which finds its most extensive use in Confucian and post-Confucian Chinese philosophy. ... Arthur David Waley (August 19, 1889 – June 27, 1966) was a noted English Orientalist and Sinologist. ... Not to be confused with Pity, Sympathy, or Compassion. ... The term Golden Rule may refer to any of the following Wikipedia articles: The Golden Rule - in ethics, religion and philosophy. ... Personification of virtue (Greek ἀρετή) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey Virtue (Latin virtus; Greek ) is moral excellence of a person. ...


In this regard, Confucius articulated an early version of the Golden Rule:

  • "What one does not wish for oneself, one ought not to do to anyone else; what one recognises as desirable for oneself, one ought to be willing to grant to others." (Confucius and Confucianism, Richard Wilhelm)

Politics

Confucius' political thought is based upon his ethical thought. He argues that the best government is one that rules through "rites" () and people's natural morality, rather than by using bribery and coercion. He explained that this is one of the most important analects: 1. "If the people be led by laws, and uniformity sought to be given them by punishments, they will try to avoid the punishment, but have no sense of shame. If they be led by virtue, and uniformity sought to be given them by the rules of propriety, they will have the sense of shame, and moreover will become good." (Translated by James Legge) {The Great Learning} This "sense of shame" is an internalisation of duty, where the punishment precedes the evil action, instead of following it in the form of laws as in Legalism. Ezra Pounds annotations on his copy of James Legges translation of the Book of Poetry (Shih Ching), in the Sacred Books of the East. ... Duty is a term loosely appliedDuty to any action (or course of action) whichDutyDuty is regarded as morally incumbent, apart from personal likes and dislikes or any external compulsion. ... Legalism, in the Western sense, is an approach to the analysis of legal questions characterized by abstract logical reasoning focusing on the applicable legal text, such as a constitution, legislation, or case law, rather than on the social, economic, or political context. ...


While he supported the idea of government by an all-powerful sage, ruling as an Emperor, probably because of the chaotic state of China at his time, his ideas contained a number of elements to limit the power of rulers. He argued for according language with truth; thus honesty was of paramount importance. Even in facial expression, truth must always be represented. In discussing the relationship between a subject and his king (or a son and his father), he underlined the need to give due respect to superiors. This demanded that the inferior must give advice to his superior if the superior was considered to be taking the wrong course of action. This was built upon a century after Confucius's death by his latter day disciple Mencius, who argued that if the king was not acting like a king, he would lose the Mandate of Heaven and be overthrown. Therefore, tyrannicide is justified because a tyrant is more a thief than a king. Other Confucian texts, though celebrating absolute rule by ethical sages, recognise the failings of real rulers in maxims such as, "An oppressive government is more feared than a tiger." An emperorrefers to Nick Herringshaw, a title, empress may only indicate the wife of an emperor (empress consort. ... Time Saving Truth from Falsehood and Envy, François Lemoyne, 1737 For other uses, see Truth (disambiguation). ... Honest redirects here, For other uses, see Honesty (disambiguation) Look up honesty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Photographs from the 1862 book Mécanisme de la Physionomie Humaine by Guillaume Duchenne. ... Mencius (Romanization; 孟子, pinyin: Mèng Zǐ; Wade-Giles: Meng Tzu; most accepted dates: 372 – 289 BCE; other possible dates: 385 – 303/302 BCE) was a Chinese philosopher who was arguably the most famous Confucian after Confucius himself. ... Mandate of Heaven (天命 Pīnyīn: Tiānmìng) was a traditional Chinese sovereignty concept of legitimacy used to support the rule of the kings of the Zhou Dynasty and later the Emperors of China. ... Tyrannicide literally means the killing of a tyrant. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Some well known Confucian quotes:


"When you have faults, do not fear to abandon them."


"What you do not wish for yourself, do not do to others"


"With coarse rice to eat, with water to drink, and my crooked arm for a pillow - is not joy to be found therein? Riches and honors acquired through unrighteousness are to me as the floating clouds"


Disciples and legacy

Popular image of Confucius as an object of veneration, Thian Hock Keng temple, Singapore.

Confucius' disciples and his only grandson, Zisi, continued his philosophical school after his death. While relying heavily on Confucius' ethico-political system, two of his most famous later followers emphasised radically different aspects of his teachings. Mencius (4th century BCE) articulated the innate goodness in human beings as a source of the ethical intuitions that guide people towards rén, , and , while Xun Zi (3rd century BCE) underscored the realistic and materialistic aspects of Confucian thought, stressing that morality was inculcated in society through tradition and in individuals through training. Download high resolution version (960x1280, 250 KB)Photo by User:Adam Carr This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (960x1280, 250 KB)Photo by User:Adam Carr This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Thian Hock Keng Temple Thian Hock Keng Temple (Chinese: 天福宫; Pinyin: Tiānfú Gōng; Temple of Heavenly Happiness) is the oldest and most important Hokkien temple in Singapore. ... Sima Qian makes Confucius say: The common saying is, that the disciples of the sage were three thousand, while among them there were seventy-two worthies. ... Zisi (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Tzu-ssu; ca. ... Mencius (Romanization; 孟子, pinyin: Mèng Zǐ; Wade-Giles: Meng Tzu; most accepted dates: 372 – 289 BCE; other possible dates: 385 – 303/302 BCE) was a Chinese philosopher who was arguably the most famous Confucian after Confucius himself. ... Xunzi Xún Zǐ (荀子, or Hsün Tzu c. ...


During the Song Dynasty, the scholar Zhu Xi (1130-1200 CE) added ideas from Daoism and Buddhism into Confucianism. In his life, Zhu Xi was largely ignored but not long after his death his ideas became the new orthodox view on what Confucian texts actually meant. Modern historians view Zhu Xi as having created something rather different and call his way of thinking Neo-Confucianism. In the modern era, there are still some Confucian scholars (see New Confucianism) but during the Cultural Revolution, Confucianism was frequently attacked by leading figures in the Communist Party of China. Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Bianjing (汴京) (960–1127) Linan (臨安) (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960–976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... Zhu Xi or Chu Hsi (born October 18, 1130, Yuxi, Fujian province, China – died April 23, 1200, China) was a Song Dynasty (960-1279) Confucian scholar who became the leading figure of the School of Principle and the most influential rationalist Neo-Confucian in China. ... For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... Neo-Confucianism (traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: )/(traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a form of Confucianism that was primarily developed during the Sung Dynasty, but which can be traced back to Han Yu and Li Ao in the Tang Dynasty. ... New Confucianism (當代新儒學 or 當代新儒學 Contemporary New Confucianism) is a new movement of Confucianism since the twentieth century. ... This article is about the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys constitution. ...


In modern times, Asteroid 7853, "Confucius," was named after the Chinese thinker.


Quote: "Respect yourself and others will respect you"


Memorial ceremony of Confucius

The Chinese have a tradition of holding spectacular memorial ceremonies of Confucius (祭孔) every year, using ceremonies that supposedly derived from Zhou Li 周禮 as recorded by Confucius, on the date of Confucius' birth. This tradition was interrupted for several decades in mainland China, where the official stance of the Communist Party and the State was that Confucius and Confucianism represented reactionary feudalist beliefs where it is held that the subservience of the people to the aristocracy is a part of the natural order. All such ceremonies and rites were therefore banned. Only after the 1990's, did the ceremony resume. As it is now considered a veneration of Chinese history and tradition, even communist party members may be found in attendance.


In Taiwan, where the Nationalist Party (Kuomingtang) strongly promoted Confucian beliefs in ethics and behavior, the tradition of memorial ceremony of Confucius (祭孔) is supported by the government and has continued without interruption. While not a national holiday, it does appear on all printed calendars, much as Father's Day does in the West.


Influence in Asia and Europe

"Life and works of Confucius, by Prospero Intorcetta, 1687.
"Life and works of Confucius, by Prospero Intorcetta, 1687.

Confucius's works, words are studied by many scholars in many other Asian countries, such as Korea, Japan, Vietnam, etc. And many of those countries still hold the traditional memorial ceremony every year. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 701 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1783 × 1526 pixel, file size: 656 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 701 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1783 × 1526 pixel, file size: 656 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ...


The works of Confucius were translated into European languages through the agency of Jesuit scholars stationed in China. Matteo Ricci started to report on the thoughts of Confucius, and father Prospero Intorcetta published the life and works of Confucius into Latin in 1687.[39] It is thought that such works had considerable importance on European thinkers of the period, particularly among the Deists and other philosophical groups of the Enlightenment who were interested by the integration of the system of morality of Confucius into Christianity.[40][41] The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... Matteo Ricci. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Deism is belief in a God or first cause based on reason, rather than on faith or revelation, and thus a form of theism in opposition to fideism. ... Look up enlightenment, Enlightenment in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is...


Home town

Soon after Confucius' death, Lu, his hometown, became a place of devotion and remembrance. It is still a major destination for cultural tourism, and many Chinese people visit his grave and the surrounding temples. In pan-China cultures, there are many temples where representations of the Buddha, Laozi and Confucius are found together. There are also many temples dedicated to him, which have been used for Confucianist ceremonies. Lu or LU may stand for: Lehigh University, prestigious private 4-year university in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. ... Siddhartha and Gautama redirect here. ... Laozi (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Lao Tzu; also Lao Tse, Laotze, Lao Zi, and in other ways) was an ancient Chinese philosopher. ... Apricot Platform in the Confucian Temple at Qufu. ...


Descendants

Confucius' descendants were repeatedly identified and honored by successive imperial governments with titles of nobility and official posts. They were honored with the rank of a marquis thirty-five times since Gaozu of the Han Dynasty, and they were promoted to the rank of duke forty-two times from the Tang Dynasty to the Qing Dynasty. Emperor Xuanzong of Tang first bestowed the title of "Marquis Wenxuan" on Kong Sui of the 35th generation. In 1055, Emperor Zhenzong of Song first bestowed the title of "Duke Yansheng" (simplified Chinese: 衍圣公; traditional Chinese: 衍聖公; pinyin: Yǎnshèng gōng; literally "overflowing with sage") on Kong Zong of the 46th generation. Despite repeated dynastic change in China, the title of Duke Yansheng was bestowed upon successive generations of descendants until it was abolished by the Nationalist Government in 1935. The last holder of the title, Kung Te-cheng of the 77th generation, was appointed Sacrificial Official to Confucius. This article is about a title of nobility. ... Emperor Gao (256 BC or 247 BC–June 1, 195 BC), commonly known inside China as Gaozu (Chinese: ; pinyin: ), personal name Liu Bang, was the first emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty, ruling over China from 202 BC until 195 BC, and one of only a few dynasty founders who... This article is about the nobility title. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... Emperor Tang Xuanzong (唐玄宗) (September 8, 685 - May 3, 762), born Li Longji (李隆基), was the sixth emperor of the Tang dynasty of China, reigning from 712 to 756. ... Emperor Zhenzong (December 23, 968 - March 23, 1022) was the third emperor of the Song Dynasty of China. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... The Republic of China (Traditional Chinese: 中華民國; Pinyin: Zhōng huá mín guó) succeeded the Qing Dynasty in 1912, ending 2,000 years of imperial rule. ... Kung Te-cheng (Chinese: ; Pinyin: KÇ’ng Déchéng; Wade-Giles: Kung Te-cheng) (born February, 1920) is a 77th generation descendant of Confucius, and is considered the head of the main line of descent. ...


Today, there are thousands of reputed descendants of Confucius. The main lineage fled from the Kong ancestral home in Qufu to Taiwan during the Chinese Civil War. The current head of the household is Kung Te-cheng, a professor at National Taiwan University. He previously served in the Republic of China government as President of the Examination Yuan. Kung married Sun Qifang, the great-granddaughter of the Qing dynasty scholar-official and first president of Beijing University Sun Jianai, whose Shouxian, Anhui, family created one of the first business combines in modern-day China, which included the largest flour mill in Asia, the Fou Foong Flour Company in Shanghai. The Qianlong Emperor married a daughter to Kong Xianpei of the 72nd generation, linking the Aisin-Gioro Imperial house with the Kong family. Qufu (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chü1-fu4) is a city in Shandong Province, China. ... Combatants Kuomintang of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War (traditional... Kung Te-cheng (Chinese: ; Pinyin: KÇ’ng Déchéng; Wade-Giles: Kung Te-cheng) (born February, 1920) is a 77th generation descendant of Confucius, and is considered the head of the main line of descent. ... The meaning of the word professor (Latin: [1]) varies. ... National Taiwan University (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kuo2-li4 tai2-wan1 ta4-hsüeh2; POJ: Kok-li̍p Tâi-ôan Tāi-ha̍k; abbreviation NTU)[2] is a national university in Taipei City, Taiwan. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... The Examination Yuan (考試院) is one of five government branches of the Republic of China and is in charge of validating the qualification of civil servants. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... Peking University 博学审问慎思明辨 Peking University or Beijing University (pinyin Běijīng Dàxué), colloquially Beida (北大, pinyin běidà), is one of the most prestigious universities in China. ... The flour mill or grist mill is a kind of mill which is fed grain and makes flour. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... The Qianlong Emperor (born Hongli, September 25, 1711 – February 7, 1799) was the fifth emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China. ... Aisin Gioro (Simplified Chinese: 爱新觉罗; Traditional Chinese: 愛新覺羅; Pinyin: àixÄ«n juéluó; Manchu: ) was the clan name of the Manchu emperors of the Qing dynasty (as well as the later short-lived regime in Manchukuo). ...


Notes

  1. ^ More commonly abbreviated to Chinese: 孔子; pinyin: Kǒngzǐ; see Names section
  2. ^ Ban 111, vol.56
  3. ^ Gao 2003
  4. ^ Chen 2003
  5. ^ Zhang 1899, p. 111
  6. ^ Liu 2005, section 3
  7. ^ a b The Analects 479 BCE - 221 BCE, VII.1
  8. ^ Kang 1958
  9. ^ Chien 1978
  10. ^ a b c Sima 109 BCE - 91 BCE, vol.47
  11. ^ Chien 1978, p. 25
  12. ^ Legge 1895, Book 5, V
  13. ^ a b Temple Of Confucius, 2001
  14. ^ The Analects 479 BCE - 221 BCE, XVIII.4
  15. ^ Chien 1978, pp. 37-46
  16. ^ Watson 1996
  17. ^ The Analects 479 BC - 221 BCE, IX.14
  18. ^ The Analects 479 BCE - 221 BCE, XI.8, 9, 10 and 11
  19. ^ Classic of Rites 300 BCE, Tangong Part 1
  20. ^ Chien 1978, pp. 50-53
  21. ^ Chien 1978, pp. 117-120
  22. ^ The Analects 479 BCE - 221 BCE, I.1
  23. ^ Gu 1658, vol. 51, sec. 9
  24. ^ The Analects 479 BCE - 221 BCE, III.3; VI.13 and XVII.11
  25. ^ The Analects 479 BCE - 221 BCE, XIII.5; XVII.9
  26. ^ The Analects 479 BCE - 221 BCE, VI.25
  27. ^ The Analects 479 BCE - 221 BCE, XVI.2
  28. ^ The Analects 479 BCE - 221 BCE, XIV.9
  29. ^ Zhang 2002, p. 208
  30. ^ The Analects 479 BCE - 221 BCE, VI.24 and 30; XIV.16 and 17
  31. ^ The Analects 479 BCE - 221 BCE, II.20; XII.19
  32. ^ Derrida 1983, p. 63
  33. ^ Du 2005
  34. ^ Lee 1995, pp. 1-3
  35. ^ Legge 1895
  36. ^ Xun 325 BCE - 238 BCE
  37. ^ Li 2005
  38. ^ Zhang 1988, p. 76
  39. ^ "Windows into China", John Parker, p.25
  40. ^ "Windows into China", John Parker, p.25, ISBN 0890730504
  41. ^ "The Eastern origins of Western civilization", John Hobson, p194-195, ISBN 0521547245

Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ...

See also

A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ... Neo-Confucianism (traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: )/(traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a form of Confucianism that was primarily developed during the Sung Dynasty, but which can be traced back to Han Yu and Li Ao in the Tang Dynasty. ... New Confucianism (當代新儒學 or 當代新儒學 Contemporary New Confucianism) is a new movement of Confucianism since the twentieth century. ... Apricot Platform in the Confucian Temple at Qufu. ... Logo of the Confucius Institute. ...

References

  • "Windows into China", John Parker, ISBN 0890730504
  • "The Eastern origins of Western civilization", John Hobson, ISBN 0521547245

Further reading

  • Chin, Annping (2007). The Authentic Confucius: A Life of Thought and Politics. New York: Scribner. ISBN 0-74-324618-7.
  • Confucius. (1997). Lun yu, (In English The Analects of Confucius). Translation and notes by Simon Leys. New York: W.W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-04019-4.
  • Confucius. (2003). Confucius: Analects -- With Selections from Traditional Commentaries. Translated by E. Slingerland. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing. (Original work published c. 551–479 BCE) ISBN 0-87220-635-1.
  • Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2005). "Confucianism: An Overview". In Encyclopedia of Religion (Vol. C, pp 1890–1905). Detroit: MacMillan Reference USA.
  • Herrlee Glessner Creel (1949). Confucius and the Chinese Way. (Reprinted numerous times by various publishers.)
  • Mengzi (2006). Mengzi. Translation by B.W. Van Norden. In Philip J. Ivanhoe & B.W. Van Norden, Readings in Classical Chinese Philosophy. 2nd ed. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing. ISBN 0-87220-780-3.
  • Van Norden, B.W., ed. (2001). Confucius and the Analects: New Essays. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-513396-X.
  • Wu, J. (1995a). "Confucius". In I. McGreal (ed.), Great Thinkers of the Eastern World: The Major Thinkers of the Philosophical and Religious Classics of China, India, Japan, Korea and the world of Islam (pp 3–8). New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-270085-5
  • Wu. J. (1995b) "Mencius". In I. McGreal (ed.), Great Thinkers of the Eastern World: The Major Thinkers of the Philosophical and Religious Classics of China, India, Japan, Korea and the world of Islam (pp 27–30). New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-270085-5
  • Confucius appears as one of the main characters in Gore Vidal's Creation (novel). The book gives a very sympathetic and human portrait of him and his times.

Annping Chin (金安平, born in Taiwan in 1950) is a Professor of History at Yale. ... Herlee Glessner Creel (1905-June 1, 1994) was an American orientalist and philosopher, and authority on Confucius. ... Philip J. Ivanhoe is an historian of Chinese thought, particularly of Confucianism and Neo-Confucianism. ... Eugene Luther Gore Vidal (born October 3, 1925) (pronounced and , ) is an American author of novels, stage plays, screenplays, and essays, and the scion of a prominent political family. ... Creation is an epic historical fiction novel by Gore Vidal which was published in 1981. ...

External links

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Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... Ezra Pounds annotations on his copy of James Legges translation of the Book of Poetry (Shih Ching), in the Sacred Books of the East. ... Traditional Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字, Simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字) refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Persondata
NAME Kong Qiu
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Confucius
SHORT DESCRIPTION Founder of Confucianism
DATE OF BIRTH September 28, 551 BC
PLACE OF BIRTH Qufu, State of Lu
DATE OF DEATH 479 BC
PLACE OF DEATH Qufu, State of Lu

A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Qufu (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chü1-fu4) is a city in Shandong Province, China. ... Lu ( Chinese: 魯國; pinyin: ) was an ancient state in China during the Spring and Autumn Period. ... Qufu (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chü1-fu4) is a city in Shandong Province, China. ... Lu ( Chinese: 魯國; pinyin: ) was an ancient state in China during the Spring and Autumn Period. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Confucius (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) (3624 words)
Confucius is described, by Sima Qian and other sources, as having endured a poverty-stricken and humiliating youth and been forced, upon reaching manhood, to undertake such petty jobs as accounting and caring for livestock.
Confucius' traditional association with these works led them and related texts to be revered as the “Confucian Classics” and made Confucius himself the spiritual ancestor of later teachers, historians, moral philosophers, literary scholars, and countless others whose lives and works figure prominently in Chinese intellectual history.
Confucius believed that this sort of rectification had to begin at the very top of the government, because it was at the top that the discrepancy between names and actualities had originated.
Confucius - definition of Confucius in Encyclopedia (2129 words)
Confucius (traditionally 551 BC – 479 BC) was a famous sage and social philosopher of China.
Confucius' influence on Chinese civilization should not be underestimated; it has also spread widely over Japan, Korea and Vietnam, especially through Confucianism, the doctrine developed by his disciples and commentators.
In this respect, Confucius is considered a great proponent of conservatism, but a closer look at what he proposes often shows that he used (and maybe twisted) past institutions and rites to push a new political agenda of his own: he wanted rulers to be chosen on their merits, not their parentage.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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