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Confucianism (儒家 Chinese language Romanization For Standard Mandarin EFEO Gwoyeu Romatzyh Hanyu Pinyin Latinxua Sinwenz Lessing-Othmer Mandarin Phonetic Symbols II Postal System Pinyin Tongyong Pinyin Wade-Giles Yale For Standard Cantonese Barnett-Chao Hong Kong Government Jyutping Meyer-Wempe Sidney Lau Yale For Min Nan (Taiwanese) Presbyterian Church in Taiwan Pinyin... Pinyin: rújiā "The School of the Scholars"), sometimes translated as the School of Literati, is an East Asia is a subregion of Asia. It covers about 6,640,000 km², or 15 percent of the continent. The following countries are located in East Asia: The Peoples Republic of China, except for the province of Qinghai and the autonomous regions of Xinjiang and Tibet, which may... East Asian ethical, religious and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of Confucius Ancestral name (姓): Zi¹ (Chinese: 子; Pinyin: Zǐ) Clan name (氏): Kong (Ch: 孔 ; Py: Kǒng) Given name (名): Qiu (Ch: 丘 ; Py: Qiū) Courtesy name (字): Zhongni (Ch: 仲尼 ; Py: Zhòngní) Posthumous name (謚): The Ultimate Sage Master of... Confucius.


Debated during the History of China series The Three August Ones and the Five Emperors Xia Dynasty Shang Dynasty Zhou Dynasty Spring and Autumn Period Warring States Period Qin Dynasty Western Han Dynasty Xin Dynasty Eastern Han Dynasty Three Kingdoms Jin Dynasty Sixteen Kingdoms Southern and Northern Dynasties Sui Dynasty Tang Dynasty Zhou... Warring States Period and forbidden during the short-lived History of China series The Three August Ones and the Five Emperors Xia Dynasty Shang Dynasty Zhou Dynasty Spring and Autumn Period Warring States Period Qin Dynasty Western Han Dynasty Xin Dynasty Eastern Han Dynasty Three Kingdoms Jin Dynasty Sixteen Kingdoms Southern and Northern Dynasties Sui Dynasty Tang Dynasty Zhou... Qin Dynasty, Confucianism was chosen by Han Wudi and used as a A form of government (also referred to as a system of government or a political system) is a system composed of various people, institutions and their relations in regard to the governance of a state. Contents // 1 Definition 2 Forms of government 3 Lists of the forms of government 4... political system and a kind of See also civil religion. A state religion (also called an established church or state church) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state. The term state church is most closely associated with Christianity, although it is sometimes used in the context of other faiths as well. Closely... state religion. Despite loss of influence during the History of China series The Three August Ones and the Five Emperors Xia Dynasty Shang Dynasty Zhou Dynasty Spring and Autumn Period Warring States Period Qin Dynasty Western Han Dynasty Xin Dynasty Eastern Han Dynasty Three Kingdoms Jin Dynasty Sixteen Kingdoms Southern and Northern Dynasties Sui Dynasty Tang Dynasty Zhou... Tang Dynasty, Confucianist doctrine remained mainstream Chinese orthodoxy for two millennia, until the beginning of (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... 20th century, when it was vigorously repressed by Communist Party of China flag The Communist Party of China (Simplified Chinese: 中国共产党; Traditional Chinese: 中國共産黨; pinyin: Zhōnggu ngchǎndǎng) is the ruling party of the Peoples Republic of China. The party was founded in 1921... Chinese Communism. However, there are recent signs of a revival of Confucianism due to the loosening political control as well as a surge of Chinese nationalism.


Since Confucius' death, many people, mostly in This article is on the geographic and cultural entity. For other meanings, see Country China, a country in East Asia One of the two states that have China in their official title and claim sovereignty over all of China: Peoples Republic of China (governing Mainland China, Hong Kong, and Macau... China, Korea Korea is a formerly unified country, situated on the Korean Peninsula The Korean Peninsula is a peninsula in East Asia. It extends southwards for about 1,100 kilometres from the continental Asian mainland into the Pacific Ocean and is surrounded by the East Sea/Sea of Japan on the... Korea, For other uses, see Japan can refer to one of the following topics: The East Asian island nation of Japan or Nippon (日本, Nihon); The British rock band. See Japan (band); Japanning, a lacquer technique japan, See Lacqerware This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists... Japan, and The Socialist Republic of Vietnam is a country in Southeast Asia. It borders China, Laos, Cambodia, and the Gulf of Tonkin. Cộng Hòa Xã Hội Chủ Nghĩa Việt Nam (In Detail) (Full size) National motto: Ðộc lập... Vietnam, have professed Confucianist beliefs and seen in this historical figure the "Greatest Master."


Zhu Xi (朱熹, Hanyu Pinyin: Zhū Xī, Wade-Giles: Chu Hsi) (1130 - 1200) was a Song Dynasty (960-1279) Confucian scholar who became one of most significant Neo-Confucians in China. He taught at the famous White Deer Grotto Academy for some time. During the Song Dynasty... Zhu Xi and other Neo-Confucianism (理學 Pinyin: Lǐxué) is a term for a form of Confucianism that was primarily developed during the Song dynasty, but which can be traced back to Han Yu and Li Ao in the Tang dynasty. The term should not be mistaken for New Confucianism which... Neo-Confucians gave Confucianism renewed vigor in the Alternative meaning: Song Dynasty (420-479) History of China series The Three August Ones and the Five Emperors Xia Dynasty Shang Dynasty Zhou Dynasty Spring and Autumn Period Warring States Period Qin Dynasty Western Han Dynasty Xin Dynasty Eastern Han Dynasty Three Kingdoms Jin Dynasty Sixteen Kingdoms Southern and Northern... Song and later dynasties. Neo-Confucianism combined For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). Names Chinese: 道教 Pinyin: Dàojiào Wade-Giles: Tao-chiao The Yin-Yang or Taiji diagram, often used to symbolize Taoism. Most accounts describe Taoism or Daoism as an Asian philosophy and religion, although some regard... Taoist and Buddha on Lantau Island Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts... Buddhist ideas with existing Confucian ideas to create a more complete Metaphysics (Greek words meta = after/beyond and physics = nature) is a branch of philosophy, and related to the natural sciences, like physics, psychology and the biology of the brain; and also to mysticism, religion, and other spiritual subjects. It is notoriously difficult to define, but for purposes of briefly introducing... metaphysic than had existed before. Confucianism as it exists today is primarily a creation of Zhu Xi and the other Neo-Confucians.

Contents

Development of early Confucianism

The relationship between Confucianism and Confucius himself is tenuous. Confucius Ancestral name (姓): Zi¹ (Chinese: 子; Pinyin: Zǐ) Clan name (氏): Kong (Ch: 孔 ; Py: Kǒng) Given name (名): Qiu (Ch: 丘 ; Py: Qiū) Courtesy name (字): Zhongni (Ch: 仲尼 ; Py: Zhòngní) Posthumous name (謚): The Ultimate Sage Master of... Confucius (551 BC – 479 BC, birthday traditionally September 8) is often considered “a famous sage and social philosopher of China whose teachings deeply influenced East Asia for twenty centuries ”. In fact, though, Confucius' ideas were not accepted during his life, and he frequently bemoaned the fact that he remained unemployed by any of the feudal lords.


As with many other historical figures ( For other uses, see Buddha (disambiguation). A stone image of the Buddha. Buddha (Sanskrit, Pali, others: literally Awakened One, Enlightened One, from the Sanskrit: √budh, to awaken) can refer to the historical Buddha, Siddhartha Gautama, or to anyone who has attained the same depth and quality of enlightenment. Buddhism... Buddha, This article is about the figure known by both Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ. For other usages, see Jesus (disambiguation). This 11th-century portrait is one of many images of Jesus in which a halo with a cross is used. Jesus of Nazareth (b. about 6–4 BC... Jesus, etc.), we do not have direct access to Confucius' ideas. Instead, we have the recorded recollections of his disciples and their students. The issue is further complicated by the "Burning of the Books and Burying of the Scholars", the massive suppression of dissenting thought during the History of China series The Three August Ones and the Five Emperors Xia Dynasty Shang Dynasty Zhou Dynasty Spring and Autumn Period Warring States Period Qin Dynasty Western Han Dynasty Xin Dynasty Eastern Han Dynasty Three Kingdoms Jin Dynasty Sixteen Kingdoms Southern and Northern Dynasties Sui Dynasty Tang Dynasty Zhou... Qin Dynasty, more than two centuries after Confucius' death. What we now have of Confucius' writings and thoughts is therefore somewhat unreliable, at best.


However, we can sketch out Confucius' ideas from the fragments that remain. Confucius was a man of letters who worried about the troubled times he lived in. He went from place to place trying to spread his political ideas and influence the many kings contending for supremacy of China. The Zhou Dynasty's disintegration created a power vacuum that was filled with small states contending for power. Deeply persuaded he had a mission on Earth ("If right principles prevailed through the empire, there would be no use for me to change its state." Analects XVIII. 6.), Confucius tirelessly promoted the ancient virtues of ancient illustrious kings such as the Duke of Zhou. Confucius tried to get sufficient political power and found a new dynasty, as when he planned to accept an invitation from a rebel and "make a Zhou dynasty in the East" (Analects XV. 5). In this respect, his thinking may be said to be political. However, as the common saying that Confucius was a "king without a crown" shows, he never did gain the opportunity to apply his ideas and was expelled much of the time and eventually went back to his homeland to spend the last part of his life teaching.


The Analects (論語 Pinyin: Lúnyǔ), or Analects of Confucius, written in twenty chapters, is thought to be a composition of the late Spring and Autumn Period. It is undoubtedly the most influential text in East Asian intellectual history, collecting maxims and short discussions between Confucius and his disciples... Analects of Confucius, the closest thing we have to a primary source for his thoughts, relates discussions with his disciples in short sayings. As this book is a compilation of snatches of conversation, questions and answers, or slices of Confucius' life, there is no description of a coherent system of thought. Instead of using Deductive reasoning is the process of reaching a conclusion that is guaranteed to follow, if the evidence provided is true and the reasoning used to reach the conclusion is correct. The conclusion also must be based only on the evidence previously provided; it cannot contain new information about the subject... deductive reasoning and the In logic, the law of noncontradiction judges as false any proposition P asserting that both proposition Q and its denial, proposition not-Q, are true at the same time and in the same respect. In the words of Aristotle, One cannot say of something that it is and that it... law of non-contradiction, like many Western philosophers, he used In logic, a tautology is a statement which is true by its own definition, and is therefore fundamentally uninformative. Logical tautologies use circular reasoning within an argument or statement. In linguistics, a tautology is a redundancy due to superfluous qualification. Contents // 1 Logical tautologies 1.1 Example 2 Linguistic tautologies... tautology and An analogy is a comparison between two different things, in order to highlight some form of similarity. Analogies are often used to explain new or complex concepts by showing the similarity between something familiar and something else. Contents // 1 Analogy types 1.1 Linguistics 1.2 Mathematics 1.3 Anatomy... analogy to explain his ideas. For these reasons, Western readers might think that his philosophy was muddled or unclear, or that Confucius had no clear purpose. However, he also said "I seek a unity all pervading" (Analects XV. 3., trad. Legge) and "There is one single thread binding my way together." (IV.15. trad. Lau).


The first drafts of a real system may have been created by disciples or disciples of disciples, but firstly to Zi Si, Confucius' grandson. During the philosophically fertile period of the The Hundred Schools of Thought (諸子百家 Pinyin: zhū zǐ bǎi jiā) (770 BC-222 BC) marked an unprecedented era of cultural and intellectual prosperity during Spring and Autumn Period and Warring States Period in China -- the Golden Age of Chinese thought, also... Hundred Schools of Thought, great early figures of Confucianism like Mencius Ancestral name (姓): Ji (Chinese: 姬 ; Pinyin: Jī) Clan name (氏): Meng¹ (Ch: 孟 ; Py: Mèng) Given name (名): Ke (Ch: 軻 ; Py: Kē) Courtesy name (字): Unknown² Posthumous name (謚): Master Meng the Second Sage³ (Ch: 亞聖孟子 ; Py... Mencius and In Chinese, Xun Zi refers to both the philosopher and the book he is attributed to. In this article, the book is spelled the Xunzi Xún Zǐ (荀子, or Hsün Tzu c.310-237 BC) was a Chinese philosopher who lived during the Warring States Period... Xun Zi (not to be confused with Sun Tzu (孫子 also commonly written in pinyin: Sūn Zǐ) was the author of The Art of War, an influential ancient Chinese book on military strategy (for the most part not dealing directly with tactics). He is also one of the earliest realists in political science... Sun Zi) developed Confucianism into an ethical and political doctrine. Both had to fight contemporary ideas and gain the ruler's confidence through argumentation and reasoning. Mencius in particular gave Confucianism a much fuller explanation of human nature, what is needed for good government, etc.


Some of Xun Zi's disciples, like Traditional Chinese: 韓非子 Simplified Chinese: 韩非子 Pinyin: Hán Fēizǐ Wade-Giles: Han Fei-tzu Han Feizi 韓非子 (d. 233 BC) was a philosopher who, along with Li Si, developed Xun Zis philosophy into the doctrine embodied by the School... Han Feizi, became In Chinese History, Legalism (法家; pinyin Fǎjiā) was one of the four main philosophic schools at the end of the Zhou Dynasty. Legalists believed that a ruler should govern his subjects by the following three ideas: 1. Fa (法; p. fǎ), the law. The law... Legalists (a kind of law-based totalitarism very far from virtue-based Confucianism) and helped Qin Shi Huang Ancestral name (姓): Ying (嬴) Clan name (氏): Zhao¹ (趙), or Qin² (秦) Given name (名): Zheng (政) King of the State of Qin Dates of reign: July 247 BC–221 BC Official title: King of Qin (秦王) Emperor of Qin Dynasty Dates of reign... Qin Shi Huang to unify China under a very strong state control of every human activity. So, Confucius' dream of unification and peace in China can be argued to have come from a school of thought, Legalism, that was almost diametrically opposed to his consistent reliance on rites and virtue.


The spread of Confucianism

Confucianism survived its suppression during the Qin Dynasty because a trove of Confucian classics was uncovered hidden in the walls of a scholar's house. After the Qin, the new History of China series The Three August Ones and the Five Emperors Xia Dynasty Shang Dynasty Zhou Dynasty Spring and Autumn Period Warring States Period Qin Dynasty Western Han Dynasty Xin Dynasty Eastern Han Dynasty Three Kingdoms Jin Dynasty Sixteen Kingdoms Southern and Northern Dynasties Sui Dynasty Tang Dynasty Zhou... Han Dynasty approved of the doctrine and sponsored Confucian scholars in the court. Eventually, Han Wudi (漢武帝) Family name: Liu (劉) Given name: Zhi¹ (彘), later Che² (徹) Courtesy name (字): Tong3 (通) Dates of reign: Mar. 9, 141 BC–Mar. 29, 87 BC Temple name: Shizong(世宗) Posthumous name: (short) Emperor Wu (武帝) Posthumous name: (full) Emperor Xiao... Emperor Wu of Han found great utility in Confucianism's political ideas and made Confucianism the official state philosophy.


Toward this end, study of the Confucian classics became the basis of the government examination system. Confucianism became the very core of the educational curriculum. With Confucianism firmly ensconced in the minds of the Chinese people and their politicians, the philosophy gained political primacy, and no serious attempt to thoroughly replace it came until the advent of This article is about communism as a form of A society is a group of people living or working together. There are various different uses of the term society. The casual meaning of society simply refers to a group of people living together in an ordered community.1 The social... Communism in the (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... 20th century.


Under its eventual reformulation as Neo-Confucianism (理學 Pinyin: Lǐxué) is a term for a form of Confucianism that was primarily developed during the Song dynasty, but which can be traced back to Han Yu and Li Ao in the Tang dynasty. The term should not be mistaken for New Confucianism which... Neo-Confucianism, Confucianism became accepted as state philosophies in Korea and Japan.


Rites

 Lead the people with administrative injunctions and put them in their place with penal law, and they will avoid punishments but will be without a sense of shame. Lead them with excellence and put them in their place through roles and ritual practices, and in addition to developing a sense of shame, will order themselves harmoniously. Analects II. 3. tr. J. Legge 

This sentence concisely explains an essential difference between legalism and ritualism, and could be seen to point out a key difference between Western and Eastern societies. Confucius explains that with the Law, that punishes after the action and from the outside, people behave well without really understanding (comprising, making it one's) the reason why they should. With the Rite, that works before and from the inside by giving shapes to behaviors and giving self-control on desires, people behave properly because they fear shame and seek honor, as they want not to lose Face refers to two separate but related concepts in Chinese social relations. One is mianzi (面子). The other is lianzi (臉子). Lian is the confidence of society in a persons moral character, while mianzi represents social perceptions of a persons prestige. For a person to maintain... face. A related saying is: "Even if I could try a civil suit as well as anyone, it would be better to bring it about that there were no civil suits." (Analects XII. 13. Tr. Arthur David Waley (August 19, 1889 – June 27, 1966) was an English orientalist and sinologist. Born Arthur David Schloss, son of the economist David Frederick Schloss, he changed his surname to his mothers maiden name, Waley, in 1914. He entered Kings College, Cambridge in 1907, where he... A. Waley).


Rite (禮, Lǐ) stands here for a complex set of ideas hard to render in Western languages. Its Chinese character previously had the religious meaning of "sacrifice": 禮 is 示 'altar' on the left of 曲 on 豆 representing a vase full of flowers, offered as a sacrifice to the gods. Its Confucian meaning goes from politeness and propriety to the understanding of everybody's correct place in society. In its external form, Rites are used to distinguish between people, their usage making everyone know at all times who is the younger and who is the elder, who is the guest and who is the host and so forth. In its internal effect, it makes everyone know their duty among others and what one can expect from them.


Internalization is the main process in Rites: behavior formalization becomes progressively internalized into the channelling of desires, and personal cultivation is the inner side of social correctness. This idea goes against the common saying that "The cowl does not make the monk," but in Confucius' mind "sincerity" is used to allow the behaviour to dye the self. Obeying the rites with sincerity makes them the most powerful way to cultivate oneself. Thus, "Respectfulness, without the Rites, becomes laborious bustle; carefulness, without the Rites, becomes timidity; boldness, without the Rites, becomes insubordination; straightforwardness, without the Rites, becomes rudeness." (VIII. 2. Trad. Legge mod.) The Rites can be seen as a means to stay between two opposing qualities, that, unbalanced, or "unharmonized," can become a fault.


Linked to protocol and ceremonies, assigning to everyone a defined place in the society and the behaviors related to this place, Rites divide people into categories, building a hierarchical structure of relationships within the group. But this is almost always balanced in Confucius sayings with reference to Music, which has the role of unifying the hearts. (Music seem to have played a great role in Confucius' life.) Even though the Analects heavily promote (ancient) rites, Confucius himself broke them often, for example when he cried too much at his preferred disciple's death, or when he met a fiendish princess (VI. 28.). Those latter rigid ritualists who forgot that the Rites are "more than presents of jade and silk" (XVII. 12.) were going far from their Master.


Governing

 To govern by virtue, let us compare it to the North Star: it stays in its place, while the myriad stars wait upon it. (II. 1.) 

Another key Confucianist concept is that to govern people, one must first govern oneself. The King's personal virtue, when developed enough, is changed into a spreading beneficient influence on the kingdom. This idea is developed further in the The Great Learning (大學, Dà Xué) is the first of the Four books which were selected by Zhu Xi in the Song Dynasty as a foundational introduction to Confucianism. It was originally one chapter in Li Ji (the Classic of Rites). The book consists of a short main text... Great Learning and is a tight link with the For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). Names Chinese: 道教 Pinyin: Dàojiào Wade-Giles: Tao-chiao The Yin-Yang or Taiji diagram, often used to symbolize Taoism. Most accounts describe Taoism or Daoism as an Asian philosophy and religion, although some regard... Taoist concept of Wu Wei: the less the King actually does, the more is done because of him. By being the "calm center" around which the kingdom turns, the King allows everything to function smoothly and yet avoids having to tamper with individual parts of the whole.


This idea may be traced back to early shamanistic beliefs, like that of the King (Wang, 王) being the axle between the Sky, the Men and the Earth. (The character itself shows the three levels of the universe, united by a single line.) Sitting at the right place on the throne, facing south, and once a year at the right time promulgating the new calendar, was, in short, the way to shine forth its might all over the world. Another (complementary) view is that this idea may have been used by ministers and counsellors to prevent aristocratic whims having bad effects on the population.


Meritocracy

 In teaching there should be no distinction of classes. Analects XV. 39. tr. Legge 

Many western admirers of Confucius Ancestral name (姓): Zi¹ (Chinese: 子; Pinyin: Zǐ) Clan name (氏): Kong (Ch: 孔 ; Py: Kǒng) Given name (名): Qiu (Ch: 丘 ; Py: Qiū) Courtesy name (字): Zhongni (Ch: 仲尼 ; Py: Zhòngní) Posthumous name (謚): The Ultimate Sage Master of... Confucius, like Voltaire François-Marie Arouet (November 21, 1694—May 30, 1778), better known by the pen name Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, deist and philosopher. Contents // 1 Biography 1.1 Exile to England 1.2 Return to Paris 1.3 Cirey 1.4 Frederick the Great 1.5... Voltaire or H. G. Creel, have pointed out a very new and quite revolutionary idea of Confucius: He replaced the nobility of blood by one of virtue. Jūnzǐ(君子), which meant "noble man" before him, slowly moved in his sayings to a new sense, a little bit like " The term gentleman (from Latin gentilis, belonging to a race or gens, and man, cognate with the French word gentilhomme, the Spanish hombre gentil, and the Italian gentil huomo), in its original and strict signification, denoted a man of good family, the Latin generosus (its invariable translation in English-Latin... gentleman" did in English. A virtuous plebeian who cultivates his qualities can be a "gentleman", while a shameless son of the King is only a "small man". That he allowed students of many classes to be his disciples (his teachings were intended to train future rulers), is a clear demonstration that he fought against feudal structures in Chinese society.


Although Confucius claimed he never invented anything and was only transmitting ancient knowledge (Analects VII. 1.), he did produce a number of new ideas. The particular idea of "meritocracy" led to the introduction of the The imperial examinations (科舉, kējǔ) in dynastic China determined positions in the civil service, which had promoted upward mobility among the people for centuries. It also made a gap between intellectuals educated in classical Confucianism and ordinary people. However, in some dynasties imperial examinations were abolished... Imperial examination system in China. This system allowed anyone who passed an examination to become a government officer, a position which would bring wealth and honour to the whole family. It is noticeable that the Western university system, which is now copied in China, was partly built with an eye on China's system of governmental election.


Confucius wanted to solve the problems of his times and, in his "flat" way to see things, he decided that choosing a minister regarding its own qualities instead of its filiation was the best way. He praised those ancient Kings leaving their kingdom to the most qualified ones, instead of their elder sons. Thus, his direct achievement was set up a school producing statemen with a strong sense of state and duty. This is known as Rujia, the School of the Literati.


As a result, a number of "intellectuals" during the History of China series The Three August Ones and the Five Emperors Xia Dynasty Shang Dynasty Zhou Dynasty Spring and Autumn Period Warring States Period Qin Dynasty Western Han Dynasty Xin Dynasty Eastern Han Dynasty Three Kingdoms Jin Dynasty Sixteen Kingdoms Southern and Northern Dynasties Sui Dynasty Tang Dynasty Zhou... Warring States Period and the early History of China series The Three August Ones and the Five Emperors Xia Dynasty Shang Dynasty Zhou Dynasty Spring and Autumn Period Warring States Period Qin Dynasty Western Han Dynasty Xin Dynasty Eastern Han Dynasty Three Kingdoms Jin Dynasty Sixteen Kingdoms Southern and Northern Dynasties Sui Dynasty Tang Dynasty Zhou... Han dynasty promoted the cause of Confucianism. During this period, China grew a great deal and the need for a solid and centralized corporation of government officers able to read and write administrative papers may explain this choice. This corporation of men chosen on the basis of their knowledge of ancient scriptures and ability to write political essays and Poetry (ancient Greek: poieo = create) is an art form in which human language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or instead of, its notional and semantic content. It consists largely of oral or literary works in which language is used in a manner that is felt by... poetry was an efficient counter against the remaining landowner aristocracy which was threatening the unity of the state.


Since then, Confucianism has been used as a kind of "state religion", with authoritarianism, legitimism , paternalism and submission to authority as political tools to rule China. Actually, most Emperors used a mix of Legalism and Confucianism as their ruling doctrine, often using the latter as an embellishment for the first. They also quite often used varieties of Taoism or Buddhism as their personal philosophy or religion. As with many other canonised men, Confucius himself would probably have disapproved of much that has been done in his name, and Confucianism, in its hollowly ritualist form, was far from his humanistic teaching.


Some key concepts in Confucian thought

A simple way to appreciate Confucian thought is to consider it as based on varying levels of Honesty is also the name of two plants; see Honesty (plant) . Honesty, the quality of being honest, is a value which can be defined in multiple ways. In the context of human communication, people are generally said to be honest when they tell the truth to the best of their... honesty. The biography of Confucius Ancestral name (姓): Zi¹ (Chinese: 子; Pinyin: Zǐ) Clan name (氏): Kong (Ch: 孔 ; Py: Kǒng) Given name (名): Qiu (Ch: 丘 ; Py: Qiū) Courtesy name (字): Zhongni (Ch: 仲尼 ; Py: Zhòngní) Posthumous name (謚): The Ultimate Sage Master of... Confucius deals with the origins of this view. In practice, rituals of Confucianism accrued over time and matured into the following form:

  • (禮) — ritual. This originally meant "to sacrifice." From this initial religious ceremonial meaning, the term was soon extended to include secular ceremonial behaviour, and then took on an even more diffuse meaning, that of the propriety or politeness which colours everyday life. Rites were codified and treated as an all-embracing system of norms. Confucius himself tried to revive the Etiquette is the code that governs the expectations of social behavior, the conventional norm. It is an unwritten code, which evolves from written rules, for the Greek equivalent of etiquette is protocol, the written formula for ceremonial. It usually reflects a theory of conduct that society or tradition has invested... etiquette of earlier dynasties, but in later Confucian tradition, he himself was regarded as the great authority on ritual behaviour.
  • Xiào(孝) — In Confucian thought, filial piety (Xiào (孝)) is one of the virtues to be cultivated, a love and respect for ones parents and ancestors. More under Confucianism. In general terms, filial piety means obedience to ones parents during their lifetime and--as they grew older--taking the... filial piety. This was considered among the greatest of virtues, and had to be shown towards both the living and the dead. The term "filial", meaning "of a son", denotes the respect and obedience that a son should show to his parents and, traditionally, especially to his father. This relationship was extended by analogy to a series of five relationships: those between father and son, ruler and subject, husband and wife, elder brother and younger brother, and that between friends. Specific duties were prescribed between each of the participants in these sets of relationships. Such duties were also extended to the dead, and this led to the veneration of ancestors, to which the living stood as sons to their fathers. At this point we can see xiào almost imperceptibly fading into lǐ, e.g. the precise regulations on the length and manner of mourning on the death of a family member. In time, filial piety was also built into the Chinese legal system: a criminal would be punished more harshly if the culprit had committed the crime against a parent, while fathers exercised enormous power over their children. Much the same was true of the other unequal relationships. The main source of our knowledge of the importance of filial piety is The Book of Filial Piety, a work which is attributed to Confucius, but was almost certainly written only in the third century B.C. Nevertheless, filial piety has continued to play a central role in Confucian thinking to the present day.
  • Zhōng(忠) — loyalty. This was the equivalent of filial piety on a different plane, that of the relationship between ruler and minister. It was particularly relevant for the social class to which most of Confucius's students belonged, because the only way for an ambitious young scholar to make his way in the world was to enter the civil service of a ruler. Like filial piety, loyalty was often subverted by the autocratic regimes of China. Confucius had advocated a sensitivity to the Realpolitik (German for politics of reality) is foreign politics based on practical concerns rather than theory or ethics. Otto von Bismarck coined the term after following Prince Klemens von Metternichs lead in finding ways to balance the power of European empires. Balancing power meant keeping the peace, and careful... realpolitik of the class relations that existed in his time: he did not propose that "might makes right", but that a superior who had received the " The Mandate of Heaven (天命 Chinese language Romanization For Standard Mandarin EFEO Gwoyeu Romatzyh Hanyu Pinyin Latinxua Sinwenz Lessing-Othmer Mandarin Phonetic Symbols II Postal System Pinyin Tongyong Pinyin Wade-Giles Yale For Standard Cantonese Barnett-Chao Hong Kong Government Jyutping Meyer-Wempe Sidney Lau Yale For Min Nan... Mandate of Heaven" (see below) should be obeyed because of his moral rectitude. But this was soon reinterpreted and became a doctrine which demanded blind, unquestioning obedience to the ruler from the ruled. It is generally held that Confucius would not have supported this — he was far too subtle a thinker for that.
  • Rén(仁) — humaneness. Confucius was concerned with people's individual development, but he maintained that this is realized within the context of human relationships. Ritual and filial piety are the ways in which one should act towards these others, but the underlying attitude is one of humaneness. Unlike ritual, it is not the kind of thing that can be easily defined or identified in a particular person. It is perhaps best expressed in the Confucian version of the The Golden Rule is an ethical statement which is found in many religions and philosophies. It is also called the ethic of reciprocity. Here is a short list of statements of the golden rule, in chronological order: ~1970-1640 BCE Do for one who may do for you, / That you... Golden Rule, which is phrased in the negative: "Do not do to others what you would not like them to do to you." Rén also has a political dimension; if the ruler lacks it, it will hardly be possible for the subjects to behave humanely. This, in fact, is the basis of the entire Confucian political theory: it presupposes an autocratic ruler, who is then exhorted to refrain from acting inhumanely towards the subjects. An inhumane ruler runs the risk of losing the "Mandate of Heaven" — the right to rule. Such a mandateless ruler need not be obeyed. But a ruler who reigns humanely and takes care of the people is to be obeyed strictly, for the very fact of this benevolent dominion shows that the ruler has been mandated by heaven. Heaven (Shang Ti or T'ien) here is a vague concept of an impersonal superior reality, much as westerners might say, "Heaven help us" (although some scholars interpret the concept theistically). Confucius himself had little to say on the will of the people, but his leading follower Mencius Ancestral name (姓): Ji (Chinese: 姬 ; Pinyin: Jī) Clan name (氏): Meng¹ (Ch: 孟 ; Py: Mèng) Given name (名): Ke (Ch: 軻 ; Py: Kē) Courtesy name (字): Unknown² Posthumous name (謚): Master Meng the Second Sage³ (Ch: 亞聖孟子 ; Py... Mencius did state on one occasion that the people's opinion on certain weighty matters should be polled.
  • Jūnzǐ(君子) — the perfect gentleman. The gentleman is the ideal towards which all Confucians strive. (In modern times, the masculine bias in Confucianism has weakened, but the same term is still used.) The term literally means "son of a ruler," and there was a hereditary elitism inherent in the gentleman concept, but besides this, gentlemen were also expected to act as moral guides to the rest of society. Gentlemen are those who cultivate themselves morally, who participate in the correct performance of the rites, who show filial piety and loyalty where these are due and who have cultivated humaneness. The great exemplar of the gentleman is Confucius himself. It is indeed one of the great tragedies of his life that he was never awarded the high official position which he desired, and from which he wished to demonstrate the general well-being that would ensue if humane persons ruled and administered the state. The opposite of the Jūnzǐ was the Xiǎorén (小人), literally 'small person.'

Debates

Does Confucianism promote corruption?

Different from many other political philsophies, Confucianism is reluctant to employ laws. In a society where rites (i.e. relationships) are considered as more important than the laws themselves, if no other power forces government officers to take the common interest into consideration, This article is about political corruption. For other uses, see Corruption (disambiguation) In broad terms, political corruption is the misuse of public office for private gain. All forms of government are susceptible in practice to political corruption. Degrees of corruption vary greatly, from minor uses of influence and patronage to... corruption and Nepotism is the act of favoring ones family members in a situation where doing so is considered inappropriate. For instance, a manager in a firm is generally expected to promote the most competent persons, in order that the firm may succeed. For that manager to promote an incompetent relative... nepotism will arise. As government officers' salary was often far lower than the minimum required to raise a family, Chinese society has frequently been affected by those problems, and still is. Even if some means to control and reduce corruption and nepotism have been successfully used in China, one of the main criticisms against Confucianism is that it offers little help against them.


Was there a Confucianism?

One of the problems in discussing the history of Confucianism is the question of what Confucianism is. In this article, Confucianism can be understood roughly as largely as "the stream of individuals claiming Master Kong was the Greatest Master" while it means also "the social group following moral, political and philosophical doctrine of what was considered at a given time as the orthodox understanding of Confucius". In this meaning, this "group" can be identified, during periods of discussions with others doctrines, like History of China series The Three August Ones and the Five Emperors Xia Dynasty Shang Dynasty Zhou Dynasty Spring and Autumn Period Warring States Period Qin Dynasty Western Han Dynasty Xin Dynasty Eastern Han Dynasty Three Kingdoms Jin Dynasty Sixteen Kingdoms Southern and Northern Dynasties Sui Dynasty Tang Dynasty Zhou... Han and History of China series The Three August Ones and the Five Emperors Xia Dynasty Shang Dynasty Zhou Dynasty Spring and Autumn Period Warring States Period Qin Dynasty Western Han Dynasty Xin Dynasty Eastern Han Dynasty Three Kingdoms Jin Dynasty Sixteen Kingdoms Southern and Northern Dynasties Sui Dynasty Tang Dynasty Zhou... Tang dynasty, with a kind of political party. During periods of confucean hegemony like Alternative meaning: Song Dynasty (420-479) History of China series The Three August Ones and the Five Emperors Xia Dynasty Shang Dynasty Zhou Dynasty Spring and Autumn Period Warring States Period Qin Dynasty Western Han Dynasty Xin Dynasty Eastern Han Dynasty Three Kingdoms Jin Dynasty Sixteen Kingdoms Southern and Northern... Song, History of China series The Three August Ones and the Five Emperors Xia Dynasty Shang Dynasty Zhou Dynasty Spring and Autumn Period Warring States Period Qin Dynasty Western Han Dynasty Xin Dynasty Eastern Han Dynasty Three Kingdoms Jin Dynasty Sixteen Kingdoms Southern and Northern Dynasties Sui Dynasty Tang Dynasty Zhou... Ming and History of China series The Three August Ones and the Five Emperors Xia Dynasty Shang Dynasty Zhou Dynasty Spring and Autumn Period Warring States Period Qin Dynasty Western Han Dynasty Xin Dynasty Eastern Han Dynasty Three Kingdoms Jin Dynasty Sixteen Kingdoms Southern and Northern Dynasties Sui Dynasty Tang Dynasty Zhou... Qing dynasties, it can be identified roughly with the social class of government officials.


But the reality of such a group is debated. In his book Manufacturing Confucianism, Lionel Jensen claims that our modern image of Confucius and Confucianism, which is that of a wise symbol of learning and a state-sponsored quasi-religion, did not exist in China from time immemorial, but was manufactured by European Jesuits, as a "translation" of the ancient indigenous traditions known as "Ru Jia," in order to portray Chinese society to Europeans. The notion of Confucianism was then borrowed back by Chinese who used it for their own purposes.


Therefore, we could define Confucianism as any system of thinking that has at its basis the works that are regarded as the " China has a wealth of classical literature, both poetry and prose, dating from the Eastern Zhou Dynasty (1122 BC _ 256 BC) and including the Chinese classics texts, or Chinese canonical texts. Some of them are attributed to Confucius but he might only be the editor of them. One of... Confucian classics," which was the corpus used in the Imperial examination system. Even this definition runs into problems because this corpus was subject to changes and additions. Neo-Confucianism, for instance, valorized the The Great Learning (大學, Dà Xué) is the first of the Four books which were selected by Zhu Xi in the Song Dynasty as a foundational introduction to Confucianism. It was originally one chapter in Li Ji (the Classic of Rites). The book consists of a short main text... Great Learning and the Zhong Yong in this corpus, because their themes are close to those of For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). Names Chinese: 道教 Pinyin: Dàojiào Wade-Giles: Tao-chiao The Yin-Yang or Taiji diagram, often used to symbolize Taoism. Most accounts describe Taoism or Daoism as an Asian philosophy and religion, although some regard... Taoism and Buddha on Lantau Island Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts... Buddhism.


The Script Controversy

The origin of this problem lies with the attempt of the First Emperor, Qin Shi Huang Ancestral name (姓): Ying (嬴) Clan name (氏): Zhao¹ (趙), or Qin² (秦) Given name (名): Zheng (政) King of the State of Qin Dates of reign: July 247 BC–221 BC Official title: King of Qin (秦王) Emperor of Qin Dynasty Dates of reign... Qin Shi Huang, to burn all of the books. After the History of China series The Three August Ones and the Five Emperors Xia Dynasty Shang Dynasty Zhou Dynasty Spring and Autumn Period Warring States Period Qin Dynasty Western Han Dynasty Xin Dynasty Eastern Han Dynasty Three Kingdoms Jin Dynasty Sixteen Kingdoms Southern and Northern Dynasties Sui Dynasty Tang Dynasty Zhou... Qin dynasty was overthrown by the History of China series The Three August Ones and the Five Emperors Xia Dynasty Shang Dynasty Zhou Dynasty Spring and Autumn Period Warring States Period Qin Dynasty Western Han Dynasty Xin Dynasty Eastern Han Dynasty Three Kingdoms Jin Dynasty Sixteen Kingdoms Southern and Northern Dynasties Sui Dynasty Tang Dynasty Zhou... Han, there was the monumental task of recreating all of the knowledge that was destroyed. The method that was undertaken was to find all of the remaining scholars and have them reconstruct from memory the texts that were lost. This produced the "New Script" texts. Afterwards, people began finding fragments of books that had escaped the burning. Piecing those together produced the "Old Script" texts. One problem that has plagued Confucianism through the ages the question of which set of texts is the more authentic; the "Old Script" texts tend to have greater acceptance.


Is Confucianism a religion?

 The Master said, "I have been the whole day without eating, and the whole night without sleeping:-- occupied with thinking. It was of no use. The better plan is to learn." Analects XV. 30. tr. Legge 
 Zilu [an impetuous disciple of Confucius] asked how one should serve ghosts and spirits. The Master said, "Till you have learnt to serve men, how can you serve ghosts?" Zilu then ventured upon a question about the dead. The Master said, "Till you know about the living, how are you to know about the dead?" Analect XI. 11. tr. Waley 

It is debatable whether Confucianism should be called a Religion, sometimes used interchangeably with faith, is commonly defined as belief concerning the supernatural, sacred, or divine, and the practices and institutions associated with such belief. In its broadest sense some have defined it as the sum total of answers given to explain humankinds relationship with the universe. Religion... religion. While it prescribes a great deal of ritual, little of it could be construed as worship or meditation in a formal sense. Confucius occasionally made statements about the existence of other-worldly beings that sound distinctly Agnosticism is the philosophical and theological view that the existence of God, gods or deities is either unknown or inherently unknowable. The term and the related agnostic were coined by Thomas Henry Huxley in 1869 and are also used to describe those who are unconvinced or noncommittal about the existence... agnostic and Humanism is a system of thought that defines a socio-political doctrine (-ism) whose bounds exceed those of locally developed cultures, to include all of humanity and all issues common to human beings. Because doctrines of cultural distinction and exclusivity are often phrased in terms of religion, secular humanism grew... humanistic to Western ears. Thus, Confucianism is often considered an Ethics is a branch of philosophy dealing with right and wrong in human behaviour. All religions have a moral component, and religious approaches to the problem of ethics historically dominated ethics over secular approaches. From the point of view of theistic religions, to the extent that ethics stems from revealed... ethical tradition and not a Religion, sometimes used interchangeably with faith, is commonly defined as belief concerning the supernatural, sacred, or divine, and the practices and institutions associated with such belief. In its broadest sense some have defined it as the sum total of answers given to explain humankinds relationship with the universe. Religion... religion.


However, its effect on Chinese society and culture has been very deep and parallels the effects of religious movements seen in other cultures. Those who follow the teachings of Confucius are comforted by it; it makes their lives more complete and their sufferings bearable. it includes a great deal of ritual and (in its Neo-Confucianism (理學 Pinyin: Lǐxué) is a term for a form of Confucianism that was primarily developed during the Song dynasty, but which can be traced back to Han Yu and Li Ao in the Tang dynasty. The term should not be mistaken for New Confucianism which... Neo-Confucian formulation) gives a comprehensive explanation of the world, human nature, etc. Moreover, religions in Chinese culture are not mutually exclusive entities — each tradition is free to find its specific niche, its field of specialisation. One can be a For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). Names Chinese: 道教 Pinyin: Dàojiào Wade-Giles: Tao-chiao The Yin-Yang or Taiji diagram, often used to symbolize Taoism. Most accounts describe Taoism or Daoism as an Asian philosophy and religion, although some regard... Taoist, For other uses of the term Christian, see This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. If an article link referred you here, you might want to go back and fix it to point directly to the intended... Christian, This article forms part of the seriesIslam This article forms part of the seriesIslam Vocabulary of Islam Five Pillars Profession of faith Prayer · Alms · Fasting Pilgrimage to Mecca Jihad (See Sixth pillar of Islam) People Muhammad Prophets of Islam Caliph · Shia Imam Companions of Muhammad Holy Cities Mecca · Medina · Jerusalem... Muslim, Shintō (Japanese: 神道) is the native religion of Japan. It involves the worship of kami, which could be translated to mean gods, nature spirits, or just spiritual presences. Some kami are very local and can be regarded as the spirit or genius of a particular place, but others... Shintoist or Buddha on Lantau Island Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts... Buddhist and still profess Confucianist beliefs.


Although Confucianism may include worship of ancestors, sacrifice to chthonian spirits and a celestial deity, the deification of the Emperor and even Confucius himself, all these features can be traced back to non-Confucian Chinese beliefs and, in this respect, make it difficult to claim that such rituals make Confucianism a religion.


The question of Confucianism's status as a religion or not is also a definitional problem. If the definition used is worship of supernatural entities, the answer may be that Confucianism is not a religion, but then this definition could also be used to argue that many traditions commonly held to be religious (Buddhism, some forms of This article forms part of the seriesIslam This article forms part of the seriesIslam Vocabulary of Islam Five Pillars Profession of faith Prayer · Alms · Fasting Pilgrimage to Mecca Jihad (See Sixth pillar of Islam) People Muhammad Prophets of Islam Caliph · Shia Imam Companions of Muhammad Holy Cities Mecca · Medina · Jerusalem... Islam, etc.) are not in fact religions at all. As with many such important concepts, the definition of religion is quite contentious. Herbert Fingarette's Confucius: The Secular as Sacred is a good treatment of this issue.


See also

  • This is a partial list of people who follow Confucianism, selected for their influence on that belief, or for their fame in other areas. Confucius aka Kung Fu-tzu, founder Mencius Hsun Tzu Kaozi Wang Fuzhi Phan Van Cac Wang Fuzhi Tang Yijie Tu Wei-Ming, advocate of New... List of Confucianists
  • In the West, the term Eastern philosophy refers very broadly to the various philosophies of the East, namely Asia, including China, India, Japan, and the general area. Most Western universities focus almost exclusively on Western philosophical traditions and ideas in their philosophy departments and courses (with several exceptions). When one... Eastern philosophy
  • Temple incense in Taichung, Taiwan with Fu Dog behind. A wide variety of religions have been practiced in China since the beginning of its history. Temples of many different religions dot the landscape of China. The study of religion in China is complicated by several issues. Because many Chinese belief... Religion in China
  • Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. Start the Korean confucianism article (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Korean_confucianism&action=edit) If you have created this page in the past few minutes and it has not yet appeared, it may not be... Korean Confucianism

External links

Translations

  • Confucianism and Confucian texts (http://www.comparative-religion.com/confucianism/)
  • The Analects of Confucius (http://afpc.asso.fr/wengu/wg/wengu.php?l=Lunyu) in Chinese with English translations of James Legge (December 20, 1815 - November 29, 1897) was a British sinologist. James Legge was born at Huntly, Aberdeenshire, and educated at Kings College, Aberdeen. After studying at the Highbury Theological College, London, he went in 1839 as a missionary to China, but remained at Malacca three years, in charge... James Legge and D.C. Lau

Articles & Books

  • Chinese Culture and Politics (http://www.mti.gov.sg/public/NWS/frm_NWS_Default.asp?sid=39&cid=223) by George Yeo, Minister for Trade and Industry, Republic of Singapore 新加坡共和国 Republik Singapura சிங்கப்பூர் குடியரசு (Flag) (Coat of Arms) National motto: Majulah Singapura (English: Onward, Singapore) Official languages English, Mandarin Chinese, Malay, Tamil Capital... Singapore, at The Golden Jubilee Anniversary Of New Asia College, Hong Kong (香港; Cantonese IPA: [hœːŋ1kɔːŋ2]; Jyutping: hoeng1 gong2; Yale: heūng góng; pinyin: Xiānggǎng; Wade-Giles: Hsiang-kang) is one of the two Special Administrative Regions of the Peoples Republic of China. (The... Hong Kong
  • Fingarette, Herbert. Confucius: The Secular as Sacred (http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/1577660102/103-3648291-0906232?v=glance). ISBN 1577660102.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Confucianism (1135 words)
Confucianism survived its suppression during the Qin Dynasty partly thanks to the discovery of a trove of Confucian classics hidden in the walls of a scholar's house.
Study of the Confucian classics became the basis of the government examination system and the core of the educational curriculum.
One theme central to Confucianism is that of relationships, and the differing duties arising from the different status one held in relation to others.
Confucianism - Search View - MSN Encarta (2531 words)
Confucianism, major system of thought in Chinese philosophy, developed from the teachings of Confucius and his disciples, and concerned with the principles of good conduct, statecraft, practical wisdom, and proper social relationships.
Confucianism has influenced the Chinese attitude towards life, set the patterns of living and standards of social value, and provided the intellectual underpinning for Chinese political theories and institutions.
Nevertheless, the Confucian Classics continued to be the chief source of learning for scholars, and with the restoration of peace and prosperity in the Tang dynasty (618-906), the spread of Confucianism was encouraged.
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