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Encyclopedia > Conflict escalation
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Conflict escalation describes the escalation of a conflict to a more destructive, confrontational, painful, or otherwise "less comfortable" level; in particular, it is concerned with how persons or forces can be controlled or subdued in conflict. In systems theory, this kind of behaviour is modeled as positive feedback. Image File history File links Information_icon. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In rhetoric, a tautology is a use of redundant language in speech or writing, or, put simply, saying the same thing twice. // Tautology, often regarded as a fault of style, was defined by Fowler as saying the same thing twice. In fact, it is not necessary for the entire meaning... Abstraction is the process of reducing the information content of a concept, typically in order to retain only information which is relevant for a particular purpose. ... Image File history File links Circle-question-red. ... Escalation is the phenomenon of something getting worse step by step, for example a quarrel, or, notably, military presence and nuclear armament during the Cold War. ... Conflict is a state of opposition, disagreement or incompatibility between two or more people or groups of people, which is sometimes characterized by physical violence. ... Systems theory is a transdisciplinary/multiperspectual theory that studies structure and properties of systems in terms of relationships from which new properties of wholes emerge. ... Imbibers of alcoholic drinks the unknown strange organisms were called yeast and they were the starting point of the image. ...

Conflict escalation has a tactical role in military conflict, and is often formalized with explicit rules of engagement. Highly successful military tactics exploit a particular form of conflict esclation; for example, controlling an opponents reaction time allows the tactician to pursue or trap his opponent. Napoleon, Guderian, and Sun Tzu advocated this approach; however, the latter elaborated it in a more abstract form, and additionally maintained that military strategy was about minimizing escalation, and diplomacy about eliminating it. This article describes the military term of the rules of engagement. ... Military tactics (Greek: TaktikÄ“, the art of organizing an army) is the collective name for methods of engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... General Heinz Guderian Heinz Wilhelm Guderian (17 June 1888-14 May 1954) was a military theorist and General of the German Army during the Second World War. ... Sun Tzu (孫子 also commonly written in pinyin: Sūn Zǐ) was the author of The Art of War, an influential ancient Chinese book on military strategy (for the most part not dealing directly with tactics). ... Military stratagem in the Battle of Waterloo. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Continuum of Force

The United States Marine Corps' "Continuum of Force" (found in MCRP 3-02B) documents the stages of Conflict escalation in combat for a typical subject. They are:

  • Level 1: Compliant (Cooperative).

The subject responds to and obeys verbal commands. He refrains from close combat.

  • Level 2: Resistant (Passive).

The subject resists verbal commands but complies to commands immediately upon contact controls. He refrains from close combat.

  • Level 3: Resistant (Active).

Initially, the subject physically resists commands, but he can be made to comply by compliance techniques; these include come-along holds, soft-handed stunning blows, and techniques inducing pain by joint manipulation and pressure points.

  • Level 4: Assaultive (Bodily Harm).

The unarmed subject physically attacks his opponent. He can be controlled by certain defensive tactics, including blocks, strikes, kicks, enhanced pain compliance procedures, impact weapon blocks and blows.

  • Level 5: Assaultive (Lethal Force).

The subject has a weapon and will likely kill or injure someone unless controlled. This is only possible by lethal force, which possibly requires firearms or weapons.

Preventing conflict escalation

Most peace and conflict theory is concerned with curbing conflict escalation or creating a mindset to avoid such conflict in future, and instead engaging in peacemaking. Much nonviolent conflict resolution, however, involves conflict escalation in the form of protests, strikes, or other direct actions. A mindset, in decision theory and general systems theory, refers to a set of assumptions, methods or notations held by one or more people or groups of people which is so established that it creates a powerful incentive within these people or groups to continue to adopt or accept prior... Peacemaking is a form of conflict resolution which focuses on establishing equal power relationships that will be robust enough to forestall future conflict, and establishing some means of agreeing on ethical decisions within a community that has previously had conflict. ... Demonstrators march in the street while protesting the World Bank and International Monetary Fund on April 16, 2005. ... Direct action is a form of political activism which seeks immediate remedy for perceived ills, as opposed to indirect actions such as electing representatives who promise to provide remedy at some later date. ...

Mohandas Gandhi, a major theorist of nonviolence, used satyagraha to demonstrate that: Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) (Devanagari: मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी), called Mahatma Gandhi, was the charismatic leader who brought the cause of Indias independence from British colonial rule to... Nonviolence (or non-violence) can be both a political strategy or moral philosophy that rejects the use of violence in efforts to attain social or political change. ... Mohandas Karamchand Mahatma Gandhi, who is credited with creating the concept of Satyagraha Satyagraha (Sanskrit: सत्याग्रह satyāgraha) is the philosophy of nonviolent resistance most famously employed by Mohandas Gandhi in forcing an end to the British Raj in India and also during his struggles in South Africa. ...

  • Peacefully controlling a group of people with a common cause was possible.
  • One could accomplish objectives through solidarity without fear of violent attack.
  • His method ensured mutual support.
  • It was possible to desist from retributive justice.
  • It was not ultimately desirable to inflict punishment, even when grievously wronged.

With this method of escalation, Gandhi avoided technological escalation and demonstrated to those in power that: Solidarity (Polish:  ; full name: Independent Self-governing Trade Union Solidarity — Niezależny SamorzÄ…dny ZwiÄ…zek Zawodowy Solidarność) is a Polish trade union federation founded in September 1980 at the Lenin Shipyards, and originally led by Lech WaÅ‚Ä™sa. ... Look up Punishment in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Technological escalation describes the fact that whenever two parties are in competition, each side tends to employ continuing technological improvements to defeat the other. ...

  • The group was held together by its own discipline, and not by any kind of authority using violence.
  • Authority could surrender without being subjected to violence.
  • Authority could depart safely.
  • Authority could devolve without obstacles, for the dissent was well enough organized to constitute an effective political party

Dissent is a sentiment or philosophy of non-agreement or opposition to an idea (eg. ... // Political scientists have developed concepts of different ideal types of political parties in order to better compare them with each other. ...

Systems view

Gandhi himself did not elaborate all these observations; Carol Moore, a later theorist, examined and described Gandhi's methods from the perspective of systems theory. Jay Forrester and Donella Meadows observed that people in crisis would often push the twelve leverage points towards escalation in the first stage, and then reduce escalation when the resistance had weakened and it was impossible to maintain the status quo.[citation needed] Carol Moore is an ethicist and systems theorist best known for her theories of secession and her analysis of Mahatma Gandhis methods as an intuitive systems theorist. She is considered an influential critic of globalization; Although not widely read or followed in the protest-oriented wing of the anti_globalization... Jay Wright Forrester (born 14 July 1918 Climax, Nebraska) is an American pioneer of computer engineering. ... Donella Dana Meadows (March 13, 1941 Elgin, Illinois, USA - February 20, 2001, New Hampshire) was a pioneering environmental scientist, a teacher and writer. ... The twelve leverage points to intervene in a system were proposed by Donella Meadows, a scientist concerned with the environment. ...



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