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Encyclopedia > Conflict diamond

A conflict diamond (also called a blood diamond or a war diamond) is a diamond mined in a war zone and sold, usually clandestinely, in order to finance an insurgent or invading army's war efforts. // For other uses, including the shape â—Š, see Diamond (disambiguation). ... The United States detonated an atomic bomb over Nagasaki on August 9, 1945. ...


In some cases, the United Nations has prohibited the export of conflict diamonds, arguing that their trade finances armies in fighting against legitimate governments and perpetrating human rights abuses, and prolongs devastating wars. It points to the UNITA rebels in Angola and to the Revolutionary United Front rebels in Sierra Leone (who it states were financed by the government of Liberia, also through diamond sales) as purveyors of conflict diamonds. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization that aims at facilitating co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, and social equity. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... A UNITA sticker The National Union for the Total Independence of Angola, more commonly known as UNITA (acronymn for its Portuguese name União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola), is an Angolan political faction. ... The Revolutionary United Front (RUF) was a rebel army that fought a failed ten-year insurrection in Sierra Leone, starting in 1991 and ending in 2002. ...


The UN is attempting to implement certification procedures to decrease the number of illicit diamonds on the world market. On July 19, 2000, the World Diamond Council adopted at Antwerp a resolution to strengthen the diamond industry's ability to block sales of conflict diamonds. July 19 is the 200th day (201st in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 165 days remaining. ... This article is about the year 2000. ... The World Diamond Council (also known during its prototype period as the International Diamond Council) is an organisation consisting of representatives from diamond manufacturing and diamond trading companies. ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ...


In 2002, the UN approved the Kimberley Process scheme aimed at preventing conflict diamonds entering the market. The Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) is a scheme designed to prevent conflict diamonds (also known as blood diamonds) entering the mainstream rough diamond market. ...


On July 29, 2003, U.S. President George W. Bush signed executive order 13312, a furthering of earlier executive orders 13194 and 13213. Its preamble contains this statement:

   
Conflict diamond
In response to the role played by the illicit trade in diamonds in fueling conflict and human rights violations in Sierra Leone, the President declared a national emergency in Executive Order 13194 and imposed restrictions on the importation of rough diamonds into the United States from Sierra Leone. I expanded the scope of that emergency in Executive Order 13213 and prohibited absolutely the importation of rough diamonds from Liberia. I further note that representatives of the United States and numerous other countries announced in the Interlaken Declaration of November 5, 2002, the launch of the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) for rough diamonds, under which Participants prohibit the importation of rough diamonds from, or the exportation of rough diamonds to, a non-Participant and require that shipments of rough diamonds from or to a Participant be controlled through the KPCS. The Clean Diamond Trade Act authorizes the President to take steps to implement the KPCS.
   
Conflict diamond

The Ivory Coast was recently found to be supplying conflict diamonds and was barred from diamond export under the Kimberly Process. Image File history File links Cquote1. ... Image File history File links Cquote2. ...


The diamond industry website, diamondfacts.org, claims that 99% of diamonds are not conflict by the U.N. definition but these numbers do not include state sponsored violence which falls outside the U.N definition. The U.S. Government Accountability Office reported in September 2006 that conflict diamonds are still entering the United States.


Current initiatives to continue to improve the situation include the diamond developement initiative to improve "artisanal" mining, or subsistence level small scale work. Currently, these small scale mines offer are not secure, and the workers are often underpaid with no regard to safety.


Conflict diamonds may also be becoming less traceable. A recent book, "Blood from Stones," links al-Qaeda to diamonds. The terrorist group is likely using the diamonds in place of cash, which thanks to stronger legislation on seizing terrorist associated bank accounts are not as viable.


Diamond vendors such as Brilliant Earth Leber Jeweler offer conflict-free diamonds produced in Canada as an ethical alternative which avoids the risk of unknowingly purchasing a blood diamond. The same argument is used by makers of lab-created diamonds such as Adia Diamonds, Gemesis and Apollo Diamond. Conflict-free diamonds are diamonds of certified origin which are guaranteed not to be tainted by violence, human rights abuses, child labor, or environmental destruction. ... Ethical consumerism (or Consumarchy) is buying things that are made ethically (This means A set of principles of right conduct. ... A colourless synthetic diamond produced via chemical vapour deposition Synthetic diamond is diamond produced through chemical or physical processes in a factory. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Gemesis Corporation is a privately-held company founded by Carter Clarke in Sarasota, Florida. ... Apollo Diamond, based in Boston, produces nearly flawless single crystal diamond wafers and crystals for the optoelectronics, nanotechnology, and consumer gem markets. ...


Other substances are sometimes sold the same way as conflict diamonds, such as coltan. Coltan is the colloquial African name for (columbite-tantalite), a metallic ore comprising Niobium and Tantalum. ...


Conflict diamond references in popular culture

  • In the 2005 film, Lord of War, much of the plot centered around the sale of arms to Liberia, financed by conflict diamonds.
  • A large part of the plot of the 2002 James Bond film Die Another Day revolved around smuggling of conflict diamonds. For many people, this was their first mainstream exposure to the term and the concept.
  • The topic of conflict diamonds was also the subject of an episode of Law & Order, titled "Soldier of Fortune".
  • American author Tom Zoellner wrote a nonfiction book published in 2006 called "The Heartless Stone" which detailed the history of the problem and exposed flaws in the Kimberley Process.
  • An episode of CSI: Crime Scene Investigation centered around the "accidental death" of a trainer by a horse kick. Investigations later reveal that the horse was an unwilling carrier of packets full of conflict diamonds cushioned by lentils.
  • Rapper Kanye West touched upon the issue of conflict diamonds in a song titled Diamonds from Sierra Leone, found on his sophomore album Late Registration. Another rapper by the name of Lupe Fiasco has a song named Conflict Diamonds, using the same backing track as Diamonds from Sierra Leone; after hearing it, Kanye made Lupe his protégé, featured him on "Touch the Sky", and elected to write on the theme of conflict diamonds himself.
  • Rapper Talib Kweli hit on the issue of conflict diamonds in Sierra Leone in his song Going Hard, which is on his album The Beautiful Struggle.
  • In the 2004 computer and video game Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas, set in 1992, advertisement of the Ammunation firearms store chain can be heard in ammunition stores, stating that buyers can purchase goods with conflict diamonds.
  • Malaysian thriller writer John Ling has written a non-fiction essay on the subject.

The Blood Diamond is an upcoming film written and directed by Edward Zwick. ... Leonardo Wilhelm DiCaprio (born November 11, 1974) is an Academy Award-nominated American actor well known for roles in blockbuster movies like Titanic (1997) and The Aviator (2004), and was famed for his far reaching global celebrity influence dubbed as Leo-Mania in the late 1990s. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... These lollipops, above, were found to contain heroin when inspected by the DEA. Smuggling is illegal transport, in particular across a border. ... Lord of War is a 2005 film written and directed by Andrew Niccol and starring Nicolas Cage. ... The James Bond 007 gun logo James Bond, also known as 007 (pronounced double-oh seven), is a fictional British spy created by writer Ian Fleming in 1952. ... Die Another Day is the twentieth James Bond film made by EON Productions and the fourth and final film to star Pierce Brosnan as Ian Flemings James Bond. ... Law & Order is an American television police procedural and legal drama set in New York City. ... CSI: Crime Scene Investigation is a popular Alliance Atlantis/CBS police procedural television series, running since October 2000, about a team of forensic scientists. ... Binomial name Lens culinaris Medikus Red lentils Lentils (Lens culinaris, Fabaceae) are lens-shaped pulses that grow on an annual, bushlike plant. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Kanye West (born Kanye Omari West on June 8, 1977) is a six-time Grammy Award-winning American producer/rapper. ... Diamonds from Sierra Leone was the first single from Kanye Wests second album, Late Registration. ... Wasalu Muhammad Jaco (born on February 17th, 1981 in Chicago, Illinois) known by the stage name Lupe Fiasco (pronounced LOO-pay) is an African-American rapper. ... Diamonds from Sierra Leone was the first single from Kanye Wests second album, Late Registration. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ... Touch the Sky is the fourth single released from Kanye Wests second album, Late Registration. ... Talib Kweli (born Talib Kweli Greene, 1975) is an American rapper from Brooklyn, New York. ... Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas is the fifth video game in the Grand Theft Auto series. ...

References

  • Bergner, Daniel, In the Land of Magic Soldiers, New York: Picador (2003), ISBN 0-374-26653-0.
  • Campbell, Greg, Blood Diamonds: Tracing the Deadly Path of the World’s Most Precious Stones. Boulder: Westview Press (2002), hardcover, ISBN 0-8133-3939-1; trade paperback, 252 pages, ISBN 0-8133-4220-1
  • Cilliers, Jakkie and Christian Dietrich (eds.), Angola’s War Economy (Pretoria, South Africa: Institute for Security Studies, 2000). Available online at: http://www.iss.co.za/Pubs/BOOKS/ANGOLA.HTML
  • Epstein, Edward Jay, The Rise and Fall of Diamonds, New York: Simon&Schuster (1982), ISBN 0-671-41289-2
    The Diamond Invention, book online version
  • Levy, Arthur V. (ed.), Diamonds and conflict : problems and solutions , Hauppauge, N.Y. : Novinka Books, (2003), ISBN 1-59033-715-8.
  • Reno, William, Corruption and State Politics in Sierra Leone (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,1995).
  • Tamm,Ingrid J. Diamonds in peace and war : severing the conflict-diamond connection, Cambridge, Mass.: World Peace Foundation, (2002), ISBN 0-9721033-5-X available online at: http://www.ksg.harvard.edu/cchrp/Web%20Working%20Papers/WPF-Tamm%20Diamond%20Report.pdf

Edward Jay Epstein, born in 1935, is an American investigative journalist. ...

External link


  Results from FactBites:
 
Conflict Diamonds - DiamondFacts.org (808 words)
Conflict diamonds are diamonds illegally traded to fund conflict in war-torn areas, particularly in central and western Africa.
Conflict diamonds captured the world's attention during the extremely brutal conflict in Sierra Leone in the late 1990s.
While diamonds have been used to fund conflict, the problem is not the diamonds themselves but the rebels who exploit diamonds (along with other natural resources) to achieve their illicit goals.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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