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Encyclopedia > Conference of Rulers
Malaysia

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Politics and government of
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The Conference of Rulers (also Council of Rulers, Malay: Majlis Raja-Raja) in Malaysia is a group comprising the nine rulers of the Malay states, and the governors or Yang di-Pertua Negeri of the other four states. It was officially established by Article 38 of the Constitution of Malaysia, and is the "only such institution in the world" according to the Malaysian National Library. Its main responsibility is the election of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong (King) and his deputy, the Timbalan Yang di-Pertuan Agong, which occurs every five years or after the death of the King. Although its position in the process of elective monarchy is unique, the Conference of Rulers also plays a role in amending the Constitution of Malaysia and some other policies, in particular, those Articles which have been "entrenched", namely those pertaining to the status of the rulers, the special privileges of the indigenous Bumiputra (see Article 153 of the Constitution of Malaysia), the status of the Malay language as the national language, and the clause governing the entrenchment of such Articles. The social contract in Malaysia refers to the agreement made by the countrys founding fathers in the Constitution. ... Flag of the Supreme Head of Malaysia Yang di-Pertuan Agong, a Malay title usually translated as Supreme Head, Supreme Ruler or Paramount Ruler, is the official title of the constitutional head of state of the federation of Malaysia. ... In full, Duli Yang Maha Mulia Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin ibni Almarhum Tuanku Syed Putra Jamalullail (born 1943) is the Yang di-Pertuan Agong (King) of Malaysia, and Raja of Perlis. ... The Cabinet of Malaysia is the executive branch of Malaysias government. ... The Prime Minister of Malaysia is the indirectly elected head of government of Malaysia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia (Timbalan Perdana Menteri in Malay) is the second highest political post in Malaysia. ... The Malaysian Houses of Parliament in Kuala Lumpur. ... The Dewan Negara is the Malaysian Senate. ... The Parliament of Malaysia consists of the lower house (Dewan Rakyat or literally Peoples Hall, in Malay) and upper house (Dewan Negara or Nations Hall in Malay). ... This article is about the Courts of Malaysia. ... The Opposition in Malaysia is a term used to describe political parties represented in the Parliament of Malaysia that is not in government either on its own or as part of a governing coalition. ... Elections in Malaysia gives information on election and election results in Malaysia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Political parties in Malaysia lists political parties in Malaysia. ... Malaysia is a federation of 13 states. ... This article concerns the Foreign relations of Malaysia. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... The Malay states are a group of nine states of Malaysia (all located in West Malaysia) which have hereditary Rulers. ... The Constitution of Malaysia, comprising more than 180 articles, is the supreme law of Malaysia. ... Flag of the Supreme Head of Malaysia Yang di-Pertuan Agong, a Malay title usually translated as Supreme Head, Supreme Ruler or Paramount Ruler, is the official title of the constitutional head of state of the federation of Malaysia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Constitution of Malaysia, comprising more than 180 articles, is the supreme law of Malaysia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In 2005, UMNO Youth Chief Hishamuddin Hussein brandished the keris (traditional Malay dagger) in defense of ketuanan Melayu, the social contract and Article 153. ... // Headline text Bold text Not to be confused with the Malayalam language, spoken in India. ...

Contents

History

The Conference of Rulers has its origins in the 1897 Durbar, the Council of Rulers for the Federated Malay States, under the British colonial regime. Only the four Federated Malay States of Perak, Selangor, Negeri Sembilan, and Pahang were represented at the Durbar, which first convened in 1897. Durbar is a term in India for a court or levee, from the Persian darbar. ... The Federated Malay States (FMS) was a federation of four states on the Malay Peninsula - Pahang, Perak, Selangor, and Negeri Sembilan - established by the British government in 1895, and lasted until 1946, when they together with the Straits Settlements and the Unfederated Malay States formed the Malayan Union. ... State motto: no State motto Capital Ipoh Royal Capital Kuala Kangsar Sultan Sultan Azlan Muhibbuddin Shah Chief Minister Dato Seri Diraja Tajol Rosli bin Mohd Ghazali Area 21,006 km² Population  - Est. ... State motto: Dipelihara Allah (English: Under Gods (Allah) Protection) Capital Shah Alam Royal Capital Klang Sultan Sultan Sharafuddin Idris Shah Chief Minister Dato Seri Dr Mohd Khir bin Toyo Area 7,956 km2 Population  - Estimated 4,100,000 State anthem Duli Yang Maha Mulia Selangor (Jawi: سلنجور, population 4. ... State motto: no State motto Capital Seremban Royal Capital Seri Menanti Yang di-Pertuan Besar Tuanku Jaafar ibni Almarhum Tuanku Abdul Rahman Chief Minister YAB Dato Seri Utama Mohamad Haji Hasan Area 6,645 km2 Population  - Est. ... State motto: no State motto Capital Kuantan Royal Capital Pekan Sultan Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah Chief Minister Dato Seri Adnan Yaakob Area 35,964 km2 Population  - Est year 2005 1,372,500 State anthem Pahang State Anthem Pahang (Jawi: Ú¨Ù‡Ú ) is the largest state on Peninsular Malaysia, occupying the huge Pahang...


The first Conference of Rulers was convened on August 31, 1948, the year the British established the semi-autonomous Federation of Malaya, where it was attended by the rulers of all nine Malay states. The Conference of Rulers continued after independence, when it was formally established under the Constitution. August 31 is the 243rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (244th in leap years), with 122 days remaining. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... The Federation of Malaya, or in Malay Persekutuan Tanah Melayu, was formed in 1948 from the British settlements of Penang and Malacca and the nine Malay states and replaced the Malayan Union. ...


Membership

Only the rulers of the Malay states (Negeri Sembilan, Selangor, Perlis, Terengganu, Kedah, Kelantan, Pahang, Johor, and Perak) are permitted to participate in the election of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, and stand as candidates. The governors of the other states (Penang, Melaka, Sabah, and Sarawak) do not participate when the Conference of Rulers meets to decide matters related to the election or removal of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong or his deputy, or those related to privileges of the Malay rulers. State motto: no State motto Capital Seremban Royal Capital Seri Menanti Yang di-Pertuan Besar Tuanku Jaafar ibni Almarhum Tuanku Abdul Rahman Chief Minister YAB Dato Seri Utama Mohamad Haji Hasan Area 6,645 km2 Population  - Est. ... State motto: Dipelihara Allah (English: Under Gods (Allah) Protection) Capital Shah Alam Royal Capital Klang Sultan Sultan Sharafuddin Idris Shah Chief Minister Dato Seri Dr Mohd Khir bin Toyo Area 7,956 km2 Population  - Estimated 4,100,000 State anthem Duli Yang Maha Mulia Selangor (Jawi: سلنجور, population 4. ... State motto: no State motto Capital Kangar Royal Capital Arau Raja Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin Regent Syed Faizuddin Putra Chief Minister Shahidan Kassim Area 810 km² Population  - Est year 2000 198335 State anthem Amin amin ya Rabaljalil Perlis (Jawi ڨرليس) in full Perlis Indera Kayangan, is the smallest state in Malaysia. ... Terengganu (Jawi: ترڠڬانو, formerly spelled Trengganu or Tringganu) is a sultanate and constitutive state of federal Malaysia. ... State motto: no State motto Capital Alor Star Royal Capital Anak Bukit Sultan Tuanku Abdul Halim Muadzam Shah Chief Minister Dato Hj Mahdzir Bin Khalid Area 9,426 km2 Population  - Est year 2003 1 778 188 State anthem Allah Selamatkan Sultan Mahkota Kedah (Jawi:قدح, pop. ... State Motto: Berserah kepada Tuhan Kerajaan Kelantan (English : Submit to God, government of Kelantan Capital Kota Bharu Sultan Tuanku Ismail Petra ibni al-Marhum Sultan Yahya Petra Chief minister Tuan Guru Dato Haji Nik Aziz Nik Mat Area 14,922 km² Population 1. ... State motto: no State motto Capital Kuantan Royal Capital Pekan Sultan Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah Chief Minister Dato Seri Adnan Yaakob Area 35,964 km2 Population  - Est year 2005 1,372,500 State anthem Pahang State Anthem Pahang (Jawi: Ú¨Ù‡Ú ) is the largest state on Peninsular Malaysia, occupying the huge Pahang... State Motto: Kepada Allah berserah (English: all hopes is to God (Allah) Capital Johor Bahru Royal Capital Pasir Pelangi Sultan Sultan Iskandar Al-Haj Chief minister Dato Abdul Ghani Othman Area 19,984 km² Population 3. ... State motto: no State motto Capital Ipoh Royal Capital Kuala Kangsar Sultan Sultan Azlan Muhibbuddin Shah Chief Minister Dato Seri Diraja Tajol Rosli bin Mohd Ghazali Area 21,006 km² Population  - Est. ... State motto: Bersatu dan Setia (United and Loyal), formerly Let Penang Lead Location in Malaysia Government Capital George Town (5. ... State motto: Bersatu Teguh (Malay, United We Stand) Capital Malacca Town Governor Tun Datuk Seri Utama Mohd Khalil Yaakob Chief Minister Datuk Seri Haji Mohd Ali Mohd Rustam Area 1,650 km² Population  - Estimated 648,500 State anthem Melaka Maju Jaya This article is about a state in Malaysia. ... State motto: Sabah Maju Jaya Capital Kota Kinabalu Governor Tun Haji Ahmadshah Abdullah Chief Minister Hj. ... State motto: United, Industrious, Dedicated (Malay: Bersatu, Berusaha, Berbakti ) Capital Kuching Governor T.Y.T Tun Datuk Patinggi Abang Muhammad Salahuddin Chief Minister Y.A.B. Datuk Patinggi Tan Sri Haji Abdul Taib Bin Mahmud / Pehin Sri Dr. Hj. ...


The membership of the Conference will depend on the succession of the Malay sultans, and the appointment of the governors. The Yang di-Pertuan Agong himself appoints the governors, while each state has its own procedure for succession to the throne. One, Negeri Sembilan, is itself an elective monarchy. State motto: no State motto Capital Seremban Royal Capital Seri Menanti Yang di-Pertuan Besar Tuanku Jaafar ibni Almarhum Tuanku Abdul Rahman Chief Minister YAB Dato Seri Utama Mohamad Haji Hasan Area 6,645 km2 Population  - Est. ...


Should a member of the Conference be unable to attend a meeting, his or her state must designate a temporary replacement; this process is set out by each state's own constitution, and therefore varies. Once elected, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is no longer a member of the Conference, and is replaced by the Regent he has selected to rule in his stead in his home state. Every meeting of the Conference is chaired by one of the nine Malay rulers, who is appointed rotationally.


Roles and procedure

The National Library has called the Conference of Rulers "the supreme institution in the country", which would mean even Parliament is subordinate to it. However, its role is largely symbolic by de facto, as even the election of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong generally follows a fixed order based on the seniority of the Malay rulers at the time of independence in 1957. The Malaysian Houses of Parliament in Kuala Lumpur. ...


In policy-making, if the Conference of Rulers is involved, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is constitutionally required to consult with not only the Prime Minister and the members of the Conference, but also with the Menteri Besar (Chief Ministers) of each state. The Prime Minister of Malaysia is the indirectly elected head of government of Malaysia. ... Literally, big minister in Malay, a Menteri Besar is a Chief Executive of the state governments of Perlis, Kedah, Perak, Selangor, Negeri Sembilan, Selangor, Pahang, Terengganu and Kelantan in Malaysia—that is, all states with royal rulers. ...


The Conference's role in amending the Constitution was first set out by the Constitution (Amendment) Act 1971, one of the first pieces of legislation passed by Parliament after the catastrophic May 13 Incident, which saw at least 200 deaths after racial rioting in the federal capital of Kuala Lumpur. The Act named Article 152, 153, and 181, and also Part III of the Constitution as specially protected; any public questioning of these provisions could now be criminalised by Parliament (this was done separately at the same time in amendments to the Sedition Act).[1] The provisions in question covered the social contract (not to be confused with the philosophy of a social contract between the government and the governed), a quid pro quo agreement between the Bumiputra and the non-Bumiputra. In return for the granting of citizenship to the non-Bumiputra, the Bumiputra were guaranteed special rights (or, some insist, Malay supremacy — ketuanan Melayu). The amendments thus effectively "entrenched" the social contract, making the contract alterable only with the agreement of the Conference of Rulers. The May 13 Incident saw numerous cases of arson in the Malaysian capital city of Kuala Lumpur. ... Nickname: KL Motto: Maju dan makmur (Malay: Peace and progress) Location in Malaysia Coordinates: Country Malaysia State Federal Territory Establishment 1857 Granted city status 1974 Mayor Ruslin Hasan Area    - City 243. ... In 2005, UMNO Youth Chief Hishamuddin Hussein brandished the keris (traditional Malay dagger) in defense of ketuanan Melayu, the social contract and Article 153. ... The social contract in Malaysia refers to the agreement made by the countrys founding fathers in the Constitution. ... Social contract theory (or contractarianism) is a concept used in philosophy, political science, and sociology to denote an implicit agreement within a state regarding the rights and responsibilities of the state and its citizens, or more generally a similar concord between a group and its members, or between individuals. ... Quid pro quo (Latin for something for something[1]) indicates a more-or-less equal exchange or substitution of goods or services. ... United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) Youth Chief Hishammuddin Hussein brandishing the keris (Malay dagger) in defence of ketuanan Melayu. ...


The provisions covered were (respectively) those relating to the national language of Malay, the special privileges and rights of the Malays and other indigenous peoples (Bumiputra, constituting more than half the Malaysian population), the status of the Malay rulers, and the provisions for Malaysian citizenship. These restrictions applied to all Malaysians, including Members of Parliament, overruling their Parliamentary immunity. In addition, Article 159(5), which governed amendments to the Constitution, was also amended to require the provisions of the Constitution relating to the "sensitive issues" mentioned earlier be amended only with the consent of the Conference of Rulers. This regulation would also apply to Article 159(5).[1] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Parliamentary immunity is a system in which members of the parliament are granted partial immunity from prosecution. ...


These changes met with strong opposition from the Democratic Action Party (DAP) and People's Progressive Party (PPP), both of which had called for changes in government policies related to those "sensitive issues" mentioned during their campaigns in the 1969 general election. The changes were criticised as undermining Parliamentary supremacy, and some considered the legislation to insufficiently clarify the bans on discussion; in particular, it was wondered if the ban on discussion applied to Article 159(5) as well.[1] Others, such as The Times of London in the United Kingdom, lambasted the constitutional amendments, stating they would "preserve as immutable the feudal system dominating Malay society" by "giving this archaic body of petty constitutional monarchs incredible blocking power", suggesting that this move was hypocritical in light of Prime Minister Tun Abdul Razak's declaration of "the full realization that important matters must no longer be swept under the carpet..."[2] Nevertheless, despite fierce opposition, the Alliance coalition government passed the constitutional amendments in Parliament without the opposition votes because of its two-thirds Parliamentary majority. Democratic Action Party (DAP) logo The Democratic Action Party (DAP, Parti Tindakan Demokratik in Malay) is Malaysias largest secular and Socialist opposition party. ... There are several parties named Peoples Progressive Party: Peoples Progressive Party (The Gambia) Peoples Progressive Party (Guyana) Peoples Progressive Party (Malaysia) Peoples Progressive Party (Papua New Guinea) Peoples Progressive Party (Solomon Islands) Categories: Disambiguation ... The Malaysian general election of 1969 was the third general election since independence, held in West Malaysia (Malaya) on May 10, 1969, and in East Malaysia later in the month. ... Parliamentary sovereignty or Parliamentary supremacy is the concept in British constitutional law that a parliament has sovereignty. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom since 1785, and under its current name since 1788. ... London (pronounced ) is the capital city of England and the United Kingdom. ... Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ... Tun Abdul Razak bin Dato Hussein (1922-1976) was the second Prime Minister of Malaysia, ruling from 1970 to 1976. ... Barisan Nasional (National Front or BN) is a political coalition in Malaysia. ...


The Conference of Rulers generally meets triannually, or three a times a year. Should the Yang di-Pertuan Agong or at least three members of the Conference request it, however, the Keeper of the Rulers' Seal may convene a meeting of the Conference of Rulers. Meetings will also be convened not later than four weeks before the end of the five-year reign of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, or whenever there is a vacancy in either his seat or that of his deputy.


The Conference generally meets at the Istana Negara (National Palace), but meetings may be held at other venues should the members of the Conference consent. Meetings have been held on occasion at various state palaces, a State Assembly, and at hotel resorts. The Secretary of the Conference is the Keeper of the Rulers' Seal. Istana Negara or National Palace is the official residence of His Majesty, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, the King of Malaysia. ...


Notes and references

  1. ^ a b c Khoo, Boo Teik (1995). Paradoxes of Mahathirism, pp. 104–106. Oxford University Press. ISBN 967-65-3094-8.
  2. ^ Emery, Fred (Nov. 8, 1969). "Malaysia unity call against a background of fear", p. 7. The Times.

Other references

  • Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia (2003). "Role Of The Conference Of Rulers In Constitutional Monarchy System In Malaysia". Retrieved August 25, 2006.

 
 

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