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Encyclopedia > Confederate States of America
Confederate States of America

1861 – 1865
Flag Coat of arms
Flag (1865) Confederate Seal
Motto
Deo Vindice
(Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator)
Anthem
(none official)
"God Save the South" (unofficial)
"The Bonnie Blue Flag" (unofficial)
"Dixie" (unofficial)
Location of Confederate States of America
     States that seceded under CSA control

     States and territories claimed by CSA without formal secession and/or control For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... Image File history File links US_flag_33_stars. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Image File history File links US_flag_35_stars. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... Image File history File links Confederate_National_Flag_since_Mar_4_1865. ... Seal of the Confederate States of America, Public Domain File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Confederate States of America used several flags during its existence from 1861 to 1865. ... Confederate Seal The Confederate Seal was the seal of the Confederate States of America. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... A rare music cover illustration, published by the composer, C. T. De Cœniél, in Richmond, Virginia. ... The Bonnie Blue Flag, referred to in the song. ... Sheet music cover, c. ...

Capital Montgomery, Alabama
(until May 29, 1861)

Richmond, Virginia
(May 29, 1861April 2, 1865)

Danville, Virginia
(from April 3, 1865)
Language(s) English (de facto)
Government Republic
President Jefferson Davis (D)
Vice President Alexander Stephens (D)
Legislature Congress of the Confederate States
Historical era American Civil War
 - Confederacy formed February 4, 1861
 - Start of Civil War April 12, 1861
 - Military surrender April 11, 1865
Area
 - 18601 1,995,392 km² (770,425 sq mi)
Population
 - 18601 est. 9,103,332 
     Density 4.6 /km²  (11.8 /sq mi)
 - slaves² est. 3,521,110 
Currency CSA dollar
1Area and population values do not include Missouri & Kentucky nor the Territory of Arizona.
Water area:5.7%
²Slaves included in above population count. 1860 Census

The Confederate States of America (also called the Confederacy, the Confederate States, and CSA) was the government formed by eleven southern states of the United States of America between 1861 and 1865. However, since the CSA was never recognized by other countries, by international law and custom, it was never a de jure independent country. Its de facto control over its claimed territory varied during the war, and was linked to the fortunes of its military in battle. Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... Coordinates: , Country State County Montgomery Incorporated December 3, 1819 Government  - Mayor Bobby Bright Area  - City  156. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Nickname: Motto: Sic dic Itur Ad Astra (Thus do we reach the stars) Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor L. Douglas Wilder (I) Area  - City 62. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Nickname: River City, City of Churches Motto: A World Class Organization Country United States State Virginia County Independent City  - Mayor R. Wayne Williams, Jr. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The President of the Confederate States was the Head of State of the short-lived republic of the Confederate States of America which seceded from the United States. ... For other uses, see Jefferson Davis (disambiguation). ... The Vice President of Jefferson Davis was Alexander Stephens. ... This is an article about the Confederate Vice President. ... A legislatureis a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to ratify laws. ... The Congress of the Confederate States was the legislative body of the Confederate States of America, existing during the American Civil War between 1861 and 1865. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Belligerents United States (Union) CSA (Confederacy) Commanders Robert Anderson # P.G.T. Beauregard Strength 85 500 Casualties and losses 0 killed 5 wounded 0 killed (1 horse) 4 wounded The Battle of Fort Sumter (April 12, 1861 – April 13, 1861) was the bombardment and surrender of Fort Sumter near Charleston... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Six Confederate notes The Confederate States of America dollar was first issued into circulation in April, 1861, when the Confederacy was only two months old, and on the eve of the outbreak of the Civil War. ... Territories in Arizona and New Mexico in 1863. ... Historic Southern United States. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of...


Seven states declared their independence from the United States before Abraham Lincoln was inaugurated as President; four more did so after the Civil War began at the Battle of Fort Sumter. The United States of America ("The Union") held secession illegal and refused recognition of the Confederacy. Although British and French commercial interests sold it warships and materials, no European nation officially recognized the CSA. For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Belligerents United States (Union) CSA (Confederacy) Commanders Robert Anderson # P.G.T. Beauregard Strength 85 500 Casualties and losses 0 killed 5 wounded 0 killed (1 horse) 4 wounded The Battle of Fort Sumter (April 12, 1861 – April 13, 1861) was the bombardment and surrender of Fort Sumter near Charleston... In this map:  Union states prohibiting slavery  Union territories  Border states on the Union side which allowed slavery  Kansas, which entered and fought with the Union as a free state after the Bleeding Kansas crisis  The Confederacy  Confederate claimed and sometimes held territories During the American Civil War, the Union... For other uses, see Secession (disambiguation). ...


The CSA effectively collapsed when Robert E. Lee and Joseph Johnston surrendered their armies in April 1865. The last meeting of its Cabinet took place in Georgia in May. Nearly all remaining Confederate forces surrendered by the end of June. A decade-long process known as Reconstruction temporarily gave civil rights and the right to vote to the freedmen, expelled ex-Confederate leaders from office, and re-admitted the states to representation in Congress. For other uses, see Robert E. Lee (disambiguation). ... Joseph Eggleston Johnston (February 3, 1807 - March 21, 1891) was a military officer in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War, whose effectiveness was undercut by tensions with President Jefferson Davis. ... For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... poop. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political...

Contents

History

Causes of secession

By 1860 sectional disagreements between North and South revolved primarily around the maintenance or expansion of slavery. Related and intertwined issues also fueled the dispute; these secondary differences (real or perceived) included tariffs, agrarianism vs. industrialization, and states rights. The immediate spark for secession was the victory of the Republican Party and the election of Abraham Lincoln in the 1860 election. Civil War historian James McPherson wrote: The battle of Fort Sumter was the first stage in a conflict that had been brewing for decades. ...

To southerners the election’s most ominous feature was the magnitude of Republican victory north of the 41st parallel. Lincoln won more than 60 percent of the vote in that region, losing scarcely two dozen counties. Three-quarters of the Republican congressmen and senators in the next Congress would represent this “Yankee” and antislavery portion of the free states. These facts were “full of portentous significance” declared the New Orleans Crescent. “The idle canvas prattle about Northern conservatism may now be dismissed,” agreed the Richmond Examiner. “A party founded on the single sentiment... of hatred of African slavery, is now the controlling power.” No one could any longer “be deluded... that the Black Republican party is a moderate” party, pronounced the New Orleans Delta. “It is in fact, essentially, a revolutionary party.[1]

Four of the seceding states, the Deep South states of South Carolina[2], Mississippi[3], Georgia [4], and Texas[5], issued formal declarations of causes, each of which identified the threat to slaveholders’ rights as the cause of, or a major cause of, secession; Georgia also claimed a general Federal policy of favoring Northern over Southern economic interests. In what later came to be known as the Cornerstone Speech, C.S. Vice President Alexander Stephens declared that the "cornerstone" of the new government "rest[ed] upon the great truth that the negro is not equal to the white man; that slavery—subordination to the superior race—is his natural and normal condition. This, our new government, is the first, in the history of the world, based upon this great physical, philosophical, and moral truth"[6]. The states in dark red comprise the Deep South. ... The Cornerstone Speech was delivered by Confederate Vice President, Alexander Stephens in Savannah, Georgia on March 21, 1861. ... This is an article about the Confederate Vice President. ... Though most indigenous Africans possess relatively dark skin, they exhibit much variation in physical appearance. ... Whites redirects here. ... Slave redirects here. ...


Historian William J. Cooper Jr., in his biography of the Confederate president Jefferson Davis, wrote, “From at least the time of the American Revolution white southerners defined their liberty, in part, as the right to own slaves and to decide the fate of the institution without any outside interference.”[7] Speaking specifically of Davis, Cooper wrote:

For his entire life he believed in the superiority of the white race. He also owned slaves, defended slavery as moral and as a social good, and fought a great war to maintain it. After 1865 he opposed new rights for blacks. He rejoiced at the collapse of Reconstruction and the reassertion of white superiority with its accompanying black subordination.[8]

In his farewell speech to the United States Congress, Davis made it clear that the secession crisis had been created by the Republican Party's failure "to recognize our domestic institutions [an acknowledged euphemism for slavery] which pre-existed the formation of the Union -- our property which was guarded by the Constitution."[9]


Some southern religious leaders preached the cause of secession. Benjamin M. Palmer (1818-1902), pastor of the First Presbyterian Church of New Orleans, thundered his support for secession in a Thanksgiving sermon in 1860, arguing that white Southerners had a right and duty to maintain slavery out of economic and social self-preservation, in order to act as "guardians" to the "affectionate and loyal" but "helpless" blacks, to safeguard global economic interests, and to defend religion against "atheistic" abolitionism[10]. His sermon was widely distributed across the region. Benjamin Morgan Palmer (January 25, 1818 - May 25, 1902), an acclaimed orator and Bible-based theologian, was the first moderator of the Presbyterian Church of the United States. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... For other uses, see Thanksgiving (disambiguation). ...


Seceding states

Animated timeline map of the Confederate States of America
Confederate States' Involvement
in the American Civil War
South Carolina
Mississippi
Florida
Alabama
Georgia
Louisiana
Texas
Virginia
Arkansas
North Carolina
Tennessee
Border States
Missouri
Kentucky

Seven states seceded by February 1861: Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 542 pixel Image in higher resolution (1000 × 677 pixel, file size: 259 KB, MIME type: image/gif) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Confederate States of... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 542 pixel Image in higher resolution (1000 × 677 pixel, file size: 259 KB, MIME type: image/gif) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Confederate States of... Seal of the Confederate States of America, Public Domain File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... South Carolina had long before the American Civil War been a region that heavily supported individual states rights and the institution of slavery. ... Mississippi was the second state to secede from the Union on January 9, 1861. ... The Battle of Olustee was the only major Civil War battle fought in Florida. ... The state of Alabama was a part of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War after seceding from the United States of America on January 11, 1861. ... The state of Louisiana during the American Civil War was a part of the Confederate States of America. ... Texas seceded from the United States on February 1, 1861, and joined the Confederate States of America on March 2, 1861, replacing its governor, Sam Houston, when he refused to take an oath of allegiance to the Confederacy. ... Virginia began a convention about secession on February 13, 1861 after six states seceded to form the Confederate States of America on February 4. ... The state of Arkansas was a part of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War, and provided a source of troops, supplies, and military and political leaders for the fledgling country. ... The Southern United States state of North Carolina provided an important source of soldiers, supplies, and war materiel to the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War. ... The American Civil War, to a large extent, was fought in cities and farms of Tennessee—only Virginia had more battles. ... In this map:  Union states  Union territories  Kansas, which entered the Union as a free state after the Bleeding Kansas crisis  Union border states that permitted slavery  The Confederacy  Confederate claimed and sometimes held territories The term border states refers to the five slave states of Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri... Division of the states during the Civil War:  Union states  Union territories  Border states  Bleeding Kansas  The Confederacy  Confederate territories (not always held) Missouri in the Civil War was a border state that sent men, generals, and supplies to both opposing sides, had its star on both flags, had state... Kentucky was a border state of key importance in the American Civil War. ...

After Lincoln called for troops, four more states seceded: Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

Two more slave states had rival (or rump) secessionist governments. The Confederacy admitted them, but the pro-Confederate state governments were soon in exile and never controlled the states: This article is about the U.S. state. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Francis Harrison Pierpont (January 25, 1814–March 24, 1899), called the Father of West Virginia, was an American lawyer, politician, and governor of the union controlled parts of Virginia during the Civil War. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

Additionally, portions of modern-day Oklahoma, Arizona, and New Mexico were claimed as Confederate territories. This article is about the U.S. state. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Indian Territory in 1836 Indian Country redirects here. ...


Although the slave states of Maryland and Delaware did not secede, many citizens joined the Army of Northern Virginia. The free and slave states as of 1861, with free states in blue and slave states in red. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ... The Army of Northern Virginia was the primary military force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War in the eastern theater. ...


Rise and fall of the Confederacy

The American Civil War broke out in April 1861 with the Battle of Fort Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina. Federal troops of the U.S. had retreated to Fort Sumter soon after South Carolina declared their secession. U.S. President Buchanan had attempted to resupply Sumter by sending the Star of the West, but Confederate forces fired upon the ship, driving it away. U.S. President Abraham Lincoln also attempted to resupply Sumter. Lincoln notified South Carolina Governor Francis W. Pickens that "an attempt will be made to supply Fort Sumter with provisions only, and that if such attempt be not resisted, no effort to throw in men, arms, or ammunition will be made without further notice, [except] in case of an attack on the fort." However, suspecting that just such an attempt to reinforce the fort would be made, the Confederate cabinet decided at a meeting in Montgomery to capture Fort Sumter before the relief fleet arrived. Belligerents United States (Union) CSA (Confederacy) Commanders Robert Anderson # P.G.T. Beauregard Strength 85 500 Casualties and losses 0 killed 5 wounded 0 killed (1 horse) 4 wounded The Battle of Fort Sumter (April 12, 1861 – April 13, 1861) was the bombardment and surrender of Fort Sumter near Charleston... Nickname: Motto: Aedes Mores Juraque Curat (She cares for her temples, customs, and rights) Location of Charleston in South Carolina. ... Fort Sumter, a Third System masonry coastal fortification located in Charleston harbor, South Carolina, was named after General Thomas Sumter. ... Civilian ship used by James Buchanan to send supplies and reinforcements to Fort Sumpter before the Civil War. ...


On April 12, 1861, Confederate troops, following orders from Davis and his Secretary of War, fired upon the federal troops occupying Fort Sumter, forcing their surrender. is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Following the Battle of Fort Sumter, Lincoln called for the remaining states in the Union to send troops to recapture Sumter and other forts and customs-houses[28] in the South that Confederate forces had claimed, some by force. This proclamation was made before Congress could convene on the matter, and the original request from the War Department called for volunteers for only three months of duty.[28] Lincoln's call for troops resulted in four more states voting to secede, rather than provide troops for the Union. Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina joined the Confederacy, bringing the total to eleven states. Once Virginia joined the Confederate States, the Confederate capital was moved from Montgomery, Alabama, to Richmond, Virginia. All but two major battles took place in Confederate territory. Belligerents United States (Union) CSA (Confederacy) Commanders Robert Anderson # P.G.T. Beauregard Strength 85 500 Casualties and losses 0 killed 5 wounded 0 killed (1 horse) 4 wounded The Battle of Fort Sumter (April 12, 1861 – April 13, 1861) was the bombardment and surrender of Fort Sumter near Charleston... Coordinates: , Country State County Montgomery Incorporated December 3, 1819 Government  - Mayor Bobby Bright Area  - City  156. ... Nickname: Motto: Sic dic Itur Ad Astra (Thus do we reach the stars) Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor L. Douglas Wilder (I) Area  - City 62. ...


Alexander H. Stephens maintained that Lincoln's attempt to reinforce Sumter had provoked the war.[29]


Kentucky was a border state during the war and, for a time, had two state governments, one supporting the Confederacy and one supporting the Union. The original government remained in the Union after a short-lived attempt at neutrality, but a rival faction from that state was accepted as a member of the Confederate States of America; it did not control any territory. A more complex situation surrounds the Missouri Secession, but, in any event, the Confederacy considered Missouri a member of the Confederate States of America; it did not control any territory. With Kentucky and Missouri, the number of Confederate states can be counted as thirteen; later versions of Confederate flags had thirteen stars, reflecting the Confederacy's claims to those states. In this map:  Union states  Union territories  Kansas, which entered the Union as a free state after the Bleeding Kansas crisis  Union border states that permitted slavery  The Confederacy  Confederate claimed and sometimes held territories The term border states refers to the five slave states of Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri... The Missouri Secession controversy refers to the disputed status of the state of Missouri during the American Civil War. ...


The five tribal governments of the Indian Territory — which became Oklahoma in 1907 — also mainly supported the Confederacy, providing troops and one General officer. It was represented in the Confederate Congress after 1863 by Elias Cornelius Boudinot representing the Cherokee, and Samuel Benton Callahan representing the Seminole and Creek people. Indian Territory in 1836 Indian Country redirects here. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... General is a military rank, in most nations the highest rank, although some nations have the higher rank of Field Marshal. ... The Congress of the Confederate States was the legislative body of the Confederate States of America, existing during the American Civil War between 1861 and 1865. ... Elias Cornelius Boudinot (1835-1890) was a delegate to the Arkansas secession convention, a colonel in the Confederate States Army, and a representative in the Confederate Congress. ... For other uses, see Cherokee (disambiguation). ... Samuel Benton Callahan (January 26, 1833 - February 17, 1911) was a prominent Confederate politician. ... For other uses, see Seminole (disambiguation). ... The Creek are an American Indian people originally from the southeastern United States, also known by their original name Muscogee (or Muskogee), the name they use to identify themselves today. ...


Citizens at Mesilla and Tucson in the southern part of New Mexico Territory formed a secession convention and voted to join the Confederacy on March 16, 1861, and appointed Lewis Owings as the new territorial governor. In July, Mesilla appealed to Confederate troops in El Paso, Texas, under Lieutenant Colonel John Baylor for help in removing the Union Army under Major Isaac Lynde that was stationed nearby. The Confederates defeated Lynde at the Battle of Mesilla on July 27. After the battle, Baylor established a territorial government for the Confederate Arizona Territory and named himself governor. In 1862, a New Mexico Campaign was launched under General Henry Hopkins Sibley to take the northern half of New Mexico. Although Confederates briefly occupied the territorial capital of Santa Fe, they were defeated at Glorietta Pass in March and retreated, never to return. Mesilla is a town located in Doña Ana County, New Mexico. ... Tucson (pronounced ) is the seat of Pima County, Arizona, United States, located 118 miles (188 km) southeast of Phoenix and 60 miles (98 km) north of the U.S.-Mexico border. ... The New Mexico Territory became an organized territory of the United States on September 9, 1850, and it existed until New Mexico became the 47th state on January 6, 1912. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Lewis Owings Dr. Lewis Owings was a medical doctor and politician in the New Mexico and Arizona territories. ... El Paso redirects here. ... John Robert Baylor (July 27, 1822–February 8, 1894) was a politician in Texas and a military officer of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War. ... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ... The Battle of Mesilla was a Confederate victory outside of Mesilla, New Mexico on July 27, 1861. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Territories in Arizona and New Mexico in 1863. ... The New Mexico Campaign was a military operation of the American Civil War in February-March 1862 in which the Confederate Brigadier General Henry Hopkins Sibley invaded the northern New Mexico Territory in an attempt to gain control of the southwest, including the gold fields of Colorado and the ports... Portrait of Henry Hopkins Sibley by Mathew Brady, ca. ... Nickname: Location in Santa Fe County, New Mexico Coordinates: , Country State County Santa Fe Founded ca. ... Battle of Glorieta Pass Conflict American Civil War Date March 26-28, 1862 Place Santa Fe County and San Miguel County, New Mexico Result Union victory The Battle of Glorieta Pass was the decisive battle of the New Mexico campaign fought during the American Civil War from March 26 - March...


The northernmost slave states (Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware and West Virginia) were contested territory, but the Union won control by 1862. In 1861, martial law was declared in Maryland (the state which borders the U.S. capital, Washington, D.C., on three sides) to block attempts at secession. Delaware, also a slave state, never considered secession, nor did Washington, D.C. In 1861, a Unionist legislature in Wheeling, Virginia seceded from Virginia, claiming 48 counties, and joined the United States in 1863 as the state of West Virginia with a constitution that gradually abolished slavery. For other uses, see Martial law (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ... Nickname: The Friendly City Location in Ohio County in the State of West Virginia Coordinates: Settled 1769 Established 1806 Incorporated 1836  - Mayor Nick Sparachane  - City Manager Robert Herron  - Chief of Police Kevin Gessler, Sr. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ...


Attempts to secede from the Confederate States of America by some counties in East Tennessee were held in check by Confederate declarations of martial law [30] [31]. East Tennessee is a name given to approximately the eastern third of the state of Tennessee. ...


The surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia by General Lee at Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865, is generally taken as the end of the Confederate States. President Davis was captured at Irwinville, Georgia, on May 10, and the remaining Confederate armies surrendered by June 1865. The last Confederate flag was hauled down from CSS Shenandoah on November 6, 1865. The Army of Northern Virginia was the primary military force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War in the eastern theater. ... For other uses, see Robert E. Lee (disambiguation). ... McLean house, April 1865. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The CSS Shenandoah, formerly Sea King, was an iron-framed, teak-planked, full-rigged vessel with auxiliary steam power, under Captain James Waddell, CSN, a North Carolinian with twenty years service in the Federal navy. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ...


Government and politics

Constitution

Jefferson DavisPresident 1861-1865
Jefferson Davis
President 1861-1865

The Southern leaders met in Montgomery, Alabama, to write their constitution. The Confederate States Constitution reveals much about the motivations for secession from the Union. Although much of it was copied verbatim from the United States Constitution, it contained several explicit protections of the institution of slavery, though the existing ban on international slave trading was maintained. In certain areas, the Confederate Constitution gave greater powers to the states, or curtailed the powers of the central government more, than the U.S. Constitution of the time did, but in other areas, the states actually lost rights they had under the U.S. Constitution. Although the Confederate Constitution, like the U.S. Constitution, contained a commerce clause, the Confederate version prohibited the central government from using revenues collected in one state for funding internal improvements in another state. The Confederate Constitution's equivalent to the U.S. Constitution's general welfare clause prohibited protective tariffs (but allowed tariffs for domestic revenue), and spoke of "carry[ing] on the Government of the Confederate States" rather than providing for the "general welfare". State legislatures were given the power to impeach officials of the Confederate government in some cases. On the other hand, the Confederate Constitution contained a necessary and proper clause and a supremacy clause that were essentially identical to those of the U.S. Constitution. Image File history File links Davis4-2. ... Image File history File links Davis4-2. ... For other uses, see Jefferson Davis (disambiguation). ... The Confederate States Constitution The Constitution of the Confederate States of America was the supreme law of the Confederate States of America, as adopted on March 11, 1861 and in effect through the conclusion of the American Civil War. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... The history of slavery covers many different forms of human exploitation across many cultures throughout human history. ... Article I, Section 8, Clause 3 of the United States Constitution, known as the Commerce Clause, states that Congress has the exclusive authority to manage trade activities between the states and with foreign nations and Indian tribes. ... The notion of internal improvements or public works is a concept in economics and politics. ... Article I, Section 8, Clause 1 of the United States Constitution, is known as the General Welfare Clause, the Uniformity Clause, the Welfare Clause, and the Taxing and Spending Clause. ... A protective tariff is a tariff or tax imposed on goods imported from other countries in an effort to protect goods made within the country. ... Depiction of the impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson, then President of the United States, in 1868. ... The necessary and proper clause (also known as the elastic clause) refers to Section 8 of Article One of the United States Constitution: To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the... Article VI, Paragraph 2 of the United States Constitution is known as the Supremacy Clause: The Supremacy Clause establishes the Constitution, Federal Statutes, and U.S. treaties as the supreme law of the land. ...


The Confederate Constitution did not specifically include a provision allowing states to secede; the Preamble spoke of each state "acting in its sovereign and independent character" but also of the formation of a "permanent federal government". States were also explicitly denied the power to bar slaveholders from other parts of the Confederacy from bringing their slaves into any state of the Confederacy or to interfere with the property rights of slave owners traveling between different parts of the Confederacy. In contrast with the secular language of the United States Constitution, the Confederate Constitution overtly asked God's blessing ("invoking the favor of Almighty God.")


The President of the Confederate States of America was to be elected to a six-year term, but could not be re-elected. (The only president was Jefferson Davis; the Confederacy was defeated by the Union before he completed his term.) One unique power granted to the Confederate president was his ability to subject a bill to a line item veto, a power held by some state governors. The Confederate Congress could overturn either the general or the line item vetoes with the same two-thirds majorities that are required in the U.S. Congress. In addition, appropriations not specifically requested by the executive branch required passage by a two-thirds vote in both houses of Congress. For other uses, see Jefferson Davis (disambiguation). ... In government, the line-item veto is the power of an executive to veto parts of a bill, usually budget appropriations. ... Congress in Joint Session. ...


Printed currency in the forms of bills and stamps was authorized and put into circulation, although by the individual states in the Confederacy's name. The government considered issuing Confederate coinage. Plans, dies and four "proofs" were created, but a lack of bullion prevented any minting. Look up bill in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A stamp is a distinctive mark or impression made upon an object, for instance those made on a piece of paper and used to indicate the prepayment of a fee or tax. ... A precious metal is a rare metallic element of high, durable economic value. ...


Civil liberties

The Confederacy actively used the military to arrest people suspected of loyalty to the United States. Historian Mark Neely found 2,700 names of men arrested and estimated the full list was much longer. They arrested at about the same rate as the Union arrested Confederate loyalists. Neely concludes:

The Confederate citizen was not any freer than the Union citizen — and perhaps no less likely to be arrested by military authorities. In fact, the Confederate citizen may have been in some ways less free than his Northern counterpart. For example, freedom to travel within the Confederate states was severely limited by a domestic passport system.[32]

An internal passport is an identification document issued in some countries. ...

Capital

Virginia State HouseServed as the last Confederate Capitol building.
Virginia State House
Served as the last Confederate Capitol building.

The capital of the Confederate States of America was Montgomery, Alabama, from February 4 until May 29, 1861. Richmond, Virginia, was named the new capital on May 30, 1861. Shortly before the end of the war, the Confederate government evacuated Richmond, planning to relocate further south. Little came of these plans before Lee's surrender at Appomattox Court House. Danville, Virginia, served as the last capital of the Confederate States of America, from April 3 to April 10, 1865. Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Virginia State Capitol is the seat of state government in the Commonwealth of Virginia, located in Richmond, the third State Capital of Virginia. ... Coordinates: , Country State County Montgomery Incorporated December 3, 1819 Government  - Mayor Bobby Bright Area  - City  156. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Nickname: Motto: Sic dic Itur Ad Astra (Thus do we reach the stars) Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor L. Douglas Wilder (I) Area  - City 62. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Nickname: River City, City of Churches Motto: A World Class Organization Country United States State Virginia County Independent City  - Mayor R. Wayne Williams, Jr. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ...


International diplomacy

Once the war with the United States began, the best hope for the survival of the Confederacy was military intervention by Britain and France. The United States realized this as well and made it clear that recognition of the Confederacy meant war with the United States — and the cutoff of food shipments into Britain. The Confederates who had believed that "cotton is king"[33] — that is, Britain had to support the Confederacy to obtain cotton — were proven wrong.[34] The British instead focused more heavily on cotton and textile produced in the British Raj and Russia[35], with the French also ramping up production in Algeria[36]. Notably, in the early years of the war, demand for textiles, and hence cotton was weak[37]. In time, the war and Union blockade of the South caused economic hardship in textile-producing areas of England such as Lancashire, which depended heavily on cotton exports from the seceding states[38]; however, abolitionist sentiment among English workers ran counter to this economic interest in Confederate victory[39]. King Cotton is a phrase used in the Southern United States. ... Anthem God Save The King-Emperor The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (1858 - 1912) New Delhi (1912 - 1947) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy... The Lancashire Cotton Famine, also known as The Cotton Famine (1861 – 1865) was a depression in the textile industry in northwest England, brought about by the American Civil War. ...


During its existence, the Confederate government sent repeated delegations to Europe; historians do not give them high marks for diplomatic skills. James M. Mason was sent to London as Confederate minister to Queen Victoria, and John Slidell was sent to Paris as minister to Napoleon III. Both were able to obtain private meetings with high British and French officials, but they failed to secure official recognition for the Confederacy. When Britain and the United States came dangerously close to war during the Trent Affair, where two Confederate agents travelling on a British ship had been illegally seized by the U.S. Navy in late 1861, it seemed possible that the Confederacy would see its much vaunted recognition[40]. When Lincoln released the two, however, tensions cooled, and in the end the episode was of no help to the Confederacy. [41] For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... James M. Mason James Murray Mason (November 3, 1798 - April 28, 1871) was a United States Representative and United States Senator from Virginia. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Queen Victoria redirects here. ... John Slidell (1793 – July 26, 1871), a native of New York City, moved to Louisiana and became a U.S. representative and a U.S. senator from that state in the mid-nineteenth century. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... This article is about the President of the French Republic and Emperor of the French. ... Diplomatic recognition is a political act by which one state acknowledges an act or status of another state or government, thereby according it legitimacy and expressing its intent to bring into force the domestic and international legal consequences of recognition. ... James Murray Mason John Slidell The Trent Affair, also known as the Mason and Slidell Affair, was an international diplomatic incident that occurred during the American Civil War. ...


Throughout the early years of the war, British foreign secretary Lord Russell, Napoleon III, and, to a lesser extent, British Prime Minister Lord Palmerston, were interested in the idea of recognition of the Confederacy, or at least of offering a mediation. Recognition meant certain war with the United States, loss of American grain, loss of exports to the United States, loss of huge investments in American securities, possible war in Canada and other North American colonies, much higher taxes, many lives lost and a severe threat to the entire British merchant marine, in exchange for the possibility of some cotton. Many party leaders and the public wanted no war with such high costs and meager benefits. Recognition was considered following the Second Battle of Bull Run when the British government was preparing to mediate in the conflict, but the Union victory at the Battle of Antietam and Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation, combined with internal opposition, caused the government to back away. John Russell, 1st Earl Russell, KG, GCMG, PC (18 August 1792 – 28 May 1878), known as Lord John Russell before 1861, was an English Whig and Liberal politician who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in the mid-19th century. ... Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston, KG, GCB, PC (20 October 1784 – 18 October 1865) was a British statesman who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in the mid-19th century. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders John Pope Robert E. Lee James Longstreet Stonewall Jackson Strength 63,000 54,000 Casualties 1,747 killed 8,452 wounded 4,263 captured/missing 1,553 killed 7,812 wounded 109 captured/missing For other uses, see Bull Run... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Robert E. Lee Strength 87,000 45,000 Casualties 12,401 (2,108 killed, 9,540 wounded, 753 captured/missing) 10,316 (1,546 killed, 7,752 wounded, 1,018 captured/missing) The Battle of Antietam (also... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Emancipation Proclamation Reproduction of the Emancipation Proclamation at the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center in Cincinnati, Ohio The Emancipation Proclamation consists of two executive orders issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War. ...


In November 1863, Confederate diplomat A. Dudley Mann met Pope Pius IX and received a letter addressed "to the Illustrious and Honorable Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America.” Mann, in his dispatch to Richmond, interpreted the letter as "a positive recognition of our Government," and some have mistakenly viewed it as a de facto recognition of the C.S.A. Confederate Secretary of State Judah P. Benjamin, however, interpreted it as "a mere inferential recognition, unconnected with political action or the regular establishment of diplomatic relations" and thus did not assign it the weight of formal recognition [42]. For the remainder of the war, Confederate commissioners continued meeting with Cardinal Antonelli, the Vatican Secretary of State. In 1864, Catholic Bishop Patrick N. Lynch of Charleston traveled to the Vatican with an authorization from Jefferson Davis to represent the Confederacy before the Holy See. That same year, Davis sent Duncan Kenner to France and England with an offer to emancipate Southern slaves in exchange for recognition of the Confederacy from France and Great Britain.[43] This attempt was unsuccessful. Ambrose Dudley Mann (April 26, 1801 - 1889) was an American diplomat, who also took part in diplomatic missions for the Confederacy during the American Civil War. ... Pope Pius IX (May 13, 1792 – February 7, 1878), born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from his election in June 16, 1846, until his death more than 31 years later in 1878. ... Judah Philip Benjamin (August 6, 1811 – May 6, 1884) was an American politician and lawyer. ... His Eminence Giacomo Cardinal Antonelli (April 2, 1806 – November 6, 1876), Italian lay cardinal, was born at Sonnino. ... Patrick Lynch - Catholic bishop of Charleston, South Carolina during the American Civil War. ... Duncan F. Kenner (1813 - July 3, 1887) was a Louisiana politician, lawyer, and diplomat for the Confederate States of America. ...


No country appointed any diplomat officially to the Confederacy, but several maintained their consuls in the South who had been appointed before the war. In 1861, Ernst Raven applied for approval as the Saxe-Coburg-Gotha consul, but he was a citizen of Texas and there is no evidence that officials in Saxe-Coburg and Gotha knew what he was doing. In 1863, the Confederacy expelled all foreign consuls (all of them British or French diplomats) for advising their subjects to refuse to serve in combat against the U.S. Ernst Raven was a diplomat for the German Duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ... Saxe-Coburg-Gotha or Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (German: Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha) was once the name given to the two German duchies of Saxe-Coburg and Saxe-Gotha in Germany, in the present states of Bavaria and Thuringia, which were in personal union between 1826 and 1918. ...


Throughout the war, most European powers adopted a policy of neutrality, meeting informally with Confederate diplomats but withholding diplomatic recognition. None ever sent an ambassador or official delegation to Richmond. However, they applied international law principles that recognized the Union and Confederate sides as belligerents. Canada allowed both Confederate and Union agents to work openly within its borders, and some state governments in northern Mexico negotiated local agreements to cover trade on the Texas border. A belligerent is an individual, group, country or other entity which acts in an aggressive or hostile manner, such as engaging in combat. ...


"Died of states' rights"

Historian Frank Lawrence Owsley argued that the Confederacy "died of states' rights."[44] According to Owsley, strong-willed governors and state legislatures in the South refused to give the national government the soldiers and money it needed because they feared that Richmond was encroaching on the rights of the states. Georgia's governor Joseph Brown warned that he saw the signs of a deep-laid conspiracy on the part of Jefferson Davis to destroy states' rights and individual liberty. Brown declaimed: "Almost every act of usurpation of power, or of bad faith, has been conceived, brought forth and nurtured in secret session." To grant the Confederate government the power to draft soldiers was the "essence of military despotism." [45] In 1863 governor Pendleton Murrah of Texas insisted that Texas troops were needed for self-defense (against Indians or a threatened Union invasion), and refused to send them East.[46] Zebulon Vance, the governor of North Carolina was notoriously hostile to Davis and his demands. Opposition to conscription in North Carolina was intense and its results were disastrous for recruiting. Governor Vance's faith in states' rights drove him into a stubborn opposition. [47] Frank Lawrence Owsley (January 20, 1890—October 21, 1955) was an American historian and member of the Nashville agrarians. ... Joseph Emerson Brown (1821-1894) Joseph Emerson Brown (April 15, 1821 – November 30, 1894), often referred to as Joe Brown, was a Governor of Georgia from 1857 to 1865, and a U.S. Senator from 1880 to 1891. ... Pendleton Murrah (1824–1865) was a governor of Texas during the American Civil War. ... Zebulon Baird Vance (May 13, 1830--April 14, 1894) was an American Civil War hero and three-time Governor of North Carolina. ...


Vice President Stephens broke publicly with President Davis, saying any accommodation would only weaken the republic, and he therefore had no choice but to break publicly with the Confederate administration and the president. Stephens charged that to allow Davis to make "arbitrary arrests" and to draft state officials conferred on him more power than the English Parliament had ever bestowed on the king. "History proved the dangers of such unchecked authority." He added that Davis intended to suppress the peace meetings in North Carolina and "put a muzzle upon certain presses" (especially the antiwar newspaper Raleigh Standard) in order to control elections in that state. Echoing Patrick Henry's "give me liberty or give me death" Stephens warned the Southerners they should never view liberty as "subordinate to independence" because the cry of "independence first and liberty second" was a "fatal delusion." As historian George Rable concludes, "For Stephens, the essence of patriotism, the heart of the Confederate cause, rested on an unyielding commitment to traditional rights. In his idealist vision of politics, military necessity, pragmatism, and compromise meant nothing."[48] Patrick Henry (May 29, 1736 – June 6, 1799) was a prominent figure in the American Revolution, known and remembered primarily for his stirring oratory. ...


The survival of the Confederacy depended on a strong base of civilians and soldiers devoted to victory. The soldiers performed well, though increasing numbers deserted in the last year. The civilians, although enthusiastic in 1861-62 seem to have lost faith in the nation's future by 1864, and instead looked to protect their homes and communities. As Rable explains, "As the Confederacy shrank, citizens' sense of the cause more than ever narrowed to their own states and communities. This contraction of civic vision was more than a crabbed libertarianism; it represented an increasingly widespread disillusionment with the Confederate experiment. [49]


Relations with the United States

For the four years of its existence, the Confederate States of America asserted its independence and appointed dozens of diplomatic agents abroad. The United States government, by contrast, asserted that the Southern states were states in rebellion and refused any formal recognition of their status. Thus, U.S. Secretary of State William H. Seward issued formal instructions to Charles Francis Adams, the new minister to Great Britain: William Henry Seward, Sr. ... Several notable persons have been named Charles Adams: Charles Adams is an adult male age 30 living in Philadelphia. ...

You will indulge in no expressions of harshness or disrespect, or even impatience concerning the seceding States, their agents, or their people. But you will, on the contrary, all the while remember that those States are now, as they always heretofore have been, and, notwithstanding their temporary self-delusion, they must always continue to be, equal and honored members of this Federal Union, and that their citizens throughout all political misunderstandings and alienations, still are and always must be our kindred and countrymen.[50]

However, if the British seemed inclined to recognize the Confederacy, or even waver in that regard, they were to be sharply warned, with a strong hint of war:

[if Britain is] tolerating the application of the so-called seceding States, or wavering about it, you will not leave them to suppose for a moment that they can grant that application and remain friends with the United States. You may even assure them promptly, in that case, that if they determine to recognize, they may at the same time prepare to enter into alliance with the enemies of this republic.[51]

The Confederate Congress responded to the hostilities by formally declaring war on the United States in May 1861 — calling it "The War between the Confederate States of America and the United States of America."[52] The Union government never declared war but conducted its war efforts under a proclamation of blockade and rebellion. After the war the states were readmitted to representation in the US Congress. Mid-war negotiations between the two sides occurred without formal political recognition, though the laws of war governed military relationships. Belligerents United States (Union) CSA (Confederacy) Commanders Robert Anderson # P.G.T. Beauregard Strength 85 500 Casualties and losses 0 killed 5 wounded 0 killed (1 horse) 4 wounded The Battle of Fort Sumter (April 12, 1861 – April 13, 1861) was the bombardment and surrender of Fort Sumter near Charleston... 1861 Cartoon map of the blockade // The Union Blockade refers to the naval actions between 1861 and 1865, during the American Civil War, in which the Union Navy maintained a massive effort on the Atlantic and Gulf Coast of the Confederate States of America designed to prevent the passage of... The two parts of the laws of war (or Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC)): Law concerning acceptable practices while engaged in war, like the Geneva Conventions, is called jus in bello; while law concerning allowable justifications for armed force is called jus ad bellum. ...


Four years after the war, in 1869, the United States Supreme Court ruled in Texas v. White that secession was unconstitutional and legally null. The court's opinion was authored by Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase. Jefferson Davis, former president of the Confederacy, and Alexander Stephens, its former vice-president, both penned arguments in favor of secession's legality, most notably Davis' The Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government. The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ... Texas v. ... In law, void means of no legal effect. ... Salmon Portland Chase (January 13, 1808 – May 7, 1873) was an American politician and jurist in the Civil War era who served as Senator from Ohio, Governor of Ohio, as U.S. Treasury Secretary under President Abraham Lincoln, and Chief Justice of the United States. ... For other uses, see Jefferson Davis (disambiguation). ... Bold textthe rise & fall of the confederate goverment was wrote by jeff davis when he was 70 years of age, it was not a big hit then for the south at the time was poor & the north was rich but didnt like the book for he & the south had a...


Confederate flags

1st National Flag 2nd National Flag 3rd National Flag CSA Naval Jack
1st National Flag
"Stars and Bars"
2nd National Flag
"Stainless Banner"
3rd National Flag
"Blood Stained Banner"
CSA Naval Jack
1861-1863
CSA Naval Jack Battle Flag Bonnie Blue Flag
CSA Naval Jack
1863-1865
Battle Flag
"Southern Cross"
Bonnie Blue Flag
"Unofficial Southern Flag"

The first official flag of the Confederate States of America, called the "Stars and Bars", had seven stars, for the seven states that initially formed the Confederacy. This flag was sometimes difficult to distinguish from the Union flag under battle conditions, so the flag was changed to the "Stainless Banner." The union of the Stainless Banner, known as the "Southern Cross", became the one more commonly used in military operations. The Southern Cross had 13 stars, adding the four states that joined the Confederacy after Fort Sumter, and the two divided states of Kentucky and Missouri. Due to similarities between the "Stainless Banner" and a flag of surrender, a red stripe was appended vertically to the end of the flag, creating the third of the national flags. The Confederate States of America used several flags during its existence from 1861 to 1865. ... Image File history File links CSA_FLAG_4. ... Image File history File links Confederate_National_Flag_since_Mai_1_1863_to_Mar_4_1865. ... Image File history File links Confederate_National_Flag_since_Mar_4_1865. ... Image File history File links Jack_of_the_CSA_Navy_1861_1863. ... Image File history File links Conf_Navy_Jack_(light_blue). ... Image File history File links Battle_flag_of_the_US_Confederacy. ... Image File history File links Bonnieblue. ... Union Jack. ...


Because of its depiction in 20th century popular media, the "Southern Cross" is a flag commonly associated with the Confederacy today. The actual "Southern Cross" is a square-shaped flag, but the more commonly seen rectangular flag is actually the flag of the First Tennessee Army, also known as the Naval Jack because it was first used by the Confederate Navy. Categories: Stub | American Civil War | Confederate States Navy ...


Political leaders

Executive

Office Name Term
President Jefferson Davis 1861-1865
Vice President Alexander Stephens 1861-1865
Secretary of State Robert Toombs 1861
  Robert M.T. Hunter 1861-1862
  Judah P. Benjamin 1862-1865
Secretary of the Treasury Christopher Memminger 1861-1864
  George Trenholm 1864-1865
  John H. Reagan 1865
Secretary of War Leroy Pope Walker 1861
  Judah P. Benjamin 1861-1862
  George W. Randolph 1862
  James Seddon 1862-1865
  John C. Breckinridge 1865
Secretary of the Navy Stephen Mallory 1861-1865
Postmaster General John H. Reagan 1861-1865
Attorney General Judah P. Benjamin 1861
  Thomas Bragg 1861-1862
  Thomas H. Watts 1862-1863
  George Davis 1864-1865


Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (910x595, 195 KB) http://hdl. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (910x595, 195 KB) http://hdl. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial)  States that seceded under CSA control  States and territories claimed by CSA without formal secession and/or control Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia... Judah Philip Benjamin (August 6, 1811 – May 6, 1884) was an American politician and lawyer. ... Stephen Russell Mallory (c. ... Christopher Gustavus Memminger (January 9, 1803–March 7, 1888) was a prominent Confederate political leader. ... This is an article about the Confederate Vice President. ... Image:Walder, Leroy Pope 1. ... For other uses, see Jefferson Davis (disambiguation). ... John Henninger Reagan (October 8, 1818 – March 6, 1905), was a leading 19th century American politician from the U.S. state of Texas. ... Postbellum photograph of Robert A. Toombs. ... The President of the Confederate States was the Head of State of the short-lived republic of the Confederate States of America which seceded from the United States. ... For other uses, see Jefferson Davis (disambiguation). ... The Vice President of Jefferson Davis was Alexander Stephens. ... This is an article about the Confederate Vice President. ... The Confederate States Secretary of State was the head of the Confederate States State Department from 1861 to 1865 during the American Civil War. ... Postbellum photograph of Robert A. Toombs. ... Robert Mercer Taliaferro Hunter (April 21, 1809 - July 18, 1887), American statesman, was born in Essex County, Virginia. ... Judah Philip Benjamin (August 6, 1811 – May 6, 1884) was an American politician and lawyer. ... The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the finance minister of the Federal Government of the United States. ... Christopher Gustavus Memminger (January 9, 1803–March 7, 1888) was a prominent Confederate political leader. ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ... John Henninger Reagan (October 8, 1818 - March 6, 1905), was an Nineteenth Century Texan Democratic politician and postmaster general of the Confederacy. ... The Confederate States Secretary of War was a member of the Confederate States Presidents Cabinetwho was gay during the Civil War. ... Image:Walder, Leroy Pope 1. ... Judah Philip Benjamin (August 6, 1811 – May 6, 1884) was an American politician and lawyer. ... George Wythe Randolph (March 10, 1818–April 3, 1867), the Secretary of War for the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War, was born in Charlottesville, Virginia at Monticello to Thomas Mann Randolph Jr. ... James Seddon James Alexander SeddonBorn 9/1/1988 James seddon is a pupil at sutton high and isnt a very good one. ... John C. Breckinridge This article is about the politician and Confederate General. ... Flag of the United States Secretary of the Navy. ... Stephen Russell Mallory (c. ... 5c Jefferson Davis stamp This is a survey of the postage stamps and postal history of the Confederate States of America. ... John Henninger Reagan (October 8, 1818 - March 6, 1905), was an Nineteenth Century Texan Democratic politician and postmaster general of the Confederacy. ... In most common law jurisdictions, the Attorney General is the main legal adviser to the government, and in some jurisdictions may in addition have executive responsibility for law enforcement or responsibility for public prosecutions. ... Judah Philip Benjamin (August 6, 1811 – May 6, 1884) was an American politician and lawyer. ... Categories: Stub | 1810 births | 1872 deaths | Governors of North Carolina | United States Senators ... Thomas Hill Watts (January 3, 1819–September 16, 1892) was the Democratic Governor of the U.S. state of Alabama from 1863 to 1865, during the Civil War. ... George Davis (born March 1, 1820; died February 23, 1896) was a U.S.-Confederate political figure and the last Confederate Attorney General 1864-1865. ...


Legislative

Main article: Confederate Congress

The legislative branch of the Confederate States of America was the Confederate Congress. Like the United States Congress, the Confederate Congress consisted of two houses: the Confederate Senate, whose membership included two senators from each state (and chosen by the state legislature), and the Confederate House of Representatives, with members popularly elected by residents of the individual states. The Confederate Congress was the legislative body of the Confederate States of America, existing during the American Civil War between 1861 and 1865. ... Chamber of the Estates-General, the Dutch legislature. ...


Provisional Congress
For the first year, the unicameral Provisional Confederate Congress was the confederacy's legislative branch. The Provisional Confederate Congress was the body which drafted the Confederate Constitution, elected Jefferson Davis President of the Confederacy, and designed the first Confederate flag. ...


President of the Provisional Congress

Presidents pro tempore of the Provisional Congress Howell Cobb (September 7, 1815–October 9, 1868) was an American political figure. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ...

Sessions of the Confederate Congress Robert W. Barnwell Robert Woodward Barnwell (1801-1882) was an American planter, lawyer, and educator from South Carolina who served as a Senator in both the United States Senate and that of the Confederate States of America. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Thomas Stanhope Bocock (Buckingham Court House, Buckingham (now Appomattox) County, Virginia]] May 18, 1815-August 5, 1891) was a Confederate and US politicans. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Josiah Abigail Patterson Campbell (March 2, 1830 - January 10, 1917) was a prominent Confederate politician. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ...

Tribal Representatives to Confederate Congress The Provisional Confederate Congress was the body which drafted the Confederate Constitution, elected Jefferson Davis President of the Confederacy, and designed the first Confederate flag. ... The First Confederate Congress was the first regular session of the legislature of the Confederate States of America. ... The Second Confederate Congress was the second and last regular session of the legislature of the Confederate States of America. ...

Elias Cornelius Boudinot (1835-1890) was a delegate to the Arkansas secession convention, a colonel in the Confederate States Army, and a representative in the Confederate Congress. ... For other uses, see Cherokee (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Chickasaw (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Choctaw (disambiguation). ...

Judicial

A Judicial branch of the government was outlined in the constitution, but the "Supreme Court of the Confederate States" was never created or seated because of the ongoing war; the state and local courts generally continued to operate as they had been, simply recognizing the CSA as the national government[53]. Some Confederate district courts were, however, established within some of the individual states of the Confederate States of America; namely, South Carolina, Arkansas, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, North Carolina, Tennessee, Texas and Virginia (and possibly others). At the end of the war, U.S. district courts resumed jurisdiction[54].


Supreme court - not established


District Court

  • Asa Biggs 1861-1865
  • John White Brockenbrough 1861
  • Alexander Mosby Clayton 1861
  • Jesse J. Finley 1861-1862

Geography

Map of the states and territories claimed by the Confederate States of America.
Map of the states and territories claimed by the Confederate States of America.

The Confederate States of America claimed a total of 2,919 miles (4,698 km) of coastline, thus a large part of its territory lay on the seacoast with level and often sandy or marshy ground. Most of the interior portion was arable farmland, though much was also hilly and mountainous, and the far western territories were deserts. The lower reaches of the Mississippi River bisected the country, with the western half often referred to as the Trans-Mississippi. The highest point (excluding Arizona and New Mexico) was Guadalupe Peak in Texas at 8,750 feet (2,667 m). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x609, 421 KB) Summary Drawn by Nicholas F Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x609, 421 KB) Summary Drawn by Nicholas F Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... This article presents an overview of major military and naval operations in the Trans-Mississippi Theater of the American Civil War. ... Guadalupe Peak is the highest point in Texas. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ...


Climate

Much of the area claimed by the Confederate States of America had a humid subtropical climate with mild winters and long, hot, humid summers. The climate and terrain varied to semi-arid steppe and arid desert, west of longitude 96 degrees west. The subtropical climate made winters mild but allowed infectious diseases to flourish. Consequently, disease killed more soldiers than died in combat.


River system

In peacetime, the vast system of navigable rivers allowed for cheap and easy transportation of farm products. The railroad system was built as a supplement, tying plantation areas to the nearest river or seaport. The vast geography made for difficult Union logistics, and Union soldiers were used to garrison captured areas and protect rail lines. Nevertheless, the Union Navy seized most of the navigable rivers by 1862, making its own logistics easy and Confederate movements difficult. After the fall of Vicksburg in July 1863, it became impossible for units to cross the Mississippi since Union gunboats constantly patrolled it. The South thus lost use of its western regions. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant John C. Pemberton Strength 77,000[1] ~30,000 Casualties 4,855[2] 32,697 (29,495 surrendered)[2] The Battle of Vicksburg, or Siege of Vicksburg, was the final significant battle in the Vicksburg Campaign of...


Railroad system

The Confederate railroads in the American Civil War formed an extensive system east of the Mississippi, but there were many gaps in the system and changes of gauge which hindered operations. Hence, the Confederacy failed to gain the advantage of interior lines that a more complete railway system might have supplied. Inability to supply spare parts including lack of rails drove operators to frustration and despair. During the American Civil War, the Confederate States Army depended heavily on railroads to get supplies to its lines. ...


Rural areas

The area claimed by the Confederate States of America was overwhelmingly rural. Small towns of more than 1,000 were few — the typical county seat had a population of less than 500 people. Cities were rare. New Orleans was the only Southern city in the list of the ten largest U.S. cities in the 1860 census, and it was captured by the Union in 1862. Only 13 Confederate cities ranked among the top 100 U.S. cities in 1860, most of them ports whose economic activities were shut down by the Union blockade. The population of Richmond swelled after it became the national capital, reaching an estimated 128,000 in 1864 (Dabney 1990:182). Other large Southern cities (Baltimore, St. Louis, Louisville, and Washington, as well as Wheeling, West Virginia, and Alexandria, Virginia) were never under the control of the Confederate government. New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... 1861 Cartoon map of the blockade // The Union Blockade refers to the naval actions between 1861 and 1865, during the American Civil War, in which the Union Navy maintained a massive effort on the Atlantic and Gulf Coast of the Confederate States of America designed to prevent the passage of... Baltimore redirects here. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Missouri Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor Francis G. Slay (D) Area  - City  66. ... Louisville redirects here. ... Nickname: The Friendly City Location in Ohio County in the State of West Virginia Coordinates: Settled 1769 Established 1806 Incorporated 1836  - Mayor Nick Sparachane  - City Manager Robert Herron  - Chief of Police Kevin Gessler, Sr. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... Location in Virginia Coordinates: , Country State Founded 1749 Government  - Mayor William D. Euille Area  - Total 15. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...

# City 1860 population 1860 U.S. rank Return to U.S. control
1. New Orleans, Louisiana 168,675 6 1862
2. Charleston, South Carolina 40,522 22 1865
3. Richmond, Virginia 37,910 25 1865
4. Mobile, Alabama 29,258 27 1865
5. Memphis, Tennessee 22,623 38 1862
6. Savannah, Georgia 22,292 41 1864
7. Petersburg, Virginia 18,266 50 1865
8. Nashville, Tennessee 16,988 54 1862
9. Norfolk, Virginia 14,620 61 1862
10. Augusta, Georgia 12,493 77 1865
11. Columbus, Georgia 9,621 97 1865
12. Atlanta, Georgia 9,554 99 1864
13. Wilmington, North Carolina 9,553 100 1865

(See also Atlanta in the Civil War, Charleston, South Carolina, in the Civil War, Nashville in the Civil War, New Orleans in the Civil War, and Richmond in the Civil War). The following is a list (by population) of all Metropolitan Statistical Areas as defined by the United States Census Bureau. ... NOLA redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Nickname: Motto: Aedes Mores Juraque Curat (She cares for her temples, customs, and rights) Location of Charleston in South Carolina. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... Nickname: Motto: Sic dic Itur Ad Astra (Thus do we reach the stars) Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor L. Douglas Wilder (I) Area  - City 62. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country State County Mobile Founded 1702 Incorporated 1814 Government  - Mayor Sam Jones Area  - City 412. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Memphis (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... Savannah redirects here. ... Nickname: Location in the State of Virginia Coordinates: , Country United States State Virginia County Independent city Founded December 17, 1748 Government  - Mayor Annie M. Mickens Area  - City  23. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Nashville redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... Motto: Crescas (Latin for, Thou shalt grow. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Augusta is a city in the state of Georgia in the United States of America. ... Columbus is a city in Muscogee County, Georgia, United States. ... Atlanta redirects here. ... Wilmington is a city in New Hanover County, North Carolina, United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... Atlanta, Georgia, was an important rail and commercial center during the American Civil War. ... Nashville, Tennessee, was among the leading cities of the Confederate States of America, one that symbolized control of the Upper South. ... Panoramic View of New Orleans-Federal Fleet at Anchor in the River, ca. ... Shells of the buildings of Richmond, silhouetted against a dark sky after the destruction by Confederates, 1865. ...


Economy

The Confederacy had an agrarian economy with exports, to a world market, of cotton, and, to a lesser extent, tobacco and sugarcane. Local food production included grains, hogs, cattle, and gardens. The 11 states produced $155 million in manufactured goods in 1860, chiefly from local grist mills, and lumber, processed tobacco, cotton goods and naval stores such as turpentine. By the 1830's, the 11 states produced more cotton than all of the other countries in the world combined. The CSA adopted a low tariff of 15 per cent, but imposed it on all imports from the rest of the United States[55]. The tariff mattered little; the Confederacy's ports were blocked to commercial traffic by the Union's blockade, and very few people paid taxes on goods smuggled from the Union states. The government collected about $3.5 million in tariff revenue from the start of their war against the Union to late 1864. The lack of adequate financial resources led the Confederacy to finance the war through printing money, which led to high inflation. The Confederate States of America had an agrarian-based economy that relied heavily on slave-worked plantations for the production of cotton for export to Europe and the northern US states. ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ... Species Saccharum arundinaceum Saccharum bengalense Saccharum edule Saccharum officinarum Saccharum procerum Saccharum ravennae Saccharum robustum Saccharum sinense Saccharum spontaneum Sugarcane or Sugar cane (Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation) of tall perennial grasses (family Poaceae, tribe Andropogoneae), native to warm temperate to tropical... Naval Stores is a broad term which originally applied to the resin-based components used in building and maintaining wooden sailing ships, a category which includes cordage, mask, turpentine, resin and tar. ...


Armed forces

Navy Jack of the CSA
Navy Jack of the CSA

The military armed forces of the Confederacy were composed of three branches: Image File history File links Navy_Jack_CSA.jpg‎ Beschreibung I took this picture of a confedered navy jack in No Name City in Wöllersdorf near Vienna on June 16 2006. ... Image File history File links Navy_Jack_CSA.jpg‎ Beschreibung I took this picture of a confedered navy jack in No Name City in Wöllersdorf near Vienna on June 16 2006. ...

The Confederate military leadership included many veterans from the United States Army and United States Navy who had resigned their Federal commissions and had been appointed to senior positions in the Confederate armed forces. Many had served in the Mexican-American War (including Robert E. Lee and Jefferson Davis), but others had little or no military experience (such as Leonidas Polk, who had attended West Point but did not graduate.) The Confederate officer corps was composed in part of young men from slave-owning families, but many came from non-owners. The Confederacy appointed junior and field grade officers by election from the enlisted ranks. Although no Army service academy was established for the Confederacy, many colleges of the South (such as the The Citadel and Virginia Military Institute) maintained cadet corps that were seen as a training ground for Confederate military leadership. A naval academy was established at Drewry’s Bluff, Virginia[56] in 1863, but no midshipmen had graduated by the time the Confederacy collapsed. A group of Confederate soldiers The Confederate States Army (CSA) was organized in February 1861 to defend the newly formed Confederate States of America from military action by the United States government during the American Civil War. ... Navy Department Seal The Confederate States Navy (CSN) was the naval branch of the Confederate States armed forces established by an act of the Confederate Congress on February 21, 1861 responsible for Confederate naval operations during the American Civil War. ... The Confederate States Marine Corps (CSMC) was a branch of the Confederate Navy, tasked with shore operations. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... USN redirects here. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 25,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 AWOL: 9,200+ 25,000... For the agrarian leader and North Carolinas first Commissioner of Agriculture, see Leonidas Lafayette Polk. ... USMA redirects here. ... The Citadel, The Military College of South Carolina, is a state-supported, comprehensive college located in Charleston, South Carolina. ... The Virginia Military Institute (VMI), located in Lexington, Virginia, is the oldest state military college in the United States. ... Drewrys Bluff is located in northeastern Chesterfield County, Virginia in the United States. ...


The soldiers of the Confederate armed forces consisted mainly of white males with an average age between sixteen and twenty-eight.[citation needed] The Confederacy adopted conscription in 1862. Many thousands of slaves served as laborers, cooks, and pioneers. Some freed blacks and men of color served in local state militia units of the Confederacy, primarily in Louisiana and South Carolina, but they were used for "local defense, not combat."[57] Depleted by casualties and desertions, the military suffered chronic manpower shortages. In the spring of 1865 the Confederate Congress, influenced by the public support by General Lee, approved the recruitment of black infantry units. Contrary to Lee’s and Davis’ recommendations, the Congress refused “to guarantee the freedom of black volunteers.” No more than two hundred troops were ever raised.[58]


Military leaders

Military leaders of the Confederacy (with their state of birth and highest rank[59]) included:

General Robert E. Lee, for many, the face of the Confederate army
General Robert E. Lee, for many, the face of the Confederate army

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 487 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1116 × 1374 pixel, file size: 279 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Other versions Original File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 487 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1116 × 1374 pixel, file size: 279 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Other versions Original File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... For other uses, see Robert E. Lee (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... General-in-Chief (Russian: , probably originating from général en chéf), was a full General rank in the Russian Imperial army, the second top in Russian military ranks (the 2nd grade of Table of Ranks). ... Albert Sidney Johnston Albert Sidney Johnston (February 2, 1803 – April 6, 1862) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... Joseph E. Johnston Joseph Eggleston Johnston (February 3, 1807 – March 21, 1891) was a career U.S. Army officer and one of the most senior generals in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... Braxton Bragg Braxton Bragg (March 22, 1817 – September 27, 1876) was a career U.S. Army officer and a general in the Confederate States Army, a principal commander in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. ... Pierre Gustave Toutant de Beauregard Pierre Gustave Toutant de Beauregard (BO-rih-gahrd) (May 28, 1818 – February 20, 1893), best known as a general for the Confederate Army during the American Civil War, was also a writer, civil servant, and inventor. ... Richard Stoddert Ewell (February 8, 1817 - January 25, 1872) was a Confederate military officer during the American Civil War. ... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... General Samuel Cooper Samuel Cooper (June 12, 1798 – December 3, 1876) was a career U.S. Army officer and, although little-known today, the highest ranking Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... This article is about the state. ... James Longstreet (January 8, 1821 – January 2, 1904) was one of the foremost Confederate generals of the American Civil War, the principal subordinate to General Robert E. Lee, who called him his Old War Horse. ... For other uses of Stonewall Jackson, see Stonewall Jackson (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... Confederate Brigadier General John Hunt Morgan John Hunt Morgan (June 1, 1825 – September 4, 1864) was a Confederate general and cavalry officer in the American Civil War. ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... Ambrose Powell Hill (November 9, 1825 _ April 2, 1865), was a Confederate States of America general in the American Civil War. ... John Bell Hood (June 1[1] or June 29,[2] 1831 – August 30, 1879) was a Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... Wade Hampton during the Civil War Wade Hampton III (March 28, 1818 – April 11, 1902) was a Confederate cavalry leader during the American Civil War and afterwards a politician from South Carolina, representing it as governor and U.S. Senator. ... For the World War II general, see Nathan Bedford Forrest III. Nathaniel Bedford Forrest (July 13, 1821–October 29, 1877) was a Confederate Army general during the American Civil War. ... Colonel John Singleton Mosby (December 6, 1833 - May 30, 1916), also known as the Gray Ghost, was a Confederate guerilla fighter in the American Civil War. ... James Ewell Brown Stuart (February 6, 1833 – May 12, 1864) was an American soldier from Virginia and a Confederate Army general during the American Civil War. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Edward Porter Alexander Edward Porter Alexander (May 26, 1835 – April 28, 1910) was an engineer, an officer in the U.S. Army and Confederate States Army, an author, and a railroad executive. ... Franklin Buchanan Franklin Buchanan (September 13, 1800—May 11, 1874) was an officer in the U.S. Navy who became an admiral in the Confederate Navy during the American Civil War. ... For other uses, see Admiral (disambiguation). ... Raphael Semmes (September 27, 1809 – August 30, 1877) was an officer in the United States Navy from 1826 to 1860 and the Confederate States Navy from 1860 to 1865. ... The term Rear Admiral originated from the days of Naval Sailing Squadrons, and can trace its origins to the British Royal Navy. ... Josiah Tattnall Commodore Josiah Tattnall, Jr. ... Commodore is a rank of the United States Navy with a somewhat complicated history. ... Stand Watie Stand Watie (12 December 1806 – 9 September 1871) (also known as Degataga stand firm and Isaac S. Watie) was a leader of the Cherokee Nation and a brigadier general of the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... For the agrarian leader and North Carolinas first Commissioner of Agriculture, see Leonidas Lafayette Polk. ... General Price Sterling Old Pap Price (September 20, 1809 – September 29, 1867) was an antebellum politician from the U.S. state of Missouri and a Confederate major general during the American Civil War. ... For other uses, see Jubal Early (disambiguation). ... Richard Taylor Richard Taylor (January 27, 1826 – April 12, 1879) was a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... This article is about the twelfth President of the United States. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy the notability guideline or one of the following guidelines for inclusion on Wikipedia: Biographies, Books, Companies, Fiction, Music, Neologisms, Numbers, Web content, or several proposals for new guidelines. ... For other uses, see Colonel (disambiguation). ... William Lamb was an officer in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War. ... Fort Fisher Fort Fisher was a Confederate fort during the American Civil War. ... Stephen Dodson Ramseur Stephen Dodson Ramseur May 31, 1837 – September 19, 1864) was the youngest Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Camille Armand Jules Marie Prince de Polignac Camille Armand Jules Marie, Prince de Polignac, a Major General in the forces of the Confederate States of America, was born February 16, 1832 in Millemont Seine-et-Oise, France. ... John Austin Wharton (July 23, 1828 – April 6, 1865) was a lawyer, plantation owner, and Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... Thomas Lafayette Rosser (October 15, 1836 – March 29, 1910) was a Confederate general during the American Civil War, and later an officer in the Spanish American War and railroad construction engineer. ... Patrick Cleburne Patrick Ronayne Cleburne (March 16 or 17, 1828 – November 30, 1864) was a major general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War, killed at the Battle of Franklin. ...

Table of CSA states

State Flag Secession ordinance Admitted C.S.A. Under predominant
Union control
Readmitted to the Union
South Carolina Flag of South Carolina December 20, 1860 February 8, 1861 1865 July 9, 1868
Mississippi Flag of Mississippi January 9, 1861 February 8, 1861 1863 February 23, 1870
Florida Flag of Florida January 10, 1861 February 8, 1861 1865 June 25, 1868
Alabama Flag of Alabama January 11, 1861 February 8, 1861 1865 July 13, 1868
Georgia Flag of Georgia (U.S. state) January 19, 1861 February 8, 1861 1865 1st Date July 21, 1868;
2nd Date July 15, 1870
Louisiana Flag of Louisiana January 26, 1861 February 8, 1861 1863 July 9, 1868
Texas Flag of Texas February 1, 1861 March 2, 1861 1865 March 30, 1870
Virginia Flag of Virginia April 17, 1861 May 7, 1861 1865;
(1861 for West Virginia)
January 26, 1870
Arkansas Flag of Arkansas May 6, 1861 May 18, 1861 1864 June 22, 1868
North Carolina Flag of North Carolina May 20, 1861 May 21, 1861 1865 July 4, 1868
Tennessee Flag of Tennessee June 8, 1861 July 2, 1861 1863 July 24, 1866
Missouri (exiled government) Flag of Missouri October 31, 1861 November 28, 1861 1861 Unionist govt. appointed by Secession Convention 1861
Kentucky (Russellville Convention) Flag of Kentucky November 20, 1861 December 10, 1861 1861 Elected Union & unelected rump C.S.A. governments from 1861
Arizona Territory (Mesilla government) Flag of Arizona March 16, 1861 February 14, 1862 1862 Not a state until 1912

Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Carolina. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mississippi. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Florida. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Alabama. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Georgia_(U.S._state). ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Louisiana. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Texas. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Virginia. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Arkansas. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_North_Carolina. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The Missouri Secession controversy refers to the disputed status of the state of Missouri during the American Civil War. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Missouri. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Missouri Constitutional Convention (1861-63) was a constitutional convention in the American Civil War that decided that Missouri stay in the Union and also evicted the elected governor to create a provisional government during the war. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... The Russellville Convention was a sovereignty convention held by secessionists on November 18 through 20, 1861 in Russellville, Kentucky after the state government formally declared neutrality in the American Civil War. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kentucky. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Territories in Arizona and New Mexico in 1863. ... Mesilla is a town located in Doña Ana County, New Mexico. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Arizona. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ...

See also

  • For the 2004 motion picture, see C.S.A.: The Confederate States of America

The Burr conspiracy was a suspected treasonous “cabal” of planters, politicians and army officers led by former U.S. Vice President Aaron Burr. ... An historic example of three way trade in the North Atlantic Triangular trade is a historical term indicating trade between three ports or regions. ... The Golden Circle was a pan-Caribbean political alliance proposed by in the 1850s that would have included many countries into a United States-like federal union. ... The battle of Fort Sumter was the first stage in a conflict that had been brewing for decades. ... Historic Southern United States. ... The history of the Southern United States reaches back thousands of years and included the Mississippian peoples, well known for their mound building. ... The Confederate States of America used several flags during its existence from 1861 to 1865. ... Confederate Seal The Confederate Seal was the seal of the Confederate States of America. ... Six Confederate notes The Confederate States of America dollar was first issued into circulation in April, 1861, when the Confederacy was only two months old, and on the eve of the outbreak of the Civil War. ... 5c Jefferson Davis stamp This is a survey of the postage stamps and postal history of the Confederate States of America. ... The Confederados are a cultural sub-group in the nation of Brazil. ... The Confederate Patent Office was the agency of the Confederate States of America charged with issuing patents on inventions. ... The United States presidential election of 1864 saw Abraham Lincoln, the Republican running on a coalition ticket, win by a landslide over the Democratic candidate, George B. McClellan. ... The Thirty-Eighth Congress of the United States began on March 4, 1863 and ended on March 3, 1865. ...

Notes

  1. ^ McPherson pg. 232-233
  2. ^ The text of the Declaration of the Immediate Causes Which Induce and Justify the Secession of South Carolina from the Federal Union.
  3. ^ The text of A Declaration of the Immediate Causes which Induce and Justify the Secession of the State of Mississippi from the Federal Union.
  4. ^ The text of Georgia's secession declaration.
  5. ^ The text of A Declaration of the Causes which Impel the State of Texas to Secede from the Federal Union.
  6. ^ McPherson pg. 244.The text of Alexander Stephens' "Cornerstone Speech".
  7. ^ Cooper pg. xv
  8. ^ Cooper pg. xiv
  9. ^ Coski pg. 23. The bracketed text was added by Coski.
  10. ^ The text of Benjamin Palmer's "Thanksgiving Sermon".
  11. ^ The text of South Carolina's Ordinance of Secession.
  12. ^ The text of Mississippi's Ordinance of Secession.
  13. ^ The text of Florida's Ordinance of Secession.
  14. ^ The text of Alabama's Ordinance of Secession.
  15. ^ The text of Georgia's Ordinance of Secession.
  16. ^ The text of Louisiana's Ordinance of Secession.
  17. ^ The text of Texas' Ordinance of Secession.
  18. ^ The text of Virginia's Ordinance of Secession.
  19. ^ Virginia did not turn over its military to the Confederate States until June 8, 1861 and the Constitution of the Confederate States was ratified on June 19, 1861.
  20. ^ The text of Arkansas' Ordinance of Secession.
  21. ^ The text of North Carolina's Ordinance of Secession.
  22. ^ The text of Tennessee's Ordinance of Secession.
  23. ^ The Tennessee legislature ratified an agreement to enter a military league with the Confederate States on May 7, 1861. Tennessee voters approved the agreement on June 8, 1861.
  24. ^ The text of Missouri's Ordinance of Secession.
  25. ^ The pro-Confederate politicians tried to meet in Neosho, Missouri, and then were driven out of the entire state.
  26. ^ The text of Kentucky's Ordinance of Secession.
  27. ^ Russellville Convention
  28. ^ a b Lincoln's proclamation calling for troops from the remaining states (bottom of page); Department of War details to States (top)
  29. ^ Alexander H. Stephens A Constitutional View of the Late War Between the States (1870), Vol. 2, p. 36. 75 MB PDF file "I maintain that it was inaugurated and begun, though no blow had been struck, when the hostile fleet, styled the "Relief Squadron," with eleven ships, carrying two hundred and eighty-five guns and two thousand four hundred men, was sent out from New York and Norfolk, with orders from the authorities at Washington, to reinforce Fort Sumter peaceably, if permitted "but forcibly if they must."
  30. ^ ""Marx and Engels on the American Civil War", Army of the Cumberland and George H. Thomas source page
  31. ^ "Background of the Confederate States Constitution", The American Civil War Home Page
  32. ^ [Neely 11, 16]
  33. ^ Henry Blumenthal Confederate Diplomacy: Popular Notions and International Realities The Journal of Southern History, Vol. 32, No. 2. (May, 1966), pp. 152.
  34. ^ ibid. pg. 155
  35. ^ ibid. pg. 159
  36. ^ ibid.
  37. ^ Stanley Lebergott Why the South Lost: Commercial Purpose in the Confederacy, 1861-1865 The Journal of American History, Vol. 70, No. 1. (Jun., 1983), pp. 61
  38. ^ International Slavery Museum, Liverpool, UK
  39. ^ See text of inscription on the Abraham Lincoln statue in Manchester, UK
  40. ^ Henry Blumenthal Confederate Diplomacy: Popular Notions and International Realities pg. 157
  41. ^ ibid See articles footnote 20
  42. ^ Official Records of the Union and Confederate Navies in the War of the Rebellion, p. 1015.
  43. ^ Louisiana Department of Culture, Recreation, and Tourism's description of Kenner's diplomatic mission
  44. ^ Frank L. Owsley, State Rights in the Confederacy (Chicago, 1925),
  45. ^ Rable (1994) 257; however Wallace Hettle in The Peculiar Democracy: Southern Democrats in Peace and Civil War (2001) p. 158 says Owsley's "famous thesis... is overstated."
  46. ^ John Moretta; "Pendleton Murrah and States Rights in Civil War Texas," Civil War History, Vol. 45, 1999
  47. ^ Albert Burton Moore, Conscription and Conflict in the Confederacy. (1924) P. 295.
  48. ^ Rable (1994) 258-9
  49. ^ Rable (1994) p 265
  50. ^ William Seward to Charles Francis Adams, April 10, 1861 in Marion Mills Miller, Ed. Life And Works Of Abraham Lincoln (1907) Vol 6.
  51. ^ ibid
  52. ^ Moore, Frank, The Rebellion Record, Volume I, G.P. Putnam, 1861, Doc. 140, pages 195-197
  53. ^ "Legal Materials on the Confederate States of America in the Schaffer Law Library", Albany Law School.
  54. ^ Records of District Courts of the United States, National Archives.
  55. ^ Tariff of the Confederate States of America, May 21, 1861.
  56. ^ 1862blackCSN
  57. ^ Rubin pg. 104
  58. ^ Levine pg. 146-147
  59. ^ Eicher, Civil War High Commands

is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Confederate States Constitution The Constitution of the Confederate States of America was the supreme law of the Confederate States of America, as adopted on March 11, 1861 and in effect through the conclusion of the American Civil War. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Russellville Convention was a sovereignty convention held by secessionists on November 18 through 20, 1861 in Russellville, Kentucky after the state government formally declared neutrality in the American Civil War. ...

References

  • Eicher, John H., & Eicher, David J., Civil War High Commands, Stanford University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.
  • Wilentz, Sean, The Rise of American Democracy, W.W. Norton & Co., ISBN 0-393-32921-6.

Bibliography

  • Cooper, William J. Jr. Jefferson Davis, American. (2000)
  • Coski, John. The Confederate Battle Flag. (2005)
  • Current, Richard N., ed. Encyclopedia of the Confederacy (4 vol), 1993. 1900 pages, articles by scholars.
  • Faust, Patricia L. ed, Historical Times Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Civil War, 1986.
  • Heidler, David S., et al. Encyclopedia of the American Civil War : A Political, Social, and Military History, 2002. 2400 pages (ISBN 0-393-04758-X)
  • Levine, Bruce. Confederate Emancipation. (2006)
  • McPherson, James M. Battle Cry of Freedom. (1988)
  • Rubin, Sarah Anne. A Shattered Nation: The Rise & Fall of the Confederacy 1861-1868. (2005)
  • Woodworth, Steven E. ed. The American Civil War: A Handbook of Literature and Research, 1996. 750 pages of historiography and bibliography

Economic and social history

see Economy of the Confederate States of America The Confederate States of America had an agrarian-based economy that relied heavily on slave-worked plantations for the production of cotton for export to Europe and the northern US states. ...

  • Black, Robert C., III. The Railroads of the Confederacy, 1988.
  • Clinton, Catherine, and Silber, Nina, eds. Divided Houses: Gender and the Civil War, 1992.
  • Dabney, Virginius. Richmond: The Story of a City. Charlottesville: The University of Virginia Press, 1990. ISBN 0-8139-1274-1.
  • Faust, Drew Gilpin. Mothers of Invention: Women of the Slaveholding South in the American Civil War, 1996.
  • Faust, Drew Gilpin. The Creation of Confederate Nationalism: Ideology and Identity in the Civil War South, 1988.
  • Grimsley, Mark. The Hard Hand of War: Union Military Policy toward Southern Civilians, 1861-1865, 1995.
  • Lentz, Perry Carlton. Our Missing Epic: A Study in the Novels about the American Civil War, 1970.
  • Massey, Mary Elizabeth. Bonnet Brigades: American Women and the Civil War, 1966.
  • Massey, Mary Elizabeth. Refugee Life in the Confederacy, 1964.
  • Rable, George C. Civil Wars: Women and the Crisis of Southern Nationalism, 1989.
  • Ramsdell, Charles. Behind the Lines in the Southern Confederacy, 1994.
  • Roark, James L. Masters without Slaves: Southern Planters in the Civil War and Reconstruction, 1977.
  • Rubin, Anne Sarah. A Shattered Nation: The Rise and Fall of the Confederacy, 1861-1868, 2005. A cultural study of Confederates' self images.
  • Thomas, Emory M. The Confederacy as a Revolutionary Experience, 1992.
  • Wiley, Bell Irwin. Confederate Women, 1975.
  • Wiley, Bell Irwin. The Plain People of the Confederacy, 1944.
  • Woodward, C. Vann, ed. Mary Chesnut's Civil War, 1981.

Politics

  • Alexander, Thomas B., and Beringer, Richard E. The Anatomy of the Confederate Congress: A Study of the Influences of Member Characteristics on Legislative Voting Behavior, 1861-1865, 1972.
  • Boritt, Gabor S., et al, Why the Confederacy Lost, 1992.
  • Cooper, William J, Jefferson Davis, American, 2000. Standard biography.
  • Coulter, E. Merton. The Confederate States of America, 1861-1865, 1950.
  • William C. Davis (2003). Look Away! A History of the Confederate States of America. New York: Free Press. ISBN 0-684-86585-8. 
  • Eaton, Clement. A History of the Southern Confederacy, 1954.
  • Eckenrode, H. J., Jefferson Davis: President of the South, 1923.
  • Gallgher, Gary W., The Confederate War, 1999.
  • Neely, Mark E., Jr., Confederate Bastille: Jefferson Davis and Civil Liberties, 1993.
  • Rembert, W. Patrick. Jefferson Davis and His Cabinet, 1944.
  • Rable, George C., The Confederate Republic: A Revolution against Politics, 1994.
  • Roland, Charles P. The Confederacy, 1960. brief
  • Thomas, Emory M. Confederate Nation: 1861-1865, 1979. Standard political-economic-social history
  • Wakelyn, Jon L. Biographical Dictionary of the Confederacy Greenwood Press ISBN 0-8371-6124-X
  • Williams, William M. Justice in Grey: A History of the Judicial System of the Confederate States of America, 1941.
  • Yearns, Wilfred Buck. The Confederate Congress, 1960.

Primary sources

  • Carter, Susan B., ed. The Historical Statistics of the United States: Millennial Edition (5 vols), 2006.
  • Davis, Jefferson, The Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government (2 vols), 1881.
  • Harwell, Richard B., The Confederate Reader (1957)
  • Jones, John B. A Rebel War Clerk's Diary at the Confederate States Capital, edited by Howard Swiggert, [1935] 1993. 2 vols.
  • Richardson, James D., ed. A Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Confederacy, Including the Diplomatic Correspondence 1861-1865, 2 volumes, 1906.
  • Yearns, W. Buck and Barret, John G.,eds. North Carolina Civil War Documentary, 1980.
  • Confederate official government documents major online collection of complete texts in HTML format, from U. of North Carolina
  • Journal of the Congress of the Confederate States of America, 1861-1865 (7 vols), 1904. Available online at the Library of Congress [1]

External links

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Clement Claiborne Clay (December 13, 1816 – January 3, 1882) was a U.S. senator from the state of Alabama from 1853 to 1861, and a C.S.A. senator from the Alabama from 1861 to 1863. ... Robert Jemison, Jr. ... Richard Wilde Walker (February 16, 1823 – June 16, 1874) was a prominent Confederate States of America politician. ... William Lowndes Yancey (August 10, 1814 - July 27, 1863), American political leader, son of Benjamin Cudworth Yancey, an able lawyer of South Carolina, of Welsh descent, was born near the Falls of the Ogeechee, Warren County, Georgia. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Augustus Hill Garland (June 11, 1832 - January 26, 1899) was an Attorney General of the United States, Democratic United States Senator, Confederate States Senator, Confederate States Representative, and Governor of the State of Arkansas. ... Robert Ward Johnson (22 July 1814 - 26 July 1879) was a Democratic United States Senator and member of the United States House of Representatives from the State of Arkansas. ... Charles Burton Mitchel (September 19, 1815 – September 20, 1864) was a Democratic Party politician from Arkansas who represented the state in the U.S. Senate in 1861 and in the Confederate States Senate from 1861 until his death. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... James McNair Baker was born July 20, 1821, in Robeson County, North Carolina, a son of Archibald Baker and Katherine McNair. ... Augustus E. Maxwell Augustus E. Maxwell -(September 21, 1820 - May 5, 1903) - was a Floridian politician who served as senator of Florida to the Confederate Congress for the course of its existence. ... Benjamin Harvey Hill (September 14, 1823 – August 19, 1882) was a U.S. Representative, U.S. senator and a Confederate senator from the state of Alabama. ... Herschel Vespasian Johnson (September 18, 1812 - August 16, 1880) was an American politician. ... John Wood Lewis, Sr. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Henry Cornelius Burnett (October 5, 1825—October 1, 1866) represented the state of Kentucky in the U. S. House of Representatives and in the Confederate Senate. ... William Emmet Simms (January 2, 1822 – June 25, 1898) was U.S. Congressman and later a prominent Confederate politician during the American Civil War. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Thomas Jenkins Semmes (December 16, 1824 – June 23, 1899) was a politician in the state of Louisiana. ... Edward Sparrow (December 29, 1810 – July 4, 1882) was a prominent Confederate States of America politician. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Albert Gallatin Brown (May 31, 1813–June 12, 1880) was Governor of Mississippi from 1844 to 1848 and a United States Senator from Mississippi from 1854 through 1861. ... James Phelan, Sr. ... John William Clark Watson (February 27, 1808 – September 24, 1890) was a Confederate politician and judge. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... John Bullock Clark, Sr. ... Waldo Porter Johnson (September 16, 1817 – August 14, 1885) was a United States Senator from Missouri, and later a member of the Confederate Congress during the American Civil War. ... Robert Ludwell Yates Peyton (February 8, 1822 – September 3, 1863) was born in Loudoun County, Virginia. ... George Graham Vest (1830–1904) was a man born in Kentucky, but who moved to Missouri to begin a career in law. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... George Davis (born March 1, 1820; died February 23, 1896) was a U.S.-Confederate political figure and the last Confederate Attorney General 1864-1865. ... William Theophilus Dortch (August 23, 1824 – November 21, 1889) was a prominent North Carolina and Confederate States of America politician. ... William Alexander Graham (September 5, 1804–August 11, 1875) was a United States Senator from North Carolina from 1840 to 1843 and Governor of North Carolina from 1845 to 1849. ... Edwin Godwin Reade (13 November 1812 – 18 October 1894) was a U.S. Congressman from North Carolina between 1855 and 1857. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... Robert W. Barnwell Robert Woodward Barnwell (1801-1882) was an American planter, lawyer, and educator from South Carolina who served as a Senator in both the United States Senate and that of the Confederate States of America. ... James Lawrence Orr James Lawrence Orr (May 12, 1822 – May 5, 1873) was an American politician who served as Speaker of the United States House of Representatives in the United States Congress. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... Landon Carter Haynes, Sr. ... Gustavus Adolphus Henry Sr. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... William Simpson Oldham, Sr. ... Louis T. Wigfall Louis Trezevant Wigfall (April 21, 1816 – February 18, 1874) was an American politician from Texas and a general during the American Civil War. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Allen T. Caperton Allen Taylor Caperton (November 21, 1810 – July 26, 1876) was an American politician who was a United States Senator serving as a Democrat, as well as previous positions. ... Robert Mercer Taliaferro Hunter (April 21, 1809 - July 18, 1887), American statesman, was born in Essex County, Virginia. ... William Ballard Preston (November 25, 1805–16 November 1862) was a U.S. political figure. ... Seal of the Confederate States of America, Public Domain File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

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Confederate States of America (5279 words)
The Confederate States of America (also called the Confederacy, the Confederate States, and CSA) was the government formed by eleven southern states of the United States of America between 1861 and 1865.
The Confederate Congress responded to the hostilities by formally declaring war on the United States in May 1861 — calling it "The War between the Confederate States of America and the United States of America." The Union government never declared war but conducted its war efforts under a proclamation of blockade and rebellion.
The legislative branch of the Confederate States of America was the Confederate Congress.
Confederate States of America - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3888 words)
The Confederate States of America was formed on February 4, 1861, by seven Southern states (South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Texas, and Louisiana) after confirmation of the election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States.
Confederate States troops briefly occupied the territorial capital of Santa Fe between March 13 and April 8, 1862.
The legislative branch of the Confederate States of America was the Confederate Congress.
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