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Encyclopedia > Confederate States Navy
Navy Department Seal
Navy Department Seal

The Confederate States Navy (CSN) was the naval branch of the Confederate States armed forces established by an act of the Confederate Congress on February 21, 1861 responsible for Confederate naval operations during the American Civil War. The two major tasks of the Confederate Navy during the whole of its existence were the protection of Southern harbors and coastlines from outside invasion and making the war extremely costly for the North by attacking merchant ships and breaking the Union Blockade. Image File history File links CS_Navy_Department_Seal. ... Image File history File links CS_Navy_Department_Seal. ... The multinational Combined Task Force One Five Zero (CTF-150) The British Grand Fleet, the supreme naval force of WW1 A rare occurrence of a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. ... Motto: Deo Vindice (Latin: With God As Our Vindicator) Anthem: God Save the South (unofficial) Dixie (popular) Capital Montgomery, Alabama February 4, 1861–May 29, 1861 Richmond, Virginia May 29, 1861–April 9, 1865 Danville, Virginia April 3–April 10, 1865 Largest city New Orleans February 4, 1861–May 1... The armed forces of a state are its government sponsored defense and fighting forces and organizations. ... The Confederate Congress was the legislative body of the Confederate States of America, existing during the American Civil War between 1861 and 1865. ... Combatants Union (remaining U.S. states) Confederate States of America Commanders Abraham Lincoln† Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,200 Casualties KIA: 110,100 Total dead: 359,500 Wounded: 275,200 KIA: 94,000 Total dead: 258,000 Wounded: 137,000+  The... Southern United States. ... Map of the division of the states during the Civil War. ... The Union blockade refers to the naval actions between 1861 and 1865, during the American Civil War, in which the United States Navy maintained a massive effort on the Atlantic and Gulf Coast of the Confederate States of America designed to prevent the passage of trade goods, supplies, and arms...

Contents


History

CSN Jack
CSN Jack

The initial goal of the Confederate Navy was to establish superiority to, or at least achieve equality with, the Union Navy. In early 1861, both the Confederate and Union navies were equally unimpressive, but, fortunately for the Confederate Navy, they were equal. The Confederate Navy in February, 1861 amounted to a mere ten ships carrying fifteen guns, whereas the North was gifted with ninety vessels, although only about fourteen were fit to fight at sea at the time. As the war progressed, the Confederate Navy would grow with the rising naval conflicts and the threatening naval enemies. Image File history File links Confederate_Battle_Flag. ... Image File history File links Confederate_Battle_Flag. ... The history of the United States Navy divides into two major periods: the Old Navy, a small but respected force of sailing ships that was also notable for innovation in the use of ironclads during the American Civil War, and the New Navy, the result of a modernization effort that... February is the second month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ...


On April 20, 1861, the Union burned its ships that were at the Norfolk Navy Yard, one of only two navy yards located in the South at the time, in order to prevent their capture by the Confederates. The other navy yard was located in Pensacola, Florida, but was mainly intended for repairs, not construction. Some ships survived the burning at Norfolk, including a screw frigate named Merrimack. Secretary Mallory had the idea of raising the Merrimack and armori ng the upper sides with iron plate. The ship became the CSS Virginia, one of the first ironclad ships of the war, that later went on to fight opposite the USS Monitor in the Battle of Hampton Roads. Aerial View of the Norfolk Naval Shipyard The Norfolk Naval Shipyard, often called the Norfolk Navy Yard, is a U.S. Navy facility in Portsmouth, Virginia, for building, remodeling, and repairing the Navys ships. ... Pensacola is the name of several cities as well as other things: Pensacola (tribe), a group of Native Americans A number of places in the U.S. state of Florida: Pensacola, Florida An area airport, see Pensacola Regional Airport. ... Official language(s) English Capital Largest city Tallahassee Jacksonville Area  - Total   - Width   - Length    - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 22nd 65,794 sq mi  170,451 km² 162 miles  260 km 497 miles  800 km 17. ... Norfolk (pronounced IPA: ) is a low-lying county in East Anglia in the east of southern England. ... Merrimack is a place in the State of New Hampshire in the United States of America: see Merrimack, New Hampshire. ... CSS Virginia was an ironclad warship of the Confederate States Navy during the American Civil War (built using the remains of the scuttled USS Merrimack). ... Ironclad warships, frequently shortened to just ironclads, were wooden ships or ships of composite construction (wooden planking on iron frames) sheathed with thick iron plates for protection against gunfire. ... USS Monitor was an ironclad warship (the first ever) of the United States Navy. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders John L. Worden Franklin Buchanan Catesby R. Jones Strength 1 ironclad, 3 wooden warships 1 ironclad Casualties 2 wooden warships sunk, 1 wooden warship damaged 261 killed 108 wounded 1 ironclad damaged 7 killed 17 wounded The Battle of Hampton...


Creation

The act of the Confederate Congress that created the Confederate Navy on February 21, 1861 also appointed Stephen Mallory as Secretary of the Department of the Navy. Mallory was experienced as an admiralty lawyer in his home state of Florida, and he served for a time as the chairman of the Naval Affairs Committee while he was a United States senator. The Confederate Congress was the legislative body of the Confederate States of America, existing during the American Civil War between 1861 and 1865. ... February 21 is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Stephen Russell Mallory (c. ... Official language(s) English Capital Largest city Tallahassee Jacksonville Area  - Total   - Width   - Length    - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 22nd 65,794 sq mi  170,451 km² 162 miles  260 km 497 miles  800 km 17. ... A senate is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature. ...


Mallory began his career as Navy Secretary by building the Confederate Navy into something formidable enough to achieve the goals it needed to win the war. A Confederate Congress committee, meeting on August 27, 1862, reported: August 27 is the 239th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (240th in leap years), with 126 days remaining. ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...

        Before the war but seven steam war vessels had been built in the States forming the Confederacy, and the engines of only two of these had been contracted for in these States. All the labor or materials requisite to complete and equip a war vessel could not be commanded at any one point of the Confederacy.
        [The Navy Department] had erected a powder-mill which supplies all the powder required by our navy; two engine, boiler and machine shops, and five ordnance workshops. It has established eighteen yards for building war vessels, and a rope-walk, making all cordage from a rope-yarn to a 9-inch cable, and capable of turning out 8,000 yards per month .... Of vessels not ironclad and converted to war vessels, there were 44. The department has built and completed as war vessels, 12; partially constructed and destroyed to save from the enemy, 10; now under construction, 9; ironclad vessels now in commission, 12; completed and destroyed or lost by capture, 4; in progress of construction and in various stages of forwardness, 23.

In addition to the ships included in the report of the committe, the Navy also had one ironclad floating battery, presented to the Confederate States by the ladies of Georgia, one ironclad ram donated by the State of Alabama, and a numerous amount of privateers making war on Union merchant ships. USS General Price, a Union ram and gunboat, near Baton Rouge, LA, 18 January 1864 A ram was a naval ship class in the 1860s. ... Official language(s) English Capital Montgomery Largest city Birmingham Area  - Total   - Width   - Length    - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 30th 52,423 sq mi  135,775 km² 190 miles  306 km 330 miles  531 km 3. ... This article is about the concept in naval history. ...


Privateers

On April 17, 1861, Confederate President Jefferson Davis invited applications for letters of marque and reprisal to be granted under the seal of the Confederate States, against ships and property of the United States and their citizens: April 17 is the 107th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (108th in leap years). ... The President of the Confederate States was the Head of State of the short-lived republic of the Confederate States of America which seceded from the United States. ... For other uses, see Jefferson Davis (disambiguation). ... A letter of marque and reprisal was an official warrant or commission from a national government authorizing the designated agent to search, seize, or destroy specified assets or personnel belonging to a party which had committed some offense under the laws of nations against the assets or citizens of the...

        Now, therefore. I, Jefferson Davis. President of the Confederate States of America, do issue this, my proclamation. inviting all those who may desire, by service in private armed vessels on the high seas, to aid this government in resisting so wanton and wicked an aggression, to make application for commissions or letters of marque and reprisal, to be issued under the seal of these Confederate States...

The President did not feel entirely confident in his executive ability to issue letters of marque, and thus called a special session of Congress on April 29, which would organize legislation allowing for the hire of privateers in the name of the Confederate States. On May 6, the Confederate Congress passed "An act recognizing the existence of war between the United States and the Confederate States, and concerning letters of marque, prizes, and prize goods." And on May 14, 1861 "An act regulating the sale of prizes and the distribution thereof," was also passed. Both acts granted the President the power to issue letters of marque and detailed regulations as to the conditions on which letters of marque should be granted to private vessels, the conduct and behavior of the officers and crews of such vessels, and the disposal of such prizes made by privateer crews. The manner in which Confederate privateers operated was generally similar to those of privateers of the United States or of European nations. April 29 is the 119th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (120th in leap years). ... May 6 is the 126th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (127th in leap years). ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (135th in leap years). ... This article is about the continent. ...


It is worthy to note that the 1856 Declaration of Paris outlawed privateering for such nations as England and France, but the United States had neither signed nor endorsed the declaration. Therefore, the institution of privateering was constitutionally legal in both the United and Confederate States. However, the United States did not acknowledge the Confederate States as an actual nation and in turn denied the legitimacy of any letters of marque issued by the Confederate States government. For this reason, Union President Abraham Lincoln boldly declared any captured Confederate privateers would be treated as mere pirates and hung. 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Declaration of Paris from April 16, 1856 was issued to abolish privateering. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location (dark green) within the British Isles Languages None official English de facto Capital None official London de facto Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population – Total (mid-2004) – Total (2001... Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865), sometimes called Abe Lincoln and nicknamed Honest Abe, the Rail Splitter, and the Great Emancipator, was the 16th President of the United States (1861 to 1865), and the first president from the Republican Party. ...


Initially, Confederate privateers operated mostly out of New Orleans, but activity was soon concentrated in the Atlantic as the United States Navy began increasing its operations. Confederate privateers, throughout the war, were successful in harassing Union merchant ships and delivered a significant blow to the Northern economy. New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ...


Ships

CSS Virginia
CSS Virginia

One of the more well-known ships was CSS Virginia (a.k.a. "Merrimack"), a ship based on the hull of USS Merrimack, but re-built as an ironclad. In 1862 she fought USS Monitor in the Battle of Hampton Roads, an event that came to symbolize the end of the dominance of large wooden sailing warships. CSS Virginia File links The following pages link to this file: Battle of Hampton Roads Categories: U.S. Navy images ... CSS Virginia File links The following pages link to this file: Battle of Hampton Roads Categories: U.S. Navy images ... CSS Virginia was an ironclad warship of the Confederate States Navy during the American Civil War (built using the remains of the scuttled USS Merrimack). ... USS Merrimack was a screw frigate of the United States Navy, best known as the hulk upon which CSS Virginia was built during the American Civil War and then took part in the Battle of Hampton Roads (often called the Battle of the Monitor and the Merrimac). Merrimack was launched... Ironclad warships, frequently shortened to just ironclads, were ships sheathed with thick iron plates for protection. ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... USS Monitor was an ironclad warship (the first ever) of the United States Navy. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders John L. Worden Franklin Buchanan Catesby R. Jones Strength 1 ironclad, 3 wooden warships 1 ironclad Casualties 2 wooden warships sunk, 1 wooden warship damaged 261 killed 108 wounded 1 ironclad damaged 7 killed 17 wounded The Battle of Hampton...

Drawing of the Hunley
Drawing of the Hunley

Another notable vessel was the submarine Hunley, the first submarine to sink a ship in a wartime engagement. She herself sank during the engagement due to causes unknown. She was among the few submarines of the war, and of the few submarines to have existed since the Turtle of the American Revolutionary War. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... German UC-1 class World War I submarine A model of Gunter Priens Unterseeboot 47 (U-47), German WWII Type VII diesel-electric hunter-killer (SSK) submarine Typhoon class ballistic-missile carrying (SSBN) submarine, compared to a man USS Virginia, a Virginia-class nuclear attack (SSN) submarine A submarine... The CSS Hunley on the pier CSS H.L. Hunley was a submarine of the Confederate States Navy that demonstrated both the advantages and the dangers of undersea warfare. ... A cross-section sketch of Bushnells Turtle. ... Combatants American Revolutionaries, France, Netherlands, Spain, Native Americans Great Britain, German mercenaries, Loyalists, Native Americans Commanders George Washington, Comte de Rochambeau, Nathanael Greene William Howe, Henry Clinton, Charles Cornwallis (more commanders) The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence,[1] was a conflict that...

CSS Alabama, a ship of the Confederate States Navy
CSS Alabama, a ship of the Confederate States Navy

Confederate raiders were also used to disrupt Union merchant shipping, the most famous of them being the CSS Alabama, a ship made in Britain. Painting of CSS Alabama From the US Navys Naval Historical Center. ... Painting of CSS Alabama From the US Navys Naval Historical Center. ... CSS Alabama was a screw sloop-of-war built for the Confederate States Navy at Birkenhead in 1862 by John Laird Sons and Company of Liverpool. ... CSS Alabama was a screw sloop-of-war built for the Confederate States Navy at Birkenhead in 1862 by John Laird Sons and Company of Liverpool. ...


The CSS Shenandoah fired the last shot of the American Civil War in late June 1865, and finally surrendered in early November 1865. The CSS Shenandoah, formerly Sea King, was an iron-framed, teak-planked, full-rigged vessel with auxiliary steam power, under Captain James Waddell, CSN, a North Carolinian with twenty years service in the Federal navy. ...


There was a Revolutionary War-era frigate known as USS Confederacy, unrelated to the CSN. There was however a CSS United States, the name of the USS United States in 1861–1862, when she was used by the CSN. Combatants American Revolutionaries, France, Netherlands, Spain, Native Americans Great Britain, German mercenaries, Loyalists, Native Americans Commanders George Washington, Comte de Rochambeau, Nathanael Greene William Howe, Henry Clinton, Charles Cornwallis (more commanders) The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence,[1] was a conflict that... The 28-gun sailing frigate Confederacy was a ship of the Continental Navy in the American Revolutionary War. ... USS United States was the first frigate in the United States Navy in 1797. ...


Organization

Between the beginning of the war and the spring of 1862, sixteen captains, thirty-four commanders, and seventy-six lieutenants, together with one hundred and eleven regular and acting midshipmen, had resigned from the United States Navy in order to serve the Confederacy. In order to expand the Navy Department to provide positions for all the new officers and recruits, the Confederate Congress passed the Amendatory Act of April 21, 1862 in which the Confederate Navy was made to account for [quoting the Amendatory Act itself]: 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... April 21 is the 111th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (112th in leap years). ...

        Four admirals, 10 captains, 81 commanders, 100 first lieutenants, second lieutenants, 20 masters, in line of promotion; 12 paymasters, 40 assistant. paymasters, 22 surgeons, 15 passed assistant surgeons, 30 assistant surgeons, 1 engineer-in-chief, and 12 engineers.
        That all the admirals, 4 of the captains, 5 of the commanders, of the first lieutenants and 5 of the second lieutenants shall be appointed solely for gallant or meritorious conduct during the war. The appointments shall be made from the grade immediately below the one to be filled and without reference to the rank of the officer in such grade, and the service for which the appointment shall be conferred shall be specified in the commission. Provided, that all officers below the grade of second lieutenant may be promoted more than one grade for the same service.

Administration

By July 20, 1861, the Confederate government had organized the administrative positions of the Confederate Navy as follows:

Stephen Russell Mallory (c. ... Commodore has several meanings: Commodore International is a computer company Commodore 64 and Amiga were home computers Commodore (rank) is a naval rank Commodore (yacht club) is the senior officer of a yacht club The Holden Commodore is a type of car The Opel Commodore is a type of car... Samuel Barron (November 28, 1809-February 26, 1888) was a United States, and later Confederate naval officer, acting as a representitive in Europe for the Confederacy during the American Civil War. ... Insignia of a United States Navy Commander Commander is a military rank used in many navies but not generally in armies or air forces. ... George Minor (December 7, 1845, Richmond, Virginia - January 30, 1904, Richmond, Virginia) is an American composer. ... The Paymaster of the Forces was a British government position. ...

See also

This is a list of ships of the Confederate States Navy including a section for civilian blockade runners. ... James Dunwoody Bulloch (25 June 1823 — 7 January 1901) was born in Savannah, Georgia. ... CSS Alabama was a screw sloop-of-war built for the Confederate States Navy at Birkenhead in 1862 by John Laird Sons and Company of Liverpool. ... Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ... Irvine Bulloch served on the CSS Alabama during the American Civil War and was the uncle of Theodore Roosevelt Irvine Stephens Bulloch (25 June 1842 — 7 January 1898) was born in Savannah, Georgia. ...

References

  • Luraghi, Raymond. A History of the Confederate Navy, Naval Institute Press, 1996, ISBN 1557505276.
  • http://www.civilwarhome.com/navalwar.htm

Notes

    External links


      Results from FactBites:
     
    Confederate States Navy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1612 words)
    The Confederate States Navy (CSN) was the naval branch of the Confederate States armed forces established by an act of the Confederate Congress on February 21, 1861 responsible for Confederate naval operations during the American Civil War.
    The initial goal of the Confederate Navy was to establish superiority to, or at least achieve equality with, the Union Navy.
    On May 6, the Confederate Congress passed "An act recognizing the existence of war between the United States and the Confederate States, and concerning letters of marque, prizes, and prize goods." And on May 14, 1861 "An act regulating the sale of prizes and the distribution thereof," was also passed.
    Confederate States of America - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4030 words)
    Confederate States troops briefly occupied the territorial capital of Santa Fe between March 13 and April 8, 1862.
    Based to a certain extent on both the Articles of Confederation and on the United States Constitution, it reflected a stronger philosophy of states' rights, curtailing the power of the central authority, and also contained explicit protection of the institution of slavery, though international slave trading was prohibited.
    The legislative branch of the Confederate States of America was the Confederate Congress.
      More results at FactBites »

     
     

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