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Encyclopedia > Confederate States Army
A group of Confederate soldiers
A group of Confederate soldiers

The Confederate States Army (CSA) was organized in February 1861 to defend the newly formed Confederate States of America from military action by the United States government during the American Civil War. As many as 1.4 million men fought in the Army throughout the war. Although it won a significant number of battles (particularly in the Eastern Theater under General Robert E. Lee), a lack of centralized control of the Army and the logistical and manpower advantages of the United States doomed the CSA to eventual failure and the last of its field armies surrendered in May 1865. A picture of Confederate soldiers. ... A picture of Confederate soldiers. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Religion... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... President Lincoln visiting the Army of the Potomac at the Antietam battlefield, September 1862. ... // For other uses, see Robert E. Lee (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Organization

Confederate Battle flag
Confederate Battle flag

The Confederate War Department was established by the Confederate Congress in an act on February 21, 1861. The Confederate States Army was actually three organizations: Image File history File links Battle_flag_of_the_US_Confederacy. ... Image File history File links Battle_flag_of_the_US_Confederacy. ... The Confederate Congress was the legislative body of the Confederate States of America, existing during the American Civil War between 1861 and 1865. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

  • The Army of the Confederate States of America (ACSA) was the regular army, organized by Act of Congress on March 6, 1861. It was authorized to include 15,015 men, including 744 officers, but this level was never achieved. The men serving as (full) generals, such as Samuel Cooper and Robert E. Lee, were enrolled in the ACSA to ensure that they outranked all militia officers.
  • The Provisional Army of the Confederate States (PACS) was authorized by act of Congress on February 28, 1861, and began organizing on April 27. Virtually all regular, volunteer, and conscripted men preferred to enter this organization since officers could achieve a higher rank in the Provisional Army than they could in the Regular Army. If the war had ended successfully for them, the Confederates intended that the PACS would be disbanded, leaving only the ACSA.
  • State Militias were organized and commanded by the state governments, similar to those authorized by the United States Militia Act of 1792.

Because of poor record-keeping, there is no accurate number that represents the strength of the Confederate States Army. Estimates range from 500,000 to 1,500,000 men who were involved at any time during the war. Reports from the War Department began at the end of 1861 (326,768 men), 1862 (449,439), 1863 (464,646), 1864 (400,787), and "last reports" (358,692). Estimates of enlistments throughout the war were 1,227,890 to 1,406,180. is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... General Samuel Cooper Samuel Cooper (June 12, 1798 – December 3, 1876) was a career U.S. Army officer and, although little-known today, the highest ranking Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... // For other uses, see Robert E. Lee (disambiguation). ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Authority Second Congress, Session I. Chapter XXVIII Passed May 2, 1792 providing for the authority of the President to call out the Militia Sec. ...


The following calls for men were issued:

The CSA was initially a (strategically) defensive army, and many soldiers were resentful when Lee led the Army of Northern Virginia in an invasion of the North in the Antietam Campaign. As many as 50,000 men deserted during the start of the campaign, claiming that their enlistments were for defense of their homeland, not invasion. After the losses at Vicksburg and Gettysburg, the number rose to 100,000. is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Confederate dead at Antietam The Maryland Campaign, or the Antietam Campaign, of September 1862 is widely considered one of the major turning points of the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant John C. Pemberton Strength 77,000[1] ~30,000 Casualties 4,855[2] 32,697 (29,495 surrendered)[2] The Battle of Vicksburg, or Siege of Vicksburg, was the final significant battle in the Vicksburg Campaign of... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America Commanders George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 93,921[1] 71,699[2] Casualties 23,055 (3,155 killed, 14,531 wounded, 5,369 captured/missing)[1] 23,231 (4,708 killed, 12,693 wounded, 5,830 captured/missing...


Command

The army did not have a formal overall military commander, or general-in-chief, until late in the war. Confederate President Jefferson Davis, himself a former U.S. Army officer and U.S. Secretary of War, provided the strategic direction for Confederate land and naval forces. The following men had varying degrees of control: The President of the Confederate States was the Head of State of the short-lived republic of the Confederate States of America, which seceded from the United States. ... For other uses, see Jefferson Davis (disambiguation). ... The Secretary of War was a member of the United States Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ...

  • Robert E. Lee was "charged with the conduct of military operations in the armies of the Confederacy" from March 13 to May 31, 1862. He was referred to as Davis' military adviser but exercised broad control over the strategic and logistical aspects of the Army, a role similar in nature to the current Chief of Staff of the U.S. Army. On June 1, he assumed command of the Army of Northern Virginia, which was considered the most important of all the Confederate field armies.
  • Braxton Bragg was similarly "charged with the conduct of military operations in the armies of the Confederacy" from February 24, 1864 (after he was relieved of command following the Battle of Chattanooga) to January 31, 1865. This role was a military advisory position under Davis.
  • Lee was formally designated general-in-chief by an act of Congress (January 23, 1865) and served in this capacity from January 31 to April 9, 1865.

The lack of centralized control was a strategic weakness for the Confederacy, and there are few instances of multiple armies acting in concert across multiple theaters to achieve a common objective. (An exception to this was in late 1862 when Lee's invasion of Maryland was coincident with two other actions: Bragg's invasion of Kentucky and Earl Van Dorn's advance against Corinth, Mississippi. All three initiatives were unsuccessful, however.) // For other uses, see Robert E. Lee (disambiguation). ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... Categories: United States-related stubs | United States Army | Joint Chiefs of Staff ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Braxton Bragg Braxton Bragg (March 22, 1817 – September 27, 1876) was a career U.S. Army officer and a general in the Confederate States Army, a principal commander in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... The third Battle of Chattanooga (popularly known as The Battle of Chattanooga) was fought November 23–25, 1863, in the American Civil War. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Earl Van Dorn Earl Van Dorn (September 17, 1820 – May 7, 1863) was a Confederate Major General during the American Civil War. ... Corinth is a city located in Alcorn County, Mississippi. ...


Ranks and insignia

For more details on this topic, see Ranks and insignia of the Confederate States.
Officer Rank Structure of the Confederate Army
General Colonel Lieutenant Colonel Major Captain First Lieutenant Second Lieutenant
Image:CSA_Cpt.png Image:CSA_1Lt.png Image:CSA_2Lt.png

There were four grades of general officer (general, lieutenant general, major general, and brigadier general), but all wore the same insignia regardless of grade. This was a decision made early in the conflict. The Confederate Congress initially made the rank of brigadier general the highest rank. As the war progressed, the other general-officer ranks were quickly added, but no insignia for them was created. (Robert E. Lee was a notable exception to this. He chose to wear the rank insignia of a colonel.) Only eight men achieved the rank of (full) general; the highest ranking (earliest date of rank) was Samuel Cooper, Adjutant General and Inspector General of the CSA. The Ranks and insignia of the Confederate States were a rank insignia system devised by the forces of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Colonel (disambiguation). ... In the U.S. Army, Air Force and Marine Corps, a lieutenant colonel is a commissioned officer superior to a major and inferior to a colonel. ... Major is a military rank the use of which varies according to country. ... Captain is a rank or title with various meanings. ... First Lieutenant is a military rank. ... Second Lieutenant is the lowest commissioned rank in many armed forces. ... Image File history File links CSAGeneral. ... Image File history File links CSAColonel. ... Image File history File links CSALtColonel. ... Image File history File links CSAMajor. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... General Samuel Cooper Samuel Cooper (June 12, 1798 – December 3, 1876) was a career U.S. Army officer and, although little-known today, the highest ranking Confederate general during the American Civil War. ...


Officers' uniforms bore a braid design on the sleeves and kepi, the number of adjacent strips (and therefore the width of the lines of the design) denoting rank. The color of the piping and kepi denoted the military branch. The braid was sometimes left off by officers since it made them conspicuous targets. The kepi was rarely used, the common slouch hat being preferred for its practicality in the Southern climate. French Kepis. ...

Enlisted Rank Structure
Sergeant Major Quartermaster Sergeant Ordnance Sergeant First Sergeant
Sergeant Corporal Musician Private
no insignia no insignia

Branch colors were used for color of chevrons. Blue for infantry, yellow for cavalry, and red for artillery. This could differ with some units, however, depending on available resources or the unit commander's desire. Cavalry regiments from Texas, for example, often used red insignia and at least one Texas infantry regiment used black. This article is about a military rank and position. ... Quartermaster Sergeant (QMS) is a class of rank or appointment in some armed forces, especially those of the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth. ... Ordnance Sergeant was an enlisted rank in the U.S. and Confederate armies during the American Civil War era. ... First Sergeant is the name of a military rank used in some countries. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Sergeant (disambiguation). ... This article is about the military rank. ... The rank of Musician was a position held by military band members, particularly during the American Civil War. ... A Private is a soldier of the lowest military rank (equivalent to Nato Rank Grades OR-1 to OR-3 depending on the force served in). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


The CSA differed from many contemporaneous armies in that all officers under the rank of brigadier general were elected by the soldiers under their command. Congress authorized the awarding of medals for courage and good conduct on October 13, 1862, but war time difficulties prevented the procurement of the needed medals. To avoid postponing recognition for their valor, those nominated for the awards had their names placed on a Roll of Honor, which would be read at the first dress parade after its receipt and be published in at least one newspaper in each state. A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ...


Armies and prominent leaders

The CSA was composed of independent armies and military departments that were constituted, renamed, and disbanded as needs arose, particularly in reaction to offensives launched by the Union. These major units were generally named after states or geographic regions (in comparison to the Union's custom of naming armies after rivers). Armies were usually commanded by full generals (there were eight in the CSA) or lieutenant generals. Some of the more important armies and their commanders were: In this map:  Union states prohibiting slavery  Union territories  Border states on the Union side which allowed slavery  Kansas, which entered and fought with the Union as a free state after the Bleeding Kansas crisis  The Confederacy  Confederate claimed and sometimes held territories During the American Civil War, the Union... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ...

Some other prominent Confederate generals who led significant units operating sometimes independently in the CSA included Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson, James Longstreet, J.E.B. Stuart, Gideon Pillow, and A.P. Hill. The Army of Northern Virginia was the primary military force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War in the eastern theater. ... Joseph E. Johnston Joseph Eggleston Johnston (February 3, 1807 – March 21, 1891) was a career U.S. Army officer and one of the most senior generals in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... Gustavus Woodson Smith (1822–1896) Gustavus Woodson Smith (November 30, 1821 – June 24, 1896), more commonly known as G.W. Smith, was a career U.S. Army officer who fought in the Mexican War, a civil engineer, and a major general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil... // For other uses, see Robert E. Lee (disambiguation). ... Battle Flag in the Second Corps (37th Va. ... The Cavalry Corps battle flag belonging to JEB Stuart The Cavalry Corps of the Army of Northern Virginia was the only organized cavalry corps in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War. ... There were three organizations known as the Army of Mississippi in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... Pierre Gustave Toutant de Beauregard Pierre Gustave Toutant de Beauregard (BO-rih-gahrd) (May 28, 1818 – February 20, 1893), best known as a general for the Confederate Army during the American Civil War, was also a writer, civil servant, and inventor. ... Albert Sidney Johnston Albert Sidney Johnston (February 2, 1803 – April 6, 1862) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... Braxton Bragg Braxton Bragg (March 22, 1817 – September 27, 1876) was a career U.S. Army officer and a general in the Confederate States Army, a principal commander in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. ... William J. Hardee (1817-1873) was a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... For the agrarian leader and North Carolinas first Commissioner of Agriculture, see Leonidas Lafayette Polk. ... John C. Pemberton John Clifford Pemberton (August 10, 1814 – July 13, 1881), was a career U.S. Army officer and Confederate general in the American Civil War, noted for his defeat and surrender in the critical Battle of Vicksburg. ... Earl Van Dorn Earl Van Dorn (September 17, 1820 – May 7, 1863) was a Confederate Major General during the American Civil War. ... William Wing Loring (December 4, 1818 – December 30, 1886) was a soldier from North Carolina who served in the armies of the United States, the Confederacy, and Egypt. ... Henry Alexander Wise (December 3, 1806–September 12, 1876) was an American statesman from Virginia. ... John Buchanan Floyd (June 1, 1806 – August 26, 1863), was a Virginia politician (legislator and governor), U.S. Secretary of War, and the Confederate general in the American Civil War who lost the crucial Battle of Fort Donelson. ... // For other uses, see Robert E. Lee (disambiguation). ... Portrait of Edmund Kirby Smith during the Civil War Edmund Kirby Smith (May 16, 1824 – March 28, 1893) was a career U.S. Army officer, an educator, and a general in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War, notable for his command of the Trans-Mississippi Department of the... Battle Flag of the Army of Kentucky The Central Army of Kentucky was a military organization within Department No. ... Albert Sidney Johnston Albert Sidney Johnston (February 2, 1803 – April 6, 1862) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... John C. Breckinridge This article is about the politician and Confederate General. ... The Army of New Mexico was a small Confederate army in the American Civil War. ... Portrait of Henry Hopkins Sibley by Mathew Brady, ca. ... Robert Selden Garnett (December 16, 1819 – July 13, 1861) was a career military officer, serving in the United States Army until the American Civil War, when be became a Confederate States Army brigadier general. ... Henry Rootes Jackson was a Major General in the Georgia militia during the American Civil War. ... William Wing Loring (December 4, 1818 – December 30, 1886) was a soldier from North Carolina who served in the armies of the United States, the Confederacy, and Egypt. ... Edward Allegheny Johnson Edward Johnson (April 16, 1816 – March 2, 1873), also known as Allegheny Johnson (sometimes spelled Alleghany), was a U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... John B. Magruder John Bankhead Magruder (May 1, 1807 – February 19, 1871) was a U.S. Army officer in the Mexican War, and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... General Daniel Harvey Hill Daniel Harvey Hill ( July 12th, 1821 - September 24th, 1889) was a Confederate general and Southern scholar. ... The Confederate Army of the Potomac, whose name was short-lived, was the command under Brigadier General P.G.T. Beauregard, and whose only major combat action was the First Battle of Bull Run. ... Pierre Gustave Toutant de Beauregard Pierre Gustave Toutant de Beauregard (BO-rih-gahrd) (May 28, 1818 – February 20, 1893), best known as a general for the Confederate Army during the American Civil War, was also a writer, civil servant, and inventor. ... Joseph E. Johnston Joseph Eggleston Johnston (February 3, 1807 – March 21, 1891) was a career U.S. Army officer and one of the most senior generals in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... The Army of Tennessee was formed in November 1862. ... Braxton Bragg Braxton Bragg (March 22, 1817 – September 27, 1876) was a career U.S. Army officer and a general in the Confederate States Army, a principal commander in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. ... Samuel Gibbs French was a graduate of the West Point Military Academy, who rose to the rank of Major General in the Confederate States Army. ... William J. Hardee (1817-1873) was a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... General Daniel Harvey Hill Daniel Harvey Hill ( July 12th, 1821 - September 24th, 1889) was a Confederate general and Southern scholar. ... John Bell Hood (June 1[1] or June 29[2], 1831 – August 30, 1879) was a Confederate general during the American Civil War and an old friend of Lt. ... Joseph E. Johnston Joseph Eggleston Johnston (February 3, 1807 – March 21, 1891) was a career U.S. Army officer and one of the most senior generals in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... Richard Taylor Richard Taylor (January 27, 1826 – April 12, 1879) was a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Battle Flag in the First Corps (Polks Flag) The First Corps of the Army of Tennessee was officially created on November 20, 1862, and continued in existence until its surrender in April 1865 in North Carolina. ... For the World War II general, see Nathan Bedford Forrest III. Nathaniel Bedford Forrest (July 13, 1821–October 29, 1877) was a Confederate Army general during the American Civil War. ... Thomas Carmichael Hindman (28 January 1828 - 27 September 1868) was a United States Representative from the 1st Congressional District of Arkansas and a Major General in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... Portrait of Edmund Kirby Smith during the Civil War Edmund Kirby Smith (May 16, 1824 – March 28, 1893) was a career U.S. Army officer, an educator, and a general in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War, notable for his command of the Trans-Mississippi Department of the... The Army of the Valley the name given to the army of General Jubal Earlys command during the Shenandoah Valley Campaigns in the winter of 1864. ... Battle Flag in the Second Corps (37th Va. ... Jubal Anderson Early (November 3, 1816 – March 2, 1894) was a lawyer and Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... The Army of the West, a unit of the Union Army during the American Civil War, was created on Jan 29, 1862. ... Earl Van Dorn Earl Van Dorn (September 17, 1820 – May 7, 1863) was a Confederate Major General during the American Civil War. ... John Porter McCown (1815 - 1879) was a Confederate Major General in the American Civil War. ... Dabney Herndon Maury was born in Fredricksburg, Virginia on May 21, 1822. ... General Price Sterling Old Pap Price (September 20, 1809 – September 29, 1867) was an antebellum politician from the U.S. state of Missouri and a Confederate major general during the American Civil War. ... For other uses of Stonewall Jackson, see Stonewall Jackson (disambiguation). ... James Longstreet (January 8, 1821 – January 2, 1904) was one of the foremost Confederate generals of the American Civil War, the principal subordinate to General Robert E. Lee, who called him his Old War Horse. ... James Ewell Brown Stuart (February 6, 1833 – May 12, 1864) was an American soldier from Virginia and a Confederate Army general during the American Civil War. ... Gideon Johnson Pillow (June 8, 1806-October 8, 1878) was an American general. ... Ambrose Powell Hill (November 9, 1825 _ April 2, 1865), was a Confederate States of America general in the American Civil War. ...


Supply

Much like the Continental Army in the American Revolution, soldiers were supposed to be supplied by their state governments. The supply situations for most of the Confederate Armies however were in a dismal state even in times of victory. The lack of Central authority and effective railroads combined with the Southern state governments' frequent unwillingness or inability to provide adequate funding were key factors in the Army's demise. Individual commanders had to "Beg, borrow or steal" food and ammunition from whatever sources were available, including captured Union depots and encampments and private citizens regardless of their loyalties. Lee's campaign against Gettysburg and southern Pennsylvania (a rich agricultural region) was driven in part by his desperate need of supplies, namely food. Not surprisingly, in addition to slowing the Confederate advance such foraging aroused anger in the North in led many Northerners to support General Sherman's total warfare tactics as retaliation. Scorched earth policies especially in Georgia, South Carolina and the Virginian Shenandoah Valley proved far more devastating than anything Pennsylvania had suffered and further reduced the capacity of the increasingly-effectively blockaded Confederacy to feed even its civilian population, let alone its Army. At many points during the war and especially near the end, Confederate Armies were described as starving and indeed many died from the lack of food and related illnesses. Towards more desperate stages of the war, this lack of food also became a principal driving force for desertion. Illustration depicting uniforms and weapons used during the 1779 to 1783 period of the American Revolution by showing four soldiers standing in an informal group General George Washington, was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army on June 15, 1775. ... In this map:  Union states prohibiting slavery  Union territories  Border states on the Union side which allowed slavery  Kansas, which entered and fought with the Union as a free state after the Bleeding Kansas crisis  The Confederacy  Confederate claimed and sometimes held territories During the American Civil War, the Union... Gettysburg may refer to: Battle of Gettysburg, a battle during the American Civil War that took place at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania on July 1-3, 1863. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Foraging just means looking for food (or, metaphorically, anything else). ... “General Sherman” redirects here. ... This article is about total warfare. ... For the computer game, see Scorched Earth (computer game). ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Canoeing on the Shenandoah River near Winchester, VA. The Shenandoah Valley region of western Virginia, from Winchester to Staunton, is bounded by the Blue Ridge mountains to the East and the Allegheny mountains to the West. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... 1861 Cartoon map of the blockade // The Union Blockade refers to the naval actions between 1861 and 1865, during the American Civil War, in which the Union Navy maintained a massive effort on the Atlantic and Gulf Coast of the Confederate States of America designed to prevent the passage of... For other uses of Desertion, see Abandonment. ...


Black Confederate Soldiers

see article Military history of African Americans Military history of African Americans is that of African Americans in the United States since the arrival of the first black slaves in 1619 to the present day. ...


References

  • Eicher, John H., and Eicher, David J., Civil War High Commands, Stanford University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.
  • The Story of a Confederate Boy in the Civil War (Serving in the 7th Virginia Infantry Regiment) David E Johnston, ISBN 978-1846856662
  • How a One-Legged Rebel Lives John S Robson, ISBN 978-1846856655

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Category:Army of the Confederate States of America
  • Civil War rank insignia
  • A Manual of Military Surgery (1863). The manual used by doctors in the CSA.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Confederate States Army - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1602 words)
The Provisional Army of the Confederate States (PACS) was authorized by Act of Congress on February 28, 1861, and began organizing on April 27.
The CSA was initially a (strategically) defensive army, and many soldiers resented it when Lee led the Army of Northern Virginia in an invasion of the North in the Antietam Campaign.
The CSA differed from many contemporaneous armies in that all officers under the rank of brigadier general were elected by the soldiers under their command.
Medical History of the CSA (12957 words)
The great struggle for the independence of the Southern States ended twenty-five years ago, and all soldiers in the Confederate army, from the Commanding General to the private in the ranks, were, by the power of the conquering sword, reduced to one common level, that of paroled prisoners of war.
The object proposed to be accomplished by the Surgeon-General of the United Confederate Veterans, is the collection, classification, preservation and the final publication of all the documents and facts bearing upon the history and labors of the Medical Corps of the Confederates States Army and Navy during the civil war, 1861-'65.
No organizations of Confederate troops were furnished by the State, which was subjugated by the United States; but many thousands of her citizens went to the aid of the Confederate States, and served in most of them in their commands to the close of the civil war.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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