FACTOID # 6: Michigan is ranked 22nd in land area, but since 41.27% of the state is composed of water, it jumps to 11th place in total area.
 
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Encyclopedia > Confederate States
Confederate States of America
3rd flag of the Confederate States of America Confederate States of America Seal
(3rd Flag of the Confederacy) (Confederate Seal)
Motto:
Deo Vindice
(Latin: With God As Our Vindicator)
Anthem:
God Save the South (unofficial)
Dixie (popular)
Image:CSAlocation.png
Capital Montgomery, Alabama
February 4, 1861May 29, 1861
Richmond, Virginia
May 29, 1861April 9, 1865
Danville, Virginia
April 3April 10, 1865
Largest city New Orleans
February 4, 1861May 1, 1862 (captured)
Richmond
May 1, 1862–surrender
Official language
English de facto nationwide

Various European and Native American languages regionally Third National Flag of the Confederate States of America. ... Seal of the Confederate States of America, Public Domain File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The following flags were used by the Confederate States of America. ... Confederate Seal The Confederate Seal was the seal of the Confederate States of America. ... A motto is a phrase or a short list of words meant to formally describe the general motivation or intention of a social group or organization. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Michelangelos depiction of God in the painting Creation of the Sun and Moon in the Sistine Chapel Krishna, the eighth incarnation of Vishnu, one of the manifestations of the ultimate reality or God in Hinduism This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is formally recognized by a countrys government as their official national song. ... A rare music cover illustration, published by the composer, C. T. De Cœniél, in Richmond, Virginia. ... Sheet music cover, c. ... Image File history File links CSAlocation. ... In politics, a capital (also called capital city or political capital — although the latter phrase has an alternative meaning based on an alternative meaning of capital) is the principal city or town associated with its government. ... Montgomery skyline from the banks of the Alabama River Montgomery is the capital of the U.S. state of Alabama. ... February 4 is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... May 29 is the 149th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (150th in leap years). ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Nickname: River City Motto: Sic Itur Ad Astra Official website: http://www. ... May 29 is the 149th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (150th in leap years). ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... April 9 is the 99th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (100th in leap years). ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Danville is an independent city located in Virginia, bounded by Pittsylvania County, Virginia and Caswell County, North Carolina. ... April 3 is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 272 days remaining. ... April 10 is the 100th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (101st in leap years). ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... February 4 is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Nickname: River City Motto: Sic Itur Ad Astra Official website: http://www. ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... An official language is a language that is given a privileged legal status in a state, or other legally-defined territory. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... Most of the many indigenous languages of Europe belong to the Indo-European language family. ... Native American languages are the indigenous languages of the Americas, spoken by Native Americans from the southern tip of South America to Alaska and Greenland. ...

Government
President
Vice President
Federal republic
Jefferson Davis
Alexander Stephens
Area
 - Total
 - % water
(excl. MO & KY)
1,995,392 km²
5.7%
Population
 - 1860 Census

 - Density
(excl. MO & KY)
9,103,332 (including 3,521,110 slaves)

 Independence
  - Declared
  - Recognized
  - Recognition
  - Dissolution

see Civil War
February 4, 1861
by Duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha
on July 30, 1861
June 23, 1865
Currency CSA dollar (only notes issued)
For other meanings of confederacy, see confederacy (disambiguation). For the fictional documentary about alternative history, see C.S.A.: The Confederate States of America

The Confederate States of America — also referred to as the Confederate States, CSA, and the Confederacy, — existed between 1861 and 1865 in North America, comprising states that seceded [1] from the United States of America. The territory of the C.S.A. consisted of most of the southeastern portion of today's United States. Due to contention from the U.S., there was never a definitive delineation of the Confederate States' northern boundary; its southern land boundary was with Mexico. It was otherwise bounded by the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. The Federal Republic of Germany and its sixteen Bundesländer (Federal States) A federal republic is a state which is both a federation and a republic. ... For other uses, see Jefferson Davis (disambiguation). ... Alexander Hamilton Stephens (February 11, 1812 – March 4, 1883) was Vice President of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... World map of the population density in 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... Combatants Union (remaining U.S. states) Confederate States of America Commanders Abraham Lincoln† Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis Robert E. Lee Strength 2,213,363 1,064,200 Casualties KIA: 110,100 Total dead: 359,500 Wounded: 275,200 KIA: 94,000 Total dead: 258,000 Wounded: 137,000+  The... February 4 is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... A duchy is a territory, fief, or domain ruled by a duke or duchess. ... Saxe-Coburg-Gotha or Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (German: Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha) was once the name given to the two German duchies of Saxe-Coburg and Saxe-Gotha in Germany, in the present states of Bavaria and Thuringia, which were in personal union between 1826 and 1918. ... July 30 is the 211th day (212th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 154 days remaining. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... June 23 is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 191 days remaining. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... The currency used by the Confederate States of America resembled the US dollars. ... A confederacy can refer to: A form of government; such as a confederation or alliance, formed as a union of political organizations, though it differs from a republic in that the separate political units retain a greater degree of sovereignty over themselves. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ...


The formation of the Confederacy precipitated the American Civil War in 1861, with the vast majority of combat taking place in Confederate territory. The Army of Northern Virginia, under General Robert E. Lee, also made limited incursions onto Union soil. The Confederate States were defeated in 1865, after which they were reunited with the U.S. Combatants Union (remaining U.S. states) Confederate States of America Commanders Abraham Lincoln† Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis Robert E. Lee Strength 2,213,363 1,064,200 Casualties KIA: 110,100 Total dead: 359,500 Wounded: 275,200 KIA: 94,000 Total dead: 258,000 Wounded: 137,000+  The... Combat, or fighting, is purposeful conflict between one or more persons or organizations, ***YOU DO WANT TO FIGHT KENNY TRUONG!!!***often involving violence and intended to establish dominance over the opposition. ... The Army of Northern Virginia was the primary military force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War in the eastern theater. ... Robert E. Lee, 1863 Portrait by Julian Vannerson Robert Edward Lee (January 19, 1807 – October 10, 1872) was a career army officer and the most successful general of the Confederate forces during the American Civil War. ... Map of the division of the states during the Civil War. ...

Contents


History

Main article: American Civil War

Combatants Union (remaining U.S. states) Confederate States of America Commanders Abraham Lincoln† Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis Robert E. Lee Strength 2,213,363 1,064,200 Casualties KIA: 110,100 Total dead: 359,500 Wounded: 275,200 KIA: 94,000 Total dead: 258,000 Wounded: 137,000+  The...

Secession process Dec 1860-May 1861

Seven states seceded by March 1861:

After Lincoln called for troops four more states seceeded: Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 40th 82,965 km² 320 km 420 km 6 32°430N to 35°12N 78°030W to 83°20W Population  - Total (2000)  - Density Ranked 26th 4,012... December 21 is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Official language(s) English Capital Jackson Largest city Jackson Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 32nd 125,443 km² 275 km 545 km 3 30°13N to 35°N 88°7W to 91°41W Population  - Total (2000)  - Density Ranked 31st 2,697,243 23. ... January 9 is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 22nd 170,451 km² 260 km 800 km 17. ... January 10 is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Official language(s) English Capital Montgomery Largest city Birmingham Area  - Total   - Width   - Length    - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 30th 52,423 sq mi  135,775 km² 190 miles  306 km 330 miles  531 km 3. ... January 11 is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 19 is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Official language(s) English and French Capital Baton Rouge Largest city New Orleans at last census; probably Baton Rouge since Hurricane Katrina Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 31st 134,382 km² 210 km 610 km 16 29°N to 33°N 89°W to 94°W Population... January 26 is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Official language(s) None. ... February 1 is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ...

**The Tennessee legislature ratified an agreement to enter a military league with the Confederate States on May 7 1861. Tennessee voters approved the agreement on June 8, 1861. Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 35th 110,862 km² 320 km 690 km 7. ... April 17 is the 107th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (108th in leap years). ... Official language(s) English Capital Little Rock Largest city Little Rock Area  - Total   - Width   - Length    - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 29th 53,179 sq mi  137 732 km² 239 miles  385 km 261 miles  420 km 2. ... May 6 is the 126th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (127th in leap years). ... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 36th 109,247 km² 195 km 710 km 2. ... May 7 is the 127th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (128th in leap years). ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 28th 139,509 km² 805 km 240 km 9. ... 20 May is the 140th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (141st in leap years). ...


The Confederate States of America was formed on February 4, 1861; Jefferson Davis was selected as its first President the next day. February 4 is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... For other uses, see Jefferson Davis (disambiguation). ... The President of the Confederate States was the Head of State of the short-lived republic of the Confederate States of America, which seceded from the United States. ...


Texas joined the Confederate States of America on March 2 and then replaced its governor, Sam Houston, when he refused to take an oath of allegiance to the Confederate States of America. These seven states seceded1 from the United States and took control of military/naval installations, ports, and custom houses within their boundaries, triggering the American Civil War. Official language(s) None. ... March 2 is the 61st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (62nd in leap years). ... Sam Houston Samuel Houston (March 2, 1793 – July 26, 1863) 19th century statesman, politician and soldier. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Combatants Union (remaining U.S. states) Confederate States of America Commanders Abraham Lincoln† Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis Robert E. Lee Strength 2,213,363 1,064,200 Casualties KIA: 110,100 Total dead: 359,500 Wounded: 275,200 KIA: 94,000 Total dead: 258,000 Wounded: 137,000+  The...


A month after the Confederate States of America was formed, on March 4, 1861, Abraham Lincoln was sworn in as President of the United States. In his inaugural address, he argued that the Constitution was a more perfect union than the earlier Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, that it was a binding contract, and called the secession "legally void". The legal issue of whether or not the Constitution was a binding contract has rarely been addressed by academics, and to this day is a hotly debated concept. He stated he had no intent to invade Southern states, but would use force to maintain possession of Federal property and collection of various Federal taxes, duties and imposts. His speech closed with a plea for restoration of the bonds of union. March 4 is the 63rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (64th in leap years). ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... The presidential seal was used by president Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... An inauguration is a ceremony of formal investiture whereby an individual assumes an office or position of authority or power. ... The Articles of Confederation The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, commonly known as the Articles of Confederation, was the first governing document of the United States of America. ...


On April 12, South Carolina troops fired upon the Federal troops stationed at Fort Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina until the troops surrendered. Following the Battle of Fort Sumter, Lincoln called for all remaining states in the Union to send troops to recapture Sumter and other forts, defend the capital (Washington, D.C.), and preserve the Union. Most Northerners believed that a quick victory for the Union would crush the rebellion, and so Lincoln only called for volunteers for 90 days of duty. Lincoln's call for troops resulted in four more states voting to secede. Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina joined the Confederacy for a total of 11. Once Virginia seceded, the Confederate capital was moved from Montgomery, Alabama to Richmond, Virginia. April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... Fort Sumter, located in Charleston, South Carolina, harbor, was named after General Thomas Sumter. ... Nickname: The Holy City, The Palmetto City Motto: Aedes Mores Juraque Curat Official website: http://www. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Robert Anderson P.G.T. Beauregard Strength 85 soldiers 500 soldiers Casualties 2 dead,5 injured 0 The Battle of Fort Sumter (April 12–13, 1861), a relatively minor military engagement at Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina, began... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 35th 110,862 km² 320 km 690 km 7. ... Official language(s) English Capital Little Rock Largest city Little Rock Area  - Total   - Width   - Length    - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 29th 53,179 sq mi  137 732 km² 239 miles  385 km 261 miles  420 km 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 36th 109,247 km² 195 km 710 km 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 28th 139,509 km² 805 km 240 km 9. ... Montgomery skyline from the banks of the Alabama River Montgomery is the capital of the U.S. state of Alabama. ... Nickname: River City Motto: Sic Itur Ad Astra Official website: http://www. ...


Kentucky was a border state during the American Civil War and, for a time, had two state governments, one supporting the Confederacy and one supporting the Union. Fittingly, the Presidents of both the United States (Abraham Lincoln) and the Confederate States of America (Jefferson Davis) during the Civil War were born in Kentucky. The original government of Kentucky remained in the Union after a short-lived attempt at neutrality, but a rival faction from that state was accepted as a member of the Confederate States of America. A more complex situation surrounds the Missouri Secession, but, in any event, Missouri was also considered a member of the Confederate States of America. With Kentucky and Missouri, the number of Confederate states is thus sometimes considered to be 13. Official language(s) English Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 37th 104,749 km² 225 km 610 km 1. ... Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865), sometimes called Abe Lincoln and nicknamed Honest Abe, the Rail Splitter, and the Great Emancipator, was the 16th President of the United States (1861 to 1865), and the first president from the Republican Party. ... For other uses, see Jefferson Davis (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 37th 104,749 km² 225 km 610 km 1. ... The Missouri Secession controversy refers to the disputed status of the state of Missouri during the American Civil War. ...


The five tribal governments of the Indian Territory—which became Oklahoma in 1907—also mainly supported the Confederacy. Indian Territory in 1836 Indian Territory in 1891 Indian Territory, also known as Indian Country, Indian territory or the Indian territories, was the land set aside within the United States for the use of American Indians (Native Americans). The general borders were set by the Indian Intercourse Act of 1834. ... Template:ROXANA This article is about the U.S. State. ...

Confederate coin.
Confederate coin.

The southern part of New Mexico Territory (including parts of the Gadsden Purchase) joined with the Confederacy as Arizona Territory. Settlers there petitioned the Confederate government for annexation of their lands, prompting an expedition in which territory south of the 34th parallel (which roughly divides the current state in half) was governed by the Confederacy. Image File history File links Confederate_penny. ... Image File history File links Confederate_penny. ... The Gadsden Purchase (shown with present-day state boundaries and cities) The Gadsden Purchase is a 29,640 mi² (76,770 km2) region of what is today southern Arizona and New Mexico that was purchased by the United States from Mexico in 1853. ... Territories in Arizona and New Mexico in 1863. ...


Preceding his New Mexico Campaign, General Sibley proclaimed to the people of New Mexico his intent to take possession of the territory in the name of the Confederate States of America. Confederate States troops briefly occupied the territorial capital of Santa Fe between March 13 and April 8, 1862. Arizona troops were also officially recognized within the armies of the Confederacy. The New Mexico Campaign was a military operation of the American Civil War in February-March 1862 in which the Confederate Brigadier General Henry Hopkins Sibley invaded the northern New Mexico Territory in an attempt to gain control of the southwest, including the gold fields of Colorado and the ports... Portrait of Henry Hopkins Sibley by Mathew Brady, ca. ... Official language(s) None; English and Spanish de facto Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 5th 315,194 km² 550 km 595 km 0. ... Motto: Nickname: Map Political Statistics Founded 1607 Incorporated Santa Fe County Mayor Larry A. Delgado Geographic Statistics Area  - Total  - Land  - Water 96. ... March 13 is the 72nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (73rd in leap years). ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (99th in leap years). ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Not all jurisdictions where slavery was still legal joined the Confederate States of America. In 1861, martial law was declared in Maryland (the state which borders the U.S. capital, Washington, D.C., on three sides) to block attempts at secession. Delaware, also a slave state, never considered secession, nor did the capital of the U.S., Washington, D.C.. In 1861, during the war, a unionist rump legislature in Wheeling, Virginia seceded from Virginia, claiming 48 counties, and joined the United States in 1863 as the state of West Virginia, with a constitution that would have gradually abolished slavery.[1]. Similar attempts to secede from the Confederate States of America in parts of other states (notably in eastern Tennessee) were held in check by Confederate declarations of martial law[2][3]. Martial law is the system of rules that takes effect (usually after a formal declaration) when a military authority takes control of the normal administration of justice. ... Official language(s) None Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 42nd 32,160 km² 145 km 400 km 21 37°53N to 39°43N 75°4W to 79°33W Population  - Total (2000)  - Density Ranked 19th 5,296,486 165... Official language(s) None Capital Dover Largest city Wilmington Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 49th 6,452 km² 48 km 161 km 21. ... Nickname: the District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Official website: http://www. ... A rump state is the remnant of a once-larger government, left with limited powers or authority after a disaster, invasion or military occupation. ... Downtown Wheeling Different architectural styles, from Mansard to Italianate, make up these townhouses in Wheeling. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 41st 62,809 km² 210 km 385 km 0. ...


The surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia by General Lee at Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865 is generally taken as the end of the Confederate States. President Davis was captured at Irwinville, Georgia on May 10 and the remaining Confederate armies surrendered by June 1865. The last Confederate flag was hauled down, on CSS Shenandoah on November 6, 1865. Robert E. Lee, 1863 Portrait by Julian Vannerson Robert Edward Lee (January 19, 1807 – October 10, 1872) was a career army officer and the most successful general of the Confederate forces during the American Civil War. ... Appomattox Court House is a historic village located three miles (5 km) east of Appomattox, Virginia (25 miles east of Lynchburg, in the southern part of the state), famous as the site of the Battle of Appomattox Court House and containing the house of Wilmer McLean, where the surrender of... April 9 is the 99th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (100th in leap years). ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... May 10 is the 130th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (131st in leap years). ... The CSS Shenandoah, formerly Sea King, was an iron-framed, teak-planked, full-rigged vessel with auxiliary steam power, under Captain James Waddell, CSN, a North Carolinian with twenty years service in the Federal navy. ... November 6 is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 55 days remaining. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ...


Government and politics

Constitution

Jefferson DavisPresident (1861-1865)
Enlarge
Jefferson Davis
President (1861-1865)

The Confederate States Constitution provides much insight into the motivations for secession from the Union. Based to a certain extent on both the Articles of Confederation and on the United States Constitution, it reflected a stronger philosophy of states' rights, curtailing the power of the central authority, and also contained explicit protection of the institution of slavery, though international slave trading was prohibited. It differed from the US Constitution chiefly by addressing the grievances of the secessionist states against the federal government of the United States. For example, the Confederate government was prohibited from instituting protective tariffs, making southern ports more attractive to international traders. Most southerners regarded protective tariffs as a measure that enriched the northern states at the expense of the south. The Confederate government was also prohibited from using revenues collected in one state for funding internal improvements in another state. One of the most notable differences in the Confederate Constitution is its reference to God. While the original United States Constitution acknowledged the people of the United States as the government's source of power, the Confederacy invoked the name of "Almighty God" as their source of legitimacy. At the same time, however, much of the Confederate constitution was a word-for-word duplicate of the US one. Image File history File links Jefferson Davis File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Jefferson Davis File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Jefferson Davis (disambiguation). ... The Confederate States Constitution The Constitution of the Confederate States of America was the supreme law of the Confederate States of America, as adopted on March 11, 1861 and in effect through the conclusion of the American Civil War. ... The Articles of Confederation The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, commonly known as the Articles of Confederation, was the first governing document of the United States of America. ... Page I of the Constitution of the United States of America The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... In American politics and constitutional law, states rights are guaranteed by the Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (i. ... It has been suggested that Chattel slavery be merged into this article or section. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The notion of internal improvements or public works is a concept in economics and politics. ...


At the drafting of the Constitution of the Confederate States of America, a few radical proposals such as allowing only slave states to join and the reinstatement of the Atlantic slave trade were turned down. The Constitution specifically did not include a provision allowing states to secede, since the southerners considered this to be a right intrinsic to a sovereign state which the United States Constitution had not required them to renounce, and thus including it as such would have weakened their original argument for secession.


The President of the Confederate States of America was to be elected to a six-year term and could not be reelected. The only president was Jefferson Davis; the Confederate States of America was defeated by the federal government before he completed his term. One unique power granted to the Confederate president was the ability to subject a bill to a line item veto, a power held by some state governors. The Confederate Congress could overturn either the general or the line item vetoes with the same two thirds majorities that are required in the US Congress. For other uses, see Jefferson Davis (disambiguation). ... In government, the line-item veto is the power of an executive to veto parts of a bill, usually budget appropriations. ... The Confederate Congress was the legislative body of the Confederate States of America, existing during the American Civil War between 1861 and 1865. ... Congress in Joint Session. ...


Printed currency in the forms of bills and stamps was authorized and put into circulation, although by the individual states in the Confederacy's name. The government considered issuing Confederate coinage. Plans, dies and 4 "proofs" were created, but a lack of bullion prevented any public coinage.


Although the preamble refers to "each State acting in its sovereign and independent character", it also refers to the formation of a "permanent federal government". Also, although slavery was protected in the constitution, it also prohibited the importation of new slaves from outside the Confederate States of America (except from slaveholding states or territories of the United States).


Capital

Virginia State HouseServed as Confederate Capitol
Virginia State House
Served as Confederate Capitol

The capital of the Confederate States of America was Montgomery, Alabama from February 4, 1861 until May 29, 1861. Richmond, Virginia was named the new capital on May 6, 1861. Shortly before the end of the war, the Confederate government evacuated Richmond, planning to relocate further south. Little came of these plans before Lee's surrender at Appomattox Court House. Danville, Virginia served as the last capital of the Confederate States of America, from April 3 to April 10, 1865. Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Virginia State Capitol Building at Richmond, Virginia Virginia State Capitol is a building in Richmond, the city which is the third State Capital of Virginia. ... Montgomery skyline from the banks of the Alabama River Montgomery is the capital of the U.S. state of Alabama. ... Nickname: River City Motto: Sic Itur Ad Astra Official website: http://www. ... Appomattox Court House is a historic village located three miles (5 km) east of Appomattox, Virginia (25 miles east of Lynchburg, in the southern part of the state), famous as the site of the Battle of Appomattox Court House and containing the house of Wilmer McLean, where the surrender of... Danville is an independent city located in Virginia, bounded by Pittsylvania County, Virginia and Caswell County, North Carolina. ...


International diplomacy and legal status

The legal status of the Confederate Government was a subject of extensive debate throughout its existence and for many years after the war. During its existence, the Confederate government conducted negotiations with several European powers (including France and the United Kingdom). Ernst II, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, ruler of the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the brother-in-law of Queen Victoria, appointed Ernst Raven as consul to the Confederate government in 1861. Raven was granted diplomatic exequatur on July 30, 1861. [4] The UK considered recognizing the Confederacy during the Trent Affair and began preparations to offer mediation along with France (due to Emperor Napoleon III's project, the Mexican Empire). Queen Victoria's husband, Prince Albert helped block recognition. Recognition was again considered following the Second Battle of Manassas when the British government were preparing to mediate in the conflict, but both nations backed away after the Battle of Antietam and Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation. Although a December 1863 letter from Pope Pius IX addressed "to the Illustrious and Honorable Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America” has been viewed by some as a de facto recognition of the C.S.A., Confederate Secretary of State Judah P. Benjamin rejected this interpretation and regarded the Pope’s use of the phrase as only a formula of politeness. Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents of Earth which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiographic one, leading to some dispute as to Europes actual borders. ... Ernst II of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (1818-1893) was the second sovereign duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ... Capitals Coburg and Gotha Head of State Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Saxe-Coburg-Gotha or Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (German: Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha) served as the name of the two German duchies of Saxe-Coburg and Saxe-Gotha in Germany, in the present-day states of Bavaria... Ernst Raven was a diplomat for the German Duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ... The Trent Affair, also known as the Mason and Slidell Affair was an international diplomatic incident that occurred during the American Civil War. ... Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (20 April 1808- 9 January 1873) was President of France from 1849 to 1852, and then Emperor of the French under the name Napoléon III from 1852 to 1870. ... The Mexican Empire was the name of Mexico on two non-consecutive occasions in the 19th century when it was ruled by an Emperor. ... Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (in full Francis Charles Augustus Albert Emmanuel) (26 August 1819 – 14 December 1861) was the husband and consort of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Second Battle of Bull Run Conflict American Civil War Date August 28–30, 1862 Place Prince William County Result Confederate victory The Second Battle of Manassas, known as the Second Battle of Bull Run in the North, was a battle during the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Robert E. Lee Strength 87,000 45,000 Casualties 12,401 (2,108 killed, 9,540 wounded, 753 captured/missing) 10,318 (1,546 killed, 7,752 wounded, 1,018 captured/missing) The Battle of Antietam (known... The Emancipation Proclamation The Emancipation Proclamation is a declaration by United States President Abraham Lincoln announcing that all slaves in Confederate territory still in rebellion were freed. ... Pius IX, born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti (May 13, 1792 – February 7, 1878), was Pope for a record pontificate (not counting the Apostle St. ...


Throughout the war, most European powers adopted a policy of neutrality, meeting informally with Confederate diplomats but withholding diplomatic recognition. In its place, they applied international law principles that recognized the Northern and Southern sides of the war as belligerents. Canada allowed both Confederate and Union agents to work openly within its borders and some state governments in northern Mexico negotiated regional agreements to cover trade on the Texas border. A belligerent is an individual, group, country or other entity which acts in an aggressive or hostile manner, such as engaging in combat. ...


For the four years of its existence, the Confederate States of America asserted its independence and appointed dozens of diplomatic agents abroad. The Northern government, by contrast, asserted that the southern states were provinces in rebellion and refused any formal recognition of their status. Telling of this dispute, the Confederate Government responded to the hostilities by formally declaring war on the United States while the Union Government conducted its war efforts under a proclamation of blockade and rebellion by President Lincoln. Mid-war negotiations between the two sides occurred without formal political recognition, though the laws of war governed military relationships. The Union blockade refers to the naval actions between 1861 and 1865, during the American Civil War, in which the United States Navy maintained a massive effort on the Atlantic and Gulf Coast of the Confederate States of America designed to prevent the passage of trade goods, supplies, and arms... The two parts of the laws of war: Law concerning acceptable practices while engaged in war, like the Geneva Conventions, is called Jus in bello; while law concerning allowable justifications for armed force is called Jus ad bellum. ...


Four years after the war, the United States Supreme Court ruled in Texas v. White that secession was unconstitutional and legally null. The court's opinion was rendered by Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase, the former Treasury Secretary under Lincoln. Chase's opinion was immediately attacked and remains controversial to this day. Critics, such as Jefferson Davis and Alexander Stephens penned subsequent legal arguments in favor of secession's legality, most notably Davis' Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government. The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the U.S. and leads the judicial branch of the U.S. federal government. ... Texas v. ... Salmon Portland Chase (January 13, 1808 – May 7, 1873) was an American politician and jurist in the Civil War era who served as Senator from Ohio, Governor of Ohio, as U.S. Treasury Secretary under President Abraham Lincoln, and Chief Justice of the United States. ... The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the finance minister of the Federal Government of the United States. ... Alexander Hamilton Stephens (February 11, 1812 – March 4, 1883) was Vice President of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War. ...


Confederate flags

Main article: Flags of the Confederate States of America

The official flag of the Confederate States of America, and the one actually called the "Stars and Bars", has seven stars, for the seven states that initially formed the Confederacy. This flag was sometimes hard to distinguish from the Union flag under battle conditions, so the Confederate battle flag, the "Southern Cross", became the one more commonly used in military operations. The Southern Cross has 13 stars, adding the four states that joined the Confederacy after Fort Sumter, and the two divided states of Kentucky and Missouri. Flag ratio: 10:19 Flag ratio is not set, but is often 4:5 bearing a gold fringe around three edges when displayed indoors or on parade. ...


As a result of its depiction in 20th century popular media, the "Southern Cross" is a flag commonly associated with the Confederacy today. The actual "Southern Cross" is a square-shaped flag, but the more commonly seen rectangular flag is actually the flag of the First Tennessee Army, also known as the Naval Jack because it was first used by the Confederate Navy.


Political leaders of the Confederacy

Executive

OFFICE NAME TERM
President Jefferson Davis 25 Feb 1861–(10 May)1865
Vice President Alexander Stephens 25 Feb 1861–(11 May)1865
Secretary of State Robert Toombs 25 Feb 1861–25 Jul 1861
  Robert M. T. Hunter 25 Jul 1861–22 Feb 1862
  William M. Browne (acting) 7 Mar 1862–18 Mar 1862
  Judah P. Benjamin 18 Mar 1862–May 1865
Secretary of the Treasury Christopher Memminger 25 Feb 1861–15 Jun 1864
  George Trenholm 18 Jul 1864–27 Apr 1865
  John H. Reagan 27 Apr 1865–(10 May)1865
Secretary of War Leroy Pope Walker 25 Feb 1861–16 Sep 1861
  Judah P. Benjamin 17 Sep 1861–24 Mar 1862
  George W. Randolph 24 Mar 1862–15 Nov 1862
  Gustavus Smith (acting) 17 Nov 1862–20 Nov 1862
  James Seddon 21 Nov 1862– 5 Feb 1865
  John C. Breckinridge 6 Feb 1865–May 1865
Secretary of the Navy Stephen Mallory 4 Mar 1861–(20 May)1865
Postmaster General John H. Reagan 6 Mar 1861–(10 May)1865
Attorney General Judah P. Benjamin 25 Feb 1861–17 Sep 1861
  Wade Keyes (acting) 17 Sep 1861–21 Nov 1861
  Thomas Bragg 21 Nov 1861–18 Mar 1862
  Thomas H. Watts 18 Mar 1862– 1 Oct 1863
  Wade Keyes (acting 2nd time) 1 Oct 1863–4 Jan 1864
  George Davis 4 Jan 1864–24 Apr 1865


The President of the Confederate States was the Head of State of the short-lived republic of the Confederate States of America which seceded from the United States. ... For other uses, see Jefferson Davis (disambiguation). ... The Vice President of Jefferson Davis was Alexander Stephens. ... Alexander Hamilton Stephens (February 11, 1812 – March 4, 1883) was Vice President of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War. ... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ... Robert Augustus Toombs (July 2, 1810 – December 15, 1885) was a American political leader and a Confederate general in the Civil War. ... Robert Mercer Taliaferro Hunter (April 21, 1809–July 18, 1887), American statesman, was born in Essex County, Virginia. ... William M. Browne (July 7, 1827 - April 28, 1883) was a prominent Confederate politician. ... In law, when someone is said to be acting in a position it can mean one of three things. ... Judah P. Benjamin Judah Philip Benjamin (August 6, 1811–May 6, 1884) was a British-American politician and lawyer, who served as a representative in the Louisiana State Legislature, as U.S. Senator for Louisiana, in three successive cabinet posts in the government of the Confederate States of America, and... The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the finance minister of the Federal Government of the United States. ... Christopher Gustavus Memminger (January 9, 1803–March 7, 1888) was a prominent Confederate political leader. ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ... John Henninger Reagan (October 8, 1818 - March 6, 1905), was an Nineteenth Century Texan Democratic politician and postmaster general of the Confederacy. ... The Secretary of War was a member of the Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... Image:Walder, Leroy Pope 1. ... Judah P. Benjamin Judah Philip Benjamin (August 6, 1811–May 6, 1884) was a British-American politician and lawyer, who served as a representative in the Louisiana State Legislature, as U.S. Senator for Louisiana, in three successive cabinet posts in the government of the Confederate States of America, and... George Wythe Randolph (March 10, 1818–April 3, 1867), the Secretary of War for the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War, was born in Charlottesville, Virginia at Monticello to Thomas Mann Randolph Jr. ... Gustavus Woodson Smith (November 30, 1821 – June 24, 1896), more commonly known as G.W. Smith, was a career U.S. Army officer who fought in the Mexican War, a civil engineer, and a major general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... In law, when someone is said to be acting in a position it can mean one of three things. ... James Seddon James Alexander SeddonBorn 9/1/1988 James seddon is a pupil at sutton high and isnt a very good one. ... John C. Breckinridge This article is about the politician and Confederate General. ... Flag of the United States Secretary of the Navy. ... Stephen Russell Mallory (c. ... A Postmaster General is the national politician in charge of the postal system of a country. ... John Henninger Reagan (October 8, 1818 - March 6, 1905), was an Nineteenth Century Texan Democratic politician and postmaster general of the Confederacy. ... In most common law jurisdictions, the Attorney General is the main legal adviser to the government, and in some jurisdictions may in addition have executive responsibility for law enforcement or responsibility for public prosecutions. ... Judah P. Benjamin Judah Philip Benjamin (August 6, 1811–May 6, 1884) was a British-American politician and lawyer, who served as a representative in the Louisiana State Legislature, as U.S. Senator for Louisiana, in three successive cabinet posts in the government of the Confederate States of America, and... Wade Keyes was a prominent Confederate politician. ... In law, when someone is said to be acting in a position it can mean one of three things. ... Categories: Stub | 1810 births | 1872 deaths | Governors of North Carolina | United States Senators ... Thomas Hill Watts (January 3, 1819–September 16, 1892) was the Democratic Governor of the U.S. state of Alabama from 1863 to 1865, during the Civil War. ... Wade Keyes was a prominent Confederate politician. ... In law, when someone is said to be acting in a position it can mean one of three things. ... George Davis (born March 1, 1820; died February 23, 1896) was a U.S.-Confederate political figure and the last Confederate Attorney General 1864-1865. ...


Legislative

Main article: Confederate Congress

The legislative branch of the Confederate States of America was the Confederate Congress. Like the United States Congress, the Confederate Congress consisted of two houses: the Confederate Senate, whose membership included two senators from each state (and chosen by the state legislature), and the Confederate House of Representatives, with members popularly elected by residents of the individual states. The Confederate Congress was the legislative body of the Confederate States of America, existing during the American Civil War between 1861 and 1865. ... The Confederate Congress was the legislative body of the Confederate States of America, existing during the American Civil War between 1861 and 1865. ... Congress in Joint Session. ... The Confederate Congress was the legislative body of the Confederate States of America, existing during the American Civil War between 1861 and 1865. ... The Confederate Congress was the legislative body of the Confederate States of America, existing during the American Civil War between 1861 and 1865. ...


Speaker of the Provisional Congress

President pro tempore Robert W. Barnwell Robert Woodward Barnwell (1801-1882) was an American planter, lawyer, and educator from South Carolina who served as a Senator in both the United States Senate and that of the Confederate States of America. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 40th 82,965 km² 320 km 420 km 6 32°430N to 35°12N 78°030W to 83°20W Population  - Total (2000)  - Density Ranked 26th 4,012... Howell Cobb (September 7, 1815–October 9, 1868) was an American political figure. ... Thomas Stanhope Bocock (Buckingham Court House, Buckingham (now Appomattox) County, Virginia]] May 18, 1815-August 5, 1891) was a Confederate and US politicans. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 35th 110,862 km² 320 km 690 km 7. ... February 18 is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... March 18 is the 77th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (78th in leap years). ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ...

Tribal Representatives to Confederate Congress Howell Cobb (September 7, 1815–October 9, 1868) was an American political figure. ... Robert W. Barnwell Robert Woodward Barnwell (1801-1882) was an American planter, lawyer, and educator from South Carolina who served as a Senator in both the United States Senate and that of the Confederate States of America. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 40th 82,965 km² 320 km 420 km 6 32°430N to 35°12N 78°030W to 83°20W Population  - Total (2000)  - Density Ranked 26th 4,012... Josiah Abigail Patterson Campbell (March 2, 1830 - January 10, 1917) was a prominent Confederate politician. ... Official language(s) English Capital Jackson Largest city Jackson Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 32nd 125,443 km² 275 km 545 km 3 30°13N to 35°N 88°7W to 91°41W Population  - Total (2000)  - Density Ranked 31st 2,697,243 23. ... Thomas Stanhope Bocock (Buckingham Court House, Buckingham (now Appomattox) County, Virginia]] May 18, 1815-August 5, 1891) was a Confederate and US politicans. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 35th 110,862 km² 320 km 690 km 7. ...

  • Elias Cornelius Boudinot 1862-65 - Cherokee
  • Robert McDonald Jones 1863-65 - Choctaw and Chickasaw nations
  • Samuel Benton Callahan 1864-65 - Cree

For other uses, see Cherokee (disambiguation). ... Pushmataha was the most famous leader of the Choctaws. ... The Chickasaws are a Native American people of the United States, originally from present-day Mississippi, now mostly living in Oklahoma. ... This article is about the indigenous people; for the American corporation, see Cree Inc. ...

Sessions of the Confederate Congress

The Provisional Confederate Congress was the body which drafted the Confederate Constitution, elected Jefferson Davis President of the Confederacy, and designed the first Confederate flag. ... The First Confederate Congress was the first regular session of the legislature of the Confederate States of America. ... The Second Confederate Congress was the second and last regular session of the legislature of the Confederate States of America. ...

Judicial

A Judicial branch of the government was outlined in the C.S. Constitution but the would-be "Supreme Court of the Confederate States" was never created or seated because of the ongoing war.[5] Some Confederate district courts were, however, established within some of the individual states of the Confederate States of America; namely, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, North Carolina, Tennessee, Texas and Virginia (and possibly others). At the end of the war, U.S. district courts resumed jurisdiction.[6] The Confederate States Constitution The Constitution of the Confederate States of America was the supreme law of the Confederate States of America, as adopted on March 11, 1861 and in effect through the conclusion of the American Civil War. ...


The state and local courts generally continued to operate as they had been, simply recognizing the CSA, rather than the USA, as the national government.[7]


Supreme Court - not established


District Court

  • Asa Biggs 1861-1865
  • John White Brockenbrough 1861
  • Alexander Mosby Clayton 1861
  • Jesse J. Finley 1861-1862

Geography

Map of the states and territories claimed by the Confederate States of America

The Confederate States of America had a total of 2,919 miles (4,698 kilometers) of coastline. A large portion of its territory lay on the sea coast, and with level and sandy ground. The interior portions were hilly and mountainous and the far western territories were deserts. The lower reaches of the Mississippi River bisected the country, with the western half often referred to as the Trans-Mississippi. The highest point (excluding Arizona and New Mexico) was Guadalupe Peak in Texas at 8,750 feet (2,667 meters). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x609, 421 KB) Summary Drawn by Nicholas F Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x609, 421 KB) Summary Drawn by Nicholas F Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... This article is about the river in the United States. ... This article presents an overview of major military and naval operations in the Trans-Mississippi Theater of the American Civil War. ... Guadalupe Peak is the highest point in Texas. ... Official language(s) None. ...


Subtropical climate

Most of the area of the Confederate States of America had a humid subtropical climate with mild winters and long, hot, humid summers. The climate varied to semiarid steppe and arid desert west of longitude 96 degrees west. The subtropical climate made winters mild but allowed infectious diseases to flourish. They killed more soldiers than did combat.


River system

In peacetime the vast system of navigable rivers was a major advantage, allowing for cheap and easy transportation of farm products. The railroad system was built as a supplement, tying plantation areas to the nearest river or seaport. The vast geography made for difficult Union logistics and large numbers of soldiers to garrison captured areas and protect rail lines. But the Union navy seized most of the navigable rivers by 1862, making its logistics easy and Confederate movements very difficult. After the fall of Vicksburg in July 1863, it became impossible for units to cross the Mississippi as Union gunboats constantly patrolled. The South thus lost use of its western regions.


Rail network

The rail network was built for short hauls, not the long-distance movement of soldiers or goods, which was to be its role in the war. Some idea of the severe internal logistics problems the Confederacy faced can be seen by tracing Jefferson Davis's journey from Mississippi to neighboring Alabama when he was chosen president in early 1861. From his plantation on the river he took a steamboat down the Mississippi to Vicksburg, boarded a train to Jackson, where he took another train north to Grand Junction, Tennessee, then a third train east to Chattanooga, Tennessee, and a fourth train south to Atlanta, Georgia. Yet another train took Davis south to the Alabama border, where a final train took him west to Montgomery, his temporary national capital. As the war proceeded the Federals seized the Mississippi, burned trestles and railroad bridges, and tore up track; the frail Confederate railroad system faltered and virtually collapsed for want of repairs and replacement parts. In May 1861 the Confederate government abandoned Montgomery before the sickly season began, and relocated in Richmond. Virginia.


Rural nation

The Confederate States of America were not urbanized. The typical county seat had a population of less than a thousand. Cities were rare. Only New Orleans was in the list of top 10 U.S. cities in the 1860 census. Only 15 cities ranked among the top 100 US cities in 1860, most of them ports whose economic activities were shut down by the Union blockade. The population of Richmond swelled after it became the national capital, reaching an estimated 128,000 in 1864.
Nickname: The Crescent City, The Big Easy, The City That Care Forgot Official website: http://www. ... The Union blockade refers to the naval actions between 1861 and 1865, during the American Civil War, in which the United States Navy maintained a massive effort on the Atlantic and Gulf Coast of the Confederate States of America designed to prevent the passage of trade goods, supplies, and arms... Nickname: River City Motto: Sic Itur Ad Astra Official website: http://www. ...

# City 1860 Population US Rank
1. New Orleans, Louisiana 168,675 6
2. Charleston, South Carolina 40,522 22
3. Richmond, Virginia 37,910 25
4. Mobile, Alabama 29,258 27
5. Memphis, Tennessee 22,623 38
6. Savannah, Georgia 22,292 41
7. Petersburg, Virginia 18,266 50
8. Nashville, Tennessee 16,988 54
9. Norfolk, Virginia 14,620 61
10. Wheeling, Virginia 14,083 63
11. Alexandria, Virginia 12,652 74
12. Augusta, Georgia 12,493 77
13. Columbus, Georgia 9,621 97
14. Atlanta, Georgia 9,554 99
15. Wilmington, North Carolina 9,553 100


The following is a list (by population) of all Metropolitan Statistical Areas as defined by the United States Census Bureau. ... Nickname: The Crescent City, The Big Easy, The City That Care Forgot Official website: http://www. ... Nickname: The Holy City, The Palmetto City Motto: Aedes Mores Juraque Curat Official website: http://www. ... Nickname: River City Motto: Sic Itur Ad Astra Official website: http://www. ... Motto: Nickname: The Azalea City Map Political Statistics Founded 1702 Incorporated 1814 Mobile County Mayor Sam Jones Geographic Statistics Area  - Total  - Land  - Water 412. ... Nickname: The River City, The Bluff City Official website: http://www. ... Nickname: The Coastal Empire or The Hostess City Official website: Savannah, Georgia Location Government County Chatham Mayor Otis S. Johnson Geographical characteristics Area Total 202. ... Petersburg is an independent city located in Virginia. ... Nickname: Music City Official website: http://www. ... Nickname: Motto: Crescas (Latin for, Thou shalt grow. ... Downtown Wheeling Different architectural styles, from Mansard to Italianate, make up these townhouses in Wheeling. ... Old Town Alexandria, viewed from the west, as seen from the observation deck of the George Washington Masonic National Memorial. ... Nickname: The Garden City (of the South), Masters City Motto: We Feel Good Official website: www. ... Columbus is a city located in Muscogee County, Georgia. ... Nickname: The Horizon City, A B, The Big Peach, A-Town, The ATL Official website: http://www. ... For other places called Wilmington, see Wilmington Wilmington is a city located in New Hanover County, North Carolina. ...


Economy

Main article: Economy of the Confederate States of America

The Confederacy had an agrarian-based economy that relied heavily on slave-run plantations with exports to a world market of cotton, and to a much lesser extent tobacco and sugar cane. Local food production included grains, hogs, cattle, and gardens. The 11 states produced only $155 million in manufactured goods in 1860, chiefly from local grist mills, together with lumber, processed tobacco, cotton goods and naval stores such as turpentine. The CSA adopted a low tariffs of 10%, but imposed them on all imports from the United States. No matter, for was able to collect almost no tariff revenue, as its ports were shut to all commercial traffic by the Union blockade, and very few people paid taxes on goods smuggled from the U.S. The lack of adequate financial resources led the Confederacy to finance the war through printing money, which in turn led to high inflation. The Confederate States of America had an agrarian-based economy that relied heavily on slavery plantations for the production of cotton for export to Europe and the northern US states. ... Naval Stores is a broad term which originally applied to the resin-based components used in building and maintaining wooden sailing ships, a category which includes cordage, mask, turpentine, resin and tar. ... The Union blockade refers to the naval actions between 1861 and 1865, during the American Civil War, in which the United States Navy maintained a massive effort on the Atlantic and Gulf Coast of the Confederate States of America designed to prevent the passage of trade goods, supplies, and arms...


Armed Forces

The military armed forces of the Confederacy comprised the following three branches:

The Confederate military leadership included many veterans from the United States Army and U.S. Navy who had resigned their Federal commissions and had been appointed to senior positions in the Confederate armed forces. Many had served in the Mexican War (such as Jefferson Davis), but others had little or no military experience (such as Leonidas Polk, who attended West Point but did not graduate.) The Confederate officer corps was composed in part of young men from slave-owning families, but many came from non-owners. The Confederacy appointed junior and field grade officers by election from the enlisted ranks. Although no Army service academy was established for the Confederacy, many colleges of the south (such as the Virginia Military Institute) maintained cadet corps that were seen as a training ground for Confederate military leadership. A naval academy was established in 1863, but no midshipmen had graduated by the time the Confederacy collapsed. Some Confederate soldiers The Confederate States Army (CSA) was formed in February, 1861, to defend the Confederate States of America, which had itself been formed that same year when seven southern states seceded from the United States (with four more to follow). ... CSN Jack CSS Alabama, a ship of the Confederate States Navy The Confederate States Navy was the branch of the Confederate States armed forces responsible for naval operations during the American Civil War. ... The Confederate States Marine Corps (CSMC) was a branch of the Confederate Navy, tasked with shore operations. ... The United States Army is the branch of the United States armed forces that has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for conducting naval operations around the globe. ... For other uses, see Jefferson Davis (disambiguation). ... Leonidas Polk, The Fighting Bishop Leonidas Polk (April 10, 1806 – June 14, 1864) was a Confederate general who was once a planter in Maury County, Tennessee, and a cousin of President James K. Polk. ... The Virginia Military Institute (VMI), located in Lexington, Virginia, is the Nations oldest state military college. ...


The rank and file of the Confederate armed forces consisted of white males with an average age between 16 and 28. The Confederacy adopted conscription in 1862, but opposition was widespread. Depleted by casualties and desertions, the military suffered chronic manpower shortages. Towards the end of the Civil War, boys as young as 12 were fighting in combat roles and the Confederacy began an all-black regiment with measures underway to offer freedom to slaves who voluntarily served in the Confederate military.


Military leaders of the Confederate States of America

Military leaders of the CSA (with their state of birth and highest rank[1]) included:

General Robert E. Lee, for many, the face of the Confederate army
General Robert E. Lee, for many, the face of the Confederate army

== Headline text ==Link title == [[freaking queer wat a mother fuc]]ker ==The forebearing use of power does not only form a touchstone, but the manner in which an individual enjoys certain advantages over others, is a test of a true gentleman. ... == Headline text ==Link title == [[freaking queer wat a mother fuc]]ker ==The forebearing use of power does not only form a touchstone, but the manner in which an individual enjoys certain advantages over others, is a test of a true gentleman. ... Robert E. Lee, 1863 Portrait by Julian Vannerson Robert Edward Lee (January 19, 1807 – October 10, 1872) was a career army officer and the most successful general of the Confederate forces during the American Civil War. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 35th 110,862 km² 320 km 690 km 7. ... General is a high military rank, used by nearly every country in the world. ... General-in-Chief (Russian: , probably originating from général en chéf), was a full General rank in the Russian Imperial army, the second top in Russian military ranks (the 2nd grade of Table of Ranks). ... Albert Sidney Johnston Albert Sidney Johnston (February 2, 1803 – April 6, 1862) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... Official language(s) English Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 37th 104,749 km² 225 km 610 km 1. ... General is a high military rank, used by nearly every country in the world. ... Joseph E. Johnston Joseph Eggleston Johnston (February 3, 1807 – March 21, 1891) was a career U.S. Army officer and one of the most senior generals in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 35th 110,862 km² 320 km 690 km 7. ... General is a high military rank, used by nearly every country in the world. ... Braxton Bragg Braxton Bragg (March 22, 1817 – September 27, 1876) was a career U.S. Army officer and a general in the Confederate States Army, a principal commander in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 28th 139,509 km² 805 km 240 km 9. ... General is a high military rank, used by nearly every country in the world. ... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 36th 109,247 km² 195 km 710 km 2. ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... Pierre Gustave Toutant de Beauregard Pierre Gustave Toutant de Beauregard (BO-rih-gahrd) (May 28, 1818 – February 20, 1893), best known as a general for the Confederate Army during the American Civil War, was also a writer, civil servant, and inventor. ... Official language(s) English and French Capital Baton Rouge Largest city New Orleans at last census; probably Baton Rouge since Hurricane Katrina Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 31st 134,382 km² 210 km 610 km 16 29°N to 33°N 89°W to 94°W Population... General is a high military rank, used by nearly every country in the world. ... Richard Stoddert Ewell (February 8, 1817 - January 25, 1872) was a Confederate military officer during the American Civil War. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 35th 110,862 km² 320 km 690 km 7. ... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... General Samuel Cooper Samuel Cooper (June 12, 1798 – December 3, 1876) was a career U.S. Army officer and, although little-known today, the highest ranking Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... Official language(s) None defined, English de facto Capital Trenton Largest city Newark Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 47th 22,608 km² 110 km 240 km 14. ... General is a high military rank, used by nearly every country in the world. ... James Longstreet James Longstreet (January 8, 1821 – January 2, 1904) was one of the foremost Confederate generals of the American Civil War, and later enjoyed a successful post-war career working for the government of his former enemies, as a diplomat and administrator. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 40th 82,965 km² 320 km 420 km 6 32°430N to 35°12N 78°030W to 83°20W Population  - Total (2000)  - Density Ranked 26th 4,012... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Stonewall Jackson Thomas Jonathan Stonewall Jackson (January 20 or 21[1], 1824 – May 10, 1863) was an American teacher and soldier. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 35th 110,862 km² 320 km 690 km 7. ... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Confederate Brigadier General John Hunt Morgan John Hunt Morgan (June 1, 1825 – September 4, 1864) was a Confederate general and cavalry officer in the American Civil War. ... Official language(s) English Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 37th 104,749 km² 225 km 610 km 1. ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... Ambrose Powell Hill (November 9, 1825 _ April 2, 1865), was a Confederate States of America general in the American Civil War. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 35th 110,862 km² 320 km 690 km 7. ... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... John Bell Hood John Bell Hood (June 1, 1831 – August 30, 1879) was a Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... Official language(s) None. ... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... There were three men in American history -- grandfather, father, and son -- called Wade Hampton: Wade Hampton (1754—1835), captain in the War of Independence and brigadier-general in the War of 1812; Wade Hampton (1791—1858), one of the wealthiest planters in the South; and Wade Hampton (1818—1902), Confederate... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 40th 82,965 km² 320 km 420 km 6 32°430N to 35°12N 78°030W to 83°20W Population  - Total (2000)  - Density Ranked 26th 4,012... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Nathan Bedford Forrest Nathan Bedford Forrest (July 13, 1821 – October 29, 1877), was a Confederate general and perhaps the American Civil Wars most highly regarded cavalry and partisan ranger (guerrilla leader). ... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 36th 109,247 km² 195 km 710 km 2. ... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... James Ewell Brown Stuart (February 6, 1833 – May 12, 1864) was an American soldier from Virginia and a Confederate Army general during the American Civil War. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 35th 110,862 km² 320 km 690 km 7. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Edward Porter Alexander Edward Porter Alexander (May 26, 1835 – April 28, 1910) was an engineer, an officer in the U.S. Army and Confederate States Army, an author, and a railroad executive. ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... Franklin Buchanan Franklin Buchanan (September 13, 1800—May 11, 1874) was an officer in the U.S. Navy who became an admiral in the Confederate Navy during the American Civil War. ... Official language(s) None Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 42nd 32,160 km² 145 km 400 km 21 37°53N to 39°43N 75°4W to 79°33W Population  - Total (2000)  - Density Ranked 19th 5,296,486 165... Admiral is a word from the Arabic term Amir-al-bahr (commander of the sea). ... Raphael Semmes (September 27, 1809 – August 30, 1877) was an officer in the United States Navy from 1826 to 1860 and the Confederate States Navy from 1860 to 1865. ... Official language(s) None Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 42nd 32,160 km² 145 km 400 km 21 37°53N to 39°43N 75°4W to 79°33W Population  - Total (2000)  - Density Ranked 19th 5,296,486 165... The term Rear Admiral originated from the days of Naval Sailing Squadrons, and can trace its origins to the British Royal Navy. ... French Forrest (1796-1866) was an American naval officer. ... Official language(s) None Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 42nd 32,160 km² 145 km 400 km 21 37°53N to 39°43N 75°4W to 79°33W Population  - Total (2000)  - Density Ranked 19th 5,296,486 165... Josiah Tattnall Commodore Josiah Tattnall (14 June 1794 - 14 June 1871) was an officer in the United States Navy during the War of 1812, the Second Barbary War, and the Mexican-American War. ... Commodore is a military rank used in some navies for officers whose position exceeds that of a Captain, but is less than that of a flag officer. ... Stand Watie Stand Watie (12 December 1806-9 September 1871) (also known as Degataga standing together as one, or stand firm and Isaac S. Watie) was a leader of the Cherokee Nation and a brigadier general of the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... Indian Territory in 1836 Indian Territory in 1891 Indian Territory, also known as Indian Country, Indian territory or the Indian territories, was the land set aside within the United States for the use of American Indians (Native Americans). The general borders were set by the Indian Intercourse Act of 1834. ... Template:ROXANA This article is about the U.S. State. ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... Leonidas Polk, The Fighting Bishop Leonidas Polk (April 10, 1806 – June 14, 1864) was a Confederate general who was once a planter in Maury County, Tennessee, and a cousin of President James K. Polk. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 28th 139,509 km² 805 km 240 km 9. ... A bishop is an ordained member of the Christian clergy who, in certain Christian churches, holds a position of authority. ... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Jubal Anderson Early (November 3, 1816 – March 2, 1894) was a lawyer and Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 35th 110,862 km² 320 km 690 km 7. ... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Richard Taylor Richard Taylor (January 27, 1826 – April 12, 1879) was a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Official language(s) English Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 37th 104,749 km² 225 km 610 km 1. ... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Zachary Taylor (November 24, 1784 – July 9, 1850), also known as Old Rough and Ready, was the twelfth President of the United States, serving from 1849 to 1850. ...

Significant dates

State Flag Secession ordinance Admitted C.S.A. U.S. Congress
representation restored
Local rule reestablished
South Carolina South Carolina December 20, 1860 February 4, 1861 July 9, 1868 November 28, 1876
Mississippi Mississippi January 9, 1861 February 4, 1861 February 23, 1870 January 4, 1876
Florida Florida January 10, 1861 February 10, 1861 June 25, 1868 January 2, 1877
Alabama Alabama January 11, 1861 February 18, 1861 July 14, 1868 November 16, 1874
Georgia January 19, 1861 February 4, 1861 July 15, 1870 November 1, 1871
Louisiana Louisiana January 26, 1861 February 4, 1861 July 4, 1868 January 2, 1877
Texas Texas February 1, 1861 March 2, 1861 March 30, 1870 January 14, 1873
Virginia Virginia April 17, 1861 May 7, 1861 January 26, 1870 October 5, 1869
Arkansas Arkansas May 6, 1861 May 18, 1861 June 22, 1868 November 10, 1874
North Carolina North Carolina May 20, 1861 May 16, 1861 July 4, 1868 February 2, 1871
Tennessee Tennessee June 8, 1861 May 16, 1861 July 24, 1866 October 4, 1869
Missouri (legally elected government) Missouri October 30, 1861 October 31, 1861 n/a n/a
Kentucky (Russellville government) Kentucky November 20, 1861 December 10, 1861 n/a n/a
Arizona (Mesilla government) Arizona March 28, 1861 February 14, 1862 n/a March 28, 1862

NOTE: According to the New York Public Library Desk Reference, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, North Carolina and South Carolina were all readmitted June 25, 1868, and Georgia was readmitted a second time on July 15, 1870. Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 40th 82,965 km² 320 km 420 km 6 32°430N to 35°12N 78°030W to 83°20W Population  - Total (2000)  - Density Ranked 26th 4,012... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Carolina. ... December 20 is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... February 4 is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... July 9 is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 175 days remaining. ... 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... November 28 is the 332nd day (333rd on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) is a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Official language(s) English Capital Jackson Largest city Jackson Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 32nd 125,443 km² 275 km 545 km 3 30°13N to 35°N 88°7W to 91°41W Population  - Total (2000)  - Density Ranked 31st 2,697,243 23. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mississippi. ... January 9 is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... February 4 is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1870 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... January 4 is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) is a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 22nd 170,451 km² 260 km 800 km 17. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Florida. ... January 10 is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... February 10 is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... June 25 is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 189 days remaining. ... 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... January 2 is the second day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1877 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Official language(s) English Capital Montgomery Largest city Birmingham Area  - Total   - Width   - Length    - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 30th 52,423 sq mi  135,775 km² 190 miles  306 km 330 miles  531 km 3. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Alabama. ... January 11 is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... February 18 is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... July 14 is the 195th day (196th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 170 days remaining. ... 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... November 16 is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 45 days remaining. ... 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Georgia_(U.S._state). ... January 19 is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... February 4 is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... July 15 is the 196th day (197th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 169 days remaining. ... 1870 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Official language(s) English and French Capital Baton Rouge Largest city New Orleans at last census; probably Baton Rouge since Hurricane Katrina Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 31st 134,382 km² 210 km 610 km 16 29°N to 33°N 89°W to 94°W Population... Image File history File links Flag_of_Louisiana. ... January 26 is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... February 4 is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... July 4 is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 180 days remaining. ... 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... January 2 is the second day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1877 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Official language(s) None. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Texas. ... February 1 is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... March 2 is the 61st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (62nd in leap years). ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... March 30 is the 89th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (90th in Leap years). ... 1870 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... January 14 is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1873 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calaber). ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 35th 110,862 km² 320 km 690 km 7. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Virginia. ... April 17 is the 107th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (108th in leap years). ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... May 7 is the 127th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (128th in leap years). ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... January 26 is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1870 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... October 5 is the 278th day of the year (279th in Leap years). ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Official language(s) English Capital Little Rock Largest city Little Rock Area  - Total   - Width   - Length    - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 29th 53,179 sq mi  137 732 km² 239 miles  385 km 261 miles  420 km 2. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Arkansas. ... May 6 is the 126th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (127th in leap years). ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... May 18 the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (139th in leap years). ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 192 days remaining. ... 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 51 days remaining. ... 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 28th 139,509 km² 805 km 240 km 9. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... 20 May is the 140th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (141st in leap years). ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (137th in leap years). ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... July 4 is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 180 days remaining. ... 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... February 2 is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 36th 109,247 km² 195 km 710 km 2. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tennessee. ... June 8 is the 159th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (160th in leap years), with 206 days remaining. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (137th in leap years). ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... July 24 is the 205th day (206th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 160 days remaining. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... October 4 is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Official language(s) none, English most common Capital Jefferson City Largest city Kansas City Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 21st 69,709 mi²; 180,693 km² 240 mi; 385 km 300 mi; 480 km 1. ... State flag of Missouri. ... October 30 is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 62 days remaining. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... October 31 is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 61 days remaining, as the final day of October. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Official language(s) English Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 37th 104,749 km² 225 km 610 km 1. ... Russellville is a city located in Cole County, Missouri. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kentucky. ... November 20 is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Official language(s) None Capital Phoenix Largest city Phoenix Area  - Total   - Width   - Length    - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 6th 113,998 sq mi  295,254 km² 310 miles  500 km 400 miles  645 km 0. ... Mesilla is a town located in Doña Ana County, New Mexico. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Arizona. ... March 28 is the 87th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (88th in Leap years). ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... February 14 is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders John P. Slough John M. Chivington Charles L. Pyron William R. Scurry Strength Northern Division, Army of New Mexico 4th, 5th, and 7th Texas Cavalry Regiment, artillery, and a company of independent volunteers Casualties 142 189 {{{notes}}} The Battle of... Official language(s) English Capital Montgomery Largest city Birmingham Area  - Total   - Width   - Length    - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 30th 52,423 sq mi  135,775 km² 190 miles  306 km 330 miles  531 km 3. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 22nd 170,451 km² 260 km 800 km 17. ... Official language(s) English and French Capital Baton Rouge Largest city New Orleans at last census; probably Baton Rouge since Hurricane Katrina Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 31st 134,382 km² 210 km 610 km 16 29°N to 33°N 89°W to 94°W Population... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 28th 139,509 km² 805 km 240 km 9. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 40th 82,965 km² 320 km 420 km 6 32°430N to 35°12N 78°030W to 83°20W Population  - Total (2000)  - Density Ranked 26th 4,012... June 25 is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 189 days remaining. ... 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... July 15 is the 196th day (197th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 169 days remaining. ... 1870 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


See also

The New Confederacy is a group dedicated to bringing back the Confederate States of America. ... A League supporter waves the Confederacys third national flag after the conclusion of a League demonstration in Montgomery, Alabama, fall of 2004. ... In the United States, the Nullification Crisis (The states-rights doctrine that a state can refuse to recognize or to enforce a federal law passed by the United States Congress) was a sectional crisis during the presidency of Andrew Jackson over the issue of protective tariffs. ... The following flags were used by the Confederate States of America. ... Confederate Seal The Confederate Seal was the seal of the Confederate States of America. ... The Military history of the Confederate States spans the period of when the Confederate States of America existed, during the American Civil War. ... 5c Jefferson Davis stamp This is a survey of the postage stamps and postal history of the Confederate States of America. ... The origins of the American Civil War lay in the complex issues of politics, competing understandings of federalism, slavery, expansionism, sectionalism, economics, modernization, and competing nationalism of the Antebellum period. ... Combatants Union (remaining U.S. states) Confederate States of America Commanders Abraham Lincoln† Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis Robert E. Lee Strength 2,213,363 1,064,200 Casualties KIA: 110,100 Total dead: 359,500 Wounded: 275,200 KIA: 94,000 Total dead: 258,000 Wounded: 137,000+  The... In this map:  Union states  Union territories  The border states  Bleeding Kansas, the more contentious of the Kansas-Nebraska Act states stood in the path of the border states  The Confederacy  Confederate claimed and sometimes held territories The term border states refers to five slave states of Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland... Southern United States. ... The history of the Southern United States reaches back thousands of years and included the Mississippian peoples, well known for their mound building. ... It has been suggested that Chattel slavery be merged into this article or section. ... // Headline text SLAVES STATES ARE GAY A slave state is a U.S. state that had legal slavery (overwhelmingly the enslavement of African-Americans, although historically also the enslavement of Native Americans, and whites through indentured servitude) in the period before the American Civil War and the Emancipation Proclamation. ... Robert E. Lee, 1863 Portrait by Julian Vannerson Robert Edward Lee (January 19, 1807 – October 10, 1872) was a career army officer and the most successful general of the Confederate forces during the American Civil War. ... Federalism is the idea of a group or body of members that are bound together (latin: foedus, covenant) with a governing representative head. ... A confederation is an association of sovereign states, usually created by treaty but often later adopting a common constitution. ... Six Confederate notes The Confederate States of America currency was first issued into circulation in April, 1861, when the Confederacy was only two months old, and on the eve of the outbreak of the Civil War. ...

References

  • Eicher, John H., & Eicher, David J., Civil War High Commands, Stanford University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.

Notes

  1. Eicher, Civil War High Commands

Further reading

  • Richard N. Current, ed. Encyclopedia of the Confederacy (4 vol 1993), 1900 pp; articles by scholars
  • Faust, Patricia L. ed, Historical Times Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Civil War (1986)
  • David S. Heidler et al. Encyclopedia of the American Civil War : A Political, Social, and Military History (2002), 2400 pages (ISBN 039304758X)
  • Steven E. Woodworth, ed. The American Civil War: A Handbook of Literature and Research (1996) 750 pages of historiography and bibliography

Economic & Social History

  • Ball Douglas B. Financial Failure and Confederate Defeat.1991.
  • Robert C. Black III, The Railroads of the Confederacy (1998)
  • Clinton Catherine, and Nina Silber, eds. Divided Houses: Gender and the Civil War 1992.
  • Drew Gilpin Faust, Mothers of Invention: Women of the Slaveholding South in the American Civil War (1996)
  • Drew Gilpin Faust, The Creation of Confederate Nationalism: Ideology and Identity in the Civil War South. 1988.
  • Mark Grimsley. The Hard Hand of War: Union Military Policy toward Southern Civilians, 1861-1865 1995.
  • Perry Carlton Lentz, Our Missing Epic: A Study in the Novels about the American Civil War (1970)
  • Mary Elizabeth Massey. Bonnet Brigades: American Women and the Civil War. 1966.
  • Mary Elizabeth Massey. Ersatz in the Confederacy 1952.
  • Mary Elizabeth Massey. Refugee Life in the Confederacy 1964.
  • Rable George C. Civil Wars: Women and the Crisis of Southern Nationalism 1989.
  • Ramsdell Charles. Behind the Lines in the Southern Confederacy. 1944.
  • Roark James L. Masters without Slaves: Southern Planters in the Civil War and Reconstruction 1977.
  • Anne Sarah Rubin, A Shattered Nation: The Rise and Fall of the Confederacy, 1861-1868 (2005), a cultural study of Confederates' self images.
  • James L. Sellers, "The Economic Incidence of the Civil War in the South." Mississippi Valley Historical Review 14 (1927): 179-191. in JSTOR
  • Emory M. Thomas, The Confederacy as a Revolutionary Experience. 1992.
  • Peter Wallenstein . "Rich Man's War, Rich Man's Fight: Civil War and the Transformation of Public Finance in Georgia." Journal of Southern History 50 (1984): 15-43. in JSTOR
  • Bell Irwin Wiley. Confederate Women 1975.
  • Bell Irwin Wiley. The Plain People of the Confederacy 1944.
  • C. Vann Woodward , ed. Mary Chesnut's Civil War 1981.

Politics

  • Alexander Thomas B., and Richard E. Beringer. The Anatomy of the Confederate Congress: A Study of the Influences of Member Characteristics on Legislative Voting Behavior, 1861-1865 1972.
  • Gabor S. Boritt, et al, Why the Confederacy Lost (1992)
  • William J. Cooper, Jefferson Davis, American (2000), standard biography
  • E. Merton Coulter . The Confederate States of America, 1861-1865. 1950.
  • William C. Davis (2003). Look Away! A History of the Confederate States of America, New York: Free Press. ISBN 0-684-86585-8.
  • Clement Eaton . A History of the Southern Confederacy 1954.
  • H. J. Eckenrode, Jefferson Davis: President of the South (1923)
  • Gary W. Gallagher, The Confederate War (1999)
  • Mark E. Neely Jr., Confederate Bastille: Jefferson Davis and Civil Liberties (1993)
  • Rembert W. Patrick. Jefferson Davis and His Cabinet.1944.
  • George C. Rable, The Confederate Republic: A Revolution against Politics (1994)
  • Charles P. Roland. The Confederacy 1960. brief
  • Emory M. Thomas, Confederate Nation: 1861-1865 (1979) standard political-economic-social history
  • Wilfred Buck Yearns, The Confederate Congress (1960)
  • Jon L. Wakelyn: Biographical Dictionary of the Confederacy Greenwood Press ISBN 0-8371-6124-X

Primary sources

  • Jefferson Davis, The Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government - Vol. 1 (1881)
  • Richard B. Harwell, The Confederate Reader (1957)
  • Jones John B. A Rebel War Clerk's Diary at the Confederate States Capital. Edited by Howard Swiggert. 1935. 2 vols. (1993)
  • W. Buck Yearns and John G. Barret,eds. North Carolina Civil War Documentary (1980)
  • Jon L. Wakelyn, ed. Southern Pamphlets on Secession, November 1860-April 1861 (1996)
  • online publications from Confederacy 400 maps, books, pamphlets, plus manuscripts
  • A Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Confederacy, Including the Diplomatic Correspondence 1861-1865. 2 vols. Compiled and edited by James D. Richardson. (1906)

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Confederate States of America

  Results from FactBites:
 
Confederate States Army - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1384 words)
The Confederate War Department was established by the Confederate Congress in an Act of February 21, 1861.
The Army of the Confederate States of America (ACSA) was the regular army, organized by Act of Congress on March 6, 1861.
The Provisional Army of the Confederate States (PACS) was authorized by Act of Congress on February 28, 1861, and began organizing on April 27.
Confederate States - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3888 words)
Fittingly, the Presidents of both the United States (Abraham Lincoln) and the Confederate States of America (Jefferson Davis) during the Civil War were born in Kentucky.
Confederate States troops briefly occupied the territorial capital of Santa Fe between March 13 and April 8, 1862.
The legislative branch of the Confederate States of America was the Confederate Congress.
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