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Encyclopedia > Conduit current collection

Conduit current collection was a system of current collection used by electric trams where the power supply was located in a channel under the roadway, rather than located overhead. A modern tram in the Töölö district of Helsinki, Finland Map showing the tramway system in Oslo, Norway Volkswagen Cargo-Tram in Dresden. ...

Contents


Description

The power rails for conduit cars are contained in a vault between and underneath the running rails, much in the same fashion as the cable for cable cars. The vault contains two "T" section steel power rails (of opposite polarity) facing each other, about 12 inches apart and about 18 inches below the street surface. Power reached the car itself by means of an attachment beneath the streetcar that rode in the conduit, called a plow. The plow had two metal shoes that pushed sideways against the power rails, and had two wires to connect to the car. The running rails are not part of the electrical circuit. The cars were sometimes popularly but incorrectly called trolleys, but did not typically draw power from overhead wire, as a trolley did. A cable is two or more wires bound together which may be bare, covered or insulated. ... Cable Car in San Francisco A San Francisco cable car A cable car or cable railway is a mass transit system using rail cars that are propelled by a continuously moving cable running at a constant speed. ... This article refers to the mass transit vehicle running on rails. ...


Usage

The world's second electrically operated street railway operated in Denver, Colorado starting in 1885 and pioneered the use of conduit current collection. Difficulties with the underground conduit and the electric streetcars themselves led to the replacement of all conduit cars and lines with cable cars by 1888.


New York City had the largest installation of conduit cars due to the prohibition of stringing overhead wires on Manhattan Island, although a few Bronx-based trolley lines entered the northern reaches of Manhattan using overhead wire. Trolley lines from Brooklyn and Queens also entered Manhattan under wire, but did not use city streets. Nickname: The Big Apple Official website: City of New York Government Counties (Boroughs) Bronx (The Bronx) New York (Manhattan) Queens (Queens) Kings (Brooklyn) Richmond (Staten Island) Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Geographical characteristics Area Total 468. ... For other uses, see Manhattan (disambiguation). ... The Bronx is one of the five boroughs of United States. ... The process by which Larkin is owned, typically followed by gloating For other uses, see Brooklyn (disambiguation). ... Queens Borough in New York City, in yellow Queens is the largest in area and second most populous of the five boroughs of New York City. ...


The expense of creating conduit lines in New York was somewhat reduced where it was possible to convert the cable vaults from discontinued cable car lines to conduit use. The huge expense in building new conduit, however, gave New York the distinction of having the last horsecar lines in the U.S., not closing until 1914. a historic postcard showing electric trolley-powered streetcars in Richmond, Virginia, where Frank J. Sprague successfully demonstrated his new system on the hills in 1888 A streetcar is a railway vehicle designed to carry passengers on tracks, usually laid in city streets. ... The United States of America — also referred to as the United States, the U.S.A., the U.S., America, the States, or (archaically) Columbia—is a federal republic of 50 states located primarily in central North America (with the exception of two states: Alaska and Hawaii). ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday. ...


In the centre of Brussels, a number of tram lines where fitted with conduit, the last ones were converted to overhead operation during World War II. Emblem of the Brussels-Capital Region Flag of The City of Brussels Brussels (French: Bruxelles, pronounced in Belgian French and in International French; Dutch: Brussel; German: Brüssel) is the capital of Belgium, the French community of Belgium, the Flemish community and one of the three capitals of the European... Combatants Allies: • Poland, • UK & Commonwealth, • France/Free France, • Soviet Union, • USA, • China, ...and others• Axis: • Germany, • Italy, • Japan, • ...and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total: 50 million Full list Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total: 12 million Full list World War II...


Paris had a conduit tramway network, or tram avec troisième rail in the 19th century, but it did not last long. The Eiffel Tower has become a symbol of Paris throughout the world. ...


Hybrid installations

Washington, D.C., also had a large network of conduit lines, to save the capital city from unsightly wires. In Washington's case, though, some lines used overhead wires when they approached rural or suburban areas. The last such line ran to Cabin John, Maryland. Because of this usage, many of Washington's streetcars carried trolley poles, which were lowered while operating in the central part of the city; when the cars reached a point where they switched to overhead operation, they stopped over a plow pit where the conduit plows were detached and the trolley poles raised, the reverse operation taking place on inbound runs. Nickname: the District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Official website: http://www. ... 15th Street in the early 20th century Streetcars and interurbans operated in Washington, D.C., between 1862 and 1962. ... An electric multiple unit pulling into Tile Hill station; Coventry, England. ... Rural area in Dalarna, Sweden Sheep eating grass in rural Australia Rural areas are sparsely settled places away from the influence of large cities and towns. ... Illustration of the backyards of a surburban neighbourhood Suburbs are inhabited districts located either on the outer rim of a city or outside the official limits of a city (the term varies from country to country), or the outer elements of a conurbation. ... Cabin John is a census-designated place and an unincorporated area located in Montgomery County, Maryland. ... Trolley poles are usually tapered cylindrical poles of wood or metal, used to transfer electricity from a live overhead wire to the control and propulsion equipment of a trolley car, tram or trolley bus. ...


London, England had a hybrid network of double decker tramways. New track was laid as late as 1951 for the Festival of Britain which commemorated the Great Exhibition of 1851. The last tram was withdrawn in 1952 and virtually all the tracks had been removed by the 1970s, although a short section can still be seen in the Holborn area at the entrance to the former Kingsway Tramway Subway. The Houses of Parliament and the clock tower containing Big Ben Part of the London skyline viewed from the South Bank London (see Wiktionary:London for the name in other languages) is the capital of the United Kingdom and England. ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... The Great Exhibition: Paxtons Crystal Palace enclosed full-grown trees in Hyde Park. ... Kingsway Subway entrance in Southampton Row The Kingsway Tramway Subway is a cut-and-cover tunnel in central London that was built by the London County Council. ...


See also

Bordeaux trams run without overhead wires. ... Third rail at the West Falls Church Metro stop in the Washington, D.C. area, electrified to 750 volts. ... Overhead wire in Coventry, England A railway electrification system is a way of supplying electric power to electric locomotives or multiple units. ...

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