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Encyclopedia > Condom
Condom
A rolled-up condom
Background
B.C. type Barrier
First use 1994 (polyurethane)
1912 (latex)
1855 (rubber)
Ancient (other materials)
Pregnancy rates (first year, latex)
Perfect use 2%
Typical use 10–18%
Usage
User reminders Damaged by oil-based lubricants
Advantages and Disadvantages
STD protection Yes
Benefits No external drugs or clinic visits required

A condom is a device that is most commonly used during sexual intercourse. It is put on a man's erect penis and physically blocks ejaculated semen from entering the body of a sexual partner. Condoms are used to prevent pregnancy and transmission of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs—such as gonorrhea, syphilis, and HIV). Because condoms are waterproof, elastic, and durable, they are also used in a variety of secondary applications. These range from creating waterproof microphones to protecting rifle barrels from clogging. A female condom is a device that is used during sexual intercourse. ... This article is about the French commune. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 651 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (936 × 862 pixel, file size: 383 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Condom Metadata This file contains additional... It has been suggested that Duration of sexual intercourse be merged into this article or section. ... The penis (plural penises, penes) is an external male sexual organ. ... This article is about human pregnancy in biological females. ... Sexually-transmitted infections (STIs), also known as sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs), are diseases that are commonly transmitted between partners through some form of sexual activity, most commonly vaginal intercourse, oral sex, or anal sex. ... The clap redirects here. ... Syphilis is a curable sexually transmitted disease caused by the Treponema pallidum spirochete. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ...


Condoms are most commonly made from latex, but some are made from other materials. A female condom is also available. As a method of contraception, male condoms have the advantage of being inexpensive, easy to use, having few side-effects, and of offering protection against sexually transmitted diseases.[1][2] With proper knowledge and application technique—and use at every act of intercourse—users of male condoms experience a 2% per-year pregnancy rate.[3] This article is about the typesetting system. ... A female condom is a device that is used during sexual intercourse. ...


Condoms have been used for over 500 years.[4][5] In the early twentieth century, with the invention of disposible latex condoms, they became one of the most popular methods of contraception. While widely accepted in modern times, condoms have generated some controversy. Improper disposal of condoms contributes to litter problems, and the Roman Catholic Church generally opposes condom use.

Contents

History

Antiquity

A condom made from animal hide circa 1900
A condom made from animal hide circa 1900

An Egyptian drawing of a condom being worn has been found to be 3,000 years old. It is unknown, however, if the Egyptian pictured wearing the device intended to use it for contraception, or for ritual purposes.[4] The Greek legend of Minos as related by Antoninus Liberalis in 150 AD described the use of a goat's bladder as a protective measure during intercourse, although purpose or intent of the practice is not fully known.[6] Download high resolution version (1508x634, 119 KB)Description: Condom by Bell & Croyden around 1900 made from an animal membrane (Caecal) (Science Museum London) Source: German Wikipedia de:Bild:Kondom um 1900. ... Download high resolution version (1508x634, 119 KB)Description: Condom by Bell & Croyden around 1900 made from an animal membrane (Caecal) (Science Museum London) Source: German Wikipedia de:Bild:Kondom um 1900. ... Front face of the MINOS far detector. ... Antoninus Liberalis, Greek grammarian, probably flourished about AD 150. ... The Roman army consists of 400,000 men. ...


In 16th century Italy, Gabriele Falloppio authored the first-known published description of condom use for disease prevention. He recommended soaking cloth sheaths in a chemical solution and allowing them to dry prior to use.[5] He claimed to have performed an experimental trial of the linen sheath on 1100 men. His report of the experiment, published two years after his death, indicated protection against syphilis.[6] Gabriele Falloppio Gabriele Falloppio (1523- October 9, 1562), often known by his Latin name Fallopius, was one of the most important anatomists and physicians of the sixteenth century; he was born at Modena, Italy in 1523; he died October 9, 1562 at Padua. ... Syphilis is a curable sexually transmitted disease caused by the Treponema pallidum spirochete. ...


The oldest condoms found (rather than just pictures or descriptions) are from 1640, discovered in Dudley Castle in England. They were made of animal intestine, and it is believed they were used for STD prevention.[4] In 19th century Japan, both leather condoms and condoms made of tortoise shells or horns were available.[5] Similar devices made from oiled silk paper have also been described in China.[6] Dudley Castle is a ruined castle in the town of Dudley, West Midlands, England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... A sexually transmitted disease (STD), a. ...


The often-reported invention of the condom by "Dr. Condom" or the "Earl of Condom" is believed to be fallacious (see etymology section below). However in the 18th Century, there are numerous literary references to condom use and sales, including in the memoirs of Giacomo Casanova.[6] Casanova redirects here. ...


Modern condom use

The rubber vulcanization process was patented by Charles Goodyear in 1844, and the first rubber condom was produced in 1855.[7] These early rubber condoms were 1-2mm thick and had seams down the sides.[5] Although they were reusable, these early rubber condoms were also expensive. Vulcanization is the process of cross-linking elastomer molecules to make the bulk material harder, less soluble and more durable. ... For other persons named Charles Goodyear, see Charles Goodyear (disambiguation). ...


Distribution of condoms in the United States was limited by passage of the Comstock Act in 1873. This law prohibited transport through the postal service of any instructional material or devices intended to prevent pregnancy. Condoms were available by prescription, although legally they were only supposed to be prescribed to prevent disease rather than pregnancy.[4] The Comstock Act remained in force until it was largely overturned by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1936. The symbol of Comstocks Society for the Suppression of Vice. ...


In 1912, a German named Julius Fromm developed a new manufacturing technique for condoms: dipping glass molds into the raw rubber solution. This enabled the production of thinner condoms with no seams. Fromm's Act was the first branded line of condoms, and Fromms is still a popular line of condoms in Germany today.[7] By the 1930s, the manufacturing process had improved to produce single-use condoms almost as thin and inexpensive as those currently available.[5] Julius Fromm (1883 - May 12, 1945) was a Jewish-German entrepeneur, chemist, and inventor of the latex condom. ...


Condoms were not made available to U.S. soldiers in World War I, and a significant number of returning soldiers carried sexually transmitted infections. During World War II, however, condoms were heavily promoted to soldiers, with one film exhorting "Don't forget — put it on before you put it in."[4] In part because condoms were readily available, soldiers found a number of non-sexual uses for the devices, many of which continue to be utilized to this day. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Etymology of the term

Etymological theories for the word "condom" abound. It has been claimed to be from the Latin word condon, meaning receptacle.[4] One author argues that "condom" is derived from the Latin word condamina, meaning house.[8] It has also been speculated to be from the Italian word guantone, derived from guanto, meaning glove.[9]


Folk etymology claims that the word "condom" is derived from a purported "Dr. Condom" or "Quondam", who made the devices for King Charles II of England. There is no verifiable evidence that any such "Dr. Condom" existed.[9] It is also hypothesized that a British army officer named Cundum popularized the device between 1680 and 1717.[10] Folk etymology is a term used in two distinct ways: A commonly held misunderstanding of the origin of a particular word, a false etymology. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ...


William E. Kruck wrote an article in 1981 concluding that, "As for the word 'condom', I need state only that its origin remains completely unknown, and there ends this search for an etymology."[11] Modern dictionaries may also list the etymology as "unknown".[12]


Other terms are also commonly used to describe condoms. In North America condoms are also commonly known as prophylactics, or rubbers. In Britain they may be called French letters.[13] Additionally, condoms may be referred to using the manufacturer's name. For example, in India they may be called Nirodh, a government-promoted brand, or KS (after a condom brand name KamaSutra).


Varieties

Most condoms have a reservoir tip, making it easier to leave space for the man's ejaculate. Condoms also come in different sizes, from oversized to snug. As mentioned above, most condoms are made of latex, but polyurethane and lambskin condoms are also widely available.


Latex

An unrolled latex condom
An unrolled latex condom

Latex has outstanding elastic properties: Its tensile strength exceeds 30 MPa, and latex condoms may be stretched in excess of 800% before breaking.[14] In 1990 the ISO set standards for condom production (ISO 4074, Natural latex rubber condoms), and the EU followed suit with its CEN standard (Directive 93/42/EEC concerning medical devices). Every latex condom is tested for holes with an electrical current. If the condom passes, it is rolled and packaged. In addition, a portion of each batch of condoms is subject to water leak and air burst testing.[15] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 258 pixelsFull resolution (1876 × 606 pixel, file size: 381 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Condom Metadata This file contains additional... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 258 pixelsFull resolution (1876 × 606 pixel, file size: 381 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Condom Metadata This file contains additional... Tensile strength isthe measures the force required to pull something such as rope, wire, or a structural beam to the point where it breaks. ... “ISO” redirects here. ... CEN, the European Committee for Standardization, was founded in 1961 by the national standard bodies in the European Economic Community and EFTA countries. ...


Latex condoms used with oil-based lubricants (e.g. vaseline) are likely to slip off due to loss of elasticity caused by the oils.[16] Petroleum jelly or petrolatum is a byproduct of the refining of petroleum, made from the residue of petroleum distillation left in the still after all the oil has been vaporized. ...


Some latex condoms are lubricated at the manufacturer with a small amount of a nonoxynol-9, a spermicidal chemical. According to Consumer Reports, spermicidally lubricated condoms have no additional benefit in preventing pregnancy, have a shorter shelf life, and may cause urinary-tract infections in women.[17] In contrast, application of separately packaged spermicide is believed to increase the contraceptive efficacy of condoms.[18] Nonoxynol-9, sometimes abbreviated as N-9, is a non-ionic nonoxynol surfactant that is used as an ingredient in various cleaning and cosmetic products, but is also widely used in contraceptives for its spermicidal properties. ... Spermicide is a substance that kills sperm, inserted vaginally prior to intercourse to prevent pregnancy. ... Consumer Reports is an American magazine published monthly by Consumers Union. ... A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a bacterial infection that affects any part of the urinary tract. ...


Nonoxynol-9 was once believed to offer additional protection against STDs (including HIV) but recent studies have shown that, with frequent use, nonoxynol-9 may increase the risk of HIV transmission.[19] The World Health Organization says that spermicidally lubricated condoms should no longer be promoted. However, they recommend using a nonoxynol-9 lubricated condom over no condom at all.[20] As of 2005, nine condom manufacturers have stopped manufacturing condoms with nonoxynol-9, Planned Parenthood has discontinued the distribution of condoms so lubricated,[21] and the Food and Drug Administration has proposed a warning regarding this issue.[22] WHO redirects here. ... Nonoxynol-9, sometimes abbreviated as N-9, is a non-ionic nonoxynol surfactant that is used as an ingredient in various cleaning and cosmetic products, but is also widely used in contraceptives for its spermicidal properties. ... This article is about Planned Parenthood Federation of America. ... “FDA” redirects here. ...


Polyurethane

See also: AT-10 Resin

Polyurethane condoms can be thinner than latex condoms, with some polyurethane condoms only 0.02 mm thick.[23] Polyurethane is also the material of many female condoms. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Polyurethane can be considered better than latex in several ways: it conducts heat better than latex, is not as sensitive to temperature and ultraviolet light (and so has less rigid storage requirements and a longer shelf life), can be used with oil-based lubricants, is less allergenic than latex, and does not have an odor.[24] Polyurethane condoms have gained FDA approval for sale in the United States as an effective method of contraception and HIV prevention, and under laboratory conditions have been shown to be just as effective as latex for these purposes.[25] “FDA” redirects here. ...


However, polyurethane condoms may be more likely to slip or break than latex,[24][26] and are more expensive.


Lambskin

Condoms made from one of the oldest condom materials, labeled "lambskin" (made from lamb intestines) are still available. They have a greater ability to transmit body warmth and tactile sensation, when compared to synthetic condoms, and are less allergenic than latex. However, there is an increased risk of transmitting STDs compared to latex because of pores in the material, which are thought to be large enough to allow infectious agents to pass through, albeit blocking the passage of sperm.[27] It has been suggested that Lambing be merged into this article or section. ... In anatomy, the intestine is the segment of the alimentary canal extending from the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine. ... Synthetic fibres are the result of extensive research by scientists to increase and improve upon the supply of naturally occurring animal and plant fibres that have been used in making cloth and rope. ...


Experimental

The Invisible Condom, developed at Université Laval in Québec, Canada, is a gel that hardens upon increased temperature after insertion into the vagina or rectum. In the lab, it has been shown to effectively block HIV and herpes simplex virus. The barrier breaks down and liquefies after several hours. The invisible condom is in the clinical trial phase, and has not yet been approved for use.[28] Université Laval (Laval University) is the oldest centre of education in Canada, and was the first institution in North America to offer higher education in French. ...


As reported on Swiss television news Schweizer Fernsehen on November 29, 2006, the German scientist Jan Vinzenz Krause of the Institut für Kondom-Beratung ("Institute for Condom Consultation") in Germany recently developed a spray-on condom and is test-marketing it. Krause says that one of the advantages to his spray-on condom, which is reported to dry in about 5 seconds, is that it is perfectly formed to each penis.[29][30] SRG SSR idée suisse is the business name of the Swiss Broadcasting Corporation -- in German: Schweizerische Radio- und Fernsehgesellschaft (SRG), in Romansh Societad svizra da radio e televisiun (SSR), in Italian: Società svizzera di radiotelevisione (SSR), in French: Société suisse de radiodiffusion et télévision (SSR). ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Effectiveness

In preventing pregnancy

The effectiveness of condoms, as of most forms of contraception, can be assessed two ways. Perfect use or method effectiveness rates only include people who use condoms properly and consistently. Actual use, or typical use effectiveness rates are of all condom users, including those who use condoms improperly, inconsistently, or both. Rates are generally presented for the first year of use.[3] Most commonly the Pearl Index is used to calculate effectiveness rates, but some studies use decrement tables.[31] The Pearl Index, also called the Pearl rate, is a technique used in clinical trials for measuring the effectiveness of a birth control method. ... Decrement tables, also called life table methods, are used to calculate the probability of certain events. ...


The typical use pregnancy rate among condom users varies depending on the population being studied, ranging from 10–18% per year.[32] The perfect use pregnancy rate of condoms is 2% per year.[3] Condoms may be combined with other forms of contraception (such as spermicide) for greater protection.[18] Spermicide is a substance that kills sperm, inserted vaginally prior to intercourse to prevent pregnancy. ...


Several factors account for typical use effectiveness being lower than perfect use effectiveness:

  • mistakes on the part of those providing instructions on how to use the method
  • mistakes on the part of the user
  • conscious user non-compliance with instructions.

For instance, someone using condoms might be given incorrect information on what lubricants are safe to use with condoms, or by mistake put the condom on improperly, or simply not bother to use a condom.


In preventing STDs

A 67 m long "condom" on the Obelisk of Buenos Aires, Argentina, part of an awareness campaign for the 2005 World AIDS Day
A 67 m long "condom" on the Obelisk of Buenos Aires, Argentina, part of an awareness campaign for the 2005 World AIDS Day
See also: HIV#Transmission

Condoms are widely recommended for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). They have been shown to be effective in reducing infection rates in both men and women. While not perfect, the condom is effective at reducing the transmission of HIV, genital herpes, genital warts, syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and other diseases.[33] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1704x2304, 907 KB) Summary This image was originally posted to Flickr as Kondom-obelisk. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1704x2304, 907 KB) Summary This image was originally posted to Flickr as Kondom-obelisk. ... The Obelisk of Buenos Aires (Spanish: Obelisco de Buenos Aires) is a modern monument placed at the heart of Buenos Aires, Argentina. ... The Red Ribbon is the global symbol for solidarity with HIV-positive people and those living with AIDS. World AIDS Day, observed December 1 each year, is dedicated to raising awareness of the AIDS pandemic caused by the spread of HIV infection. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... Sexually-transmitted infections (STIs), also known as sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs), are diseases that are commonly transmitted between partners through some form of sexual activity, most commonly vaginal intercourse, oral sex, or anal sex. ...


According to a 2000 report by the National Institutes of Health, correct and consistent use of latex condoms reduces the risk of HIV/AIDS transmission by approximately 85% relative to risk when unprotected. The same review also found condom use significantly reduces the risk of gonorrhea for men.[34] National Institutes of Health Building 50 at NIH Clinical Center - Building 10 The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services and is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical research. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... The clap redirects here. ...


A 2006 study reports that proper condom use decreases the risk of transmission for human papilloma virus by approximately 70%.[35] Another study in the same year found consistent condom use was effective at reducing transmission of herpes simplex virus-2 also known as genital herpes, in both men and women.[36] Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a virus which affects humans. ... Species Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) This article is about the virus. ... This article is about the disease. ...


Although a condom is effective in limiting exposure, some disease transmission may occur even with a condom. Infectious areas of the genitals, especially when symptoms are present, may not be covered by a condom, and as a result, some diseases can be transmitted by direct contact.[37] The primary effectiveness issue with using condoms to prevent STDs, however, is inconsistent use.[15]


Causes of failure

Wikibooks
Wikibooks' Sexual Health has more about this subject:

Condom users may experience slipping off the penis after ejaculation,[38] breakage due to faulty methods of application or physical damage (such as tears caused when opening the package), or breakage or slippage due to latex degradation (typically from being past the expiration date or being stored improperly). Even if no breakage or slippage is observed, 1–2% of women will test positive for semen residue after intercourse with a condom.[39][40] Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ...


Different modes of condom failure result in different levels of semen exposure. If a failure occurs during application, the damaged condom may be disposed of and a new condom applied before intercourse begins - such failures generally pose no risk to the user.[41] One study found that semen exposure from a broken condom was about half that of unprotected intercourse; semen exposure from a slipped condom was about one-fifth that of unprotected intercourse.[42]


Standard condoms will fit almost any penis, although many condom manufacturers offer "snug" or "magnum" sizes. Some studies have associated larger penises and smaller condoms with increased breakage and decreased slippage rates (and vice versa), but other studies have been inconclusive.[16] Human penis size refers to the length and width of human male genitalia. ...


Experienced condom users are significantly less likely to have a condom slip or break compared to first-time users, although users who experience one slippage or breakage are at increased risk of a second such failure.[43] An article in Population Reports suggests that education on condom use reduces behaviors that increase the risk of breakage and slippage.[44] A Family Health International publication also offers the view that education can reduce the risk of breakage and slippage, but emphasizes that more research needs to be done to determine all of the causes of breakage and slippage.[16] Formed in 1971, Family Health International (FHI) is among the largest and most established nonprofit organizations active in international public health with a mission to improve lives worldwide through research, education, and services in family health. ...


Among couples that intend condoms to be their form of birth control, pregnancy may occur when the couple does not use a condom. The couple may have run out of condoms, or be traveling and not have a condom with them, or simply dislike the feel of condoms and decide to "take a chance." This type of behavior is the primary cause of typical use failure (as opposed to method or perfect use failure).[45]


Another possible cause of condom failure is sabotage. One motive is to have a child against a partner's wishes or consent.[46] Some commercial sex workers report clients sabotaging condoms in retaliation for being coerced into condom use.[47] Placing pinholes in the tip of the condom is believed to significantly impact their effectiveness.[40][48] For other uses, see Sabotage (disambiguation). ...


Female condoms

Female condom
Female condom
Main article: Female condom

"Female condoms" or "femidoms" are also available. They are larger and wider than male condoms but equivalent in length. They have a flexible ring-shaped opening, and are designed to be inserted into the vagina. They also contain an inner ring which aids insertion and helps keep the condom from sliding out of the vagina during coitus. One line of female condoms is made from polyurethane or nitrile polymer. A competing manufacturer makes a line of female condoms out of latex. The latex female condom has been available for several years in Africa, Asia, and South America, although one more clinical trial is required before it can be submitted for FDA approval in the United States. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2534x1141, 1125 KB) fr: Préservatif féminin déployé en: Female condom File links The following pages link to this file: Condom Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2534x1141, 1125 KB) fr: Préservatif féminin déployé en: Female condom File links The following pages link to this file: Condom Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or... A female condom is a device that is used during sexual intercourse. ... The vagina, (from Latin, literally sheath or scabbard ) is the tubular tract leading from the uterus to the exterior of the body in female placental mammals and marsupials, or to the cloaca in female birds, monotremes, and some reptiles. ... A pair of lions copulating in the Maasai Mara, Kenya. ... A polyurethane is any polymer consisting of a chain of organic units joined by urethane links. ... A nitrile is any organic compound which has a -C≡N functional group. ... A polymer (from Greek: πολυ, polu, many; and μέρος, meros, part) is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ...


Use

Male condoms are usually packaged inside a foil wrapper, in a rolled-up form, and are designed to be applied to the tip of the penis and then rolled over the erect penis. After use, it is recommended the condom be wrapped in tissue or tied in a knot, then disposed of in a trash receptacle.[49] The erection of the penis, clitoris or a nipple is its enlarged and firm state. ...


Some couples find that putting on a condom interrupts sex, although others incorporate condom application as part of their foreplay. Some men and women find the physical barrier of a condom dulls sensation. Advantages of dulled sensation can include prolonged erection and delayed ejaculation; disadvantages might include a loss of some sexual excitement.[2]


Prevalence

The prevalence of condom use varies greatly between countries. Japan has the highest rate of condom usage in the world, with condoms accounting for almost 80% of contraceptive use. In the average developed country, 22% of contraceptive users rely on condoms as their primary method of birth control. In the average less-developed country, only 5-6% of contraceptive users choose condoms.[50] In a few countries, such as Somalia, condoms are illegal.[51]


Role in sex education

How to put on a condom

Condoms are often used in sexual education programs, because they have the capability to reduce the chances of pregnancy and the spread of some sexually transmitted diseases when used correctly. A recent American Psychological Association (APA) press release supported the inclusion of information about condoms in sex education, saying "comprehensive sexuality education programs... discuss the appropriate use of condoms", and "promote condom use for those who are sexually active."[52] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (240x1692, 65 KB) Other versions Originally from fr. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (240x1692, 65 KB) Other versions Originally from fr. ... Sex education is education about sexual reproduction in human beings, sexual intercourse and other aspects of sexual behaviour. ... The American Psychological Association (APA) is a professional organization representing psychology in the US. It has around 150,000 members and an annual budget of around $70m. ...


In the United States, teaching about condoms in public schools is opposed by some religious organizations.[53] Planned Parenthood, which advocates family planning and sexual education, argues that no studies have shown abstinence-only programs to result in delayed intercourse, and cites surveys showing that 75% of American parents want their children to receive comprehensive sexuality education including condom use.[54] This article is about Planned Parenthood Federation of America. ... Oral contraceptives. ... Sex education is education about sexual reproduction in human beings, sexual intercourse and other aspects of sexual behaviour. ...


Infertility treatment

Common procedures in infertility treatment such as semen analysis and intrauterine insemination (IUI) require collection of semen samples. These are most commonly obtained through masturbation, but an alternative to masturbation is use of a special collection condom to collect semen during sexual intercourse. Infertility primarily refers to the biological inability of a man or a woman to contribute to conception. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... AIH redirects here. ... Woman masturbating, 1913 drawing by Gustav Klimt. ...


Collection condoms are made from silicone or polyurethane, as latex is somewhat harmful to sperm. Many men prefer collection condoms to masturbation. Also, compared to samples obtained from masturbation, semen samples from collection condoms have higher total sperm counts, sperm motility, and percentage of sperm with normal morphology. For this reason, they are believed to give more accurate results when used for semen analysis, and to improve the chances of pregnancy when used in procedures such as IUI.[55]


The Catholic Church teaches that masturbation is immoral. For observant Catholics, collection condoms are the only morally permissible way to obtain semen samples. Some devout Catholics put two or three pinholes in the collection condom to avoid violating the Catholic prohibition on artificial birth control.[48] Catholic Church redirects here. ...


Condom therapy is sometimes prescribed to infertile couples when the female has high levels of antisperm antibodies. The theory is that preventing exposure to her partner's semen will lower her level of antisperm antibodies, and thus increase her chances of pregnancy when condom therapy is discontinued. However, condom therapy has not been shown to increase subsequent pregnancy rates.[56]


Other uses

Condoms excel as multipurpose containers because they are waterproof, elastic, durable, and will not arouse suspicion if found. Ongoing military utilization begun during World War II includes:

  • Tying a non-lubricated condom around the muzzle of the rifle barrel in order to prevent barrel fouling by keeping out detritus.[57]
  • The OSS used condoms for a plethora of applications, from storing corrosive fuel additives and wire garrotes (with the T-handles removed) to holding the acid component of a self-destructing film canister, to finding use in improvised explosives.[58]
  • Navy SEALs have used doubled condoms, sealed with neoprene cement, to protect non-electric firing assemblies for underwater demolitions—leading to the term "Dual Waterproof Firing Assemblies."[59]

Other uses of condoms include: Detritus may refer to: In geology, detritus is the name for loose fragments of rock that have been worn away by erosion. ... The Office of Strategic Services (OSS) was a United States intelligence agency formed during World War II. It was the wartime intelligence agency and was the predecessor to the Central Intelligence Agency, the Special Forces, and Navy SEALs. ... A garrote or garrote vil (a Spanish word; alternative spellings include garotte and garrotte) is a handheld weapon, most often referring to a ligature of chain, rope, scarf, wire or fishing line used to strangle someone to death. ... SEALs in from the water. ...

  • Condoms can be used to hold water in emergency survival situations.[60]
  • Condoms have also been used in many cases to smuggle cocaine and other drugs across borders and into prisons by filling the condom with drugs, tying it in a knot and then either swallowing it or inserting it into the rectum. These methods are very dangerous; if the condom breaks, the drugs inside can cause an overdose.[61]
  • In Soviet gulags, condoms were used to smuggle alcohol into the camps by prisoners who worked outside during daylight. While outside, the prisoner would ingest an empty condom attached to a thin piece of rubber tubing, the end of which was wedged between his teeth. The smuggler would then use a syringe to fill the tubing and condom with up to three litres of raw alcohol, which the prisoner would then smuggle back into the camp. When back in the barracks, the other prisoners would suspend him upside down until all the spirit had been drained out. Alexander Solzhenitsyn records that the three litres of raw fluid would be diluted to make seven litres of crude vodka, and that although such prisoners risked an extremely painful and unpleasant death if the condom burst inside them, the rewards granted them by other prisoners encouraged them to run the risk.[62]
  • In his book entitled Last Chance to See, Douglas Adams reported having used a condom to protect a microphone he used to make an underwater recording. According to one of his travelling companions, this is standard BBC practice when a waterproof microphone is needed but cannot be procured.
  • Condoms are used by engineers to keep soil samples dry during soil tests.[63]
  • Foot travelers in Amazonic South America wear condoms when wading through water to prevent a small catfish known as candirú from swimming into the urethra. The fish is attracted to the scent of blood and urine.[64]
  • Condoms are used as a one way valve by paramedics when performing a chest decompression in the field. The decompression needle is inserted through the condom, and inserted into the chest. The condom folds over the hub allowing air to exit the chest, but preventing it from entering.[65]

Retail selling Street selling is the bottom of the chain and can be accomplished through purchasing from prostitutes, through cloaked retail stores or refuse houses for users in the act located in red-light districts which often also deal in paraphernalia, dealers marketing merriment at night clubs and other events... Cocaine is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. ... CCCP redirects here. ... Nikolai Getman Moving out. ... A syringe nowadays nearly always means a medical syringe, but it can mean any of these: A simple hand-powered piston pump consisting of a plunger that can be pulled and pushed along inside a cylindrical tube (the barrel), which has a small hole on one end, so it can... The litre or liter (see spelling differences) is a unit of volume. ... Solzhenitsyn was exiled from the Soviet Union for his book The Gulag Archipelago. ... Vodka bottling machine, Shatskaya Vodka Shatsk, Russia Vodka (Polish: wódka, Russian: водка) is one of the worlds most popular distilled beverages. ... The front cover of the first US hardcover edition of Last Chance to See. ... Douglas Noël Adams (11 March 1952 – 11 May 2001) was an English author, comic radio dramatist, and musician. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... This article is about the river. ... ‎The candirú or canero or toothpick fish is the common name for freshwater fish of a number of genera in the in the group commonly called the catfish. ... In anatomy, the urethra is a tube which connects the urinary bladder to the outside of the body. ...

Debate and criticism

Disposal and environmental impact

A tied up used condom
A tied up used condom

Experts recommend condoms be disposed of in a trash receptacle. Flushing down the toilet may clog plumbing or cause other problems.[49] Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ...


While biodegradable,[49] latex condoms damage the environment when disposed of improperly. According to the Ocean Conservancy, condoms, along with certain other types of trash, cover the coral reefs and smother sea grass and other bottom dwellers. The United States Environmental Protection Agency also has expressed concerns that many animals might mistake the litter for food.[66] Some of the biodiversity of a coral reef, in this case the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. ... Johnsons seagrass in Florida coast Seagrass (or sea-grass in British English) is a term that refers to flowering plants from two plant families (Potamogetonaceae and Hydrocharitacea) that grow in the marine environment. ... EPA redirects here. ...


Condoms made of polyurethane, a plastic material, do not break down at all. The plastic and foil wrappers condoms are packaged in are also not biodegradable. However, the benefits condoms offer are widely considered to offset their small landfill mass.[49] Frequent condom or wrapper disposal in public areas such as a parks have been seen as a persistent litter problem.[67]


Health issues

Dry dusting powders are applied to latex condoms before packaging to prevent the condom from sticking to itself when rolled up. Previously, talc was used by most manufacturers, however cornstarch is currently the most popular dusting powder.[68] Talc is known to be toxic if it enters the abdominal cavity (i.e. via the vagina). Cornstarch is generally believed to be safe, however some researchers have raised concerns over its use.[68][69] Talc (derived from the Persian via Arabic talq) is a mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate with the chemical formula H2Mg3(SiO3)4 or Mg3Si4O10(OH)2. ... Products treated with cornstarch Cornstarch, or cornflour, is the starch of the maize grain, commonly known as corn. ... The vagina, (from Latin, literally sheath or scabbard ) is the tubular tract leading from the uterus to the exterior of the body in female placental mammals and marsupials, or to the cloaca in female birds, monotremes, and some reptiles. ...


Nitrosamines, which are potentially carcinogenic in humans,[70] are believed to be present in a substance used to improve elasticity in latex condoms.[71] A 2001 review stated that humans regularly receive 1,000 to 10,000 times greater nitrosamine exposure from food and tobacco than from condom use and concluded that the risk of cancer from condom use is very low.[72] However, a 2004 study in Germany detected nitrosamines in 29 out of 32 condom brands tested, and concluded that exposure from condoms might exceed the exposure from food by 1.5- to 3-fold.[71][73] Structure of the nitrosamino group Nitrosamines are chemical compounds of the chemical structure R1N(-R2)-N=O, some of which are carcinogenic. ... In pathology, a carcinogen is any substance or agent that promotes cancer. ...


Position of the Roman Catholic Church

The Catholic Church directly condemns any artificial birth control or sexual acts aside from intercourse, between married heterosexual partners. The use of condoms to combat STDs is not specifically addressed by Catholic doctrine, and is currently a topic of debate among high-ranking Catholic authorities. A few, such as Belgian Cardinal Godfried Danneels, believe the Catholic Church should actively support condoms used to prevent disease, especially serious diseases such as AIDS. However, to date statements from the Vatican have argued that condom-promotion programs encourage promiscuity, thereby actually increasing STD transmission.[74] Papal study of the issue is ongoing, and in 2006 a study on the use of condoms to combat AIDS was prepared for review by Pope Benedict XVI.[75] Godfried Cardinal Danneels (born June 4, 1933) is the archbishop of Mechelen-Brussels and the chairman of the Belgian episcopal conference. ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... Papal Arms of Pope Benedict XVI. The papal tiara was replaced with a bishops mitre, and pallium of the Pope was added beneath the coat of arms. ...


See also

Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Condom fatigue is a term used by medical professionals and safer sex educators to refer to the phenomenon of decreased condom use. ... Male Contraceptive Male contraception refers to the process of inhibiting fertilization of the egg with the sperm using methods that deal solely (or primarily) with procedures applied to the male partner. ... Safe sex (also called safer sex or protected sex) is a set of practices that are designed to reduce the risk of infection during sexual intercourse to avoid developing sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). ... Something for the weekend? is a euphemism traditionally used by barbers in the United Kingdom when offering condoms to their clients. ... State of Louisiana v. ...

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Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... According to its web site, the American Dialect Society, founded in 1889, is dedicated to the study of the English language in North America, and of other languages, or dialects of other languages, influencing it or influenced by it. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Go Ask Alice! is a Q&A service provided by Columbia University for both students and the general public with questions or curiosity about health topics. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Go Ask Alice! is a Q&A service provided by Columbia University for both students and the general public with questions or curiosity about health topics. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) is a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Go Ask Alice! is a Q&A service provided by Columbia University for both students and the general public with questions or curiosity about health topics. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Condoms
  • Male Latex Condoms and Sexually Transmitted Diseases — from the US Center for Disease Control.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Condom - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6014 words)
Condoms made from one of the oldest condoms materials, labeled "lambskin" (made from lamb intestines) are still available.
Condoms are often used in sexual education programs, because they have the capability to reduce the chances of pregnancy and the spread of some sexually transmitted diseases when used correctly.
Condoms have also been used in many cases to smuggle cocaine and other drugs across borders and into prisons either by filling the condom with drugs, tying it in a knot and then either swallowing it or inserting it into the rectum.
Condoms (491 words)
The condom is usually made of latex rubber (another name for it is "a rubber") and is meant to fit an erect penis.
The condom must be unrolled onto the erection before any intercourse occurs as it is common to leak a small amount of semen from the stimulated penis prior to ejaculation.
If you are not using a lubricated condom, you should put K-Y Jelly or a spermicide onto the condom once it has been placed on the erection to lubricate and hence minimize the risk of tearing the condom during sexual relations.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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