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Encyclopedia > Condoleezza Rice
Condoleezza Rice
Condoleezza Rice

Incumbent
Assumed office 
January 26, 2005
President George W. Bush
Preceded by Colin Powell
Succeeded by Incumbent

Born November 14, 1954 (1954-11-14) (age 52)
Birmingham, Alabama
Political party Republican
Alma mater University of Denver
Profession Professor, Provost, Diplomat, Politician
Religion Presbyterian

Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is the 66th United States Secretary of State, and the second in the administration of President George W. Bush to hold the office. Rice is the first African American woman, second African American (after Colin Powell, who served before her from 2001 - 2005), and second woman (after Madeleine Albright who served from 1997 to 2001, before Colin Powell) to serve as Secretary of State. Download high resolution version (4000x5000, 7681 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... The incumbent, in politics, is the current holder of a political office. ... January 26 is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... General Colin Luther Powell, United States Army (Ret. ... November 14 is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Location in Jefferson County in the state of Alabama Coordinates: Country United States State Alabama County Jefferson, Shelby Government  - Mayor Bernard Kincaid (D) Area  - City  151. ... Official language(s) English Capital Montgomery Largest city Birmingham Area  Ranked 30th  - Total 52,419 sq mi (135,765 km²)  - Width 190 miles (306 km)  - Length 330 miles (531 km)  - % water 3. ... The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. ... The University of Denver (DU) is an independent, coeducational, four-year university in Denver, Colorado. ... The meaning of the word professor (Latin: one who claims publicly to be an expert) varies. ... Provost is the title of a senior academic administrator at many institutions of higher education in the United States and Canada, the equivalent of Vice-Chancellor at certain UK universites such as UCL, and the head of certain Oxbridge colleges (e. ... This page is about negotiations; for the board game, see Diplomacy (game). ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... November 14 is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... The presidential seal was first used in 1880 by President Rutherford B. Hayes and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... General Colin Luther Powell, United States Army (Ret. ... Madeleine Korbel Albright (born Marie Jana Korbelová, IPA: , on May 15, 1937) was the first woman to become United States Secretary of State. ...


Condoleezza Rice was President Bush's National Security Advisor during his first term (2001–2005). Before joining the Bush administration, she was a Professor of political science at Stanford University where she served as Provost from 1993 to 1999. The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, commonly referred to as the National Security Advisor, serves as the chief advisor to the President of the United States on national security issues. ... The meaning of the word professor (Latin: one who claims publicly to be an expert) varies. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... Leland Stanford Junior University, commonly known as Stanford University (or simply Stanford), is a private university located approximately 37 miles (60 kilometers) southeast of San Francisco and approximately 20 miles northwest of San José in Stanford, California. ... Provost is the title of a senior academic administrator at many institutions of higher education in the United States and Canada, the equivalent of Vice-Chancellor at certain UK universites such as UCL, and the head of certain Oxbridge colleges (e. ...


During the administration of George H. W. Bush, Rice also served as the Soviet and East European Affairs Advisor during the dissolution of the Soviet Union and German reunification. George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Map of Eastern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... The rise of Gorbachev Although reform stalled between 1964–1982, the generational shift gave new momentum for reform. ... German reunification (German: ) took place on October 3, 1990, when the areas of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR, in English commonly called East Germany) were incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, in English commonly called West Germany). The start of this reunification process is commonly referred to...


When beginning as Secretary of State, Rice pioneered a policy of Transformational Diplomacy, with a focus on democracy in the greater Middle East. Her emphasis on supporting democratically elected governments faced challenges as Hamas captured a popular majority in Palestine yet supported Islamist terror, and influential countries including Saudi Arabia and Egypt maintained non-democratic systems with U.S. support. Her policies and strong diplomatic style gained her recognition as a powerful leader by mainstream media. She chairs the Millennium Challenge Corporation's board of directors.[1] Transformational Diplomacy is a diplomacy initiative championed by United States Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice for reinvigorating American Foreign Policy and the United States Foreign Service. ... Participants in the Program; United States as donor is in green, red countries have active compacts, blue countries have active threshold compacts and purple countries are in negotations for either The Millennium Challenge Account (MCA), run by the Millennium Challenge Corporation, is a bilateral development fund announced by the Bush...


In 2004 and 2005, she was ranked as the most powerful woman in the world by Forbes magazine and number two in 2006 (following the Chancellor of Germany, Angela Merkel). She is also one of only three people to have been ranked among the world's most influential people by Time magazine more than three times. The magazine listed Rice in 2004,[2] 2005,[3] 2006,[4] and 2007.[5] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ...   (IPA: ) (born in Hamburg, Germany, on July 17, 1954, as Angela Dorothea Kasner), is the Chancellor of Germany. ... The Time 100 The Time 100 is an annual list of the 100 most influential in the world, as assembled by Time magazine. ... Time (whose trademark is capitalized TIME) is a weekly American newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and U.S. News & World Report. ...

Contents

Early life and education

Rice was born in Birmingham, Alabama, and grew up in the neighborhood of Titusville. She is the only child of Presbyterian minister Reverend John Wesley Rice, Jr., and his wife, the former Angelena Ray. Reverend Rice was a guidance counselor at Ullman High School and minister of Westminster Presbyterian Church, which had been founded by his father. Angelena was a science, music and oratory teacher at Ullman.[6] Nickname: Location in Jefferson County in the state of Alabama Coordinates: Country United States State Alabama County Jefferson, Shelby Government  - Mayor Bernard Kincaid (D) Area  - City  151. ... Official language(s) English Capital Montgomery Largest city Birmingham Area  Ranked 30th  - Total 52,419 sq mi (135,765 km²)  - Width 190 miles (306 km)  - Length 330 miles (531 km)  - % water 3. ... Titusville (pronounced or ) is a historic neighborhood in Birmingham, Alabama, USA. It is centered on 6th Avenue South between downtown and Elmwood Cemetery. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... Reverend John Wesley Rice, Jr. ... Angelena Ray Rice (1924 – June 1985), teacher of high school music and science in Birmingham, Alabama and Denver, Colorado, was the mother of United States Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice. ...


Condoleezza (whose name is derived from the Italian musical expression, Con dolcezza, which means "with sweetness"[7]) experienced firsthand the injustices of Birmingham's discriminatory laws and attitudes. She was instructed to walk proudly in public and to use the facilities at home rather than subject herself to the indignity of "colored" facilities in town. As Rice recalls of her parents and their peers, "they refused to allow the limits and injustices of their time to limit our horizons."[8]


However, Rice recalls various times in which she suffered discrimination on account of her race, which included being relegated to a storage room at a department store instead of a regular dressing room, being barred from going to the circus or the local amusement park, being denied hotel rooms, and even being given bad food at restaurants.[7] Also, while Condoleezza was mostly kept by her parents from areas where she might face discrimination, she was very aware of the civil rights struggle and the problems of Jim Crow Birmingham. A neighbor, Juliemma Smith, described how "[Condi] used to call me and say things like, 'Did you see what Bull Connor did today?' She was just a little girl and she did that all the time. I would have to read the newspaper thoroughly because I wouldn’t know what she was going to talk about."[7] Rice herself said of the segregation era: "Those terrible events burned into my consciousness. I missed many days at my segregated school because of the frequent bomb threats."[7] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Theophilus Eugene Bull Connor (July 11, 1897, Selma, Alabama – March 10, 1973) was a Democratic police official in the Southern U.S. state of Alabama during the American Civil Rights Movement, a member of the Ku Klux Klan, and a staunch advocate of racial segregation. ...


During the violent days of the Civil Rights Movement, Reverend Rice armed himself and kept guard over the house while Condoleezza practiced the piano inside. According to J.L. Chestnut, Reverend Rice called local civil rights leader Fred Shuttlesworth and his followers "uneducated, misguided Negroes."[9][10] Also, Reverend Rice instilled in his daughter and students that black people would have to prove themselves worthy of advancement, and would simply have to be "twice as good" to overcome injustices built into the system.[11] Rice said “My parents were very strategic, I was going to be so well prepared, and I was going to do all of these things that were revered in white society so well, that I would be armored somehow from racism. I would be able to confront white society on its own terms.”[12] While the Rice's supported the goals of the civil rights movement, they did not agree with the idea of putting their child in harm's way.[7] Martin Luther King is perhaps most famous for his I Have a Dream speech, given in front of the Lincoln Memorial during the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom This article is about the civil rights movement following the Brown v. ... Fred Shuttlesworth (b. ...


Rice was eight when her schoolmate Denise McNair, aged 11, was killed in the bombing of the primarily African American Sixteenth Street Baptist Church by white supremacists on September 15, 1963. Martin Luther King called on "every Negro" who has passively "stood on the sidelines" to "substitute caution for courage."[13] Rice has commented upon that moment in her life: The 16th Street Baptist Church bombing was a racially motivated terrorist incident at 16th Street Baptist Church, Birmingham, Alabama, in the United States. ... White supremacy is a racist ideology which holds the belief that white people are superior to other races. ... September 15 is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

I remember the bombing of that Sunday School at 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham in 1963. I did not see it happen, but I heard it happen, and I felt it happen, just a few blocks away at my father’s church. It is a sound that I will never forget, that will forever reverberate in my ears. That bomb took the lives of four young girls, including my friend and playmate, Denise McNair. The crime was calculated to suck the hope out of young lives, bury their aspirations. But those fears were not propelled forward, those terrorists failed.[14]

Condoleezza Rice, Commencement 2004, Vanderbilt University, May 13, 2004

Rice states that growing up during racial segregation taught her determination against adversity, and the need to be "twice as good" as non-minorities.[15] Segregation also hardened her stance on the right to bear arms; Rice has said in interviews that if gun registration had been mandatory, her father's weapons would have been confiscated, leaving them defenseless against Ku Klux Klan nightriders.[7] The Rex Theatre for Colored People Racial segregation is characterized by separation of different races in daily life when both are doing equal tasks, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or... The Bill of Rights in the National Archives Amendment II (the Second Amendment) of the United States Constitution, which is part of the Bill of Rights, declares a well regulated militia as being necessary to the security of a free State, and prohibits Congress from infringement of the right of... Gun politics fundamentally involves the politics of two related questions: Does a government have valid authority to impose regulations on guns? And, assuming such authority, should a government regulate guns and to what extent?[1] The answer to these questions and the nature of the politics varies and depends on... Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ...

Condoleezza Rice as an undergraduate student at the University of Denver
Condoleezza Rice as an undergraduate student at the University of Denver

Rice started learning French, music, figure skating and ballet at age three.[16] At age 15, she began classes with the goal of becoming a concert pianist. Her plans changed when she realized that she did not play well enough to support herself through music alone.[17] While Rice is not a professional pianist, she still practices often and plays with a chamber music group. Rice made use of her pianist training to accompany cellist Yo-Yo Ma for Brahms's Violin Sonata in D Minor at Constitution Hall in April 2002 for the National Medal of Arts Awards.[18] Image File history File links Condi_as_a_College_Student. ... Image File history File links Condi_as_a_College_Student. ... Pianist Claudio Arrau, Carnegie Hall, 1954. ... The violoncello, almost always abbreviated to cello, or cello (the c is pronounced as the ch in cheese), is a bowed stringed instrument, the lowest-sounding member of the violin family. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Ma Yo-Yo Ma (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (b. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... DAR Constitution Hall DAR Constitution Hall is a concert hall located in Washington, D.C. It was built in 1929 by the Daughters of the American Revolution, which still owns the theater. ...


In 1967, the family moved to Denver, Colorado. She attended St. Mary's Academy, a private all-girls Catholic high school in Cherry Hills Village, Colorado. After studying piano at the Aspen Music Festival and School, Rice enrolled at the University of Denver, where her father both served as an assistant dean and taught a class called "The Black Experience in America." Dean John Rice opposed institutional racism, government oppression, and the Vietnam War. This article refers to the state capital of Colorado. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... St. ... Cherry Hills Village is a city located in Arapahoe County, Colorado. ... Founded in 1949, the Aspen Music Festival and School is an internationally renowned classical music festival that presents world-class music in an intimate, small-town setting. ... The University of Denver (DU) is an independent, coeducational, four-year university in Denver, Colorado. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...


Rice attended a course on international politics taught by Josef Korbel, the father of future Secretary of State Madeleine Albright. This experience sparked her interest in the Soviet Union and international relations and made her call Korbel "one of the most central figures in my life."[19] Josef Korbel (1909–1977) was a Czechoslovakian diplomat and U.S. educator, who is now best known as the father of Bill Clintons Secretary of State, Madeleine Albright, and the mentor of George W. Bushs Secretary of State, Condoleezza Rice. ... Madeleine Korbel Albright (born Marie Jana Korbelová, IPA: , on May 15, 1937) was the first woman to become United States Secretary of State. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      International relations (IR), a branch of political science, is the study of foreign affairs and global issues among states within the international system, including the roles of states, inter-governmental organizations (IGOs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and multinational corporations (MNCs). ...


Rice graduated from St. Mary's Academy in 1970. In 1974, at age 19, Rice earned her B.A. in political science, Phi Beta Kappa, from the University of Denver. In 1975, she obtained her Master's Degree in political science from the University of Notre Dame. She first worked in the State Department in 1977, during the Carter administration, as an intern in the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs. In 1981, at the age of 26, she received her Ph.D. in Political Science from the Graduate School of International Studies at Denver. The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... The Phi Beta Kappa Society is an honor society which considers its mission to be fostering and recognizing excellence in undergraduate liberal arts and sciences. ... “M.S.” redirects here. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... The University of Notre Dame IPA: is a Roman Catholic institution located in Notre Dame, Indiana, immediately northeast of South Bend, Indiana, United States. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... Order: 39th President Term of Office: January 20, 1977–January 20, 1981 Preceded by: Gerald Ford Succeeded by: Ronald Reagan Date of birth: October 1, 1924 Place of birth: Plains, Georgia Date of death: Place of death: First Lady: Rosalynn Carter Political party: Democratic Vice President: Walter Mondale James... Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated Ph. ...


Rice was a Democrat until 1982 when she changed her political affiliation to Republican after growing averse to former President Carter's foreign policy.[20] She also cited influence from her father, John Wesley, in this decision, who himself switched from Democrat to Republican after being denied voting registration by the Democratic registrar. In her words to the 2000 Republican National Convention, "My father joined our party because the Democrats in Jim Crow Alabama of 1952 would not register him to vote. The Republicans did."[21] In addition to English, she speaks, with varying degrees of fluency, Russian, German, French, and Spanish.[22] The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. ... Order: 39th President Term of Office: January 20, 1977–January 20, 1981 Preceded by: Gerald Ford Succeeded by: Ronald Reagan Date of birth: October 1, 1924 Place of birth: Plains, Georgia Date of death: Place of death: First Lady: Rosalynn Carter Political party: Democratic Vice President: Walter Mondale James... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Academic career

Condoleezza Rice during a 2005 interview on ITV in London
Condoleezza Rice during a 2005 interview on ITV in London

Rice was hired by Stanford University as an Assistant Professor in Political Science (1981–1987). She was granted tenure and promoted, first to Associate Professor (1987–1993), and then to Provost, the chief budget and academic officer of the university (1993–1999), and full Professor (1993–present).[23] Rice was the first female, first minority, and youngest Provost at Stanford.[24] She was also named a Senior Fellow of the Institute for International Studies, and a Senior Fellow (by courtesy) of the Hoover Institution. She was a specialist on the former Soviet Union and gave lectures on the subject for the Berkeley-Stanford joint program led by UC Berkeley Professor George Breslauer in the mid-1980s. As Stanford's Provost, Rice was responsible for managing the university's multi-billion dollar budget. The school at that time was running a deficit of $20 million. When Rice took office, she promised that the budget deficit would be balanced within "two years." Coit Blacker, Stanford's deputy director of the Institute for International Studies, said there "was a sort of conventional wisdom that said it couldn't be done ... that [the deficit] was structural, that we just had to live with it." Two years later, Rice announced that the deficit been eliminated and the university was holding a record surplus of over $14.5 million.[25] Rice’s Stanford appointment was considered an effort to address concerns about alleged bias.[citation needed] Stanford President Gerhard Casper said the university was "most fortunate in persuading someone of Professor Rice's exceptional talents and proven ability in critical situations to take on this task. Everything she has done, she has done well; I have every confidence that she will continue that record as provost."[26] Casper told the New Yorker in 2002 that it “would be disingenuous for me to say that the fact that she was a woman, the fact that she was black … weren't in my mind." Rice drew protests when she departed from the practice of applying affirmative action to tenure decisions and unsuccessfully sought to consolidate the university's ethnic community centers.[27] Condoleezza Rice Official portrait of National Security Advisor Dr. Condoleezza Rice White House photo by Tina Hager. ... Condoleezza Rice Official portrait of National Security Advisor Dr. Condoleezza Rice White House photo by Tina Hager. ... Leland Stanford Junior University, commonly known as Stanford University (or simply Stanford), is a private university located approximately 37 miles (60 kilometers) southeast of San Francisco and approximately 20 miles northwest of San José in Stanford, California. ... A professor is a senior teacher and researcher, usually in a college or university. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... Look up tenure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A professor is a senior teacher and researcher, usually in a college or university. ... Provost is the title of a senior academic administrator at many institutions of higher education in the United States and Canada, the equivalent of Vice-Chancellor at certain UK universites such as UCL, and the head of certain Oxbridge colleges (e. ... The meaning of the word professor (Latin: one who claims publicly to be an expert) varies. ... The Harvard Society of Fellows is a collection of luminaries selected by Harvard University to be held close to its bosom, given special honors, thrown elegant dinners, and upon whom various privileges are bestowed. ... The Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies is a comglomerate of research centers at Stanford University in Stanford, California. ... Hoover Tower at the Hoover Institution The Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace is a public policy think tank and library founded by Herbert Hoover at Stanford University, his alma mater. ... Sather tower (the Campanile) looking out over the San Francisco Bay and Mount Tamalpais. ... Gerhard Casper (born 1937) is a constitutional scholar who is currently a faculty member at Stanford University. ...


Private sector

Rice headed Chevron's committee on public policy until she resigned on January 15, 2001, to become National Security Advisor to President George W. Bush. Chevron honored Rice by naming an oil tanker Condoleezza Rice after her, but controversy led to its being renamed Altair Voyager.[28] January 15 is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, commonly referred to as the National Security Advisor, serves as the chief advisor to the President of the United States on national security issues. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ...


She also served on the board of directors for the Carnegie Corporation, the Charles Schwab Corporation, the Chevron Corporation, Hewlett Packard, the Rand Corporation, the Transamerica Corporation, and other organizations. In relation to a company, a director is an officer (that is, someone who works for the company) charged with the conduct and management of its affairs. ... The Carnegie Corporation was founded by the will of Andrew Carnegie in 1911 to promote the advancement and diffusion of knowledge and understanding. ... The Charles Schwab Corporation NASDAQ: SCHW is the worlds largest discount broker. ... Chevron Corporation (NYSE: CVX) is one of the worlds largest global energy companies. ... The Hewlett-Packard Company (NYSE: HPQ), commonly known as HP, is currently the worlds largest information technology corporation (by revenue) and is known worldwide for its printers, personal computers and related services. ... Alternate meanings: See RAND (disambiguation) The RAND Corporation is an American think tank first formed to offer research and analysis to the U.S. military. ... Transamerica Corporaion is an insurance and investment company in the United States. ...


In 1992 Rice founded the Center for New Generation, an after-school program created to raise the high school graduation numbers of East Palo Alto and eastern Menlo Park, California.[29] Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... East Palo Alto (or simply EPA) is a city located in San Mateo County, California, United States. ... Menlo Park is the name of some places in the United States of America: Menlo Park, California Menlo Park, New Jersey (See also Menlo. ...


Political career

Early phase

In 1986, while an international affairs fellow of the Council on Foreign Relations, Rice served as Special Assistant to the Director of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) is an influential and independent, nonpartisan foreign policy membership organization founded in 1921 and based at 58 East 68th Street (corner Park Avenue) in New York City, with an additional office in Washington, D.C. Through its membership, meetings, and studies, it has been... Joint Chiefs of Staff of the United States of America symbol The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) is a grouping comprising the Chiefs of service of each major branch of the armed services in the United States armed forces. ...


From 1989 through March 1991 (the period of the fall of Berlin Wall and the final days of the Soviet Union), she served in President George H.W. Bush's administration as Director, and then Senior Director, of Soviet and East European Affairs in the National Security Council, and a Special Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs. In this position, Rice helped develop Bush's and Secretary of State James Baker's policies in favor of German reunification. She impressed Bush, who later introduced her to Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev as the one who "tells me everything I know about the Soviet Union."[30] East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall, November 20, 1961. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... The National Security Council (NSC) of the United States is the principal forum used by the President of the United States for considering national security and foreign policy matters with his senior national security advisors and cabinet officials. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... James Addison Baker III (born 28 April 1930 in Houston, Texas) served as the Chief of Staff in President Ronald Reagans first administration, United States Secretary of the Treasury from 1985 to 1988 in the second Reagan administration, and Secretary of State in the administration of President George H... German reunification (German: ) took place on October 3, 1990, when the areas of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR, in English commonly called East Germany) were incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, in English commonly called West Germany). The start of this reunification process is commonly referred to... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (Russian: ), surname more accurately romanized as Gorbachyov; born March 2, 1931) is a Russian politician. ...


In 1991, Rice returned to her teaching position at Stanford, although she continued to serve as a consultant on the former Soviet Bloc for numerous clients in both the public and private sectors. Late that year, California Governor Pete Wilson appointed her to a bipartisan committee that had been formed to draw new state legislative and congressional districts in the state. Governors Arnold Schwarzenegger and Gray Davis with President George W. Bush (2003) The Governor of California is the highest executive authority in the state government, whose responsibilities include making yearly State of the State addresses to the California State Legislature, submitting the budget, attending a grand meeting with all the... Peter Barton Wilson (born August 23, 1933) is an American Republican politician from California. ...


In 1997, she sat on the Federal Advisory Committee on Gender-Integrated Training in the Military.


During George W. Bush's 2000 U.S. Presidential election campaign, Rice took a one-year leave of absence from Stanford University to help work as his foreign policy advisor. The group of advisors she led called itself The Vulcans in honor of the monumental Vulcan statue, which sits on a hill overlooking her hometown of Birmingham, Alabama. Rice would later go on to give a noteworthy speech at the 2000 Republican National Convention. The speech asserted that “…America's armed forces are not a global police force. They are not the world's 911.”[31][32] Map The U.S. presidential election of 2000 took place on Election Day, Tuesday, November 7. ... Leland Stanford Junior University, commonly known as Stanford University (or simply Stanford), is a private university located approximately 37 miles (60 kilometers) southeast of San Francisco and approximately 20 miles northwest of San José in Stanford, California. ... The Vulcan statue in Birmingham. ... The Vulcan statue The Vulcan statue is the largest cast iron statue in the world and the symbol of Birmingham, Alabama. ... Nickname: Location in Jefferson County in the state of Alabama Coordinates: Country United States State Alabama County Jefferson, Shelby Government  - Mayor Bernard Kincaid (D) Area  - City  151. ... The 2000 Republican National Convention convened at the Wachovia Center (then the First Union Center) in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania from July 31 to August 3, 2000. ...


National Security Advisor (2001-2005)

On December 17, 2000, Rice was picked to serve as National Security Advisor and stepped down from her position at Stanford. She was the first woman to occupy the post. Rice earned the nickname of “Warrior Princess,” reflecting strong nerve and delicate manners.[33] U.S. President George W. Bush (at podium) discusses his plan for peace in the Middle East as National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice (left), Secretary of State Colin Powell (center) and Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld (right) stand by his side in the White House Rose Garden on June 24... U.S. President George W. Bush (at podium) discusses his plan for peace in the Middle East as National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice (left), Secretary of State Colin Powell (center) and Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld (right) stand by his side in the White House Rose Garden on June 24... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... General Colin Luther Powell, United States Army (Ret. ... The United States Secretary of Defense is the head of the United States Department of Defense (DoD), concerned with the armed services and The role of the Secretary of Defense is to be the principal defense policy advisor to the President and is responsible for the formulation of general defense... Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is a U.S. politician and businessman, who was the 13th Secretary of Defense under President Gerald Ford from 1975–1977, and the 21st Secretary of Defense under President George W. Bush from 2001–2006. ... The presidential seal was first used in 1880 by President Rutherford B. Hayes and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... June 24 is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 190 days remaining. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, commonly referred to as the National Security Advisor, serves as the chief advisor to the President of the United States on national security issues. ...


During the summer of 2001, Rice met with CIA Director George Tenet on an almost daily basis to discuss the possibilities and prevention of terrorist attacks on American targets. Notably, on July 10, 2001, Rice met with Tenet in what he referred to as an "emergency meeting"[34] held at the White House at Tenet's request to brief Rice and the NSC staff about the potential threat of an al Qaeda attack. Rice responded by asking Tenet to give a presentation on the matter to Secretary Rumsfeld and (now-former) Attorney General John Ashcroft.[35] The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... George Tenet George John Tenet (born January 5, 1953) is Distinguished Professor in the Practice of Diplomacy at Georgetown University and was previously the Director of Central Intelligence for the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. ... July 10 is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Al-Qaeda (also al-Qaida or al-Qaida) (Arabic: ‎ , translation: The Base) is an international alliance of militant jihadist organizations established by Osama bin Laden and others around the time of the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan in 1989. ... Seal of the United States Department of Justice The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice (see 28 U.S.C. Â§ 503) concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... John David Ashcroft (born May 9, 1942) was the 79th Attorney General of the United States. ...


When asked about the meeting in 2006, Rice asserted she did not recall the specific meeting, commenting that she had met repeatedly with Tenet that summer about terrorist threats. Moreover, she stated that it was "incomprehensible” to her that she ignored terrorist threats two months before the September 11 attacks.[36] A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly...


Rice was an outspoken proponent of the 2003 invasion of Iraq. After Iraq delivered its declaration of weapons of mass destruction to the United Nations on December 8, 2002, Rice wrote an editorial for The New York Times entitled Why We Know Iraq Is Lying.[37] The subject of this article is the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... For the album, see Weapons of Mass Destruction (album). ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... December 8 is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Look up editorial, op-ed in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City by Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. ...


In March 2004, Rice declined to testify before the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States (the 9/11 Commission). The White House claimed executive privilege under constitutional separation of powers and cited past tradition. Under pressure, Bush agreed to allow her to testify[38] so long as it did not create a precedent of Presidential staff being required to appear before United States Congress when so requested. Her appearance before the commission on April 8, 2004, was accepted by the Bush administration in part because she was not appearing directly before Congress. She thus became the first sitting National Security Advisor to testify on matters of policy. In April 2007, Rice rejected, on grounds of executive privilege, a House subpoena regarding the prewar claim that Iraq sought yellowcake uranium from Niger.[39] The Commissions seal The National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, also known as the 9/11 Commission, was set up in late 2002 to prepare a full and complete account of the circumstances surrounding the September 11, 2001 attacks including preparedness for and the immediate response... The Commissions seal The National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, also known as the 9/11 Commission, was set up in late 2002 to prepare a full and complete account of the circumstances surrounding the September 11, 2001 attacks, including preparedness for and the immediate response... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Separation of powers a term coined by French political Enlightenment thinker Baron de Montesquieu[1][2], is a model for the governance of democratic states. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives United States Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid, D since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, D since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups (as of November 7, 2006 elections) Democratic Party Republican... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Leading up to the 2004 U.S. Presidential election, Rice became the first National Security Advisor to campaign for an incumbent president. She stated that while: "Saddam Hussein had nothing to do with the actual attacks on America, Saddam Hussein's Iraq was a part of the Middle East that was festering and unstable, [and] was part of the circumstances that created the problem on September 11."[40] Presidential electoral votes by state. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


On January 18, 2003, the Washington Post reported that Rice was involved in crafting Bush's position on race-based preferences. Rice has stated that "while race-neutral means are preferable," race can be taken into account as "one factor among others" in university admissions policies.[41] January 18 is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... ...


In a January 10, 2003 interview with CNN's Wolf Blitzer, Rice made headlines by stating regarding Iraqi WMD: "The problem here is that there will always be some uncertainty about how quickly he can acquire nuclear weapons. But we don't want the smoking gun to be a mushroom cloud."[42] January 10 is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Wolf Blitzer (born March 22, 1948 in Buffalo, New York) is an American journalist and author. ...


After the invasion, when Iraq turned out to have no WMD capability, critics called Rice's claims a "hoax," "deception" and "demagogic scare tactic."[43][44] "Either she missed or overlooked numerous warnings from intelligence agencies seeking to put caveats on claims about Iraq's nuclear weapons program, or she made public claims that she knew to be false," wrote Dana Milbank and Mike Allen in the Washington Post[45]


Rice characterized the August 6, 2000 President’s Daily Brief, “Bin Laden to Strike in US" historical information. Rice indicated “It was information based on old reporting.”[46] Sean Wilentz of Salon magazine suggested that the PDB contained current information based on continuing investigations, including that Bin Laden wanted to “bring the fighting to America".[47]


Secretary of State (2005-present)

Rice speaks after being nominated to be Secretary of State by President George W. Bush

On November 16, 2004, Bush nominated Rice to be Secretary of State. On January 26, 2005, the Senate confirmed her nomination by a vote of 85–13. The negative votes, the most cast against any nomination for Secretary of State since 1825, came from Senators who, according to Boxer, wanted "to hold Dr. Rice and the Bush administration accountable for their failures in Iraq and in the war on terrorism." Their reasoning was that Rice had acted irresponsibly in equating Hussein's regime with Islamist terrorism and some could not accept her previous record. Senator Robert Byrd voted against Rice’s appointment, indicating that she “has asserted that the President holds far more of the war power than the Constitution grants him.”[48] Condoleezza Rice During President George W. Bushs first administration (2001-2005), Condoleeza Rice served as the Presidents National Security Adviser. ... Condoleezza Rice During President George W. Bushs first administration (2001-2005), Condoleeza Rice served as the Presidents National Security Adviser. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... The presidential seal was first used in 1880 by President Rutherford B. Hayes and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... November 16 is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 45 days remaining. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... January 26 is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Islamist is sometimes also used for a scholar who studies Islam and Muslim societies. ... Robert Carlyle Byrd (born November 20, 1917) is the senior United States Senator from West Virginia and a member of the Democratic Party. ...

Rice signs official papers after receiving the oath of office during her ceremonial swearing in at the Department of State. Watching on are, from left, Laura Bush, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg, President George W. Bush and an unidentified family member.

On October 30, 2005, Rice attended a memorial service in Montgomery, Alabama, in Rice's home state, for Rosa Parks, an inspiration for the American Civil Rights Movement. Rice stated, that she and others who grew up in Alabama during the height of Parks' activism might not have realized her impact on their lives at the time, "but I can honestly say that without Mrs. Parks, I probably would not be standing here today as secretary of state."[49] Image File history File linksMetadata RICEBUSHSIGN.jpg‎ www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata RICEBUSHSIGN.jpg‎ www. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... Laura Lane Welch Bush (born November 4, 1946) is the wife of U.S. President George W. Bush and is thereby the First Lady of the United States. ... Ruth Joan Bader Ginsburg (born March 15, 1933, Brooklyn, New York) is an Associate Justice on the U.S. Supreme Court. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... October 30 is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 62 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Underwater funeral in Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea A funeral is a ceremony marking a persons death. ... Coordinates: Country United States State Alabama County Montgomery Incorporated December 3, 1819 Mayor Bobby Bright Area    - City 404. ... Rosa Louise McCauley Parks (February 4, 1913 – October 24, 2005) was an African American civil rights activist and seamstress whom the U.S. Congress dubbed the Mother of the Modern-Day Civil Rights Movement. Parks is famous for her refusal on December 1, 1955 to obey bus driver James Blake... Martin Luther King is perhaps most famous for his I Have a Dream speech, given in front of the Lincoln Memorial during the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom This article is about the civil rights movement following the Brown v. ...


As of June 11, 2007 Secretary Rice has visited sixty-four countries with a total 593,605 miles and 1255.5 hours (52.31 days) of time.[50] June 11 is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...


Major initiatives

As Secretary of State, Rice has championed the expansion of democratic governments. Rice stated that 9/11 was rooted in “oppression and despair” and so, the U.S. must advance democratic reform and support basic rights throughout the greater Middle East.[51] Rice has also reformed and restructured the department, as well as U.S. diplomacy as a whole. "Transformational Diplomacy" is the goal which Rice describes as "work[ing] with our many partners around the world ... [and] build[ing] and sustain[ing] democratic, well-governed states that will respond to the needs of their people and conduct themselves responsibly in the international system."[52] Seal of the United States Department of State. ... Transformational Diplomacy is a diplomacy initiative championed by United States Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice for reinvigorating American Foreign Policy and the United States Foreign Service. ...


Rice's Transformational Diplomacy involves five core elements:

  • Relocating American diplomats to the places in the world where they are needed most, such as China, India, Brazil, Egypt, Nigeria, Indonesia, South Africa, and Lebanon.
  • Requiring diplomats to serve some time in hardship locations such as Iraq, Afghanistan, Sudan, and Angola; gain expertise in at least two regions; and become fluent in two foreign languages, such as Chinese, Arabic, or Urdu.
  • Focusing on regional solutions to problems like terrorism, drug trafficking, and diseases.
  • Working with other countries on a bilateral basis to help them build a stronger infrastructure, and decreasing foreign nations' dependence on American hand-outs and assistance.
  • Creating a high-level position, Director of Foreign Assistance, to oversee U.S. foreign aid, thus de-fragmenting U.S. foreign assistance.

Rice said that these moves were needed to help "maintain security, fight poverty, and make democratic reforms" in these countries and would help improve foreign nations' legal, economic, healthcare, and educational systems.[52] [53] Arabic is a Semitic language, closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... (, historically spelled Ordu), is an Middle Eastern-Aryan language. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... Retail selling Street selling is the bottom of the chain and can be accomplished through purchasing from prostitutes, through cloaked retail stores or refuse houses for users in the act located in red-light districts which often also deal in paraphernalia, dealers marketing merriment at night clubs and other events... This article is about law in society. ... Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [okos], house, and νέμω [nemo], rules hence household management) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. ... Health care or healthcare is one of the worlds largest and fastest growing professions. ...


Another aspect of Transformational Diplomacy is the emphasis on finding regional solutions. Rice also pressed for finding transnational solutions as well, stating that "in the 21st century, geographic regions are growing ever more integrated economically, politically and culturally. This creates new opportunities but it also presents new challenges, especially from transnational threats like terrorism and weapons proliferation and drug smuggling and trafficking in persons and disease."[52]

Rice unveils her plan for restructuring American foreign policy, which she calls "Transformational Diplomacy," during a January 18, 2006 speech at Georgetown University
Rice unveils her plan for restructuring American foreign policy, which she calls "Transformational Diplomacy," during a January 18, 2006 speech at Georgetown University

Another aspect of the emphasis on regional solutions is the implementation of small, agile, "rapid-response" teams to tackle problems like disease, instead of the traditional approach of calling on experts in an embassy. Rice explained that this means moving diplomats out of the "back rooms of foreign ministries" and putting more effort into "localizing" the State Department's diplomatic posture in foreign nations. The Secretary emphasized the need for diplomats to move into the largely unreached "bustling new population centers" and to spread out "more widely across countries" in order to become more familiar with local issues and people.[52] Image File history File links Rice_Transformational_Diplomacy_Speech. ... Image File history File links Rice_Transformational_Diplomacy_Speech. ... President of the United States, George W. Bush (right) at Camp David in March 2003, hosting the British Prime Minister Tony Blair. ... January 18 is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Georgetown University, incorporated as the The President and Directors of the College of Georgetown, is a private university in the United States, located in Georgetown, a historic neighborhood of Washington, D.C. With roots extending back to March 25, 1634 and founded in its current form on January 23, 1789... A diplomatic mission is a group of people from one nation state present in another nation state to represent the sending state in the receiving State. ...


Rice restructured U.S. foreign assistance,naming Randall L. Tobias, an AIDS relief expert, as administrator of USAID (U.S. Agency for International Development). Tobias, as a deputy secretary of state, had the job of focusing foreign assistance efforts and de-fragmenting the disparate aid offices to improve effectiveness and efficiency.[54] Randall L. Tobias, U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator, was sworn in on October 6th, 2003. ... The United States Agency for International Development (or USAID) is the US government organization responsible for most non-military foreign aid. ...


Rice says these initiatives are necessary because of the highly "extraordinary time" in which Americans live. She compares the moves to the historic initiatives taken after World War II, which she claims helped stabilize Europe as it is known today. Rice states that her Transformational Diplomacy is not merely about "influencing" or "reporting on" governments, but "changing people's lives" through tackling the issues like AIDS, the education of women, and the defeat of violent extremism.[52] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


In early 2007, Rice indicated that State Department employees were volunteering in large numbers, yet Defense Secretary Gates expressed concerns regarding a request from Rice that military personnel fill jobs in Iraq that are the responsibility of the State Department. [55]

Rice meets with Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert and Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas at a trilateral meeting in Jerusalem, Feb 2007
Rice meets with Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert and Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas at a trilateral meeting in Jerusalem, Feb 2007

Image File history File links Rice_Olmert_Abbas_2007. ... Image File history File links Rice_Olmert_Abbas_2007. ... Ehud Olmert (IPA ; Hebrew:אהוד אולמרט; born September 30, 1945) is the 12th and current Prime Minister of Israel. ... Mahmoud Abbas (Arabic: محمود عباس) (born March 26, 1935), commonly known by the kunya or nom de guerre Abu Mazen (ابو مازن), was elected President of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) on January 9, 2005, and took office on January 15, 2005. ...

Regional issues

Middle East

Gaza Withdrawal


Rice worked to persuade Israel to withdraw from Palestinian territories and free up commerce and travel between the two areas. During the summer of 2005, Rice encouraged Israeli leadership to withdraw from settlements in Gaza and the West Bank. Rice spent April 2005 raising support amongst Arab leaders.[56] In July, she visited the region to "help bring the weight of the United States" to the discussions.[57] In September, Rice hailed the successful withdrawal as a victory for both Israel and Palestine, saying, "This is an historic moment for both sides, and the commitment of both sides to a successful disengagement process has been impressive."[58] Gaza is now under Palestinian control once again. However, Palestinians complained that they were not able to travel through border crossings in and out of Gaza, which had stifled commerce.[57] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Statue dedicated to the traveller. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish name Garza or the Egyptian town of Giza. ...


Border Crossings Deal

Rice announces brokering of the deal to open Gaza border crossings after a sleepless 48-hour negotiation

In November 2005, Rice renegotiated an opening of the Gaza border crossings. [59] Secretary Rice extended her visit to Jerusalem for a mediation session November 14, meeting alternately with Israel and Palestinian delegations. Rice negotiated differences between Israel and Palestine that included a proposed blacklist of Palestinians that had been detained by Israel and a concern that future violence would induce a renewed closure of the border crossings. By November 15, Rice announced an agreement to open Gaza's borders, with a system of transportation between Gaza and the West Bank, defining operations for transporting cargo and people across the border and allowing Gaza to reopen its international airport and begin work on a seaport. This included the Rafah border crossing, Palestine's only land link to a country other than Israel. It also inluded monitoring of the crossings by officials from the European Union.[60] Image File history File links Rice_Border_Crossing_Deal. ... Image File history File links Rice_Border_Crossing_Deal. ... November 14 is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... November 15 is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Rafah (Arabic: رفح Hebrew: רפיח) is a town in the Gaza Strip, on the Egyptian border, and a nearby town on the Egyptian side of the border, on the Sinai Peninsula. ...


Gideon Levy, reporter for an Israeli newspaper, complained Rice had accomplished little: "in what was considered the "achievement" of the current visit, Israel also promised to open the Karni crossing. Karni will be open, one can assume, only slightly more than the "safe passage," which never opened following the previous futile visit."[61]


Hamas, Palestinian elections

Map showing electoral districts and areas of formal Palestinian control (green)
Map showing electoral districts and areas of formal Palestinian control (green)

Rice pushed for peaceful, democratic elections in Palestine following the death of Yasser Arafat. Rice asserted that "there should be the ability of Palestinian people to participate in the elections" and claimed that democratic elections would represent "a key step in the process of building a peaceful, democratic Palestinian state." Rice, alluding to the U.S.-labeled terrorist organization Hamas, stated that "there should be no place in the political process for groups or individuals who refuse to renounce terror and violence, recognize Israel's right to exist, and disarm," saying, "You cannot have one foot in politics and the other foot in terror."[62] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1115x1530, 104 KB) Summary Palestine divided into electoral districts (as of 2006), marked with thick black borders. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1115x1530, 104 KB) Summary Palestine divided into electoral districts (as of 2006), marked with thick black borders. ... Not to be confused with Yasir Arafat (cricketer). ... Hamas (Arabic: ; acronym: Arabic: , or Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement,[1]) is a Palestinian Sunni Islamist organization. ...


Rice persuaded a reluctant Israel to allow Israeli Palestinians in East Jerusalem to vote in the Palestinian Authority elections. Israel allowed Palestinians in East Jerusalem to vote in the January 25, 2006 parliamentary elections, while banning Hamas, which officially calls for Israel's destruction, from campaigning there. Rice lauded the turnout and congratulated President Abbas, while informing the victorious Hamas that it would "have to make some difficult choices," saying, "Those who win elections have an obligation to govern democratically. … It now inherits the obligations of a Palestinian government, authority, that go back now for more than a decade to recognize the right of Israel to exist, to renounce violence, to disarm militias, as is the case in the roadmap, and to find a peaceful solution in two states."[63] East Jerusalem is that part of Jerusalem which was held by Jordan from the 1948 Arab-Israeli War until the Six-Day War in 1967. ... January 25 is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...


In response to the Hamas victory, Israel withheld funds belonging to the Palestinian Authority, and reinforced restrictions on movement in and out of the Gaza Strip and within the West Bank. Rice stated: “Clearly, [Hamas] cannot govern in a circumstance in which they cannot represent a responsible government before the international system.” Rice told her Israeli counterpart that “the economic boycott on the Hamas-led Palestinian government is effective and in the international community will continue to maintain the boycott.”[64]


George Soros faulted Rice for refusing to deal with Hamas. "[N]o progress is possible as long as the Bush administration and the Ehud Olmert government persist in their current position of refusing to recognize a unity government that includes Hamas. The recent meeting between Condoleezza Rice, Abbas, and Olmert turned into an empty formality," said Soros. This was playing into the hands of the hard-liners in Hamas, increasing the influence of Syria and Iran, and would escalate the fighting, Soros said.[65]


Immediately following Hamas' victory in the elections, Rice attempted to garner international support in demanding that Hamas recognize Israel's right to exist. By April, Hamas officials appeared to publicly state that they are willing to work toward recognizing Israel. Under their terms, Israel would have to fully withdraw from disputed territories, including Gaza, the West Bank, and East Jerusalem.[66] Many saw this as a positive starting point for negotiations that would allow the "roadmap" process to continue. The statement was verified by Hamas leaders such as Mohammed Ghazal, a Hamas militia official, who stated that Hamas may be willing to amend its charter to recognize Israel, saying, "The charter is not the Quran." Ghazal went on to state that while he agreed with Hamas' positions, "we’re talking now about reality, about political solutions … The realities are different."[67] The Quran (Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ...


2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict

Rice delivers a special briefing on Middle East Peace in the State Department Briefing Room, July 21, 2006

In mid-July 2006, the Middle East peace process encountered a new obstacle on a different front when Hezbollah fighters from Lebanon launched rocket attacks into Israel and ambushed Israeli convoys, kidnapping two soldiers and killing three, sparking what has become known as the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict. Rice immediately condemned the act, calling Hezbollah a "terrorist organization" and saying that the action "undermines regional stability and goes against the interests of both the Israeli and Lebanese people," specifically calling on Syria to "use its influence to support a positive outcome."[68] That day, Rice was one of the first to speak directly to UN Secretary General Kofi Annan, Lebanese Prime Minister Fouad Siniora and Israeli Foreign Minister Tzipi Livni concerning the incident. Israel initiated aerial bombardments against Lebanon on July 13 and sent in land troops on July 23 to take out rocket launching sites that were shelling Northern Israeli cities, as well as to look for and recover the two kidnapped Israeli soldiers. Image File history File links Rice_Special_Briefing_on_Mideast_Peace. ... Image File history File links Rice_Special_Briefing_on_Mideast_Peace. ... For other uses, see Hezbollah (disambiguation). ... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... The United Nations Secretary-General is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal divisions of the United Nations. ... Kofi Atta Annan (born April 8, 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1, 1997 to January 1, 2007, serving two five-year terms. ... Fouad Siniora (alternative spellings: Fouad Sanyoura, Fuad Siniora, Fouad Saniora, Fouad Seniora) (Arabic: ‎, Fuād As-SanyÅ«rah) is the Prime Minister of Lebanon, a position he assumed on 19 July 2005, succeeding Najib Mikati. ... Foreign Affair Ministers of Israel, 1948-present Moshe Sharett 1948-1956 Golda Meir 1956-1966 Abba Eban 1966-1974 Yigal Allon 1974-1977 Moshe Dayan 1977-1979 Menachem Begin 1979-1980 Yitzhak Shamir 1980-1986 Shimon Peres 1986-1988 Moshe Arens 1988-1990 David Levy 1990-1992 Shimon Peres 1992... Tzipora Tzipi Malka Livni (Hebrew: , born July 8, 1958 in Tel Aviv, Israel) is Foreign Affairs Minister and Vice Prime Minister [1] of Israel. ... July 13 is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... July 23 is the 204th day (205th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 161 days remaining. ...


During the conflict, Rice supported Israel's right to defend itself from Hezbollah attacks, she repeatedly cautioned Israel to be responsible in minimizing collateral damage. Before the major fighting began, Rice demanded that both Israel and Lebanon "act with restraint to resolve this incident peacefully and to protect innocent life and civilian infrastructure." She also continued to pressure Syria to take a more active positive role throughout the crisis, accusing Syria of "sheltering the people who have been perpetrating these acts" and calling on it "to act responsibly and stop the use of its territory for these kinds of activities[,] to bring all pressure on those that it is harbouring to stop this and to return these soldiers and to allow the situation to be de-escalated."[69] Collateral damage is a U.S. Military term for unintended or incidental damage during a military operation. ...

Rice, former UN Secretary General Kofi Annan, and Italian Prime Minister Romano Prodi work to lay the foundation for Resolution 1701, which ultimately imposed a ceasefire on the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict
Rice, former UN Secretary General Kofi Annan, and Italian Prime Minister Romano Prodi work to lay the foundation for Resolution 1701, which ultimately imposed a ceasefire on the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict

When Rice arrived in the Middle East in July 2006, one of her first moves was an unannounced visit to Lebanese Prime Minister Siniora to praise Siniora's "courage and steadfastness" and show U.S. support for the Lebanese people.[70] Rice stated that the conflict was part of "the birth pangs of a new Middle East," stating that Israel, Lebanon, and the international community had to "be certain that we're pushing forward to the new Middle East not going back to the old one"[71] Image File history File links Rice_Annan_and_Siniora. ... Image File history File links Rice_Annan_and_Siniora. ...


At a time when progress appeared possible in the region, the Israeli military launched an airstrike on a suspected Hezbollah hideout in Qana, Lebanon, that killed 20–60 civilians. The airstrike seemed to sour support for Israel's endeavor and Lebanon cancelled a visit by Rice as a result.[72] While the tragedy was a setback in the negotiation process, it seemed to be a turning point for Israel, who, afterward, began taking a path toward a cease-fire. Before Rice left the region on July 27, she was able to negotiate a 48-hour halt on Israeli air-raids. Qana Qana is a village located southeast of Tyre, Lebanon. ... The 2006 Qana airstrike was an attack by the Israel Air Force (IAF) on a building in the small community of al-Khuraybah near the South Lebanese village of Qana on July 30, 2006, during the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict. ... July 27 is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Rice appears with former UN Secretary General Annan to announce the successful passage of Resolution 1701, which imposed a ceasefire on the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict
Rice appears with former UN Secretary General Annan to announce the successful passage of Resolution 1701, which imposed a ceasefire on the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict

Rice returned to the Mideast on July 29, where the outlines of the ceasefire to come began to take shape. Rice demanded that the global community do what it could to ensure that the Mideast region would never again return to the "status quo ante." Rice saw the situation as an opportunity to create a new environment in which Israel and Lebanon could live in peace, and in which Lebanon could have full control over all its territories without Hezbollah acting as a "state within a state," being able to launch terrorist attacks on Israel. Building on the two resolutions that came out of the G8 Conference and the steps that had been taken at the conference in Rome, Italy in late July, Rice worked with other leaders at the United Nations to pass UN Security Council Resolution 1701 on August 11, 2006, which sought to resolve the crisis. The ceasefire went into effect on August 14. The ceasefire that Rice helped broker provided for a full cessation of hostilities, a Lebanese-led international force to take the place of the Israeli forces, the disarmament of Hezbollah, full control of the Lebanese government to Lebanon, and an absence of paramilitary forces (including and implying Hezbollah) south of the Litani River; it also emphasizes the need for the immediate release of the two kidnapped Israeli soldiers. Rice lauded the outcome and expressed pleasure that the hostilities in the area had been brought to an end. Though there were sporadic, but small, spurts of violence after the ceasefire took effect, it has ultimately sustained, while international peacekeeping forces. On October 2, 2006, the last Israeli forces were withdrawn, allowing the UN and the Lebanese military to take over.[73] Image File history File links Rice_and_Annan. ... Image File history File links Rice_and_Annan. ... The Group of Eight (G8) is an international forum for the governments of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States. ... 32nd G8 summit The 32nd summit of the G8 group of industrialised nations took place from July 15 to July 17, 2006 outside Saint Petersburg, Russia. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... United Nations Security Council Resolution 1701 is a resolution intended to resolve the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict. ... August 11 is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... August 14 is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Litani River in red The Litani River (Arabic: نهر الليطاني; transliterated: Nahr al-Lytany) is an important waterway in southern Lebanon. ... October 2 is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...


She had a 30-minute meeting with Walid Muallem, her Syrian counterpart on May 3, 2007 – the first such talks at this level since 2005.[74] Walid Muallem (born 1941) is the current foreign minister of Syria and a long-time diplomat in that country. ... May 3 is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...


Egypt

In February 2005, Rice abruptly postponed a visit to Egypt, reflecting displeasure at the jailing of a leading opposition figure, Ayman Nour. Nour, head of the liberal Tomorrow Party, was reported to have been brutally interrogated.[75] Nour was freed by Egyptian authorities in March 2005, and began a campaign for the Egyptian presidency.[76] Ayman Abd El-Aziz Nour (Arabic: ) is an Egyptian politician, a former member of that countrys Parliament and chairman of the al-Ghad party (Tomorrow Party). He became famous around the world following his January 2005 imprisonment by the government of President Hosni Mubarak, which was widely understood as...


In June 2005, Rice addressed democracy in the Middle East at the American University in Cairo. She stated: “There are those who say that democracy leads to chaos, or conflict, or terror. In fact, the opposite is true. … Ladies and Gentlemen: Across the Middle East today, millions of citizens are voicing their aspirations for liberty and for democracy …demanding freedom for themselves and democracy for their countries. To these courageous men and women, I say today: All free nations will stand with you as you secure the blessings of your own liberty”[77]


Nour finished second in Egypt's presidential race, held in 2005. In December 2005, Egypt imprisoned Nour on forgery charges that were disputed by human-rights groups. In February 2006, Rice visited Hosni Mubarak yet never spoke Nour's name publicly. When asked about him at a news conference, she referred to his situation as one of Egypt's setbacks. Days later, Mubarak told a government newspaper that Rice "didn't bring up difficult issues or ask to change anything."[78] Mohammed Habib, an Egyptian Brotherhood official, stated: “Hamas's victory made the U.S. take a contrary position to promoting democracy in Egypt and favor a hereditary succession.”[79] Muhammad Hosni Said Mubarak (Arabic: محمد حسنى سيد مبارك Muḥammad ḤusnÄ« Mubārak), commonly known as Hosni Mubarak (Arabic: حسنى مبارك ḤusnÄ« Mubārak), has been the President of Egypt since 14 October 1981. ...


In 2005, Egypt acknowledged that the US had transferred 60 detainees to Egypt as part of the "war on terror". In 2007, Amnesty International reported that Egypt had become an international center for interrogation and torture for other countries.[80]


The second largest recipient of U.S. Foreign Aid is Egypt, with $1.8 billion scheduled for fiscal 2006.[81] Edward Walker, former ambassador to Egypt noted "Aid offers an easy way out for Egypt to avoid reform. They use the money to support antiquated programs and to resist reforms."[82]

Rice shakes hands with former Israeli Foreign Minister Silvan Shalom in a July 2005 visit to Israel
Rice shakes hands with former Israeli Foreign Minister Silvan Shalom in a July 2005 visit to Israel

Rice has worked in the Middle East, including Israel, the Palestinian territories, and its immediate neighbors, especially Lebanon. Rice has supported Israel, defended Israel's right to protect itself, and promoted the "roadmap for peace" which includes the establishment of a sovereign Palestinian state. On August 29, 2006, she stated that the Middle East "should be a Middle East in which there is a Palestinian state in which Palestinians can have their own aspirations met, one that is not corrupt, one that is democratic, [and] one in which there is only one authority."[83] Image File history File links Rice_and_Shalom. ... Image File history File links Rice_and_Shalom. ... Silvan Shalom Silvan Shalom ▶(?) (Hebrew סילבן שלום) (born 1958) is an Israeli politician and current Foreign Minister of Israel, having been appointed in 2003 by the current Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... This article is about the Palestinian territories as a geopolitical phenomenon. ... The road map for peace is a plan to resolve the Israeli-Palestinian conflict proposed by a quartet of international entities: the United States, the European Union, Russia, and the United Nations. ... August 29 is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...


Saudi Arabia

In May 2005, Rice indicated that many Mid East states would “have to answer their people's call for genuine reform. ” She said “[a]nd even Saudi Arabia has held multiple elections.”[84] In April 2007, the New York Times reported that “more than half the decisions made by the councils have not been carried out. Most of the others have been in support of the central government.”[85]


In November 2005, the State Department issued a report critical of restrictions on religion in Saudi Arabia, noting among other things that all citizens were required to be Muslims. Rice has not sanctioned Saudi Arabia, saying she wants “additional time for a continuation of discussions leading to progress on important religious freedom issues.”[86] Criticisms in the report include a 2002 incident in which Saudi religious police stopped students from leaving a burning building because they were not wearing mandated Islamic dress; 15 schoolgirls perished.[87]


Iran

Though the U.S. does not hold formal diplomatic relations with Iran, Rice has been quite entrenched in issues pertaining to Iran, especially in regards to its democratic progress and humanitarian record, Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's threatening statements toward Israel, and its pursuit of nuclear technology. This page is about negotiations; for the board game, see Diplomacy (game). ... Democracy describes a series of related forms of government. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The President of Iran holds a very important office in Irans political establishment. ...   (Persian: ‎ ​, IPA: ), transcribed into English as Mahmud or Mahmood, Ahmadinezhad, Ahmadi-Nejad, Ahmadi Nejad, Ahmady Nejad) (born October 28, 1956) is the current president of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Rice criticized Iran's human rights record and democractic principles. On February 3, 2005, Rice said the Iranian regime's treatment of its people is "something to be loathed." She also stated: "I don't think anybody thinks that the unelected mullahs who run that regime are a good thing for either the Iranian people or for the region."[88] Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... February 3 is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In October 2005, Ahmadinejad stated that "Israel must be wiped off the map,"[89] to which Rice responded: "When the president of one country says that another country should be wiped off the face of the map, in violation of all of the norms of the United Nations, where they sit together as members, it has to be taken seriously." Rice then went on to name Iran as "probably the world's most important state sponsor of terrorism," whose people live "without freedom and without the prospect of freedom because an unelected few are denying them that."[90]


In February 2006, Rice addressed the Senate Foreign Relations Committee and called for funding to aid democratic reform in Iran through television and radio broadcasting, through helping pay for Iranians to study in America, and through supporting pro-democracy groups within the country.[91] Senator Boxer expressed concern that the administration appeared surprised when radical Islamist Mahmoud Ahmadinejad was elected president of Iran, when Iranian affiliated groups won a majority in Iraq, and when the militant Hamas won a majority. Rice said that the Bush administration should not be blamed for trouble areas and said that the burden was on Hamas to change. [92] Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video signals which transmit programs to an audience. ...

Rice joins the EU in condemning Iran's defiance of international protocol and demands Tehran halt its uranium enrichment in January 2006

In recent years, Iran has also begun to pursue nuclear technology through uranium enrichment, which has been one of the most pertinent issues that Rice has dealt with during her tenure at the State Department. Iran maintains that its nuclear program only seeks to develop the capacity for peaceful civilian nuclear power generation.[93] Rice, along with other nations, has contended that Iran's record of sponsoring terrorism and threatening the safety of other nations, along with its defiance of its treaty obligations, of the United Nations Security Council, and of the International Atomic Energy Agency, have not proven Iran to be responsible enough to conduct uranium enrichment without outside supervision. Under Rice, the official State Department consensus on the matter is that "[t]he United States believes the Iranian people should enjoy the benefits of a truly peaceful program to use nuclear reactors to generate electric power ... [and] support[s] the Iranian people’s rights to develop nuclear energy peacefully, with proper international safeguards."[94] Image File history File links Rice_Condemns_Iran. ... Image File history File links Rice_Condemns_Iran. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Enriched uranium is uranium whose uranium-235 content has been increased through the process of isotope separation. ... Enriched uranium is uranium whose uranium-235 content has been increased through the process of isotope separation. ... A nuclear power station. ... The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957. ...


On September 9, 2005, Rice declared the refusal of Iran to halt its nuclear program unacceptable and called on Russia, China and India to join in threatening United Nations sanctions, and on June 2, 2006, a committee of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council and Germany, announced their plan to convince Iran to cease its nuclear activities. Rice represented the United States in the negotiation of the diplomatic initiative.[95] September 9 is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... June 2 is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Big five can have the following meanings: // In international diplomacy, it refers to the five permanent members of the UN Security Council: the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Russia, and Tottenham Hotspur. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ...


On February 14, 2006, Iran restarted its uranium enrichment program despite calls from the international community not to do so. Iran's traditional foe, Iraq, offered no resistance because Iraq's leadership had been transformed to Shiite control. Rice responded by asserting that "[t]here is simply no peaceful rationale for the Iranian regime to resume uranium enrichment." Speaking on behalf of the United States and the European Union, Rice said they were "gravely concerned by Iran's long history of hiding sensitive nuclear activities from the IAEA, in violation of its obligations, its refusal to cooperate with the IAEA's investigation, its rejection of diplomatic initiatives offered by the EU and Russia and now its dangerous defiance of the entire international community."[96] In May of 2006, Rice came up with a new approach for dealing with Iran: direct negotiation between Iran and the United States (alongside their European allies) and the possibility for "a package of economic incentives and some kind of longer-term relationship with the United States" in exchange for the suspension of uranium enrichment within Iran.[97] Iran responded by saying that it will "never give up its legitimate rights, so the American preconditions are just unacceptable."[97] February 14 is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...


On July 12, 2006, Rice, along with the foreign ministers of China, France, Germany, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the European Union, announced that, as a result of Iran's refusal suspend their uranium enrichment program, they had agreed to seek a UN Security Council Resolution against Iran under Article 41 of Chapter VII of the UN Charter.[98] Article 41 gives such a resolution the power to interrupt or sever Iran's economic, transportational, telecommunicative, and diplomatic relations.[99] July 12 is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A United Nations Security Council Resolution is voted on by the fifteen members of the UN Security Council. ... The United Nations Charter is the constitution of the United Nations. ...


Though the United States and Iran disagree on key issues, the State Department has offered aid to Iran on many different occasions.[citation needed] After a deadly earthquake struck the Iranian province of Lorestan in March of 2005, Rice offered humanitarian aid to the country during a visit to England. Rice said her "thoughts and prayers" were with the victims.[100] A province is a territorial unit, almost always a country subdivision. ... Falak-ol-aflak, built by the Sassanids, is almost 1800 years old. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the Queen England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 967 AD  Area  -  Total 130,395 km²  50,346 sq mi  Population  -  2007 estimate 50...


Rice told on April 30, 2007 she does rule out talks with her Iranian counterpart Manouchehr Mottaki, and supports military action.[101]She exchanged curses with him on 3 May 2007 in Sharm el-Sheikh during a heated encounter that nearly turned violent when their respective security details intervened.[102] is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Manouchehr Mottaki (Persian: منوچهر متکی) (born 1953 in Bandar Gaz) is the Iranian Minister of Foreign Affairs appointed by President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. ... May 3 is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... View of the Red Sea and Tiran Island from the Sheraton Sharm hotel. ...


Iraq

In January 2000, Rice addressed Iraq in an article for Foreign Affairs magazine. “As history marches toward markets and democracy, some states have been left by the side of the road. Iraq is the prototype. Saddam Hussein's regime is isolated, his conventional military power has been severely weakened, his people live in poverty and terror, and he has no useful place in international politics. He is therefore determined to develop WMD. Nothing will change until Saddam is gone, so the United States must mobilize whatever resources it can, including support from his opposition, to remove him."[103]


In August 2003, Rice encouraged rejection of "condescending voices", who say that Africans and Middle Easterners are not interested in freedom and are "culturally just not ready for freedom or they just aren't ready for freedom's responsibility." She continued: "We've heard that [blacks aren't ready] argument before, and we, more than any, as a people, should be ready to reject it. The view was wrong in 1963 in Birmingham, and it is wrong in 2003 in Baghdad and in the rest of the Middle East."[104]


In October 2003, Rice was named to run the Iraq Stabilization Group, to “quell violence in Iraq and Afghanistan and to speed the reconstruction of both countries.”[105]


In August 2003, Rice compared experiences in Iraq to post-War Germany stating that “the road we traveled was very difficult. 1945 through 1947 was an especially challenging period. Germany was not immediately stable or prosperous. SS officers—called 'werewolves'—engaged in sabotage and attacked both coalition forces and those locals cooperating with them—much like today's Baathist and Fedayeen remnants." Daniel Benjamin responded, stating that in “practice, Werwolf amounted to next to nothing.”[106]

Rice meets with former Iraqi Prime Minister al-Jaafari in June 2005

In June 2005, Rice stated: “And at each phase, more Iraqis are involved in this process. Sunni and Shia and Kurds and other Iraqis are concentrating politically on building a united Iraq. That is why I think the insurgency must think that its last days are eventually going to come because the Iraqis are turning to their politics to serve their future.[107] Image File history File links Condoleezza_and_alJafaari. ... Image File history File links Condoleezza_and_alJafaari. ... Ibrahim al-Jaafari Dr. Ibrahim abd al-Karim Hamza al-Ashaiqir al-Jaafari (Arabic: ) (born 1947) is the former Prime Minister of Iraq in the Iraqi Transitional Government following the elections of January 2005. ...


On September 30, 2005, Rice declared that the Iraq War was "set out to help the people of the Middle East transform their societies."[51] September 30 is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ...


In 2005, when asked how long U.S. troops will stay in Iraq, Rice said, "I don't want to speculate. I do know that we are making progress with what the Iraqis themselves are capable of doing. And as they are able to do certain tasks, as they are able to hold their own territory, they will not need us to do that." Rice further added, "I think that even to try and speculate on how many years from now there will be a certain number of American forces is not appropriate."[108] Rice stated: “I have no doubt that as the Iraqi security forces get better -- and they are getting better and are holding territory, and they are doing the things with minimal help -- we are going to be able to bring down the level of our forces.” "I have no doubt that that's going to happen in a reasonable time frame."[109]


Rice lauded Iraq's voter turnout and peaceful transition into a sovereign government in 2005, and compared the reconstruction of Iraq to that of Europe after World War II. Rice wrote: Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

"Iraq ... in the face of a horrific insurgency has held historic elections, drafted and ratified a new national charter, and will go to the polls again in coming days to elect a new constitutional government. At this time last year, such unprecedented progress seemed impossible. One day it will all seem to have been inevitable. This is the nature of extraordinary times, which former Secretary of State Dean Acheson understood well and described perfectly in his memoirs. 'The significance of events,' he wrote, 'was shrouded in ambiguity. We groped after interpretations of them, sometimes reversed lines of action based on earlier views, and hesitated long before grasping what now seems obvious.' When Acheson left office in 1953, he could not know the fate of the policies he helped to create. He certainly could never have predicted that nearly four decades later, war between Europe's major powers would be unthinkable, or that America and the world would be harvesting the fruits of his good decisions and managing the collapse of communism. But because leaders such as Acheson steered American statecraft with our principles when precedents for action were lacking, because they dealt with their world as it was but never believed they were powerless to change it for the better, the promise of democratic peace is now a reality in all of Europe and in much of Asia."[110] Dean Acheson Dean Gooderham Acheson (April 11, 1893 – October 12, 1971) was an American statesman and lawyer; as United States Secretary of State in the late 1940s he played the central role in defining American foreign policy for the Cold War. ...

In 2006, Rice compared U.S. commitment in Iraq to the Civil War, indicating “I'm sure there are people who thought it was a mistake to fight the Civil War to its end and to insist that the emancipation of slaves would hold." BET.com commented “If you’re against the war in Iraq, you might as well consider yourself pro-slavery, according to Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice.”[111]


On January 11, 2007, Rice addressed the Senate Foreign Relations Committee regarding the President’s Iraq Strategy. Rice asserted that insurgents were mainly responsible for American casualties; Senator Chuck Hagel stated, Madame Secretary, your intelligence and mine is a lot different.[112] Senator Benjamin Cardin asked Rice troop increases were adequate given the state of the Iraqi conflict. Rice responded “if you were trying to quell a civil war, you would need much larger forces” but that the augmentation was appropriate for the mission. [113] January 11 is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Charles Timothy Chuck Hagel (born October 4, 1946) is the senior United States Senator from Nebraska. ... Ben Cardin Benjamin Louis Cardin (born October 5, 1943) is a Jewish Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives, representing the 3rd district of the State of Maryland (map) since 1987. ...


In January 2007, the National Intelligence Estimate was issued; key judgements included: “The Intelligence Community judges that the term civil war does not adequately capture the complexity of the conflict in Iraq, which includes extensive Shia-on-Shia violence, Al Qaeda and Sunni insurgent attacks on coalition forces, and widespread criminally motivated violence. Nonetheless, the term civil war accurately describes key elements of the Iraqi conflict, including the hardening of ethno-sectarian identities, a sea change in the character of the violence, ethno-sectarian mobilization, and population displacements.“[114]


In February 2007 it was reported that Rice encouraged lawmakers to support President Bush's troop increase by saying it would be a mistake to micromanage the Iraq war.[115]


Africa

Equatorial Guinea


Rice has worked to support and expand relations with Equatorial Guinea, an oil-rich nation. In April 2006, Rice welcomed dictator-President Obiang to a press conference and stated, “You are a good friend and we welcome you.” The welcome was extended 35 days after the State Department issued a report noting instances of “torture, arbitrary arrest, judicial corruption, child labor, forced labor, and ‘severe restrictions’ on freedoms of speech and press.”[116]


North Korea
Rice, in a July, 2005 press conference, announces that North Korea has agreed to return to the Six Party Talks
Rice, in a July, 2005 press conference, announces that North Korea has agreed to return to the Six Party Talks

Rice has focused international attention on North Korea's nuclear weapons program. Beginning in 2003, a series of talks featuring China, North Korea, South Korea, the United States, Russia, and Japan, dubbed "The Six Party talks," have been aimed at denuclearization. Image File history File links Rice_in_China. ... Image File history File links Rice_in_China. ... Six-party talks is the name given to meetings of the Peoples Republic of China, North Korea, South Korea, Russia, Japan and the United States, held in order to find a resolution of the crisis over the North Korean nuclear weapons program. ...


On February 10, 2005, North Korea withdrew from the talks after President Bush's 2005 State of the Union Address, in which he stated that North Korea's nuclear program must be dismantled and pledged to go on the offensive against tyranny in the world.[117] North Korea complained that the United States harbored a "hostile policy" toward their country and stated that they were permanently withdrawing from the Six-Party talks.[118] In the following months, there was uncertainty over whether Rice could convince Kim Jong-Il to re-enter the negotiations, but in July 2005, North Korea announced that they had been convinced to return to the discussion. February 10 is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The presidential seal was first used in 1880 by President Rutherford B. Hayes and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... 2003 State of the Union address given by U.S. President George W. Bush The State of the Union Address is an annual event in which the President of the United States reports on the status of the country, normally to a joint session of the U.S. Congress (the... Kim Jong-il (also written as Kim Jong Il) (born February 16, 1942) is the leader of North Korea. ...


After the first phase of the 5th round of talks, which took place from November 9–11, 2005, North Korea suspended its participations in the negotiations because the United States would not unfreeze some of its financial assets in a Macau bank.[119] Rice has consistently called for the regime to return to the talks. On May 1, 2006, Rice stated that North Korea needs "to return expeditiously to the talks without preconditions, to dismantle its nuclear programs in a complete, verifiable and irreversible manner, and to cease all illicit and proliferation activities."[120] November 9 is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...


On June 19, 2006, matters with North Korea were further complicated when it finished fueling an intercontinental ballistic missile that the regime said it would test fire. North Korea had previously self-imposed a missile-firing moratorium, but threatened to launch the missile anyway. Rice stated that "it would be a very serious matter and indeed a provocative act" for the North to follow through on the act, and that if the North decided to do so, "it would be taken with utmost seriousness."[121] is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...


On July 5, 2006, North Korea test-fired seven rockets, including the infamous Taepodong-2,[122] sparking international backlash. Rice, in a press conference held on the same day, stated that she couldn't even begin to try to judge what motivated the North Koreans to act in such a way. Rice felt that North Korea had "miscalculated that the international community would remain united [in their opposition to the missile test-firing]" and "whatever they thought they were doing, they've gotten a very strong reaction from the international community." Following the missile test, the United Nations Security Council held an emergency meeting and strongly condemned the actions, though no official sanctions resulted at the time.[123] is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Picture of Taepodong-1 missile test from 1998 Two rounds of North Korean missile tests were conducted on July 5, 2006. ... The Taepodong-2 (TD-2, also spelled as Taepo-dong 2[1]), (Korean: 대포동 2호) is a designation used to indicate a North Korean three-stage ballistic missile design that is the successor to the Taepodong-1. ... “UNSC” redirects here. ...


Then, in early October 2006, North Korea claimed that it was preparing to test a nuclear explosive device.[124] While the rumors could not be substantiated by satellite surveillance beforehand, the test was actually carried out on October 9, 2006 with only twenty minutes warning.[125] The nuclear detonation test was, purportedly, in response to the United States' decision to not hold direct bilateral talks with the regime, as well as America's increasing pressure on the government, which North Korea claims is evidence that the United States wishes to attack or invade their country. Rice disputes North Korea's claim that the nuclear test was committed to deter America from invading, saying, "We shouldn't even allow them such an excuse. ... It's just not the case. ... [T]here is no intention to invade or attack them. [T]hey have that guarantee."[126] October 9 is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The 2006 North Korean nuclear test was the detonation of a nuclear device conducted on October 9, 2006 by the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea. ...

Rice meets with Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov in Busan, South Korea to discuss North Korea
Rice meets with Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov in Busan, South Korea to discuss North Korea

Rice has also repeatedly offered direct negotiations with North Korea in the context of the Six Party Talks, but she has held her ground in her decision not to hold bilateral talks with the dictatorship, stating, "We've been through bilateral talks with the North Koreans in the 1994 agreed framework. It didn't hold. ... The North Koreans cheated [by] pursuing another path to a nuclear weapon, the so-called 'highly enriched uranium' path. ... [I]f [Kim Jong-Il] wants a bilateral deal, it's because he doesn't want to face the pressure of other states [nearer to him] that have leverage. It's not because he wants a bilateral deal with the United States. He doesn't want to face the leverage of China or South Korea or others."[126] Image File history File links Rice_and_Lavrov. ... Image File history File links Rice_and_Lavrov. ... Sergey Viktorovich Lavrov, in Russian Сергей Викторович Лавров, is the minister of foreign affairs of the Russian Federation. ... Pūsan is also a Vedic Hindu god. ... These pie-graphs showing the relative proportions of uranium-238 (blue) and uranium-235 (red) at different levels of enrichment. ...


Following the nuclear test, Rice made numerous calls to foreign leaders to consolidate support for taking punitive action against North Korea. Rice was able to draw condemnations from even some of North Korea's closest defenders, including China, who admitted the test was "flagrant" and "brazen."[127] On the same day as the nuclear detonation, the United Nations Security Council convened another emergency meeting, where a clear consensus was apparent in favor of sanctions against the regime, with even China saying that it supported punishing the regime,[128] changing its position from July, 2006, when it vetoed any sanctions on North Korea following its missile tests. On October 14, 2006, Rice worked with allies to pass a UN Security Council resolution against North Korea that demanded North Korea destroy all of its nuclear weapons, imposed a ban on tanks, warships, combat aircraft and missiles in the country, imposed an embargo on some luxury items that government officials enjoy while the general populace starves, froze some of the country's weapons-related financial assets, and allows for inspections of North Korean cargo.[129] Rice called the resolution "the toughest sanctions on North Korea that have ever been imposed" and hailed the unanimous passage of the sanctions, which even North Korean-friendly China supported.[130] October 14 is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...


But Nobel Laureate and cold-war nuclear strategist Thomas Schelling criticized Rice for organizing a punitive response, when she should have encouraged Taiwan, South Korea and Japan to reaffirm the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty.[131] Thomas Crombie Schelling (born 14 April 1921) is an American economist and professor of foreign affairs, national security, nuclear strategy, and arms control at the School of Public Policy at University of Maryland College Park. ... The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is a treaty, opened for signature on July 1, 1968, restricting the possession of nuclear weapons. ...


While Rice consistently affirms that the United States will not preemptively invade, attack, or topple the North Korean regime, she emphatically assured Japan during an October 18, 2006, visit that "the United States has the will and the capability to meet the full range–and I underscore full range–of its deterrent and security commitments to Japan," which many have interpreted to mean that America would not hesitate to use its military might should North Korea attack one of America's allies.[132] Preemptive war (or preemptive attack) is waged in an attempt to repel or defeat a perceived imminent offensive or invasion, or to gain a strategic advantage in an impending (allegedly unavoidable) war. ... October 18 is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...


Russia
Rice speaks with Russian President Vladimir Putin during an April 2005 trip to Russia
Rice speaks with Russian President Vladimir Putin during an April 2005 trip to Russia

In April 2005, Rice went to Russia to meet President Vladimir Putin. On the plane trip over, she related comments critical of Russia's democratic progress to reporters. "Trends have not been positive on the democratic side," said Rice. "There have been some setbacks, but I do still think there is a considerable amount of individual freedom in Russia, which is important."[133] In person Rice told Putin: "We see Russia as a partner in solving regional issues, like the Balkans or the Middle East." Image File history File links Rice_and_Putin. ... Image File history File links Rice_and_Putin. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: ) (born October 7, 1952) is the current president of Russia. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Влади́мир Влади́мирович Пу́тин in Cyrillic lettering) (born October 7, 1952) has been the President of Russia since the year 2000. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


In late 2005, there was a dispute between Russia and Ukraine after Russia decided to quadruple the price of energy being provided to the Ukrainian market[134] (Making the price equal to that of the current market price). Rice subsequently criticised Russia's actions, accusing Russia of using its gas wealth as a political weapon. She called on Russia to behave as a responsible energy supplier and stated that the act did not show the international community "that it is now prepared to act … as an energy supplier in a responsible way." Rice insisted, "When you say you want to be a part of the international economy and you want to be a responsible actor in the international economy, then you play by its rules … I think that kind of behavior is going to continue to draw comment about the distance between Russian behavior and something like this and what would be expected of a responsible member of the G-8."[135] G-8 work session; July 20-22, 2002. ...


Though there was some question over whether or not Rice could convince Russia not to block the United States' move to refer Iran to the United Nations Security Council in early 2006 (because of Russia's economic and diplomatic ties to Iran), Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov eventually called Rice to confirm that Russia had agreed to allow the move.[136] “UNSC” redirects here. ... Gross domestic product in 2005 Economy refers to the human activities related with the production, distribution, exchange, and consumption of goods and services. ... This page lists foreign ministers of Russian Empire, Soviet Union, and Russian Federation: // Heads of Posolsky Prikaz, 1549-1699 Ivan Viskovatyi 1549-70 Brothers Vasily and Andrey Shchelkalov 1570-1601 Ivan Gramotin 1605-06, 1610-12, 1618-26, 1634-35 Pyotr Tretyakov 1608-10, 1613-18 Almaz Ivanov 1635-67... Sergey Viktorovich Lavrov, in Russian Сергей Викторович Лавров, is the minister of foreign affairs of the Russian Federation. ...


In February 2006, Rice described the United States' relationship with Russia as "very good," saying, "In general, I think we have very good relations with Russia. Probably the best relations that have been there for quite some time. We cooperate in the war on terror. We cooperate in a number of areas. Obviously we have some differences, too. But on the Iranian situation, we've actually had very good cooperation with the Russians." The war on terrorism or war on terror (abbreviated in U.S. policy circles as GWOT for Global War on Terror) is an effort by the governments of the United States and its principal allies to destroy groups deemed to be terrorist (primarily radical Islamist organizations such as al-Qaeda...


In February 2007, Putin criticized U.S. plans to expand European missile defenses. “Who needs the next step of what would be, in this case, an inevitable arms race?” Putin also characterized U.S. military action as illegitimate, indicating “They bring us to the abyss of one conflict after another. 'Political solutions are becoming impossible.[137] Rice soon responded “"Everybody understands that with a growing Iranian missile threat, which is quite pronounced, that there need to be ways to deal with that problem and that we are talking about long lead times to be able to have a defensive counter to offensive-missile threats”[138] In April 2007, Rice indicated that Russia’s concerns over the missile defense system were “ludicrous;” Putin responded by suggesting an end to an arms control treaty.[139]


Venezuela
Rice discusses American-Venezuelan relations at the CARICOM Ministerials in March 2006
Rice discusses American-Venezuelan relations at the CARICOM Ministerials in March 2006

The Bush administration has been particularly critical of the leadership of Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez, and brands the country an "outlaw country in the drug war."[140] During Rice's confirmation hearings, she commented on Chávez: "We are very concerned about a democratically elected leader who governs in an illiberal way, and some of the steps he's taken against the media, against the opposition, I think are really very deeply troubling." Image File history File links Rice_at_CARICOM.jpg‎ Summary From the US State Dept Website: http://www. ... Image File history File links Rice_at_CARICOM.jpg‎ Summary From the US State Dept Website: http://www. ... The Caribbean Community and Common Market or CARICOM was established by the Treaty of Chaguaramas which came into effect on August 1, 1973. ... The Bush administration includes President George W. Bush, Vice President Richard Cheney, Bushs Cabinet, and other select officials and advisors. ... Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (IPA: ) (born July 28, 1954) is the current President of Venezuela. ...


Venezuela actively campaigned for a non-permanent seat in the 2006 United Nations Security Council election. Rice, however, directed a global lobbying campaign by U.S. envoys in foreign capitals, contending that Venezuela did not belong on the Security Council.[141] On 1 November, after 47 rounds of deadlocked voting, Panama was selected as a compromise.[142] The 2006 United Nations Security Council election began on 16 October 2006 during the 61st session of the United Nations General Assembly, held at UN Headquarters in New York City. ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 60 days remaining. ...


Terrorism

Rice meets with Afghan Foreign Minister Spanta to discuss anti-terrorism efforts
Rice meets with Afghan Foreign Minister Spanta to discuss anti-terrorism efforts

Rice's policy as Secretary of State views counterterrorism as a matter of being preventative, and not merely punitive. In an interview that took place on December 18, 2005, Rice stated: "We have to remember that in this war on terrorism, we're not talking about criminal activity where you can allow somebody to commit the crime and then you go back and you arrest them and you question them. If they succeed in committing their crime, then hundreds or indeed thousands of people die. That's why you have to prevent, and intelligence is the long pole in the tent in preventing attacks."[143] Image File history File links Condoleezza_Rice_and_Rangin_Dadfar_Spanta. ... Image File history File links Condoleezza_Rice_and_Rangin_Dadfar_Spanta. ... Dr. Rangin Dadfar Spanta is the current foreign minister of Afghanistan. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... In the Gregorian calendar, December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years), with 13 days remaining until the end of the year. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Rice has also been a frequent critic of the intelligence community's inability to cooperate and share information, which she believes is an integral part of preventing terrorism. In 2000, one year after Osama bin Laden told Time “[h]ostility toward America is a religious duty,” [144] and a year before the September 11 terrorist attacks, Rice warned on WJRDetroit: "You really have to get the intelligence agencies better organized to deal with the terrorist threat to the United States itself. One of the problems that we have is a kind of split responsibility, of course, between the CIA and foreign intelligence and the FBI and domestic intelligence." She then added: "There needs to be better cooperation because we don't want to wake up one day and find out that Osama bin Laden has been successful on our own territory."[145] The World Trade Center on fire The September 11, 2001 attacks were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001. ... WJR is a radio station in Detroit, Michigan, United States. ... Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes - this motto was adopted after the disastrous 1805 fire that devastated the city) Nickname: The Motor City and Motown Location in Wayne County, Michigan Founded Incorporated July 24, 1701 1815  County Wayne County Mayor... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... Osama bin Muhammad bin Awad bin Laden (Arabic: ‎; born March 10, 1957[1]), most often mentioned as Osama bin Laden or Usama bin Laden, is a Saudi Arabian militant Islamist and is widely believed to be one of the founders of the organization called al-Qaeda. ...


Rice also has promoted the idea that counterterrorism involves not only confronting the governments and organizations that promote and condone terrorism, but also the ideologies that fuel terrorism. In a speech given on July 29, 2005, Rice asserted that "[s]ecuring America from terrorist attack is more than a matter of law enforcement. We must also confront the ideology of hatred in foreign societies by supporting the universal hope of liberty and the inherent appeal of democracy."[146] July 29 is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In January 2005, during Bush's second inaugural ceremonies, Rice first used the term "outposts of tyranny" to refer to countries felt to threaten world peace and human rights. This term has been called a descendant of Bush's phrase, "Axis of Evil," used to describe Iraq, Iran and North Korea. She identified six such "outposts" in which she said the United States has a duty to foster freedom: Cuba, Zimbabwe, Burma and Belarus, as well as Iran and North Korea. Inauguration Day is the day on which the President of the United States is sworn in and takes office. ... Outposts of Tyranny Outposts of tyranny was a term used by United States Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice in a written submission to the U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations to describe certain countries where, in her opinion, the government is oppressive and shows contempt for democracy and human... Behind Enemy Lines II: Axis of Evil, see Behind Enemy Lines II. Bushs axis of evil includes Iran, Iraq, and North Korea (darker red). ...


Public perception and criticisms

Numerous supporters have encouraged Rice to run for President, beginning a Draft Condi movement, however, Rice has repeatly stated that she will only run if she feels like the American people want her to. She has been considered as a potential Republican vice president candidate in 2008. A variation of a campaign button being put out by Americans For Rice. ... A vice president is an officer in government or business who is next in rank below a president. ...

Rice makes an appearance at Boston College, where she is greeted by Father William Leahy. Some attendees protested during her speech over disagreements on the War on Terror.
Rice makes an appearance at Boston College, where she is greeted by Father William Leahy. Some attendees protested during her speech over disagreements on the War on Terror.

Rice has been criticised for her involvement in the George W. Bush administration both in the United States and abroad. Protesters have sought to exclude her from appearing at schools such as Princeton University[147] and Boston College,[148] which prompted the resignation of an adjunct professor at Boston. There has also been an effort to protest her public speeches abroad.[149] Image File history File links Rice_at_Boston_College. ... Image File history File links Rice_at_Boston_College. ... William P. Leahy, SJ (born 1948) is the 25th President of Boston College, a post he has held since 1996. ... The Bush administration includes President George W. Bush, Vice President Richard Cheney, Bushs Cabinet, and other select officials and advisors. ... Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey, in the United States of America. ... For similarly-named academic institutions, see Boston (disambiguation). ... The meaning of the word professor (Latin: one who claims publicly to be an expert) varies. ...

Time and Forbes magazines

Time magazine has four times named Rice as one of its world's 100 most influential people, only one of two African Americans to have been repeatedly so named. In February 1, 2007, Time magazine stated that her "accomplishments as Secretary of State have been modest, and even those have begun to fade" and that she "has been slow to recognize the extent to which the U.S.'s prestige has declined."[150] However, in its March 19, 2007 issue it followed up stating that Rice was "executing an unmistakable course correction in U.S. foreign policy."[151] Time (whose trademark is capitalized TIME) is a weekly American newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and U.S. News & World Report. ... The Time 100 The Time 100 is an annual list of the 100 most influential in the world, as assembled by Time magazine. ... February 1 is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... March 19 is the 78th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (79th in leap years). ...


In 2004 and 2005 she was ranked as the most powerful woman in the world by Forbes magazine and number two in 2006.


Criticisms from Senator Boxer

California Democratic Senator Barbara Boxer has also criticized Rice in relation to the war in Iraq: "I personally believe — this is my personal view — that your loyalty to the mission you were given, to sell the war, overwhelmed your respect for the truth."[152] Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Barbara Levy Boxer (born November 11, 1940) is an American politician and the current junior U.S. Senator from the State of California. ... There have been three conflicts in the late 20th century and early 21st century called Gulf War, all of which refer to conflicts in the Persian Gulf region: Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988) (aka First Gulf War). ...


On January 11, 2007, Boxer, in a debate over the war in Iraq, said, "Now, the issue is who pays the price, who pays the price? I’m not going to pay a personal price. My kids are too old, and my grandchild is too young. You’re not going to pay a particular price, as I understand it, within immediate family. So who pays the price? The American military and their families, and I just want to bring us back to that fact.” January 11 is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... There have been three conflicts in the late 20th century and early 21st century called Gulf War, all of which refer to conflicts in the Persian Gulf region: Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988) (aka First Gulf War). ...


The New York Post and White House Press Secretary Tony Snow considered this an attack on Rice's status as a single, childless female and referred to Boxer's comments as "a great leap backward for feminism."[153] Rice later echoed Snow's remarks, saying "I thought it was okay to not have children, and I thought you could still make good decisions on behalf of the country if you were single and didn’t have children." Boxer responded to the controversy by saying "They’re getting this off on a non-existent thing that I didn’t say. I’m saying, she’s like me, we do not have families who are in the military." [154] The New York Post is the 13th-oldest newspaper published in the United States and the oldest to have been published continually as a daily. ... The White House Press Secretary is a senior White House official with a rank one step below Presidential Cabinet level. ... Robert Anthony Tony Snow, (born June 1, 1955) is the current White House Press Secretary for George W. Bush. ...


Views within the African American community

Rice's approval ratings from January 2005 to September 2006.

Rice's ratings saw decreases following a heated battle for her confirmation as Secretary of State and following Hurricane Katrina in August 2005. Her ratings saw increases after her first tour of Europe and the Middle East in February 2005, her brokering of the Gaza Border-Opening Deal in November 2005, and her involvement in ending the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict[citation needed]. Rice's rise within the George W. Bush administration initially drew a largely positive response from many in the African American community. In a 2002 survey, then National Security Advisor Rice was viewed favorably by 41% of African American respondents, but another 40% did not know Rice well enough to rate her and her profile remained comparatively obscure.[155] As her role increased, some African American commentators began to express doubts concerning Rice's stances and statements on various issues. In 2005, Washington Post columnist Eugene Robinson asked, "How did [Rice] come to a worldview so radically different from that of most black Americans?"[156] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 17 KB)[edit] Note from creator If you want this to be updated, just post a note on Ai. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 17 KB)[edit] Note from creator If you want this to be updated, just post a note on Ai. ... An approval rating is a polling term which reflects the percent of respondents to an opinion poll who approve of a particular person or program. ... Lowest pressure 902 mbar (hPa; 26. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Combatants Hezbollah Amal LCP  Israel Commanders Hassan Nasrallah (Secretary General of Hezbollah) Imad Mughniyeh (Commander of Hezbollahs armed wing)[5] Dan Halutz (CoS) Moshe Kaplinsky[12] Udi Adam (Regional) Strength 600-1,000 active fighters 3,000-10,000 reservists[6] 30,000 ground troops (plus IAF & ISC)[13... The Bush administration includes President George W. Bush, Vice President Richard Cheney, Bushs Cabinet, and other select officials and advisors. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... ... Eugene Robinson (born 1955) is a newspaper columnist and assistant managing editor for The Washington Post. ...


Other writers have also noted what they perceive to be a distance between Rice and the black community. The Black Commentator magazine described sentiments given in a speech by Rice at a black gathering as "more than strange – they were evidence of profound personal disorientation. A black woman who doesn’t know how to talk to black people is of limited political use to an administration that has few African American allies."[157] When Rice invoked the civil rights movement to clarify her position on the invasion of Iraq, Margaret Kimberley, another writer for The Black Commentator, felt that her use of the rhetoric was "offensive." Stan Correy, an interviewer from the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, characterized many African Americans involved with civil rights and politics as viewing this rhetoric as "cynical."[158] Rice was also described by Bill Fletcher, Jr., the former leader of the TransAfrica Forum, a foreign policy lobbying organization in Washington, D.C., as "very cold and distant and only black by accident."[155] In August 2005, American musician, actor, and social activist Harry Belafonte, who serves on the Board of TransAfrica, referred to African Americans in the Bush administration as "black tyrants."[159] Belafonte's comments received mixed reactions.[155] The Black Commentator, or Blackcommentator. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The subject of this article is the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... The Australian Broadcasting Corporation or ABC is Australias national non-profit public broadcaster. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A countrys foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how that particular country will interact with other countries of the world and, to a lesser extent, non-state actors. ... It has been suggested that Interest representation: Academic overview be merged into this article or section. ... ... “Instrumentalist” redirects here. ... Actors in period costume sharing a joke whilst waiting between takes during location filming. ... Social activists are people who act as the conscience and voice of many individuals within a society. ... Harold George Belafonte, Jr. ...


Rice has defended herself from such criticisms on several occasions. During a September 14, 2005 interview, she said: "Why would I worry about something like that? ... The fact of the matter is I've been black all my life. Nobody needs to tell me how to be black."[160] September 14 is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


A few notable African Americans have defended Rice from across the aisle, including Mike Espy,[161] Andrew Young, C. Delores Tucker (chair of the National Congress of Black Women),[162] Clarence Page,[163] Colbert King,[164] Dorothy Height (chair and president emerita of the National Council of Negro Women)[165] and Kweisi Mfume (former Congressman and former CEO of the NAACP).[166] Alphonso Michael Espy, usually called Mike Espy, (born November 30, 1953) was a U.S. political figure. ... Andrew Jackson Young, Jr. ... C. DeLores Tucker (née Cynthia DeLores Nottage) (October 4, 1927-October 12, 2005) was a U.S. politician and civil rights activist best known for her stance against rap music. ... Clarence Page (born June 2, 1947) is a journalist, syndicated columnist and member of the editorial board for the Chicago Tribune. ... Colbert I. King (born 1939-09-20) is a Pulitzer Prize-winning columnist for the Washington Post. ... Dorothy Height Dorothy Irene Height (born March 24, 1912) is an African American administrator, educator, and social activist. ... The National Council of Negro Women (NCNW) was founded in 1935 by Mary McLeod Bethune, child of slave parents, distinguished educator and government consultant. ... Mfume delivering a speech at NOAA during Black History Month, 2005 Kweisi Mfume (born Frizzell Gerald Gray, October 24, 1948 in Baltimore, Maryland) is the former President/CEO of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), as well as a five-term Democratic Congressman from Marylands... The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), is one of the oldest and most influential hate organizations in the United States. ...


Trivia and popular culture

As an April fool story in 2006, The British Independent newspaper reported that the University of Birmingham’s twinned status with its Alabama namesake led to a liaison between the comedian Jasper Carrott and Condoleezza Rice, whom he described as "a ferocious kisser" [7]. The story was subsequently featured as a University Challenge bonus round question on spoof news items. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Website http://www. ... Jasper Carrott OBE (born Robert Davis, March 14, 1945) is an English comedian (declaring himself world famous in Birmingham). Born in Acocks Green, Birmingham, he was educated at Moseley Grammar School and later attended Aston University in the heart of Birmingham. ... University Challenge is a long-running British television quiz show, licensed and produced by Granada Television. ...


Notes

  1. ^ http://www.millennium.az:8101/mcaccount.htm
  2. ^ http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,993959,00.html
  3. ^ http://www.time.com/time/subscriber/2005/time100/leaders/100rice.html
  4. ^ http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1187194,00.html
  5. ^ http://www.time.com/time/specials/2007/time100/article/0,28804,1595326_1615513_1614667,00.html
  6. ^ "Condoleeza Rice Notable Biography", Encyclopedia of World Biography (Thomson-Gale), online posting, notablebiographies.com, accessed March 26, 2007.
  7. ^ a b c d e f Felix, Antonia Condi: The girl who cracked the ice. Times Online. November 21, 2004. Retrieved February 21, 2006.
  8. ^ "Birmingham native Condoleezza Rice confirmation vote delayed as next U.S. Secretary of State" Birmingham Times January 20, 2005.
  9. ^ Chestnut 2005. Chestnut, J. L., Jr. "Condi Rice's Disdain for the Civil Rights Movement." Black Commentator. Retrieved August 2, 2006.
  10. ^ Chestnut, J.L. Jr.. Condi Rice's disdain for Civil Rights movementCatholic New Times, December 18, 2005 Retrieved April 12, 2007
  11. ^ Profile: Condoleezza Rice. BBC News. September 25, 2001. Retrieved August 2, 2006.
  12. ^ Russakoff, Dale Lessons of Might and Right: How Segregation and an Indomitable Family Shaped National Security Adviser Condoleezza Rice Washington Post Magazine Published September 9, 2001 Retrieved April 2, 2007
  13. ^ [1]Eulogy for the Young Victims of the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church Bombing, delivered at Sixth Avenue Baptist Church, September 18, 1963
  14. ^ Stan Correy. Condoleezza, Condoleezza. Australian Broadcasting Corporation's Radio National, April 3, 2005. Retrieved July 26, 2006
  15. ^ Derrick Z. Jackson. A lesson from Condoleezza Rice. November 20, 2002. Retrieved February 21, 2006.
  16. ^ B. Denise Hawkins. Condoleezza Rice's Secret Weapon. Christianity Today, Sept/Oct 2002. Retrieved June 29, 2006.
  17. ^ Mad About Music: Condoleezza Rice. WNYC, January 2, 2005. Retrieved February 22, 2006.
  18. ^ Ma jams with Condoleezza Rice at awards ceremony. BBC News, April 24, 2002. Retrieved March 18, 2006.
  19. ^ Michael Dobbs. Josef Korbel's Enduring Foreign Policy Legacy. The Washington Post, December 28, 2000. Retrieved July 11, 2006.
  20. ^ Maki Becker. You probably didn't know this about Condoleezza Rice. New York Daily News, April 4, 2004. Retrieved March 18, 2006.
  21. ^ "On Politics: Text: Condoleezza Rice at the Republican National Convention", The Washington Post, August 1, 2000, retrieved October 13, 2006.
  22. ^ Sullivan, Andrew.Bush-Rice 2004? The rise and rise of Condi, Sunday Times of London, March 24, 2002.
  23. ^ Condoleezza Rice profile. Forbes, October 18, 2001.
  24. ^ CNN Black History article on Dr. Rice.
  25. ^ James Robinson Velvet-glove forcefulness: Six years of provostial challenges and achievements. Stanford Report Online, June 9, 1999. Retrieved July 10, 2006.
  26. ^ http://news-service.stanford.edu/pr/93/930519Arc3267.html
  27. ^ Barabak, Mark. Not Always Diplomatic in Her First Major Post, Condoleezza Rice About to Become Secretary of State was a Divisive Figure at Stanford. Los Angeles Times.
  28. ^ Carla Marinucci. Chevron redubs ship named for Bush aide Condoleezza Rice drew too much attention. San Francisco Chronicle, May 5, 2001. Retrieved July 12, 2005.
  29. ^ http://www.paloaltoonline.com/news/show_story.php?id=5083
  30. ^ Steve Kettmann. "Bush's secret weapon", Salon.com March 20, 2000, retrieved 21 February 2006.
  31. ^ Text: Condoleezza Rice at the Republican National Convention: On Politics. August 1, 2000. Retrieved October 13, 2006.
  32. ^ "Exclusive Interview: Conversation with Terror", Time, January 11, 1999, retrieved February 21, 2007.
  33. ^ [http://www.forbes.com/lists/2005/11/MTNG.html #1 Condoleezza Rice Secretary of state U.S. November 2005. Retrieved April 17, 2007.
  34. ^ New York Times Records Show Tenet Briefed Rice. Retrieved October 3, 2006
  35. ^ McClatchy Washington BureauRumsfeld, Ashcroft received warning of al Qaida attack before 9/11. October 2, 2006. Retrieved October 12, 2006
  36. ^ New York Times Records Show Tenet Briefed Rice. Retrieved October 3, 2006.
  37. ^ Condoleezza Rice. Why We Know Iraq Is Lying. New York Times, January 23, 2003. Retrieved July 11, 2006.
  38. ^ Transcript of Rice's 9/11 commission statement CNN Retrieved January 16, 2007.
  39. ^ Lee, Mathew. Rice says Saddam questions answered The Washington Times. Published April 26, 2007 Retrieved April 30, 2007
  40. ^ Rice defends decision to go to war in Iraq. CNN, October 22, 2004. Retrieved from the Wayback Machine on November 27, 2004.
  41. ^ Rice says race can be 'one factor' in considering admissions. CNN, January 18, 2003. Retrieved February 21, 2006.
  42. ^ Search for the smoking gun. CNN, January 10, 2003. Retrieved May 8, 2006.
  43. ^ [2] Report: No WMD stockpiles in Iraq
  44. ^ [3] Condoleezza Rice at the Center of the Plame Scandal
  45. ^ [4]. Iraq Flap Shakes Rice's Image, Washington Post, July 27, 2003
  46. ^ Excerpts from April 8, 2004 Testimony of Dr. Condoleezza Rice Before the 9/11 Commission Pertaining to The President's Daily Brief of August 6, 2001, Retrieved March 1, 2007
  47. ^ Don't know much about history, Retrieved March 1, 2007.
  48. ^ Byrd, Senator Robert [5] Standing for the Founding Principles of the Republic: Voting No on the Nomination of Dr. Rice as Secretary of State Published January 25, 2005. Retrieved March 12, 2007.
  49. ^ Ecumenical News International. Rosa Parks honored, to be laid to rest in Detroit. 1 November 2005. Retrieved 21 February 2006.
  50. ^ http://www.state.gov/secretary/trvl/
  51. ^ a b Rice, Condoleezza. Princeton University's Celebration of the 75th Anniversary Of the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs. September 30, 2005.
  52. ^ a b c d e Office of the Spokesman. Transformational Diplomacy. January 18, 2006. Georgetown University address. January 18, 2006.
  53. ^ Diplomats Will Be Shifted to Hot Spots. 19 January 2006.
  54. ^ Diplomats Will Be Shifted to Hot Spots. 19 January 2006.
  55. ^ Text THE STRUGGLE FOR IRAQ: DIPLOMATIC MEMO; You Want Me to Go Where? Few Veteran Diplomats Accept Mission to Iraq. February 19, 2007. Retrieved February 21, 2007
  56. ^ Rice Conducts Telephone Diplomacy on Israel's Gaza Withdrawal Plans. April 12, 2005.
  57. ^ a b "Rice Mediates Gaza Disputes", The Washington Post, July 24, 2005.
  58. ^ Completion of Israeli Withdrawal From Gaza. September 12, 2005.
  59. ^ Rice: Gaza Border-Crossings Deal 'In Sight'. November 14, 2005.
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Front page of the Tribune incorrectly reporting that Dewey won the 1948 presidential election The Chicago Tribune, formerly self-styled as the Worlds Greatest Newspaper, remains the leading newspaper of the Midwest of the United States. ... March 6 is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... November 15 is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... August 29 is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... April 25 is the 115th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (116th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 26 is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 26 is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... December 6 is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 25 is the 115th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (116th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 15 is the 74th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (75th in leap years). ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... April 25 is the 115th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (116th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... February 3 is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 11 is the 192nd day (193rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 173 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 26 is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 11 is the 192nd day (193rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 173 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 29 is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 11 is the 192nd day (193rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 173 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... February 15 is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 11 is the 192nd day (193rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 173 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... February 15 is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... April 23 is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... April 25 is the 115th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (116th in leap years). ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... This article is about the German international broadcaster. ... June 2 is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... June 2 is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... January 12 is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... June 12 is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 12 is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 12 is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (91st in leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 11 is the 192nd day (193rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 173 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 3 is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... September 14 is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... September 20 is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... David Sanger is an internationally acclaimed concert organist and the UKs most influential teacher of the organ. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... October 26 is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... August 29 is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 13 is the 72nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (73rd in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 17 is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... October 20 is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City by Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. ... January 11 is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 9 is the 68th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (69th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States. ... December 11 is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 6 is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... March 12 is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City by Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. ... January 12 is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 9 is the 68th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (69th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 11 is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... February 3 is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... February 25 is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 18 is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... April 18 is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... February 2 is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States. ... July 10 is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 13 is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Fox News Channels slogan is We Report, You Decide The Fox News Channel is a U.S. cable and satellite news channel. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The National Post is a large Canadian English language national newspaper based in Toronto. ... October 3 is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 10 is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... October 10 is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 11 is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Fox News Channels slogan is We Report, You Decide The Fox News Channel is a U.S. cable and satellite news channel. ... October 11 is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 14 is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... October 15 is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) is an influential international daily newspaper published in New York City, New York with a worldwide average daily circulation of more than 2. ... February 17 is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... October 18 is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Herald Sun is a newspaper in Melbourne, Australia, that is published by The Herald and Weekly Times Ltd, a subsidiary of Rupert Murdochs News Corporation. ... April 21 is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The current BBC News logo BBC News and Current Affairs is a major arm of the BBC responsible for the corporations newsgathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Fox News Channels slogan is We Report, You Decide The Fox News Channel is a U.S. cable and satellite news channel. ... January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States. ... January 12 is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States. ... February 21 is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 26 is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... September 26 is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 11 is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 2 is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 59 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... In the Gregorian calendar, December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years), with 13 days remaining until the end of the year. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Time (whose trademark is capitalized TIME) is a weekly American newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and U.S. News & World Report. ... January 11 is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ... February 21 is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 29 is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 30 is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Boston Globe is the most widely circulated daily newspaper in Boston, Massachusetts and in the greater New England region. ... May 12 is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The current BBC News logo BBC News and Current Affairs is a major arm of the BBC responsible for the corporations newsgathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (91st in leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... February 9 is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Time (whose trademark is capitalized TIME) is a weekly American newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and U.S. News & World Report. ... February 1 is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Time (whose trademark is capitalized TIME) is a weekly American newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and U.S. News & World Report. ... March 19 is the 78th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (79th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States. ... January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Fox News Channels slogan is We Report, You Decide The Fox News Channel is a U.S. cable and satellite news channel. ... January 12 is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City by Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. ... January 12 is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 11 is the 70th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (71st in leap years). ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States. ... October 25 is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Black Commentator, or Blackcommentator. ... April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 8 is the 220th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (221st in leap years), with 145 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 14 is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 25 is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 26 is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 29 is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 29 is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 29 is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... November 22 is the 326th day (327th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Felix, Antonia. "Condi: The girl who cracked the ice". Times. (November 21, 2004)
  • Nordlinger, Jay. "Star-in-waiting: meet George W.'s foreign-policy czarina". National Review. (August 30, 1999)
  • Plotz, David. "Condoleezza Rice: George W. Bush's celebrity adviser". Slate. (May 12, 2000)
  • author unknown. "Smart, savvy, strong-willed Rice charts her own course". CNN. (2001)
  • Marinucci, Carla. "Critics knock naming oil tanker Condoleezza". San Francisco Chronicle. (April 5, 2001)
  • Marinucci, Carla. "Chevron redubs ship named for Bush aide". San Francisco Chronicle. (May 5, 2001)
  • Marinucci, Carla. "Security adviser Rice weighs run for governor". San Francisco Chronicle. (February 27, 2003)
  • author unknown. "Rice says race can be 'one factor' in considering admissions". CNN. (January 18, 2003)
  • Sullivan, Andrew. Bush-Rice 2004?. London Sunday Times. (March 24, 2002)
  • Cornwell, Rupert From the axis of evil to the outposts of tyranny. The Independent. (January 20, 2005)
  • Richter, Paul "Rice Reshaping Foreign Policy" Los Angeles Times. (March 15, 2005)
  • Richter, Paul. "Under Rice, Powell's Policies Are Reborn". Los Angeles Times. (October 11, 2005)
  • Lemann, Nicholas. "Without a Doubt: Has Condoleezza Rice changed George W. Bush, or has he changed her?" New Yorker. (October 14, 2002)

November 21 is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 30 is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ... May 12 is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 5 is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (126th in leap years). ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... February 27 is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 18 is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 15 is the 74th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (75th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 11 is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 14 is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ...

Further reading

Primary sources

  • Rice, Condoleezza with Zelikow, Philip D. Germany Unified and Europe Transformed: A Study in Statecraft. Harvard University Press. hardcover (1995), 520 pages, ISBN 0-674-35324-2; trade paperback, 1997, 520 pages, ISBN 0-674-35325-0.
  • Rice, Condoleezza & Dallin, Alexander (eds.) (1986). The Gorbachev Era. Stanford Alumni Association, trade paperback (1986), ISBN 0-916318-18-4; Garland Publishing, Incorporated, hardcover (1992), 376 pages, ISBN 0-8153-0571-0.
  • Rice, Condoleezza (1984). The Soviet Union and the Czechoslovak Army: Uncertain Allegiance. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-06921-2
  • Rice, Condoleezza, "Campaign 2000: Promoting the national interest" in Foreign Affairs, 2000. [8]

Philip D. Zelikow is best known as the executive director of the 9/11 Commission. ... The late Professor Alexander Dallin served as Raymond A. Spruance Professor of International History, in the Center for Russian and East European Studies (CREES) at Stanford University. ... This article is about a journal. ...

Academic Studies

  • John P. Burke; "Condoleezza Rice as NSC Advisor A Case Study of the Honest Broker Role" Presidential Studies Quarterly v 35 #3 pp 554+.
  • James Mann. Rise of the Vulcans: The History of Bush's War Cabinet (2004)

Popular books and commentary

  • Cunningham, Kevin (2005). Condoleezza Rice: U.S. Secretary Of State (Journey to Freedom) Child's World ISBN 1-59296-231-9
  • Ditchfield, Christin (2003). Condoleezza Rice: National Security Advisor (Great Life Stories) middle school audience Franklin Watts ISBN 0-531-12307-3
  • Felix, Antonia (2002). Condi: The Condoleezza Rice Story. Newmarket Press. ISBN 1-55704-539-9
  • Flanders, Laura. (2004). Bushwomen: Tales of a Cynical Species (Verso) ISBN 978-1859845875
  • Kettmann, Steve. Bush's Secret Weapon. Salon.com.
  • Morris, Dick with Eileen McGann. (2005) Condi vs. Hillary: The Next Great Presidential Race Regan Books ISBN 0-06-083913-9
  • Ryan, Bernard, Jr. (2003). Condoleezza Rice: National Security Advisor and Musician (Ferguson Career Biographies) Facts on File ISBN 0-8160-5480-0
  • Wade, Linda R. (2002). Condoleezza Rice: A Real-Life Reader Biography (Real-Life Reader Biography) Mitchell Lane Publishers ISBN 1-58415-145-5, middle school audience
  • Wade, Mary Dodson (2003). Condoleezza Rice: Being The Best Millbrook Press Lerner Books ISBN 0-7613-1927-1, middle school audience

Dick Morris appears on TVs FOX News channel. ...

External links

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  • Biography from the U.S. Department of State
  • Biography from the White House
  • Biography from the Hoover Institution
  • Profile from BBC News
  • Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice discusses U.S. Policy in Northeast Asia at the Heritage Foundation on October 25, 2006
Preceded by
Gerald J. Lieberman
Provost of Stanford University
1993–1999
Succeeded by
John L. Hennessy
Preceded by
Sandy Berger
United States National Security Advisor
2001–2005
Succeeded by
Stephen Hadley
Preceded by
Colin Powell
United States Secretary of State
Served Under: George W. Bush

2005 – present
Succeeded by
Incumbent
Preceded by
Robert Byrd
President Pro Tempore of U.S. Senate
United States Presidential Line of Succession
4th in line
Succeeded by
Henry Paulson
Secretary of Treasury
Preceded by
U.S. ambassadors (while at their posts); otherwise Bill Clinton
United States order of precedence
as of 2007
Succeeded by
Ambassadors Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of foreign states; next fixed is Lady Bird Johnson
Persondata
NAME Rice, Condoleezza
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Rice, Condi
SHORT DESCRIPTION American Republican politician; U.S. Secretary of State; political scientist
DATE OF BIRTH November 14, 1954
PLACE OF BIRTH Birmingham, Alabama
DATE OF DEATH
PLACE OF DEATH

The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, commonly referred to as the National Security Advisor, serves as the chief advisor to the President of the United States on national security issues. ... Image File history File links White House Logo File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Robert Cutler (1895 – 1974) was a U.S. administrator. ... Dillon Anderson (1906 - 1974) was a U.S. administrator. ... William Harding Jackson (1901 - 1971) was a U.S. administrator. ... Robert Cutler (1895 – 1974) was a U.S. administrator. ... Gordon Gray (May 30, 1909 – November 26, 1982) was an official in the government of the United States during the administrations of Harry Truman (1945-53) and Dwight Eisenhower (1953-61) associated with defense and national security. ... McGeorge Bundy (1967) McGeorge Mac Bundy (March 30, 1919–September 16, 1996) was United States National Security Advisor to Presidents Kennedy and Johnson from 1961–1966, and was president of the Ford Foundation from 1966–1979. ... Walt Whitman Rostow showing President Lyndon B. Johnson a model of the Khe Sanh area, 1968 Walt Whitman Rostow, October 7th, 1968 Walt Whitman Rostow (also known as Walt Rostow or W.W. Rostow) (October 7, 1916 – February 13, 2003) was an American economist and political theorist who served as... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American diplomat, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ... Lieutenant General Brent Scowcroft KBE (born March 19, 1925 in Ogden, Utah), USAF (Ret. ... Zbigniew Kazimierz Brzezinski (born March 28, 1928, Warsaw, Poland) is a Polish-American political scientist, geostrategist, and statesman. ... Richard V. Allen was the United States National Security Advisor to President Ronald Reagan from 1981 to 1982. ... William Patrick Clark, Jr (born October 23, 1931), American politician, served under President Ronald Reagan as the United States National Security Advisor from 1982 to 1983, and the Secretary of the Interior from 1983 until 1985. ... Robert Carl Bud McFarlane (born July 12,1937), was National Security Advisor to President Ronald Reagan from 1983 to late 1985 and became one of the administration’s primary scapegoats during the Iran-Contra Affair. ... Rear Admiral John Poindexter (Ret. ... Frank Carlucci Frank Charles Carlucci III (born October 18, 1930) was a government official in the United States, associated with the Republican Party. ... General Colin Luther Powell, United States Army (Ret. ... Lieutenant General Brent Scowcroft KBE (born March 19, 1925 in Ogden, Utah), USAF (Ret. ... Lake (left) meets with Bill Clinton and Leon Panetta at the White House in 1994. ... Samuel R. Sandy Berger (born October 28, 1945) served as the 19th United States National Security Advisor under President Bill Clinton from 1997 to 2001. ... Stephen J. Hadley Stephen John Hadley (born February 13, 1947 in Toledo, Ohio) is the current U.S. Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs (commonly referred as National Security Advisor) for President George W. Bush. ... November 14 is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Location in Jefferson County in the state of Alabama Coordinates: Country United States State Alabama County Jefferson, Shelby Government  - Mayor Bernard Kincaid (D) Area  - City  151. ...


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Condoleezza Rice (1752 words)
Condoleezza Rice is the National Security Advisor to George W Bush.
Behind the scenes, Rice had her hands full trying to run a Cabinet full of maniacs, including Cheney, Donald Rumsfeld and Colin Powell, all of whom were constantly at each others' throats over possible strategies, and the question of just how fast the hostilities in Afghanistan could be expanded to Iraq.
Rice also brought her silver-tongued diplomacy to the Arab world, reassuring panicky Arab leaders that the U.S. only wanted to bring "diplomacy and freedom" to all the nations of the Middle East, which is just what the monarchists, theocrats and dictators wanted to hear.
Hoover Institution - Fellows - Condoleezza Rice (405 words)
Condoleezza Rice, the Thomas and Barbara Stephenson Senior Fellow at the Hoover Institution, was confirmed as U.S. Secretary of State on January 26 2005.
Rice returned to Washington in 1989 when she was director of Soviet and East European affairs with the National Security Council.
Rice enrolled at the University of Denver at the age of 15, graduating at 19 with a bachelor's degree in political science (cum laude).
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