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Encyclopedia > Condensed matter physics

Condensed matter physics is the field of physics that deals with the macroscopic physical properties of matter. In particular, it is concerned with the "condensed" phases that appear whenever the number of constituents in a system is extremely large and the interactions between the constituents are strong. The most familiar examples of condensed phases are solids and liquids, which arise from the electric force between atoms. More exotic condensed phases include the superfluid and the Bose-Einstein condensate found in certain atomic systems at very low temperatures, the superconducting phase exhibited by conduction electrons in certain materials, and the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases of spins on atomic lattices. Since antiquity, people have tried to understand the behavior of matter: why unsupported objects drop to the ground, why different materials have different properties, and so forth. ... Matter is commonly referred to as the substance of which physical objects are composed. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... A solid is a phase of matter, characterized by resistance to deformation and changes of volume. ... A liquid will assume the shape of its container. ... Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field, encompassing all of space, composed of the electric field and the magnetic field. ... Properties For alternative meanings see atom (disambiguation). ... Superfluidity is a phase of matter characterised by the complete absence of viscosity. ... A Bose-Einstein condensate is a gaseous superfluid phase formed by atoms cooled to temperatures very near to absolute zero. ... Temperature is the physical property of a system which underlies the common notions of hot and cold; the material with the higher temperature is said to be hotter. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor (100. ... Electrical conduction is the current (movement of charged particles) through a material in response to an electric field. ... A ferromagnet is a piece of ferromagnetic material, in which the microscopic magnetized regions, called domains, have been aligned by an external magnetic field (e. ... In materials that exhibit antiferromagnetism, the spins of magnetic electrons align in a regular pattern with neighboring spins pointing in opposite directions. ... In physics, spin is an intrinsic angular momentum associated with microscopic particles. ... In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ...


Condensed matter physics is by far the largest field of contemporary physics. By one estimate, one third of all American physicists identify themselves as condensed matter physicists. Historically, condensed matter physics grew out of solid-state physics, which is now considered one of its main subfields. The term "condensed matter physics" was apparently coined by Philip Anderson when he renamed his research group - previously "solid-state theory" - in 1967. In 1978, the Division of Solid State Physics at the American Physical Society was renamed as the Division of Condensed Matter Physics. A physicist is a scientist trained in physics. ... Solid-state physics, the largest branch of condensed matter physics, is the study of rigid matter, or solids. ... Philip Warren Anderson (born December 13, 1923) is an American physicist. ... 1967 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1978 was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ... The American Physical Society was founded in 1899 and is the worlds largest organization of physicists. ...


One of the reasons for calling the field "condensed matter physics" is that many of the concepts and techniques developed for studying solids actually apply to fluid systems. For instance, the conduction electrons in an electrical conductor form a type of quantum fluid with essentially the same properties as fluids made up of atoms. In fact, the phenomenon of superconductivity, in which the electrons condense into a new fluid phase in which they can flow without dissipation, is very closely analogous to the superfluid phase found in helium 3 at low temperatures. Electrical conduction is the current (movement of charged particles) through a material in response to an electric field. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor (100. ... Helium-3 is a non-radioactive and light isotope of helium. ...


Condensed matter physics is also closely related to the field of materials science. In this context, condensed matter physicists research "Nanotechnology", i.e. the ability to mass produce atomic-scale machines, which was first publicly envisioned by Richard Feynman. The Materials Science Tetrahedron Materials science is a multidisciplinary field focusing on functional solids, whether the function served is structural, electronic, thermal, chemical, magnetic, optical, or some combination of these. ... A mite next to a gear set produced using MEMS, the precursor to nanotechnology. ... Richard Phillips Feynman (May 11, 1918 – February 15, 1988) (surname pronounced FINE-man; in IPA) was one of the most influential American physicists of the 20th century, expanding greatly the theory of quantum electrodynamics. ...


Topics in condensed matter physics


In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... A gas is one of the phases of matter. ... A liquid will assume the shape of its container. ... A solid is a phase of matter, characterized by resistance to deformation and changes of volume. ... A Bose-Einstein condensate is a gaseous superfluid phase formed by atoms cooled to temperatures very near to absolute zero. ... A Fermi gas is a collection of non-interacting fermions. ... Fermi liquid theory describes the generic physical properties which a collection of interacting fermions assumes (under certain conditions). ... The fermionic condensate is a superfluid phase formed by fermionic atoms at low temperatures. ... Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid, more often referred to as simply Luttinger liquid, is a theoretical model describing interacting electrons (or other fermions) in a one-dimensional conductor (e. ... Superfluidity is a phase of matter characterised by the complete absence of viscosity. ... A supersolid is a spatially ordered superfluid. ... In physics, a phase transition is the transformation of a thermodynamic system from one phase to another. ... In physics, a phase transition is the transformation of a thermodynamic system from one phase to another. ... In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... Insulators are materials which prevent the flow of heat (thermal insulators) or electric charge (electrical insulators). ... Metal - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Derka semiconductor is a material with an electrical conductance that is intermediate between that of an insulator and a conductor. ... Together with the metals and nonmetals, the metalloids (in Greek metallon = metal and eidos = sort - also called semimetals) form one of the three categories of chemical elements as classified by ionization and bonding properties. ... Quasicrystals are a peculiar form of solid in which the atoms of the solid are arranged in a seemingly regular, yet non-repeating structure. ... In solid state physics and related applied fields, the band gap is the energy difference between the top of the valence band and the bottom of the conduction band in insulators and semiconductors. ... A Bloch wave or Bloch state is the wavefunction of a particle (usually, an electron) placed in a periodic potential. ... In semiconductors and insulators, the conduction band is the range of electron energy, higher than that of the valence band, sufficient to make the electrons free to accelerate under the influence of an applied electric field and thus constitute an electric current. ... In solid state physics, a particles effective mass is the mass it seems to carry in the semiclassical model of transport in a crystal. ... Electrical conduction is the movement of breast particles through matter. ... In solid state physics, an electron hole (usually referred to simply as a hole) is the absence of an electron from the otherwise full valence band. ... In solids, the valence band is the highest range of electron energies where electrons are normally present at zero temperature. ... The Kondo effect refers to the non-trivial physics associated with the presence of a magnetic impurity in a solid (generally, a metal). ... In physics, the plasmon is the quasiparticle resulting from the quantization of plasma oscillations, which are density waves of the charge carriers in a conducting medium such as a metal, semiconductor, or plasma. ... The quantum Hall effect is a quantum-mechanical version of the Hall effect, observed in two-dimensional systems of electrons subjected to low temperatures and strong magnetic fields, in which the Hall conductance σ takes on the quantized values where e is the elementary charge and h is Plancks constant. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor (100. ... Thermoelectricity is the conversion from heat differentials to electricity or vice versa. ... In materials that exhibit antiferromagnetism, the spins of magnetic electrons align in a regular pattern with neighboring spins pointing in opposite directions. ... In physics, the ferroelectric effect is an electrical phenomenon whereby certain ionic crystals may exhibit a spontaneous dipole moment. ... A ferromagnet is a piece of ferromagnetic material, in which the microscopic magnetized regions, called domains, have been aligned by an external magnetic field (e. ... There is a place named Magnon (pronunciation: ma-nyon) in Gabon, see Magnon, Gabon A magnon is a collective excitation of the electrons spin structure in a crystal lattice. ... A phonon is a quantized mode of vibration occurring in a rigid crystal lattice, such as the atomic lattice of a solid. ... A spin glass is a disordered material exhibiting high magnetic frustration. ... In cosmology, a topological defect is a (often) stable configuration of matter predicted by some theories to form at phase transitions in the very early universe. ... Soft matter comprises a variety of states that are perhaps best distinguished by being dominated by energies of order thermal energies at room temperature, more or less. ... An amorphous solid is a solid in which there is no long-range order of the positions of the atoms. ... A granular material is a conglomeration of discrete solid, macroscopic particles characterized by a loss of energy whenever the particles interact (the most common example would be friction when grains collide). ... Schlieren texture of Liquid Crystal nematic phase Liquid crystals are substances that exhibit a phase of matter that has properties between those of a conventional liquid, and those of a solid crystal. ... A polymer is a generic term used to describe a substantially long molecule. ... A mite next to a gear set produced using MEMS, the precursor to nanotechnology. ... NEMS or nanoelectromechanical systems are similar to MEMS but smaller. ...

General subfields within physics

Atomic, molecular, and optical physics | Classical mechanics | Condensed matter physics | Continuum mechanics | Electromagnetism | General relativity | Particle physics | Quantum field theory | Quantum mechanics | Special relativity | Statistical mechanics | Thermodynamics Since antiquity, people have tried to understand the behavior of matter: why unsupported objects drop to the ground, why different materials have different properties, and so forth. ... Atomic, molecular, and optical physics is the study of matter-matter and light-matter interactions on the scale of single atoms or structures containing a few atoms. ... In physics, Classical mechanics is one of the two major sub-fields of study in the science of mechanics, which is concerned with the motions of bodies, and the forces that cause them. ... -1... Quadrupole (four-pole) magnet, focus particle beams in a particle accelerator. ... Two-dimensional visualization of space-time distortion. ... Particles erupt from the collision point of two relativistic (100 GeV) gold ions in the STAR detector of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. ... Quantum field theory (QFT) is the application of quantum mechanics to fields. ... Fig. ... A simple introduction to this subject is provided in Special relativity for beginners Special relativity (SR) or the special theory of relativity is the physical theory published in 1905 by Albert Einstein. ... Statistical mechanics is the application of statistics, which includes mathematical tools for dealing with large populations, to the field of mechanics, which is concerned with the motion of particles or objects when subjected to a force. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Condensed Matter Physics at Tufts University (195 words)
Condensed matter physics is the study of materials in the solid or liquid state, including their structure and mechanical, electrical, magnetic, thermal, optical and chemical properties.
Students with strong backgrounds in condensed matter physics are often well qualified for research and engineering positions in industry, as well as for academic careers.
Experimental condensed matter physics at Tufts focuses on the magnetic properties of materials, structural properties and phase transitions in polymers, and interactions of atoms and molecules with metal surfaces.
Condensed Matter Physics (2067 words)
Condensed matter physics encompasses a variety of research topics that pertain to the properties of solids and liquids.
Condensed matter physics is a critical field in which fundamental insights into basic science enable progress in technology.
State-of-the-art electronic structure work as well as simple physical models are being used to gain a better understanding of the structural, magnetic and conducting properties of bulk solids (such as binary alloys and permanent magnets), surfaces/interfaces (of metals and oxides) and nanostructured devices.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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