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Encyclopedia > Concorde
Concorde

Air France Concorde Concorde may refer to: The supersonic Concorde aircraft Concorde, North Carolina (the place) The Place de la Concorde, a square in Paris, France the Concorde Agreement — a contract which dictates the terms by which the ten Formula One teams compete in Formula One grands prix and take their share of... Image File history File links AirFranceConcorde. ... Air France (formally Société Air France) is Europes largest airline company. ...

Type Supersonic airliner
Manufacturers Sud Aviation (now EADS) -
BAC (now BAE Systems)
Maiden flight 2 March 1969
Introduction 21 January 1976
Retired 26 November 2003
Primary users British Airways
Air France
Number built 20[1]
Unit cost £23 million (US$46 million) in 1977

The Aérospatiale-BAC Concorde supersonic transport (SST) was the more successful of the only two supersonic passenger airliners to have ever operated commercially, the Tupolev Tu-144 being the other. An aerospace manufacturer is a company or individual involved in the various aspects of designing, building, testing, selling, and maintaining aircraft, aircraft parts, missiles, rockets, and/or spacecraft. ... Sud Aviation was a French state-owned aircraft manufacturer, originating from the merger of SNCASE (Société Nationale de Constructions Aéronautiques du Sud-Est) and SNCASO (Société Nationale de Constructions Aéronautiques du Sud-Ouest) on March 1, 1957. ... The European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company EADS N.V. (EADS) is a large European aerospace corporation, formed by the merger on July 10, 2000 of Aérospatiale-Matra of France, Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA (CASA) of Spain, and DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG (DASA) of Germany. ... The British Aircraft Corporation, or BAC, was a British aircraft manufacturer, formed from the merger (under government pressure) of English Electric Aviation Ltd. ... , BAE Systems plc (BAE) is a British defence and aerospace company headquartered at Farnborough, UK, which has worldwide interests, particularly in North America through its subsidiary BAE Systems Inc. ... The Maiden flight of an aircraft is the first occasion on which an aircraft leaves the ground of its own accord. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the 1930s airline of similar name, see British Airways Ltd. ... Air France (formally Société Air France) is Europes largest airline company. ... The Aérospatiale Corvette first flew in 1970 and went into service in 1974. ... The British Aircraft Corporation, or BAC, was a British aircraft manufacturer, formed from the merger (under government pressure) of English Electric Aviation Ltd. ... The Concorde supersonic transport has a delta wing, a slender fuselage and four underslung Olympus engines. ... A United States Navy F/A-18E/F Super Hornet in transonic flight. ... An Airbus A340 airliner operated by Air Jamaica An airliner is a large fixed-wing aircraft with the primary function of transporting paying passengers. ... The Tupolev Tu-144 (NATO reporting name: Charger) was the first supersonic transport aircraft (SST), constructed under the direction of the Soviet Tupolev design bureau headed by Alexei Tupolev (1925–2001). ...


The development programme was a product of an Anglo-French government treaty, with 20 aircraft built. The costly development phase thus represented a substantial economic loss. Air France and British Airways were subsidised by their governments to buy the aircraft. Air France (formally Société Air France) is Europes largest airline company. ... For the 1930s airline of similar name, see British Airways Ltd. ...


First flown in 1969, piloted by Andre Turcat,[2] Concorde service commenced in 1976 and continued for 27 years. It flew regular transatlantic flights from London Heathrow (British Airways) and Paris Charles de Gaulle (Air France) to New York JFK and Washington Dulles, flying these routes at record speeds, in under half the time of other airliners. Concorde also set many other records, including the official FAI "Westbound Around The World" and "Eastbound Around the World" world air speed records. London Heathrow Airport (IATA:LHR, ICAO:EGLL), often referred to simply as Heathrow, is the United Kingdoms busiest and best-connected airport. ... Charles de Gaulle International Airport (IATA: CDG, ICAO: LFPG) (French: ), also known as Roissy Airport (or just Roissy in French), in Paris, is one of worlds principal aviation centres, as well as Frances main international airport. ... For the regional airport in Wisconsin, see John F. Kennedy Memorial Airport. ... , FAA Airport Diagram Washington Dulles International Airport (IATA: IAD, ICAO: KIAD, FAA LID: IAD) is a public airport located 25 miles (40 km) west of the central business district of Washington, D.C., in Loudoun County and Fairfax County, Virginia, United States. ... Fédération Aéronautique Internationale The Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI) is a standard setting and record-keeping body for aeronautics and astronautics. ...


As a result of the type's only crash on 25 July 2000, world economic effects arising from the 9/11 attacks, and other factors, operations ceased on 24 October 2003. The last "retirement" flight occurred on 26 November that year.[3] This animation from Seconds From Disaster shows the fuel tank on fire Air France Flight 4590 was a Concorde flight from Charles de Gaulle International Airport near Paris, France to John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York City, New York, and operated by Air France. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Major economic effects arose from September 11, 2001 attacks, with initial shock causing global stock markets to drop sharply. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Concorde remains an icon of aviation history, and has acquired an unusual nomenclature for an aircraft. In common usage in the United Kingdom, the type is known as "Concorde" rather than "the Concorde" or "a Concorde".[4][5] An article is a word that combines with a noun to indicate the type of reference being made by the noun. ...

Contents

Development

Concorde's final flight, G-BOAF from Heathrow to Bristol, on 26 November 2003. The extremely high fineness ratio of the fuselage is evident
Concorde's final flight, G-BOAF from Heathrow to Bristol, on 26 November 2003. The extremely high fineness ratio of the fuselage is evident
Concorde on takeoff
Concorde on takeoff
Pre-production Concorde number 101 on display at the Imperial War Museum, Duxford, UK
Pre-production Concorde number 101 on display at the Imperial War Museum, Duxford, UK
Concorde G-BOAB in storage at London Heathrow Airport following the end of all Concorde flying. This aircraft flew for 22,296 hours between its first flight in 1976 and its final flight in 2000.
Concorde G-BOAB in storage at London Heathrow Airport following the end of all Concorde flying. This aircraft flew for 22,296 hours between its first flight in 1976 and its final flight in 2000.

In the late 1950s, the United Kingdom, France, United States and Soviet Union were considering developing supersonic transport. Britain's Bristol Aeroplane Company and France's Sud Aviation were both working on designs, called the Type 233 and Super-Caravelle, respectively. Both were largely funded by their respective governments.[6] The British design was for a thin-winged delta shape (which owed much to work by Dietrich Küchemann) for a transatlantic-ranged aircraft for about 100 people, while the French were intending to build a medium-range aircraft. Image File history File links Concorde_on_Bristol. ... Image File history File links Concorde_on_Bristol. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Fineness ratio is a term used in aerospace engineering to describe the overall shape of a streamlined body. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata ConcordePrototype. ... Image File history File linksMetadata ConcordePrototype. ... The Imperial War Museum is a museum in London featuring military vehicles, weapons, war memorabilia, a library, a photographic archive, and an art collection of 20th century and later conflicts, especially those involving Britain, and the British Empire. ... Duxford is a village in Cambridgeshire, England, some ten miles south of Cambridge. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 539 pixelsFull resolution (2041 × 1375 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 539 pixelsFull resolution (2041 × 1375 pixel, file size: 1. ... Heathrow redirects here. ... Bristol Aeroplane Company logo The Bristol Aeroplane Company (formerly British and Colonial Aeroplane Company) was a major British aircraft company which, in 1959, merged with several major British aircraft companies, to become the British Aircraft Corporation and later still part of British Aerospace, now BAE Systems. ... Sud Aviation was a French state-owned aircraft manufacturer, originating from the merger of SNCASE (Société Nationale de Constructions Aéronautiques du Sud-Est) and SNCASO (Société Nationale de Constructions Aéronautiques du Sud-Ouest) on March 1, 1957. ... In the late 1950s and early 1960s the Bristol Aeroplane Company studied a number of supersonic transport models as part of a large British inter-company effort funded by the government. ... The Super-Caravelle was a design for a supersonic transport from Sud Aviation in France. ... Dr Dietrich Küchemann CBE FRS FRAeS (1911–1976) was a German aerodynamicist who made several important contributions to the advancement of high-speed flight. ...


The designs were both ready to start prototype construction in the early 1960s, but the cost was so great that the British government made it a requirement that BAC look for international co-operation.[6] Approaches were made to a number of countries, but only France showed real interest. The development project was negotiated as an international treaty between the two countries rather than a commercial agreement between companies and included a clause, originally asked for by Britain, imposing heavy penalties for cancellation. A draft treaty was signed on 28 November 1962. By this time, both companies had been merged into new ones; thus, the Concorde project was between the British Aircraft Corp. and Aerospatiale. The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely states and international organizations. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... British Aerospace (BAe) was a UK aircraft and defence systems manufacturer, now part of BAE Systems. ... The Aerospatiale Corvette first flew in 1970 and went into service in 1974. ...


At first the new consortium intended to produce two versions of the aircraft, one long range and one short range. However, prospective customers showed no interest in the short-range version and it was dropped. The consortium secured orders for over 100 of the long-range version from the premier airlines of the day: Pan Am, BOAC and Air France were the launch customers, with six Concordes each. Other airlines in the order book included Panair do Brasil, Japan Airlines, Lufthansa, American Airlines, United Airlines, Air Canada, Braniff, Singapore Airlines, Iran Air, Qantas, CAAC, Middle East Airlines and TWA.[citation needed] Pan Ams seaplane terminal at Dinner Key in Miami, Florida, was a hub of inter-American travel during the 1930s and 1940s. ... BOAC Logo The British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC) was the British state airline from 1939 until 1946 and the long-haul British state airline from 1946. ... Panair do Brasil was Brazils flag airline and Latin Americas largest carrier from the 1940s through the 1960s. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Deutsche Lufthansa AG (ISIN: DE0008232125) (pronounced ) is the second largest airline in Europe in terms of overall passengers carried (after Air France - KLM). ... American Airlines, Inc. ... United Airlines is a major airline of the United States. ... Air Canada is Canadas largest airline and flag carrier. ... Braniff International Airways was an American airline that existed from 1928 until 1982. ... Singapore Airlines Boeing 747-400 9V-SPA takes off from London Heathrow Airport bound for Singapore Changi Airport. ... Iran Air(Persian: ) is the flag carrier airline of Iran, based in Tehran. ... Qantas Airways Limited (IPA: ) is the national airline of Australia. ... Known by the acronym CAAC, with the official name of General Administration of Civil Aviation of China (中国民用航空总局, pinyin Zhongguo Renyong Hangkong Zongju). ... Middle East Airlines (MEA) (Arabic: طيران الشرق الأوسط), also known by its full name Middle East Airlines Air Liban (Arabic: طيران الشرق الأوسط الخطوط الجوية اللبنانية), is the national flag-carrier airline of Lebanon, based in Beirut. ... Trans World Airlines (IATA: TW, ICAO: TWA, and Callsign: TWA), commonly known as TWA, was an American airline company that was acquired by American Airlines in April 2001. ...


The aircraft was initially referred to in Britain as "Concorde," with the French spelling, but was officially changed to "Concord" by Harold Macmillan in response to a perceived slight by Charles de Gaulle. In 1967, at the French roll-out in Toulouse the British Government Minister for Technology, Tony Benn announced that he would change the spelling back to "Concorde."[7] This created a nationalist uproar that died down when Benn stated that the suffixed "e" represented "Excellence, England, Europe and Entente (Cordiale)." In his memoirs, he recounts a tale of a letter from an irate Scotsman claiming: "you talk about 'E' for England, but part of it is made in Scotland." Given Scotland's contribution of providing the nose cone for the aircraft, Benn replied "it was also 'E' for 'Écosse' (the French name for Scotland) — and I might have added 'e' for extravagance and 'e' for escalation as well!"[8] Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, OM, PC (10 February 1894 – 29 December 1986), was a British Conservative politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963. ... For other uses, see Charles de Gaulle (disambiguation). ... New city flag (Occitan cross) Traditional coat of arms Motto: (Occitan: For Toulouse, always more) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Midi-Pyrénées Department Haute-Garonne (31) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse Mayor Jean-Luc Moudenc  (UMP) (since 2004) City Statistics Land... The Minister of Technology was a position in the government of the United Kingdom, sometimes abbreviated as MinTech. The Ministry of Technology was established by the incoming government of Harold Wilson in October 1964 as part of Wilsons ambition to modernise the state for what he perceived to be... Anthony Tony Neil Wedgwood Benn (born 3 April 1925), formerly 2nd Viscount Stansgate, is a British socialist politician. ... The Entente Cordiale (cordial understanding) is a series of agreements signed on 8 April 1904 between the United Kingdom and France. ... This article is about the country. ...


Construction of two prototypes began in February 1965: 001, built by Aerospatiale at Toulouse, and 002, by BAC at Filton, Bristol. Concorde 001 made its first test flight from Toulouse on 2 March 1969 and first went supersonic on 1 October. As the flight programme progressed, it embarked on a sales and demonstration tour on 4 September 1971. Concorde 002 followed suit on 2 June 1972 with a tour of the Middle and Far East. Concorde 002 made the first visit to the United States in 1973, landing at the new Dallas/Fort Worth Regional Airport to mark that airport's opening. Filton is a town in South Gloucestershire, England, on the northern outskirts of the city of Bristol, about 4. ... This article is about the English city. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, located between the cities of Dallas and Fort Worth, is the busiest airport in Texas and third busiest airport in the world in terms of operations. ...


These trips led to orders for over 70 aircraft, but a combination of factors led to a sudden number of order cancellations: the 1973 oil crisis, acute financial difficulties of many airlines, a spectacular Paris Le Bourget air show crash of the competing Soviet Tupolev Tu-144, and environmental concerns such as the sonic boom, takeoff-noise and pollution. Only Air France and British Airways (the successor to BOAC) took up their orders, with the two governments taking a cut of any profits made. In the case of BA, 80% of the profit was kept by the government until 1984, while the cost of buying the aircraft was covered by a state loan.[9] The 1973 oil crisis began in earnest on October 17, 1973, when the members of Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC, consisting of the Arab members of OPEC plus Egypt and Syria) announced, as a result of the ongoing Yom Kippur War, that they would no longer ship petroleum... The Tupolev Tu-144 (NATO reporting name: Charger) was the first supersonic transport aircraft (SST), constructed under the direction of the Soviet Tupolev design bureau headed by Alexei Tupolev (1925–2001). ... For other uses, see Sonic boom (disambiguation). ... An F/A-18 Hornet takes off from the USS Kitty Hawk (CV-63). ... After technical problems with the Comet, BOAC resumed jet service with imported Boeing 707s. ...


The United States had cancelled its supersonic transport (SST) programme in 1971. Two designs had been submitted; the Lockheed L-2000, looking like a scaled-up Concorde, lost out to the Boeing 2707, which was intended to be faster, to carry 300 passengers and feature a swing-wing design. Other countries, such as India and Malaysia, ruled out Concorde supersonic overflights due to noise concerns.[10] The Lockheed L-2000 was Lockheeds entry into the contest to build the United States first supersonic transport (SST). ... The Boeing 2707 was developed as the first American supersonic transport (SST). ... A swing-wing is a wing configuration that allows it to alter its planform for various flight conditions. ...


Both European airlines flew demonstration and test flights from 1974 onwards. The testing of Concorde set records that have not been surpassed; the prototype, pre-production and first production aircraft undertook 5,335 flight hours. A total of 2,000 test hours were at supersonic speeds. Unit costs were £23 million (US$46 million) in 1977. Development cost overrun was 500% [11](cost was six times higher than projected). Cost overrun is defined as excess of actual cost over budget. ...


Design

Concorde was an ogival delta-winged ("OG delta wing") aircraft with four Olympus engines based on those originally developed for the Avro Vulcan strategic bomber. The engines were jointly built by Rolls-Royce and SNECMA. Concorde was the first civil airliner to have an analogue fly-by-wire flight control system. It also employed a trademark droop snoot lowering nose section for visibility on approach. An ogive is a curved shape, figure, or feature. ... The delta wing is a wing planform in the form of a triangle, named after the Greek uppercase delta (letter) which is a triangle (Δ). Its use in the so called tailless delta, i. ... Rolls-Royce Olympus 593 The Olympus is a high-powered axial-flow turbojet, originally developed at Bristol Aero Engines, later passed to Bristol Siddeley, and finally to Rolls-Royce. ... The Avro Vulcan was a British delta wing subsonic bomber, operated by the Royal Air Force from 1953 until 1984. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the aircraft engine company. ... Snecma was one of the worlds leading aerospace corporations which merged with SAGEM to form SAFRAN. Snecma is now a subsidiary of the SAFRAN Group and previous Snecma subsidiaries have been reorganised within the wider group. ... A flight control system consists of the flight control surfaces, the respective cockpit controls, connecting linkage, and necessary operating mechanisms to control aircraft in flight The basic fundamentals of aircraft controls has been explained in aeronautics. ...


These and other features permitted Concorde to have an average cruise speed of Mach 2.02 (about 2,140 km/h or 1,330 mph) with a maximum cruise altitude of 18,300 metres (60,000 feet), more than twice the speed of conventional aircraft. The average landing speed was a relatively high 298 km/h (185 mph, 160 knots). An F/A-18 Hornet breaking the sound barrier. ... Kilometres per hour (American spelling: kilometers per hour) is a unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector). ... Miles per hour is a unit of speed, expressing the number of international miles covered per hour. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...

The flight deck
The flight deck

Concorde pioneered a number of technologies: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x668, 295 KB) Summary This image was taken by Martin J.Galloway. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x668, 295 KB) Summary This image was taken by Martin J.Galloway. ...


For high speed and optimisation of flight: In mathematics, optimization is the discipline which is concerned with finding the maxima and minima of functions, possibly subject to constraints. ...

  • Double-delta (ogee/ogival) shaped wings
  • Variable inlet ramps
  • Supercruise capability
  • Thrust-by-wire engines, predecessor of today's FADEC-controlled engines
  • Droop-nose section for improved visibility in landing

For weight-saving and enhanced performance: Ogee Arch Ogee is a shape consisting of a concave arc flowing into a convex arc, so forming an S-shaped curve with vertical ends. ... An ogive is a curved shape, figure, or feature. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... FADEC is the acronym for Full Authority Digital Engine Control. ... The Droop Nose is a recognisable feature of Concorde and the Tu-144. ...

  • Mach 2.04[12] (~2,200 km/h - 1350 mph) cruising speed for optimum fuel consumption (supersonic drag minimum, although turbojet engines are more efficient at high speed)
  • Mainly aluminium construction for low weight and relatively conventional manufacture (higher speeds would have ruled out aluminium)
  • Full-regime autopilot and autothrottle allowing "hands off" control of the aircraft from climbout to landing
  • Fully electrically controlled analogue fly-by-wire flight controls systems
  • Multifunction flight control surfaces
  • High-pressure hydraulic system of 28 MPa (4,000 lbf/in²) for lighter hydraulic systems components
  • Fully electrically controlled analogue brake-by-wire system
  • Pitch trim by shifting fuel around the fuselage for centre-of-gravity control
  • Parts milled from single alloy billet reducing the part-number count
  • Lack of Auxiliary power unit (Relying on the fact that Concorde will be used for premium services to big airports, where a ground air start cart would be readily available)

The Concorde programme's primary legacy is in the experience gained in design and manufacture which later became the basis of the Airbus consortium.[citation needed] Snecma Moteurs' involvement with the Concorde programme prepared the company's entrance into civil engine design and manufacturing, opening the way for Snecma to establish CFM International with General Electric and produce the successful CFM International CFM56 series engines. An autopilot is a mechanical, electrical, or hydraulic system used to guide a vehicle without assistance from a human being. ... An autothrottle (automatic throttle) allows a pilot to control the power setting of an aircrafts engines by specifying a desired flight characteristic, rather than directly controlling fuel flow. ... A flight control system consists of the flight control surfaces, the respective cockpit controls, connecting linkage, and necessary operating mechanisms to control aircraft in flight. ... Drive-by-wire technology in automotive industry replaces the traditional mechanical and hydraulic control systems with electronic control systems using electromechanical actuators and human-machine interfaces such as pedal and steering feel emulators. ... The APU exhaust at the tail end of an Airbus A380 An auxiliary power unit (APU) is a device on a vehicle whose purpose is to provide energy for functions other than propulsion. ... Airbus S.A.S. (pronounced in English, in French, and in German) is an aircraft manufacturing subsidiary of EADS, a European aerospace concern. ... Snecma Moteurs of France is one of the worlds major aircraft engine suppliers. ... “GE” redirects here. ... CFM56-3 CFM56, front view CFM International CFM-56 series engines is a family of high-bypass turbofan engines made by CFM International and has a thrust range from 18,500 to 34,000 lbf (82 kN to 151 kN). ...


Although Concorde was a technological marvel when introduced into service in the 1970s, 30 years later its cockpit, cluttered with analogue dials and switches, looked dated. With no competition, there was no commercial pressure to upgrade Concorde with enhanced avionics or passenger comfort, as occurred in other airliners of the same vintage, for example the Boeing 747.[citation needed]


The key partners, BAC (later to become BAE Systems) and Aerospatiale (later to become EADS), were the joint owners of Concorde's type certificate. Responsibility for the Type Certificate transferred to Airbus with formation of Airbus SAS. , BAE Systems plc (BAE) is a British defence and aerospace company headquartered at Farnborough, UK, which has worldwide interests, particularly in North America through its subsidiary BAE Systems Inc. ... The European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company EADS N.V. (EADS) is a large European aerospace corporation, formed by the merger on July 10, 2000 of Aérospatiale-Matra of France, Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA (CASA) of Spain, and DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG (DASA) of Germany. ... A Type Certificate (sometimes called Airworthiness Certificate), is awarded by aviation regulating bodies (such as FAA in US and EASA in EU) to aerospace firms after it has been established that the particular design of aircraft, engines or propeller submitted has fulfilled the regulating bodies current prevailing airworthiness requirements for...


Main problems overcome during design

G-AXDN, Duxford, close up of engines
G-AXDN, Duxford, close up of engines

Many issues were overcome whilst researching and developing Concorde.[13] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x672, 111 KB) Summary Taken and donated by User:Guinnog Concorde wing and engine detail at Imperial War Museum, Duxford Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x672, 111 KB) Summary Taken and donated by User:Guinnog Concorde wing and engine detail at Imperial War Museum, Duxford Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed...


Movement of centre of pressure

When any aircraft passes the critical mach of that particular airframe, the centre of pressure shifts rearwards. This causes a pitch down force on the aircraft, as the center of gravity remains where it was. The engineers designed the wings in a specific manner to reduce this shift. However, there was still a shift of about 2 metres. This could have been countered by the use of trim controls, but at such high speeds this would have caused a dramatic increase in the drag on the aircraft. Instead, the distribution of fuel along the aircraft was shifted during acceleration and deceleration to move the center of gravity, effectively acting as an auxiliary trim control. Critical mach is a aeronautics term that refers to the speed at which some of the airflow on a wing becomes supersonic. ... The Center of Pressure (or CoP) is the point on a body where the sum of the total pressure acts. ... For the kite, see foil kite. ...


Engines

To be economically viable, Concorde needed to be able to fly reasonably long distances, and this required high efficiency. For optimum supersonic flight, the engines needed to have a small frontal cross-sectional area to minimise drag and a low bypass ratio to give a high, supersonic exhaust speed. Turbojets were thus the best choice of engines. The more efficient and quieter high bypass turbofan engines such as used on Boeing 747s could not be used. The engine chosen was the twin spool Rolls-Royce/Snecma Olympus 593, a version of the Olympus originally developed for the Vulcan bomber, developed into an afterburning supersonic engine for the BAC TSR-2 strike bomber and then adapted for Concorde. The Boeing 747, sometimes nicknamed the Jumbo Jet,[4][5] is a long-haul, widebody commercial airliner manufactured by Boeing in the United States. ... Rolls-Royce Olympus 593 The Olympus is a high-powered axial-flow turbojet, originally developed at Bristol Aero Engines, later passed to Bristol Siddeley, and finally to Rolls-Royce. ... The Avro Vulcan was a British delta wing subsonic bomber, operated by the Royal Air Force from 1953 until 1984. ... The BAC TSR-2 was an ill-fated cold war project developed by the British Aircraft Corporation (BAC) in the early 1960s. ...

Concorde's ramp system Schematic
Concorde's ramp system
Concorde's ramp system

The inlet design for Concorde's engines was critical. All conventional jet engines can intake air at only around Mach 0.5; therefore the air needs to be slowed from the Mach 2.0 airspeed that enters the engine inlet. In particular, Concorde needed to control the shock waves that this reduction in speed generates to avoid damage to the engines. This was done by a pair of ramps and an auxiliary flap, whose position was moved during flight to slow the air down. The ramps were at the top of the engine compartment and moved down and the auxiliary flap moved both up and down allowing air to flow in or out. During takeoff, when the engine's air demand was high, the ramps were flat at the top and the auxiliary flap was in, allowing more air to enter the engine. As the aircraft approached Mach 0.7, the flap closed; at Mach 1.3, the ramps came into effect, removing air from the engines which was then used in the pressurisation of the cabin. At Mach 2.0, the ramps had covered half their total possible distance. They also helped reduce the work done by the compressors as they not only compressed the air but also increased the air temperature. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (938x592, 29 KB)Author:Burbank Source:Self Concorde intake operating modes File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (938x592, 29 KB)Author:Burbank Source:Self Concorde intake operating modes File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ...


Engine failure causes large problems on conventional subsonic aircraft; not only does the aircraft lose thrust on that side but the engine is a large source of drag, causing the aircraft to yaw and bank in the direction of the failed engine. If this had happened to Concorde at supersonic speeds, it could theoretically have caused a catastrophic failure of the airframe. However, during an engine failure air intake needs are virtually zero, so in Concorde the immediate effects of the engine failure were countered by the opening of the auxiliary flap and the full extension of the ramps, which deflected the air downwards past the engine, gaining lift and streamlining the engine, minimising the drag effects of the failed engine. In tests, Concorde was able to shut down both engines on the same side of the aircraft at Mach 2 without any control problems.[14]


The aircraft used reheat (afterburners) at take-off and to pass through the transonic regime (i.e. "go supersonic") between Mach 0.95 and Mach 1.7, and were switched-off at all other times. The engines were just capable of reaching Mach 2 without reheat, but it was discovered operationally that it burnt more fuel that way, since the aircraft spent much longer flying in the high-drag transonic regime even though reheat is relatively inefficient. For other uses of afterburner, see Afterburner (disambiguation). ... Transonic is an aeronautics term referring to a range of velocities just below and above the speed of sound. ... An object moving through a gas or liquid experiences a force in direction opposite to its motion. ...


Due to jet engines being highly inefficient at low speeds, Concorde burned two tonnes of fuel taxiing to the runway.[15] To conserve fuel only the two outer engines were run after landing. The thrust from two engines was sufficient for taxiing to the ramp due to low aircraft weight upon landing at its destination. A Concorde once ran out of fuel taxiing to the terminal after a flight; the pilot was dismissed.[16]


Heating issues

Beside engines, the hottest part of the structure of any supersonic aircraft is the nose. The engineers wanted to use (duralumin) aluminium throughout the aircraft, due to its familiarity, cost and ease of construction. The highest temperature that aluminium could sustain over the life of the aircraft was 127 °C, which limited the top speed to Mach 2.02. A nose cone that contained one of the Voyager spacecraft is seen here as it is mounted on top of a Titan III/Centaur launch vehicle. ... Duralumin (also called duraluminum, duraluminium or dural) is the trade name of one of the earliest types of age-hardenable aluminium alloys. ...


Concorde went through two cycles of heating and cooling during a flight, first cooling down as it gained altitude, then heating up after going supersonic. The reverse happened when descending and slowing down. This had to be factored into the metallurgical modelling. Owing to the heat generated by compression of the air as Concorde travelled supersonically, the fuselage would extend by as much as 300 mm (almost 1 ft), the most obvious manifestation of this being a gap that opened up on the flight deck between the flight engineer's console and the bulkhead. On all Concordes that had a supersonic retirement flight, the flight engineers placed their hats in this gap before it cooled, where the hats remain to this day. In the Seattle museum's Concorde a protruding cap was cut off by a thief in an apparent attempt to steal it, leaving a part behind. An amnesty led to the severed cap being returned. In aviation, a flight engineer (also referred to as systems operator ) is a member of the aircrew of an aircraft who is responsible for checking the aircraft before and after each flight, and for monitoring aircraft systems during flight. ...


In order to keep the cabin cool, Concorde used the fuel as a heatsink for the heat from the air conditioning. The same method also cooled the hydraulics. During supersonic flight the windows in the cockpit became too hot to touch. A large copper heatsink. ...


Concorde also had restrictions on livery; the majority of the surface had to be white to avoid overheating the aluminium structure due to the supersonic heating effects of Mach 2.[17] In 1996, however, Air France briefly painted F-BTSD in a predominantly-blue livery (with the exception of the wings) as part of a promotional deal with Pepsi Cola. In this paint scheme, Air France were advised to remain at Mach 2 for no more than 20 minutes at a time, but there was no restriction at speeds under Mach 1.7. F-BTSD was chosen for the promotion because the aircraft was not then scheduled to operate any long flights that required extended Mach 2 operations.[18] Pepsi Cola is a non-alcoholic carbonated beverage produced and manufactured by PepsiCo. ...


Structural issues

Due to the high speeds at which Concorde travelled, large forces were applied to the aircraft structure during banks and turns. This caused twisting and the distortion of the aircraft's structure. This was resolved by the neutralisation of the outboard elevons at high speeds. Only the innermost elevons, which are attached to the strongest area of the wings, are active at high speed. A glossary of terms used in relation to aircraft, in alphabetical order. ...


Additionally, the relatively narrow height of the fuselage meant that the aircraft flexed more, particularly during takeoff, and pilots were able to look back down the cabin and see this occurring, but it was less visible from most of the passengers' viewpoints.


Brakes

Due to a relatively high average takeoff speed of 250 mph (400 km/h), Concorde needed good brakes. Concorde's brakes were one of the first major users of anti-lock braking systems, which stop the wheels from locking when fully applied, allowing greater deceleration and control during braking, particularly in wet conditions.[citation needed] An anti-lock braking system (ABS) (translated from German, Antiblockiersystem) is a system on motor vehicles which prevents the wheels from locking while braking. ...


The brakes were carbon-based and could bring Concorde, weighing up to 185 tons (188 tonnes) and travelling at 190 mph (305 km/h), to a stop from an aborted takeoff within one mile (1600 m). This braking manoeuvre brought the brakes to temperatures of 300 °C to 500 °C, requiring several hours for cooling.[citation needed] Look up ton in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A tonne (also called metric ton) is a non-SI unit of mass, accepted for use with SI, defined as: 1 tonne = 103 kg (= 106 g). ...


Range

Concorde needed to travel between London and New York or Washington nonstop, and to achieve this the designers gave Concorde the greatest range of any supersonic aircraft at the time (since beaten by the Tu-160). This was achieved by a combination of careful development of the engines to make them highly efficient at supersonic speeds, by very careful design of the wing shape to give a good lift to drag ratio, by having a relatively modest payload, a high fuel capacity, and by moving the fuel to trim the aircraft without introducing any additional drag. Tupolev Tu-160 The Tupolev Tu-160 (NATO reporting name Blackjack) is a supersonic, swing-wing heavy bomber designed in the Soviet Union. ... In aerodynamics, the lift-to-drag ratio, or L/D ratio (ell-over-dee, as opposed to ell-dee), is the amount of lift generated by a wing, compared to the drag it creates by moving through the air. ...


Nevertheless, soon after Concorde began flying, a Concorde "B" model was designed, featuring more powerful engines without the fuel-hungry and noisy reheat, slightly larger fuel capacity and slightly larger wings with leading-edge slats to improve aerodynamic performance at all speeds. This would have given 500 km greater range even with greater payload. This was cancelled due to poor sales of Concorde.[19]


Increased radiation exposure

The high altitude at which Concorde cruised meant passengers received almost twice the flux of extraterrestrial ionising radiation as those travelling on a conventional long-haul flight. Because of the proportionally reduced flight time, however, the overall equivalent dose was less than a conventional flight over the same distance.[20] Unusual solar activity led to an increase in incident radiation, so the flight deck had a radiometer and an instrument to measure the rate of decrease of radiation. If the level was too high, Concorde descended to below 47,000 ft (14,000 m). The rate of decrease indicator indicated whether the aircraft needed to descend further, decreasing the amount of time the aircraft was at an unsafe altitude. flux in science and mathematics. ... Ionizing radiation is radiation in which an individual particle (for example, a photon, electron, or helium nucleus) carries enough energy to ionize an atom or molecule (that is, to completely remove an electron from its orbit). ... The equivalent dose is a measure of the radiation dose to tissue where an attempt has been made to allow for the different relative biological effect of different types of radiation. ... 400 year history of sunspot numbers. ...


Cabin pressurisation

Concorde fuselage
Concorde fuselage

Airliner cabins are usually pressurised to 6-8,000 ft (1,800-2,400 m) elevation while the aircraft flies much higher. Concorde's pressurisation was set to a lower altitude than most other commercial jets.[citation needed] Some passengers can have difficulty even with that pressurisation. A sudden reduction in cabin pressure is hazardous to all passengers and crew. Concorde's maximum cruising altitude was 60,000 ft (18,000 m) (though the typical altitude reached between London and New York was about 56,000 ft (17,000 m)); subsonic airliners typically cruise below 40,000 ft (12,000 m). Above 50,000 ft (15,000 m), the lack of oxygen would limit consciousness in even a conditioned athlete to no more than 10-15 seconds. A cabin breach could even reduce air pressure to below the ambient pressure outside the aircraft due to the Venturi effect, as the air is sucked out through an opening. At Concorde's altitude, the air density is very low; a breach of cabin integrity would result in a loss of pressure severe enough so that the plastic emergency oxygen masks installed on other passenger jets would not be effective, and passengers would quickly suffer from hypoxia despite quickly donning them. Concorde, therefore, was equipped with smaller windows to reduce the rate of loss in the event of a breach, a reserve air supply system to augment cabin air pressure, and a rapid descent procedure to bring the aircraft to a safe altitude. The FAA enforces minimum emergency descent rates for aircraft and made note of Concorde's higher operating altitude, concluding that the best response to a loss of pressure would be a rapid descent.[citation needed] Pilots had access to CPAP (Continuous Positive Airway Pressure) which used masks that forced oxygen at higher pressure into the crew's lungs. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 569 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Fuselage of the Air France Concorde F-BVFB at the Auto- und Technikmuseum Sinsheim / Germany. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 569 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Fuselage of the Air France Concorde F-BVFB at the Auto- und Technikmuseum Sinsheim / Germany. ... The fuselage can be short, and seemingly unaerodynamic, as in this Christen Eagle 2 The fuselage (from the French fuselé spindle-shaped) is an aircrafts main body section that holds crew and passengers or cargo. ... A Venturi meter is shown in a diagram, the pressure in 1 conditions is higher than 2, and the relationship between the fluid speed in 2 and 1 respectively, is the same as for pressure. ... Hypoxia is a pathological condition in which the body as a whole (generalised hypoxia) or region of the body (tissue hypoxia) is deprived of adequate oxygen supply. ... Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a method of respiratory ventilation used primarily in the treatment of sleep apnea and various lung diseases. ...


Droop nose

Concorde's famous drooping nose was a compromise between the need for a streamlined design to reduce drag and increase aerodynamic efficiency in flight and the need for the pilot to see properly during taxi, takeoff, and landing operations. A delta-wing aircraft takes off and lands with a high angle of attack (a high nose angle) compared to subsonic aircraft, due to the way the delta wing generates lift. The pointed nose would obstruct the pilots' view of taxiways and runways, so Concorde's nose was designed to allow for different positioning for different operations. The droop nose was accompanied by a moving visor that was retracted into the nose prior to the nose being lowered. When the nose was raised back to horizontal, the visor was raised ahead of the front cockpit windscreen for aerodynamic streamlining in flight.[21]


A controller in the cockpit allowed the visor to be retracted and the nose to be lowered to 5° below the standard horizontal position for taxiing and takeoff. Following takeoff and after clearing the airport, the nose and visor were raised. Shortly before landing, the visor was again retracted and the nose lowered to 12.5° below horizontal for maximum visibility. Upon landing, the nose was quickly raised to the five-degree position to avoid the possibility of damage.[21] On rare occasions, the aircraft could take off with the nose fully down.[22] An F/A-18 Hornet takes off from the USS Kitty Hawk (CV-63). ...


A final possible position had the visor retracted into the nose but the nose in the standard horizontal position. This setup was used for cleaning the windscreen and for short subsonic flights.[21]


The two prototype Concordes had two fixed "glass holes" on their retractable visors.[23]


Operational history

Concorde G-BOAF. The final flight of Concorde landing at Filton Airfield, near Bristol, on 26 November 2003.
Concorde G-BOAF. The final flight of Concorde landing at Filton Airfield, near Bristol, on 26 November 2003.

Scheduled flights began on 21 January 1976 on the London-Bahrain and Paris-Rio (via Dakar) routes. The U.S. Congress had just banned Concorde landings in the US, mainly due to citizen protest over sonic booms, preventing launch on the coveted transatlantic routes. However, the U.S. Secretary of Transportation, William Coleman, gave special permission for Concorde service to Washington Dulles International Airport, and British Airways and Air France simultaneously began service to Dulles on 24 May 1976.[24] Download high resolution version (1500x1145, 188 KB) Concorde 216 (G-BOAF) passes over the A38 road on the final ever Concorde landing at Filton, Bristol, England. ... Download high resolution version (1500x1145, 188 KB) Concorde 216 (G-BOAF) passes over the A38 road on the final ever Concorde landing at Filton, Bristol, England. ... Bristol Filton Aerodrome (EGTG) lies on the A38 on the border between Filton and Patchway, within South Gloucestershire. ... This article is about the English city. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... This article is about the Brazilian city. ... (City of Dakar, divided into 19 communes darrondissement) City proper (commune) Région Dakar Département Dakar Mayor Pape Diop (PDS) (since 2002) Area 82. ... Congress in Joint Session. ... A sonic boom is the audible component of a shock wave in air. ... The Atlantic Ocean, not including Arctic and Antarctic regions. ... The United States Secretary of Transportation is the head of the United States Department of Transportation. ... William Thaddeus Coleman, Jr. ... , FAA Airport Diagram Washington Dulles International Airport (IATA: IAD, ICAO: KIAD, FAA LID: IAD) is a public airport located 25 miles (40 km) west of the central business district of Washington, D.C., in Loudoun County and Fairfax County, Virginia, United States. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


When the US ban on JFK Concorde operations was lifted in February 1977, New York banned Concorde locally. The ban came to an end on 17 October 1977 when the Supreme Court of the United States declined to overturn a lower court's ruling rejecting the Port Authority's efforts to continue the ban (The noise report noted that Air Force One, at the time a Boeing 707, was louder than Concorde at subsonic speeds and during takeoff and landing.).[25] Scheduled service from Paris and London to New York's John F. Kennedy Airport began on 22 November 1977.[citation needed] Flights operated by BA were generally numbered "BA001" (London to New York), "BA002" (New York to London), "BA003" (London to New York) and "BA004" (New York to London). Air France flight numbers were generally "AF001" (New York to Paris) and "AF002" (Paris to New York). New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ... Tolls collected at the Holland Tunnel and other crossings help fund the Port Authority. ... For the current aircraft, see Boeing VC-25. ... The Boeing 707 is an American four-engine commercial passenger jet airliner developed by Boeing in the early 1950s. ... An F/A-18 Hornet takes off from the USS Kitty Hawk (CV-63). ... John F. Kennedy International Airport (IATA Airport Code: JFK, ICAO Airport Code: KJFK) is the main international airport in New York City, and is one of the largest airports in the world. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ...


By around 1981 in the UK, the future for Concorde looked bleak. The government had lost money operating Concorde every year, and moves were afoot to cancel the service entirely. A cost projection came back with greatly reduced metallurgical testing costs, but still, having lost money for so many years, the government was not keen to continue. In late 1983, the managing director of BA, Sir John King, managed to get the government to sell the aircraft outright to (the then state owned, later privatised) BA for £16.5 million plus the first year's profits.[26] John Leonard King, Baron King of Wartnaby (August 29, 1917-July 12, 2005) was a businessman famous for leading British Airways from inefficient, nationalised company to one of the most successful airlines of recent times. ...


After doing a market survey and discovering that their target customers thought that Concorde was more expensive than it actually was, BA progressively raised prices to match these perceptions. It is reported that BA then ran Concorde at a profit, unlike their French counterparts.[27] The plane was reckoned to make an operating profit for British Airways[28] after the British and French governments agreed to write off the development costs of the plane.[29] BA's profits have been reported to be up to £50 million in the most profitable year, with a total revenue of £1.75 billion, before costs of £1 billion.[27]


While commercial jets take seven hours to fly from New York to Paris, the average supersonic flight time on the transatlantic routes was just under 3.5 hours. In transatlantic flight, Concorde travelled more than twice as fast as other aircraft - other aircraft frequently appeared to be flying backwards. Up to 2003, Air France and British Airways continued to operate the New York services daily. Concorde also flew to Barbados's Grantley Adams International Airport during the winter holiday season. Until the AF Paris crash ended virtually all charter services by both AF and BA, several UK and French tour operators operated numerous charter flights to various European destinations on a regular basis. The Sir Grantley Adams International Airport (GAIA), (IATA: BGI, ICAO: TBPB) is found in Seawell, Christ Church on the island of Barbados. ...


In 1985, British Airways had a Concorde land at Cleveland Hopkins International Airport for a special flight between Cleveland Hopkins and London Heathrow. When it made its Cleveland appearance it brought Cleveland international attention and it also paved the way for Hopkins Airport to become an international airport. In 2000, Concorde was scheduled to return to Cleveland for a special flight, but due to the crash of Concorde Flight 4590 in Paris, this flight was postponed. The 1985 flight was three hours and ten minutes from Cleveland to London. It had to fly subsonic from New York to Cleveland and this route added some time. There was talk of adding a Concorde flight to Cleveland, but due to Cleveland's airport being near a residential area, this plan was not carried out.[30] For the 1930s airline of similar name, see British Airways Ltd. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


On 12-13 October 1992, in commemoration of the 500th anniversary of Columbus' first New World landing, Concorde Spirit Tours (USA) chartered Air France Concorde F-BTSD and circumnavigated the world in 32 hours 49 minutes and 3 seconds, from Lisbon, Portugal, including six refuelling stops at Santo Domingo, Acapulco, Honolulu, Guam, Bangkok and Bahrain.[31] Air France (formally Société Air France) is Europes largest airline company. ... It has been suggested that Greater Santo Domingo Area be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Acapulco (disambiguation). ... Honolulu as seen from the International Space Station Honolulu is the largest city and the capital of the U.S. state of Hawai‘i. ... Location within in Thailand Coordinates: , Country Settled Ayutthaya Period Founded as capital 21 April 1782 Government  - Type Special administrative area  - Governor Apirak Kosayothin Area  - City 1,568. ...


The Eastbound record was set by the same Air France Concorde F-BTSD under charter to Concorde Spirit Tours (USA), on 15-16 August 1995. This special promotional flight circumnavigated the world from New York/JFK International Airport in a time of 31 hours 27 minutes 49 seconds, including six refuelling stops at Toulouse, Dubai, Bangkok, Andersen AFB (Guam), Honolulu and Acapulco.[32] Concorde continues to hold both records. John F. Kennedy International Airport (IATA Airport Code: JFK, ICAO Airport Code: KJFK) is the main international airport in New York City, and is one of the largest airports in the world. ... New city flag (Occitan cross) Traditional coat of arms Motto: (Occitan: For Toulouse, always more) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Midi-Pyrénées Department Haute-Garonne (31) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse Mayor Jean-Luc Moudenc  (UMP) (since 2004) City Statistics Land... Location of Dubai in the UAE Coordinates: , Country Emirate Dubai Incorporated (town) June 9, 1833 Incorporated (emirate) December 2, 1971 Founder Maktoum bin Bati bin Suhail (1833) Seat Dubai Subdivisions Towns and villages Jebel Ali Hatta Al Hunaiwah Al Aweer Al Hajarain Al Lusayli Al Marqab Al Shindagha Al Faq... Location within in Thailand Coordinates: , Country Settled Ayutthaya Period Founded as capital 21 April 1782 Government  - Type Special administrative area  - Governor Apirak Kosayothin Area  - City 1,568. ... Honolulu as seen from the International Space Station Honolulu is the largest city and the capital of the U.S. state of Hawai‘i. ... For other uses, see Acapulco (disambiguation). ...


In 1977, British Airways and Singapore Airlines shared a Concorde for flights between London and Singapore International Airport via Bahrain. The aircraft, BA Concorde G-BOAD, was painted in Singapore Airlines livery on the port side and British Airways livery on the starboard side.[33] The service was discontinued after three return flights because of noise complaints from the Malaysian government; it could only be reinstated on a new route bypassing Malaysian airspace in 1979. A dispute with India prevented Concorde from reaching supersonic speeds in Indian airspace, so the route was eventually declared not viable and discontinued in 1980. During the Mexican oil boom, Air France flew Concorde twice-weekly to Mexico City's Benito Juárez International Airport via Washington, DC or New York Cty, from September 1978 to November 1982. The worldwide economic crisis during that period resulted in this route's cancellation; the last flights were almost empty. The routing between Washington or New York and Mexico City included a deceleration, from Mach 2.02 to Mach 0.95, to cross Florida subsonically and avoid unlawfully sonic-booming it; then a reacceleration to cross the Gulf of Mexico at Mach 2.02. Air France evidently never realised that this procedure could be avoided by flying midway between Miami and Bimini, Bahamas, then turning west around Key West, Florida, to avoid all sonic-boom effects on Florida. It took British Airways to implement this new routing, which was accomplished on April 1, 1989, with G-BOAF, on an Around-The-World luxury tour charter. From time to time, Concorde came back to the region on similar chartered flights to Mexico City and Acapulco. Singapore Airlines Boeing 747-400 9V-SPA takes off from London Heathrow Airport bound for Singapore Changi Airport. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Paya Lebar Air Force Base (Chinese: 巴耶利峇机场) was built as a civilian airport, known as Singapore International Airport, in 1955, before being gradually converted into a military air force base from 1967. ... Nickname: Location of Mexico City Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ... The Mexico City International Airport (Aeropuerto Internacional de la Ciudad de México) known as Benito Juárez International Airport (IATA: MEX, ICAO: MMMX) serves Mexico City, the capital of Mexico. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ...


Between 1984 and 1991, British Airways flew a thrice-weekly Concorde service between London and Miami, stopping at Washington's Dulles International Airport. The routing from Dulles to Miami was flown subsonically as far as Carolina Beach VOR; then there was a very rapid climb to 60,000 ft (estimated at 6,000 ft per minute) and Mach 2.02 that was possible due to the aircraft's very light weight: an average of only about 25-30 passengers and fuel only for the short Dulles-Miami sector. After about 6-8 minutes at Mach 2.02, deceleration and descent was begun into Miami. On several occasions, bad weather at Dulles and a relatively light passenger payload out of Miami enabled nonstop Miami-London sectors to be flown. The fastest such flight took just 3 hours 47 minutes to fly over 4,000 nautical miles (7,400 km) from Miami to London, with 70 passengers. On such trips, the flight plan was filed to Shannon, Ireland, with en route reclearance on to London secured later in the flight after the minimum required fuel for London was clearly present. This flight was farther than a sector often claimed as the farthest ever flown nonstop by Concorde: a special charter for Middle Eastern VIPs from Washington to Nice, France.[citation needed]


From 1978 to 1980, Braniff International Airways leased ten Concordes,[34] five each from British Airways and Air France. These were used on subsonic flights between Dallas-Fort Worth and Washington Dulles International Airport, flown by Braniff flight crews, Air France and British Airways crews then taking over for the continuing supersonic flights to London and Paris. The aircraft were registered in both the United States and their home countries: a sticker covered up the European registration while it was being operated by Braniff. The flights were not profitable and were usually less than 50% booked, which forced Braniff to end its tenure as the only U.S. Concorde operator in May 1980. Braniff International Airways was an American airline that existed from 1928 until 1982. ... Subsonic has two possible meanings: A speed lower than the speed of sound is called subsonic. ... DFW redirects here. ... , FAA Airport Diagram Washington Dulles International Airport (IATA: IAD, ICAO: KIAD, FAA LID: IAD) is a public airport located 25 miles (40 km) west of the central business district of Washington, D.C., in Loudoun County and Fairfax County, Virginia, United States. ...


Passenger experience

BA Concorde interior before 2000
BA Concorde interior before 2000

Passenger experience on Concorde differed in many ways from that on subsonic commercial airliners. British Airways and Air France configured the passenger cabin as a single class with 100 seats — four seats across with a central aisle. Headroom in the central aisle was barely six ft (1.8 m) and the leather seats were unusually narrow. The seat pitch was 38-inch (970 mm): giving only about 6 or 7 inches more legroom than in a typical scheduled international Economy class. With little overhead storage, carry-on luggage was severely restricted. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x683, 286 KB) Summary This image was taken by Martin J.Galloway. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x683, 286 KB) Summary This image was taken by Martin J.Galloway. ... Business class seat in a Lufthansa Boeing 747-400 Control screen fixed to the back side of an economy class airline seat (Airbus), the tray is stowed Airline seats are chairs on an airliner in which passengers are accommodated for the duration of the journey. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


In the 1990s, features which were common in the first class and business class cabins of a long-haul Boeing 747 flight, such as video entertainment, rotating or reclining seats and walking areas were absent from Concorde. However, the flight time from London to New York of approximately 3.5 hrs compensated for the lack of those features. There was usually a plasma display at the front of the cabin showing the altitude, the air temperature and the current speed in both miles per hour and Mach number. (Air France had a single display showing the Mach number-only.) The Boeing 747, sometimes nicknamed the Jumbo Jet,[4][5] is a long-haul, widebody commercial airliner manufactured by Boeing in the United States. ... An F/A-18 Hornet breaking the sound barrier. ...


To make up for these missing "comfort" features, a high level of passenger service was maintained. Meals were served using specially designed compact Wedgwood crockery with short silver cutlery. Wedgwood is a British pottery firm, originally founded by Josiah Wedgwood, and possibly the most famous name ever associated with pottery in any form, which in 1987 merged with Waterford Crystal to become Waterford Wedgwood. ...

Concorde restroom facilities
Concorde restroom facilities

The experience of passing through the sound barrier was accompanied by a slight surge in acceleration, and was announced by one of the pilots. U.S. Navy F/A-18 at transonic speed. ...


At twice a conventional airliner's cruising altitude, the view from the windows clearly showed the curvature of the Earth, and turbulence was rare. During the supersonic cruise, although the outside air temperature was typically -60 °C (-75 °F), air compression would heat the external skin at the front of the aircraft to approximately +120 °C (250 °F), making the windows warm to the touch and producing a noticeable temperature gradient along the length of the cabin.


The delta-shaped wings allowed Concorde to attain a higher angle of attack than conventional aircraft, as it allowed the formation of large low pressure vortices over the entire upper wing surface, maintaining lift. This low pressure caused Concorde to disappear into a bank of fog on humid days. These vortices formed only at low air speeds, meaning that during the initial climb and throughout the approach Concorde experienced light turbulence and buffeting. Interestingly, the vortex lift created by Concorde's wing just prior to touchdown supplied its own mild turbulence. In this diagram, the black arrow represents the direction of the wind. ...


Concorde flew fast enough that the weight of everyone onboard was temporarily reduced by about 1% when flying east. This was due to centrifugal effects since the airspeed added to the rotation speed of the Earth. Flying west, the weight increased by about 0.3%, because it cancelled out the normal rotation and, with it, the normal centrifugal force and replaced it with a smaller rotation in the opposite direction.[35] Concorde flew high enough that the weight of everyone onboard was reduced by an additional 0.6% due to the increased distance from the centre of the Earth. The expression centrifugal force is used to express that if an object is being swung around on a string the object seems to be pulling on the string. ...


Concorde's cruising speed exceeded the top speed of the solar terminator. Concorde was able to overtake or outrun the spin of the earth. On westbound flights it was possible to arrive at a local time earlier than the flight's departure time. On certain early evening transatlantic flights departing from Heathrow or Paris, it was possible to take off just after sunset and catch up with the sun, landing in daylight. This was much publicised by British Airways, who used the slogan "Arrive before you leave."
World map with terminator (April) A composite image showing the terminator dividing night from day, running across Europe and Africa. ...


Flight characteristics

In regular service, Concorde employed a relatively efficient cruise-climb flight profile. As aircraft lose weight from consuming fuel, they can fly at progressively higher altitudes. This is (generally) more efficient, so conventional airliners employ a stepped climb profile, where air traffic control will approve a change to a higher flight level as the flight progresses. During a landing approach Concorde was on the "back side" of the drag force curve, where raising the nose would increase the sink rate. For the Canadian musical group, see Air Traffic Control (band). ... In aviation, a flight level is the nominal altitude of an aircraft referenced to a standard pressure datum, as opposed to the real altitude above mean sea level. ... Parasitic drag (also called parasite drag) is drag caused by moving a solid object through a fluid. ...


With no other civil traffic operating at its cruising altitude of about 56,000 ft (17,000 m), dedicated oceanic airways or "tracks" were used by Concorde to cross the Atlantic. These SST, ("Super-Sonic Transport"), tracks were designated: North Atlantic Tracks for the eastbound crossing on the evening of May 4, 2006 North Atlantic Tracks are trans-Atlantic routes that stretch from the northeast of North America to western Europe across the Atlantic Ocean. ...

Track Sierra Mike (SM); A uni-directional track used by westbound flights of both British Airways and Air France.
Track Sierra November (SN); A uni-directional track used by eastbound flights of both Air France and British Airways.
Track Sierra Oscar (SO); A bi-directional track used by westbound Air France flights which might conflict with westbound British Airways flights routing simultaneously on Track SM, and by eastbound Air France flights which might conflict with eastbound British Airways flights routing simultaneously on Track SN.
Track Sierra Papa (SP); A uni-directional seasonal track used by westbound British Airways flights routing from London Heathrow to Barbados.

Due to the nature of high altitude winds, these SST tracks were fixed in terms of their co-ordinates, unlike the North Atlantic Tracks at lower altitudes whose co-ordinates alter daily according to forecast weather patterns. Concorde would also be cleared in a 10,000-foot (3,000 m) block, allowing for a slow climb from 50,000 to 60,000 ft (18,000 m) during the oceanic crossing as the fuel load gradually decreased.[36] North Atlantic Tracks for the eastbound crossing on the evening of May 4, 2006 North Atlantic Tracks are trans-Atlantic routes that stretch from the northeast of North America to western Europe across the Atlantic Ocean. ...


BA flights flown by Concorde added "Concorde" in addition to the standard "Speedbird" callsign to notify Air Traffic Control of the aircraft's unique abilities and restrictions.[37] The flight numbers of the BA Concorde flights were 001–004; BA Concordes therefore used callsigns "Speedbird Concorde 1" through to "Speedbird Concorde 4". With the retirement of Concorde those flight numbers are now unused. French Concordes used the standard "Air France" callsign. Evolution of the Speedbird logo to todays British Airways identity Speedbird is a callsign used by British Airways during air traffic control procedures, as well as the name for the famous stylized British Overseas Airways Corporation logo. ...


Paris crash

On 25 July 2000, Air France Flight 4590, registration F-BTSC, crashed in Gonesse, France, killing all 100 passengers and nine crew on board the flight, and four people on the ground. It was the only fatal incident involving the type. This animation from Seconds From Disaster shows the fuel tank on fire Air France Flight 4590 was a Concorde flight from Charles de Gaulle International Airport near Paris, France to John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York City, New York, and operated by Air France. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... This animation from Seconds From Disaster shows the fuel tank on fire Air France Flight 4590 was a Concorde flight from Charles de Gaulle International Airport near Paris, France to John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York City, New York, and operated by Air France. ... Gonesse is a town in the Val dOise département, north of Paris. ...


According to the official investigation conducted by the French accident investigation bureau (BEA), the crash was caused by a titanium strip, part of a thrust reverser, that fell from a Continental Airlines DC-10 that had taken off about four minutes earlier. This metal fragment punctured a tyre on the left main wheel bogie. The tyre exploded, and a piece of rubber hit the fuel tank and broke an electrical cable. The impact caused a hydrodynamic shockwave that fractured the fuel tank some distance from the point of impact. This caused a major fuel leak from the tank, which then ignited due to severed electrical wires which were sparking. The crew shut down engine number 2 in response to a fire warning but were unable to retract the landing gear, hampering the aircraft's climb. With engine number 1 surging and producing little power, the aircraft was unable to gain height or speed, entering a rapid pitch-up then a violent descent, rolling left. The impact occurred with the stricken aircraft tail-low, crashing into the Hotelissimo Hotel in Gonesse.[38] General Name, symbol, number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 47. ... KLM Fokker 70 with reverse thrust applied. ... Continental Airlines (NYSE: CAL) is a U.S. certificated air carrier. ... Biman Bangladesh Airlines McDonnell Douglas DC-10 The McDonnell Douglas DC-10 is a three-engined long-range airliner, with two engines mounted on underwing pylons and a third engine at the base of the vertical stabilizer. ... Firestone tire This article is about pneumatic tires. ... For the vector animation platform, see Macromedia Shockwave. ...


Others have disputed the BEA report, citing evidence that the Air France Concorde was overweight, had unbalanced distribution in the fuel tanks, and lacked a critical spacer in the landing gear which caused it to veer. They came to the conclusion that the aircraft veered off course on the runway, which reduced take-off speed below the crucial minimum.[39]


Prior to the accident, Concorde had been arguably the safest operational passenger airliner in the world in terms of passenger deaths-per-kilometres travelled with zero. After the accident, the death rate was 12.5 deaths per million flights, more than three times worse than the second worst aircraft. However no aircraft's safety can be accurately measured from a single incident and safety improvements were made in the wake of the crash. The crash of the Air France Concorde nonetheless proved to be the beginning of the end for the type.


The accident subsequently led to a programme of modifications, including more secure electrical controls, Kevlar lining to the fuel tanks and specially-developed burst-resistant tyres. Kevlars molecular structure; BOLD: monomer unit; DASHED: hydrogen bonds. ... Tires may refer to: the plural of tire the Italian name for Tiers, Italy, a town in South Tyrol, Italy Category: ...


Return to service

The first test-flight after the modifications departed from London Heathrow on 17 July 2001, piloted by BA Chief Concorde Pilot Mike Bannister. During the 3:20 hr flight over the mid-Atlantic towards Iceland, Bannister attained Mach 2.02 and 60,000 ft (18,000 m) before returning to RAF Brize Norton. The test flight, intended to resemble the London-New York route, was declared a success and was watched on live TV, and by crowds on the ground at both locations.[40] Heathrow redirects here. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Pilot of the last Concorde Flight http://en. ... An F/A-18 Hornet breaking the sound barrier. ... RAF Brize Norton is a Royal Air Force station in Oxfordshire about 50 miles west of London, England, United Kingdom. ...


The first BA passenger flight took place on 11 September 2001, and was in the air during the September 11, 2001 attacks in the United States. This was not a revenue flight, as all the passengers were BA employees.[41] is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly...


Normal commercial operations resumed on 7 November 2001 by BA and AF (aircraft G-BOAE and F-BTSD), with service to New York JFK, where passengers were welcomed by the then-mayor, Rudy Giuliani. is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... For the regional airport in Wisconsin, see John F. Kennedy Memorial Airport. ... Rudolph William Louis Giuliani III, (born May 28, 1944) is an American lawyer, prosecutor, businessman, and Republican politician from the state of New York. ...


Withdrawal from service

Concorde G-BOAD on a barge beneath Verrazano Narrows Bridge in New York City in November 2003, bound for the Intrepid Sea-Air-Space Museum
Concorde G-BOAD on a barge beneath Verrazano Narrows Bridge in New York City in November 2003, bound for the Intrepid Sea-Air-Space Museum

On 10 April 2003, British Airways and Air France simultaneously announced that they would retire Concorde later that year. They cited low passenger numbers following the 25 July 2000 crash, the slump in air travel following 9/11 and rising maintenance costs. Download high resolution version (1960x3008, 1449 KB) From [1]. File links The following pages link to this file: Verrazano Narrows Bridge Categories: Conditional use images ... Download high resolution version (1960x3008, 1449 KB) From [1]. File links The following pages link to this file: Verrazano Narrows Bridge Categories: Conditional use images ... Self propelled barge carrying bulk crushed stone A barge is a flat-bottomed boat, built mainly for river and canal transport of heavy goods. ... The Verrazano Narrows Bridge (properly written as the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge) is a suspension bridge that connects the boroughs of Staten Island and Brooklyn in New York City at the Narrows, the reach connecting the relatively protected upper bay with the larger lower bay. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The deck of USS Intrepid The USS Intrepid The Entrance to the Sea-Air-Space Museum The Intrepid Sea-Air-Space Museum is a museum in New York City located at Pier 86 on the West Side of Manhattan. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 3. ... Charles de Gaulle International Airport (IATA: CDG, ICAO: LFPG) (French: ), also known as Roissy Airport (or just Roissy in French), in Paris, is one of worlds principal aviation centres, as well as Frances main international airport. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ...


That same day, Sir Richard Branson offered to buy British Airways' Concorde fleet at their "original price of £1" for service with his Virgin Atlantic Airways. Branson claimed this to be the same token price that British Airways had paid the British Government, but BA denied this and refused the offer. The real cost of buying the aircraft was £26 million each but the money for buying the aircraft was loaned by the government, but took 80% of the profits; however BA bought their aircraft for a book value of £1 as part of the £16.5 million buy out in 1983.[27] Sir Richard Charles Nicholas Branson (born 18 July 1950) is a British entrepreneur, best known for his Virgin brand of over 360 companies. ... Virgin Atlantic Airways Ltd (usually referred to as Virgin Atlantic) is a British airline which is owned by Richard Bransons Virgin Group (51%) and Singapore Airlines (49%). It operates long-haul routes between the United Kingdom and North America, the Caribbean, Africa, the Middle East, Asia, and Australia from...


Branson wrote in The Economist (23 October 2003) that his final offer was "over £5 million" and that he had intended to operate the fleet "for many years to come." Any hope of Concorde remaining in service was further thwarted by Airbus' unwillingness to provide maintenance support for the ageing airframes. The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


It has been suggested that Concorde was not withdrawn for the reasons usually given, but that during the grounding of Concorde it became apparent to the airlines that they could actually make more revenue carrying their first class passengers subsonically.[42]


Rob Lewis suggested that the precipitous Air France retirement of its own Concorde fleet was the direct result of a secret conspiracy between Air France Chairman/CEO Jean-Cyril Spinetta and then-AIRBUS CEO Noel Forgeard, and stemmed as much from a fear of being found criminally liable under French law for future AF Concorde accidents as it did from simple economics. Further, on the British Airways side, a lack of engineering (maintenance) commitment to Concorde by then-Director of Engineering Alan MacDonald was cited as undermining BA's resolve to continue operating Concorde from within.[43][44]


Air France

Air France made its final commercial Concorde landing in the United States in New York City from Paris on 30 May 2003. Fire trucks sprayed the traditional arcs of water above F-BTSD on the tarmac of John F. Kennedy airport. The final passenger flight for the airline's SSTs was a charter around the Bay of Biscay. During the following week, on 2 June and 3 June 2003, F-BTSD flew a final round-trip from Paris to New York and back for airline staff and long-time employees in the airline's Concorde operations.[45] Air France's final Concorde flight took place on 27 June 2003 when F-BVFC retired to Toulouse.[46] is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of the Bay of Biscay. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


An auction of Concorde parts and memorabilia for Air France was held at Christie's in Paris on 15 November 2003. Thirteen hundred people attended, with several lots exceeding their predicted values by an order of magnitude. An auctioneer and her assistants scan the crowd for bidders An auction is a process of buying and selling goods by offering them up for bid, taking bids, and then selling the item to the winning bidder. ... The Christies auction house in South Kensington, London Christies American branch in Rockefeller Center, New York Christies is a fine art auction house, the largest and by some accounts the oldest in the world. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Two French Concordes at Le Bourget and Toulouse have been run occasionally, and it is possible that they could be prepared for future flights for special occasions.[47]


British Airways

BA's last Concorde departure from Grantley Adams International Airport in Barbados was on 30 August 2003. BA conducted a mini North American farewell tour in October 2003. G-BOAG visited Toronto Pearson International Airport on 1 October 2003, G-BOAD visited Boston's Logan International Airport on 8 October 2003, and G-BOAG visited Washington Dulles International Airport on 14 October 2003.[48] G-BOAD's flight to Boston set a record for the fastest transatlantic flight from east to west, making the trip from London Heathrow in 3 hours, 5 minutes, 34 seconds.[49] The Sir Grantley Adams International Airport (GAIA), (IATA: BGI, ICAO: TBPB) is found in Seawell, Christ Church on the island of Barbados. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... YYZ redirects here. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Boston redirects here. ... For the Logan airport in Billings, Montana, see Billings Logan International Airport. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... , FAA Airport Diagram Washington Dulles International Airport (IATA: IAD, ICAO: KIAD, FAA LID: IAD) is a public airport located 25 miles (40 km) west of the central business district of Washington, D.C., in Loudoun County and Fairfax County, Virginia, United States. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Heathrow redirects here. ...

Concorde (G-BOAC) at the Manchester International Airport Aviation Viewing Park
Concorde (G-BOAC) at the Manchester International Airport Aviation Viewing Park

In a final week of farewell flights around the United Kingdom, Concorde visited Birmingham on 20 October, Belfast on 21 October, Manchester on 22 October, Cardiff on 23 October, and Edinburgh on 24 October. Each day the aircraft made a return flight out and back into Heathrow to the cities concerned, often overflying those cities at low altitude. Over 650 competition winners and 350 special guests were carried. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2848 × 2134 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2848 × 2134 pixel, file size: 1. ... Manchester Airport (IATA: MAN, ICAO: EGCC) is an airport in Manchester, England. ... This article is about the British city. ... This article is about the city in Northern Ireland. ... This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ... This article is about the capital city of Wales. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... London Heathrow Airport (IATA airport code: LHR, ICAO airport code: EGLL, and often simply Heathrow) is the United Kingdoms busiest and best-connected airport. ...


On 22 October, Heathrow ATC arranged for the inbound flight BA9021C, a special from Manchester, and BA002 from New York to land simultaneously on the left and right runways respectively.


On the evening of 23 October 2003, the Queen consented to the illumination of Windsor Castle as Concorde's last west-bound commercial flight departed London and flew overhead. This is an honour normally reserved for major state events and visiting dignitaries. is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... This article is about the castle in Windsor. ... For other uses, see Honour (disambiguation). ...


British Airways retired its aircraft the next day, 24 October. G-BOAG left New York to a fanfare similar to that given for Air France's "F-BTSD", while two more made round trips, G-BOAF over the Bay of Biscay, carrying VIP guests including many former Concorde pilots, and G-BOAE to Edinburgh. The three aircraft then circled over London, having received special permission to fly at low altitude, before landing in sequence at Heathrow. The two round-trip aircraft landed at 4:01 and 4:03 p.m. BST, followed at 4:05 by the one from New York. All three aircraft then spent 45 minutes taxiing around the airport before finally disembarking the last supersonic fare-paying passengers. The pilot of the New York to London flight was Mike Bannister. is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing daylight saving British Summer Time (BST) is the changing of the clocks in effect in the United Kingdom and Irish Summer Time (IST) in Republic of Ireland between the last Sunday in March and the last Sunday in October each... Pilot of the last Concorde Flight http://en. ...

Mike Bannister (left) in the cockpit of BA002
Mike Bannister (left) in the cockpit of BA002

All of BA's Concorde fleet have been grounded, have lost their airworthiness certificates and have been drained of hydraulic fluid. Ex-chief Concorde pilot and manager of the fleet Jock Lowe, estimated in 2004 it would cost £10-15 million to make G-BOAF (at Filton) airworthy again.[50]. BA maintains ownership of their fleet, and has stated that they will never fly again, as Airbus will not support the aircraft.[citation needed] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Pilot of the last Concorde Flight http://en. ...


On 1 December 2003, Bonhams held an auction of British Airways' Concorde artifacts at Kensington Olympia, in London. Items sold included a Machmeter, nose cone, pilot and passenger seats, cutlery, ashtrays and blankets used on board. Proceeds of about £750,000 resulted, with the first half-million going to Get Kids Going!, a charity which gives disabled children and young people the opportunity to participate in sport. is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Bonhams is a privately-owned British auction house founded in 1793. ... An auctioneer and her assistants scan the crowd for bidders An auction is a process of buying and selling goods by offering them up for bid, taking bids, and then selling the item to the winning bidder. ... The National Agricultural Hall in 1886. ... Diagram illustrating the face of a Machmeter A Machmeter shows the ratio of the speed of sound to the true airspeed an aircraft is flying. ... Used cutlery: a plate, a fork and knife, and a drinking glass. ...


BA announced in March 2007 that they would not be renewing their contract for the prime advertising spot at entrance to London's Heathrow Airport, where, since 1990, a 40% scale model of Concorde was located. The owners of the site, BAA wanted to charge £1.6 million per year to let it. It will now be occupied by an Emirates Airbus A380. The Concorde model, which bears the "registration" G-CONC, was removed and transported for display in Surrey, under the care of the local Brooklands Museum.[51]


Aircraft histories

In total, 20 Concordes were built, six for development and 14 for commercial service. Twenty Concorde aircraft were built, six for development and 14 for commercial service. ...


These were:

  • Two prototypes
  • Two pre-production aircraft
  • 16 production aircraft
    • The first two of these did not enter commercial service
    • Of the 14 that flew commercially, 12 were still in service in April 2003

All but two of these aircraft, a remarkably high percentage for any commercial fleet, are preserved; the two that are not preserved are F-BVFD (cn 211), parked as a spare-parts source in 1982 and scrapped in 1994, and F-BTSC (cn 203), which crashed in Paris on 25 July 2000. is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Concorde Aircraft
Number Reg First flew Last flew Hours Location
001 F-WTSS 2 March 1969 19 October 1973 812 The Museum of Air and Space, Le Bourget, France
002 G-BSST 9 April 1969 4 March 1976 836 Fleet Air Arm Museum, Yeovilton, England, UK
101 G-AXDN 17 December 1971 20 August 1977 632 Imperial War Museum, Duxford, England, UK
102 F-WTSA 10 January 1973 20 May 1976 656 Musée Delta, Orly Airport, Paris, France
201 F-WTSB 6 December 1973 19 April 1985 909 Airbus Factory, Toulouse, France
202 G-BBDG 13 December 1974 24 December 1981 1282 Brooklands Museum, Weybridge, Surrey, England, UK
203 F-BTSC 31 January 1975 25 July 2000 11989 Destroyed in air crash outside Paris, France
204 G-BOAC 27 February 1975 31 October 2003 22260 Manchester Airport Viewing Park, England, UK. This aircraft was British Airways' flagship Concorde, due to its BOAC registration as it was the first Concorde delivered to BA.
205 F-BVFA 27 October 1976 12 June 2003 17824 Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center of the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum, Chantilly, Virginia USA (near Washington, DC)
206 G-BOAA 5 November 1975 12 August 2000 22768 Museum of Flight, East Lothian, Scotland, UK
207 F-BVFB 6 March 1976 24 June 2003 14771 Sinsheim Auto & Technik Museum, Germany
208 G-BOAB 18 May 1976 15 August 2000 22296 Heathrow Airport, London, England, UK
209 F-BVFC 9 July 1976 27 June 2003 14332 Airbus Factory, Toulouse, France
210 G-BOAD 25 August 1976 10 November 2003 23397 Intrepid Sea-Air-Space Museum, New York, USA; in December 2006, the aircraft was temporarily moved to Floyd Bennett Field in Brooklyn for the duration of restoration and rehabilitation work on Intrepid and the pier at which Intrepid and Concorde were located, expected to last until 2008
211 F-BVFD 10 February 1977 27 May 1982 5814 Spare-parts source after 1982 and scrapped in 1994
212 G-BOAE 17 March 1977 17 November 2003 23376 Grantley Adams International Airport, Barbados
213 F-BTSD 26 June 1978 14 June 2003 12974 The Museum of Air and Space, Le Bourget, France
214 G-BOAG 21 April 1978 5 November 2003 16239 Museum of Flight, Seattle, USA
215 F-BVFF 26 December 1978 11 June 2000 12421 Charles de Gaulle Airport, Paris, France
216 G-BOAF 20 April 1979 26 November 2003 18257 Filton Aerodrome, Bristol, England, UK

is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... The Musée de lAir et de lEspace, or The Museum of Air and Space, is a French museum, located on the grounds of the Le Bourget Airport near Paris. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... // Fleet Air Arm Meuseum The Fleet Air Arm Museum is located 7 mile north of Yeovil, and 40 miles south of Bristol, on RNAS Yeovilton. ... RNAS Yeovilton is an air station of the Royal Navy, sited a few miles north of Yeovil in Somerset. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... American Air Museum Duxford The Imperial War Museum Duxford in Cambridgeshire, commonly referred to simply as Duxford, houses the Imperial War Museums aircraft collection, as well as having a large collection of tanks, military and naval vehicles. ... Duxford is a village in Cambridgeshire, England, some ten miles south of Cambridge. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Diagram of Orly airport Orly Airport (IATA: ORY, ICAO: LFPO) is an airport located in Orly and partially in Villeneuve-le-Roi, south of Paris, France ( ). It has flights to cities in Europe, the Middle East, Africa, and the Caribbean. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Airbus S.A.S. (pronounced in English, in French, and in German) is an aircraft manufacturing subsidiary of EADS, a European aerospace concern. ... New city flag (Occitan cross) Traditional coat of arms Motto: (Occitan: For Toulouse, always more) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Midi-Pyrénées Department Haute-Garonne (31) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse Mayor Jean-Luc Moudenc  (UMP) (since 2004) City Statistics Land... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Brooklands was a motor racing circuit built near Weybridge in Surrey, England. ... , Weybridge is a town in the Elmbridge district of Surrey in South East England. ... This article is about the English county. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... This animation from Seconds From Disaster shows the fuel tank on fire Air France Flight 4590 was a Concorde flight from Charles de Gaulle International Airport near Paris, France to John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York City, New York, and operated by Air France. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Udvar-Hazy Center The Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center is the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum (NASM)s annex at Washington Dulles International Airport in Chantilly, Virginia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Chantilly is an unincorporated community located in western Fairfax County, in the Commonwealth of Virginia. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... The Museum of Flight is an aerospace musuem in East Lothian, Scotland, and part of the National Museums of Scotland. ... East Lothian (Lodainn an Ear in Gaelic) is one of 32 unitary council areas in Scotland, and a lieutenancy Area. ... This article is about the country. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Sinsheim Auto & Technik Museum is a museum in Sinsheim, Germany. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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This article is about the English city. ... Rolls-Royce Olympus 593 The Olympus is a high-powered axial-flow turbojet, originally developed at Bristol Aero Engines, later passed to Bristol Siddeley, and finally to Rolls-Royce. ... Snecma was one of the worlds leading aerospace corporations which merged with SAGEM to form SAFRAN. Snecma is now a subsidiary of the SAFRAN Group and previous Snecma subsidiaries have been reorganised within the wider group. ... Museo del Concorde. ... Ciudad Juárez, or simply Juárez, is a city in the Mexican state of Chihuahua formerly known as El Paso del Norte. ... THEY SUC |native_name = |nickname = Lady of the Desert |settlement_type = |motto = |image_skyline = |imagesize = |image_caption = |image_flag = Mexico stateflags Chihuahua. ...

Restoration

Along with a dedicated group of French volunteer engineers keeping one of the youngest Concordes (F-BTSD) in near-airworthy condition at the Le Bourget Air and Space Museum in Paris, a UK society, Club Concorde, has launched a campaign to get an aircraft flying by 2010.[52]


Although only a "static" example, Concorde G-BBDG was restored from essentially a shell at the Brooklands Museum in Surrey.[53] This article is about the English county. ...


Environmental impacts

The reaction of people to the prospect of severe overflying noise represented a socially important change. Prior to Concorde's flight trials, the developments made by the civil aviation industry were largely accepted by developed democratic governments and their electors. The popular backlash (particularly on the eastern seaboard of the USA) against the noise of Concorde represented a political turning-point, and thereafter scientists and technologists in many industries began to take environmental and societal impacts more seriously.


Carol Vendi, one of the key protesters of the "SST" (Super Sonic Transport - the U.S. term given to the Concorde aircraft), ultimately gained political ground over the whole issue and was elected to the U.S. Congress. Concorde led directly to a general noise reduction in aircraft flying out of JFK; it was found that Concorde was actually quieter than some aircraft[54] (partly due to the pilots temporarily throttling back their engines to reduce noise during overflight of residential areas). The Congress of the United States is the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States of America. ...


Concorde produced nitrogen oxides in its exhaust, which, despite complicated chemical interactions with other ozone-depleting chemicals, are understood to produce a net degradation to the ozone layer at the stratospheric altitudes it cruised.[55] It has been pointed out that other, lower-flying, airliners produce ozone during their flights in the troposphere, but vertical transit of gases between the two is highly restricted. The small fleet size meant that any net ozone-layer degradation caused by Concorde was for all practical purposes negligible. The ozone layer is a layer in Earths atmosphere which contains relatively high concentrations of ozone (O3). ... Atmosphere diagram showing stratosphere. ...


From this perspective, Concorde's technical leap forward can be viewed as boosting the public's (and the media's) understanding of conflicts between technology and the environment. In France, the use of acoustic fencing alongside TGV tracks might not have been achieved without the 1970s furore over aircraft noise. In Britain, the CPRE have issued tranquility maps since 1990 and public agencies are starting to do likewise. The sound tube in Melbourne, Australia, designed to reduce roadway noise without detracting from the areas aesthetics. ... For the group of heart conditions referred to as TGV, see Transposition of the great vessels. ... The Campaign to Protect Rural England (CPRE, formerly Council for the Preservation of Rural England ) is a voluntary anti-urbanist, pro-nature organisation. ... The correct title of this article is tranquility. ...


Concorde travelled, per passenger, 17 miles (27 km) for each gallon of fuel (mpg)[56] (or 20 l/100km). This efficiency is comparable to a Gulfstream G550 business jet (~16 mpg or 18 l/100 km per passenger)[57], but much lower than a Boeing 747-400 (~91 mpg or 3.1 l/100 km per passenger)[58] The gallon (abbreviation: gal) is a unit of volume. ... The litre or liter (see spelling differences) is a unit of volume. ... “km” redirects here. ...


Public perception

Parade flight at Queen's Golden Jubilee
Parade flight at Queen's Golden Jubilee

Concorde was normally perceived as a privilege of the rich, but special circular or one-way (with return by coach or ship) charter flights were arranged to bring a trip within the means of moderately well-off enthusiasts. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


Her mystique was such that an overflight would frequently temporarily halt day-to-day business as people would stop to watch as the plane flew overhead. A noteworthy example can be found in the TV programme Scrapheap Challenge, where the mechanics drop all their tools and wave as Concorde flies over the yard. The logo for Scrapheap Challenge. ...


The aircraft was usually referred to by the British as simply "Concorde"[59][60] and the French as le Concorde as if there were only one. Concorde's pilots and British Airways in official publications and videos often refer to Concorde both in the singular and plural as 'she' or 'her'.[61][62]


Concorde remains a powerful symbol, both for its technology and sculptural shape. It is a symbol of great national pride to many in Britain and France; in France it was thought of as a French aircraft, in Britain as British.[63]


As a symbol of national pride, a plane from the BA fleet made occasional flypasts at selected Royal events, major air shows and other special occasions, sometimes in formation with the Red Arrows. On the final day of commercial service, public interest was so great that grandstands were erected at London's Heathrow Airport to afford a view of the final arrivals. Crowds filled the boundary road around the airport and there was extensive media coverage. The Red Arrows and Concorde conclude a special flypast over Buckingham Palace on 4 June, 2002 celebrating the Queens Golden Jubilee. ... Red Arrows Hawk at speed during a display The Red Arrows, officially known as the Royal Air Force Aerobatic Team, is the aerobatics display team of the Royal Air Force, based at RAF Scampton, United Kingdom. ...


Thirty-seven years after her first test flight, Concorde was announced the winner of the Great British Design Quest, organised by the BBC and the Design Museum.[64] A total of 212,000 votes were cast with Concorde beating design icons such as the Mini, mini skirt, Jaguar E-type, Tube map and the Supermarine Spitfire.[65] For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... The Design Museum is a museum in Shad Thames, near Tower Bridge in central London. ... For the new MINI, see MINI (BMW). ... The miniskirt is a skirt whose hemline is a ways above the knees (generally from ten to twenty centimetres above knee-level). ... A 1963 Series 1 3. ... The tube map is the schematic diagram that represents the lines, stations, and zones of Londons rapid transit rail system, the London Underground. ... The Supermarine Spitfire was a British single-seat fighter, which was used by the Royal Air Force and many other Allied countries during the Second World War, and into the 1950s. ...


Comparison with other supersonic aircraft

The only other supersonic airliner in direct competition with Concorde was the Soviet Tu-144. Although the Tu-144 entered service earlier, it was retired in 1978. Although Lockheed, North American Aviation and Boeing prepared supersonic airliner studies, only the still-born project, the Boeing 2707, proceeded to the mock-up stage as the sole American entry into the supersonic sweepstakes.[66] CCCP redirects here. ... The Tupolev Tu-144 (NATO reporting name: Charger) was the first supersonic transport aircraft (SST), constructed under the direction of the Soviet Tupolev design bureau headed by Alexei Tupolev (1925–2001). ... The Boeing 2707 was developed as the first American supersonic transport (SST). ...


As a result of a rushed development programme, the Tu-144 was cruder and less refined than Concorde, with cabin noise notably higher. The Tu-144S had significantly lower range than Concorde, largely due to its underpowered engines. It required reheat to maintain Mach 2.0 and cruised at Mach 1.6.[67] The vehicle had poor control at low speeds because of a simpler, dedicated supersonic wing design. In addition, the Tu-144 required parachutes to land while Concorde had sophisticated anti-lock brakes. It also had two crashes, one at the 1973 Paris Air Show, which made further sales impossible, and another during a pre-delivery test flight. Later versions had retractable canards for better low speed control, and more powerful military engines from Tu-160 that gave them nearly the range of Concorde. It had 126 seats. With a top speed of Mach 2.35 (made possible due to titanium and steel leading edges) and a cruise of Mach 2.16, while theoretically a more competitive aircraft, this version was not exportable due to the military engines. A Mirage 2000-5 at the Paris Air Show The Paris Air Show (Salon International de lAéronautique et de lEspace, Paris-Le Bourget) is an international trade fair for the aerospace business. ... In aeronautics, canard (French for duck) is a type of fixed-wing aircraft in which the tailplane is ahead of the main lifting surfaces, rather than behind them as in conventional aircraft. ... The Tupolev Tu-160 (NATO reporting name Blackjack) is a supersonic, variable-geometry heavy bomber designed by the Soviet Union. ...


The American design was to have been larger, seating 300. It was also intended to reach higher speeds of up to Mach 3.0, which made the construction more difficult, as high temperatures ruled out the use of duralumin with design calculations that showed that the extra speed would have only cut Concorde's transatlantic travel by 20 minutes. Running a few years behind Concorde, the extra costs of these features may have helped to kill the project. The discovery from flights of the XB-70 Valkyrie that sonic booms were quite capable of reaching the ground and the experience from the Oklahoma City sonic boom tests debacle lead to the same environmental concerns that contributed to hindering commercial success of Concorde. The American government cancelled the project in 1971 and had spent over $1 billion on the project.[68] Duralumin (also called duraluminum, duraluminium or dural) is the trade name of one of the earliest types of age-hardenable aluminium alloys. ... The North American XB-70 Valkyrie was conceived for the Strategic Air Command in the 1950s as a high-altitude bomber that could fly three times the speed of sound (Mach 3). ... The Oklahoma City sonic boom tests, also known as Operation Bongo II, refer to a controversial experiment in which 1,253 sonic booms were unleashed on Oklahoma City, Oklahoma over a period of six months in 1964. ...


Possible replacements

In November 2003, EADS, parent company of the Airbus aircraft manufacturing company, announced that it was considering working with Japanese companies to develop a larger, faster replacement for Concorde.[69] However, recent news reports suggest only $1m is being invested every year into research, much less than the $1bn needed for the development of a viable supersonic airliner.[update needed] The European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company EADS N.V. (EADS) is a large European aerospace corporation, formed by the merger on July 10, 2000 of Aérospatiale-Matra of France, Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA (CASA) of Spain, and DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG (DASA) of Germany. ... Airbus S.A.S. (pronounced in English, in French, and in German) is an aircraft manufacturing subsidiary of EADS, a European aerospace concern. ...


In October 2005, JAXA, the Japan Aerospace eXploration Agency, undertook aerodynamic testing of a scale model of an airliner designed to carry 300 passengers at Mach 2. If pursued to commercial deployment, it would be expected to be in service around 2020 - 2025.[70] The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency ), or JAXA, is Japans national aerospace agency. ...


The British company Reaction Engines Limited, with 50% EU money, are engaged in a research program called LAPCAT, which is examining a design for a hydrogen-fuelled plane carrying 300 passengers called the A2, capable of flying nonstop from Brussels to Sydney at Mach 5+ in 4.6 hours. Reaction Research Limited are a British company based in Oxfordshire. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: European Union The European Union On-Line Official EU website, europa. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...


Research into supersonic business jets continues. A supersonic business jet (SSBJ) is a small business jet, intended to travel at speeds above Mach 1. ...


Operators

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Air France (formally Société Air France) is Europes largest airline company. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... For the 1930s airline of similar name, see British Airways Ltd. ...

Specifications

Concorde G-BOAC
Concorde G-BOAC

General characteristics

  • Crew: 9
  • Capacity: 92-120 passengers (128 in high-density Layout[71])
  • Length: 202 ft 4 in[72] (61.66 m)
  • Wingspan: 84 ft 0 in (25.6 m)
  • Height: 40 ft 0 in (12.2 m)
  • Fuselage internal length: 129 ft 0 in (39.32 m)
  • Fuselage max external width: 9 ft 5 in (2.88 m)
  • Fuselage max internal width: 8 ft 7 in (2.63 m)
  • Fuselage max external height: 10 ft 10 in (3.32 m)
  • Fuselage max internal height: 6 ft 5 in (1.96 m))
  • Wing area: 3,856 ft² (358.25 m²)
  • Empty weight: 173,500 lb (78,700 kg)
  • Useful load: 245,000 lb (111,130 kg)
  • Powerplant:Rolls-Royce/SNECMA Olympus 593 Mk 610 afterburning turbojets
    • Dry thrust: 32,000 lbf (140 kN) each
    • Thrust with afterburner: 38,050 lbf (169 kN) each
  • Maximum fuel load: 210,940 lb (95,680 kg)
  • Maximum taxiing weight: 412,000 lb (186,880 kg)

A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... The distance AB is the wing span of this Aer Lingus Airbus A320. ... This article is about the aircraft engine company. ... Snecma was one of the worlds leading aerospace corporations which merged with SAGEM to form SAFRAN. Snecma is now a subsidiary of the SAFRAN Group and previous Snecma subsidiaries have been reorganised within the wider group. ... Rolls-Royce Olympus 593 The Olympus is a high-powered axial-flow turbojet, originally developed at Bristol Aero Engines, later passed to Bristol Siddeley, and finally to Rolls-Royce. ... Turbojets are the simplest and oldest kind of general purpose jet engines. ... The pound-force is a non-SI unit of force or weight (properly abbreviated lbf or lbf). The pound-force is equal to a mass of one pound multiplied by the standard acceleration due to gravity on Earth (which is defined as exactly 9. ... For other uses of afterburner, see Afterburner (disambiguation). ... Look up pound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Performance

  • Maximum speed: Mach 2.2[73] (1,450 mph, 2,330 km/h[73])
  • Cruise speed: Mach 2.04 (1,246 mph, 2,006 km/h)
  • Range: 3,900 nmi (4,500 mi, 7,250 km)
  • Service ceiling 60,000 ft (18,300 m)
  • Rate of climb: 1,525 m (5,000 ft) /min (25,41 m/s)
  • Thrust/weight: .373
  • Lift/drag ratio: Low speed- 3.94, Approach- 4.35, 250 kn, 10,000 ft- 9.27, Mach 0.94- 11.47, Mach 2.04- 7.14
  • Fuel consumption for max. range (max. fuel/max. range): 46.85 lb/mi (13.2 kg/km)
  • Maximum nose tip temperature: 260 °F (127 °C)

V speeds are speeds that define certain performance and limiting characteristics of an aircraft. ... An F/A-18 Hornet breaking the sound barrier. ... Miles per hour is a unit of speed, expressing the number of international miles covered per hour. ... V speeds are speeds that define certain performance and limiting characteristics of an aircraft. ... An F/A-18 Hornet breaking the sound barrier. ... The maximal total range is the distance an aircraft can fly between takeoff and landing, as limited by fuel capacity in powered aircraft, or cross-country speed and environmental conditions in unpowered aircraft. ... A nautical mile or sea mile is a unit of length. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... In aeronautics, a ceiling is the maximum density altitude an aircraft can reach under a set of conditons The service ceiling attempts to capture the maximum usable altitude of an aircraft. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Thrust-to-weight ratio (where weight means weight at the Earths surface) is a dimensionless parameter characteristic of rocket and jet engines, and of vehicles propelled by such engines (typically space launch vehicles and jet aircraft). ... A knot is a unit of speed abbreviated kt or kn. ... An F/A-18 Hornet breaking the sound barrier. ... Fuel efficiency relates the efficiency of converting energy contained in a carrier fuel to kinetic energy or work. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... In aeronautics, a heat shield is a protective layer on a spacecraft or ballistic missile that is designed to protect it from high temperatures, usually those that result from aerobraking during entry into a planets atmosphere. ...

Popular culture

Concorde has numerous appearances in various media. Particularly notable or extended appearances or mentions include:

  • The Concorde: Airport '79 film: Concorde starred in this film sequel in the Airport series. The Concorde used for the live-action aerial filming was the Air France Concorde that crashed 21 years later on 25 July 2000.[74]
  • The Concorde Affair (Concorde Affaire in orig.) Italy (1979) film: Director: Ruggero Deodato.
  • Time-Flight, a serial of the science fiction programme Doctor Who, revolves around the mysterious disappearance of two Concorde flights.[citation needed]
  • There is a chapter dedicated to Concorde in Jeremy Clarkson's book, I Know You Got Soul.

is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Concorde Affaire 79 (1979) (Italian: Affare Concorde), also known as The Concorde Affair, is an Italian action thriller directed by Ruggero Deodato and was written by Ernesto Gastaldi and Renzo Genta. ... Time-Flight is a serial in the British science fiction television series Doctor Who, which was first broadcast in four twice-weekly parts from March 22 to March 30, 1982. ... This article is about the television series. ... Jeremy Charles Robert Clarkson (born 11 April 1960) is an English broadcaster and writer who specialises in motoring. ...

See also

Related development This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Concorde supersonic transport has a delta wing, a slender fuselage and four underslung Olympus engines. ...

  • BAC 221

Comparable aircraft The Fairey Delta 2 or FD2 was a British supersonic research aircraft produced in response to a specification from the Ministry of Supply for investigation into flight and control at transonic and supersonic speeds. ...

Related lists The Boeing 2707 was developed as the first American supersonic transport (SST). ... The Lockheed L-2000 was Lockheeds entry into the contest to build the United States first supersonic transport (SST). ... The Tupolev Tu-144 (NATO reporting name: Charger) was the first supersonic transport aircraft (SST), constructed under the direction of the Soviet Tupolev design bureau headed by Alexei Tupolev (1925–2001). ...

This list of aircraft is sorted alphabetically, beginning with the name of the manufacturer (or, in certain cases, designer). ... This is a list of topics related to the United Kingdom. ... Institutions Franc (Currency) Euro (Current currency) Government of France Politics of France History Eras, events Gauls Franks French Revolution Verdun Historical characters Joan of Arc Napoleon Bonaparte Charles de Gaulle Charlemagne Culture Marianne Cheese Baguette Trivia List of French people French Foreign Legion Concorde Papillon (book) based on the life...

References

Notes

  1. ^ BBC News: Ageing luxury jet 25 July 2000 Retrieved: 8 August 2007.
  2. ^ "1969: Concorde flies for the first time." On this day, BBC News Retrieved: 8 September 2007.
  3. ^ Last Concorde lands
  4. ^ BBC Concorde page
  5. ^ British Airways tribute
  6. ^ a b "Early History." www.concordesst.com. Retrieved: 8 September 2007.
  7. ^ Benn's Concorde memories in The Guardian
  8. ^ McIntyre, Ian. Dogfight: The Transatlantic Battle over Airbus. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Publishers, 1992. ISBN 0-275-94278-3. p. 20.
  9. ^ Payments for Concorde
  10. ^ Concorde history
  11. ^ Counting the costs
  12. ^ Concorde performance
  13. ^ Calvert 2002
  14. ^ Concorde was tested with both engines on one wing shutdown successfully
  15. ^ "Are the skies turning green?" BBC News
  16. ^ Clarkson 2004 Note: I Know You Got Soul reference in popular culture. The withdrawal from service was described by Jeremy Clarkson as "...one small step for a man, but one huge leap backwards for mankind", derived from Neil Armstrong's famous moon-landing speech.
  17. ^ ConcordeSST: orders
  18. ^ Concorde history (Pepsi)
  19. ^ Concorde B
  20. ^ British Airway: Cosmic radiation
  21. ^ a b c Concorde nose
  22. ^ Air France fleet: Aircraft no. 209
  23. ^ Museum of Air and Space, Le Bourget, France
  24. ^ Concorde events
  25. ^ Time Magazine
  26. ^ Backroom boys - Francis Spufford
  27. ^ a b c 'Did Concorde make a profit for British Airways?'
  28. ^ BBC NEWS | Business | Why economists don't fly Concorde
  29. ^ CNN.com - The rise and fall of Concorde - Apr. 10, 2003
  30. ^ Cleveland National Air Show timeline
  31. ^ Concorde SST timeline
  32. ^ The History of Concorde
  33. ^ Aircraft 210: G-BOAD
  34. ^ Braniff SST
  35. ^ The Rotating Earth
  36. ^ Prestwick Oceanic Area Control Centre: Manual of Air Traffic Services (Part 2). NATS
  37. ^ BA Tribute to Concorde. The takeoff scene at the end of the video contains a clip of the ATC communication with the "Speedbird Concorde".
  38. ^ Endres, Günter. Concorde. St. Paul, Minnesota: MBI Publishing Company, 2001, p. 110-113. ISBN 0-7603-1195-1.
  39. ^ iasa.com.au
  40. ^ Foxnews
  41. ^ ConcordeSST: return to flight
  42. ^ Concorde: An Untimely and Unnecessary Demise
  43. ^ The Betrayal of Concorde
  44. ^ Lewis, Rob. Supersonic Secrets: The Unofficial Biography of the Concorde. London: Expose,a division of Secret Books Limited, 2003. ISBN 0-95466-170-2.
  45. ^ Air France set for final flights - 23/5/03
  46. ^ [http://www.concordesst.com/latestnews_03_4.html Concorde Fox-Bravo Arrives at Final Home - 21 July 2003
  47. ^ UK Times: This is not a flight of fancy
  48. ^ Final trip to Washington for Concorde - 14/10/03
  49. ^ Concorde Sets Another (two) Records - 8/10/03
  50. ^ UK Times: This is not a flight of fancy
  51. ^ ConcordeSST.com news story on the model being moved
  52. ^ Club Concorde
  53. ^ The Brooklands Concorde Project
  54. ^ Endres, Günter. Concorde. St. Paul, Minnesota: MBI Publishing Company, 2001, p. 90. ISBN 0-7603-1195-1.
  55. ^ Ozone depletion FAQ
  56. ^ Powerplant
  57. ^ Fuel efficiency of airplanes
  58. ^ Boeing 747-400
  59. ^ Concorde - British Airways
  60. ^ Farewell to Concorde
  61. ^ British Airways - Celebrate Concorde videos
  62. ^ Video including Raymond Baxter commentating as Concorde flies for first time: "She rolls ... She flies!"
  63. ^ Design Quest
  64. ^ Design Quest
  65. ^ Concorde beats Tube map to become Britain's favourite design By Louise Jury
  66. ^ Winchester 2005, p. 84.
  67. ^ Tupolev Tu-144
  68. ^ Where is Boeing Going?
  69. ^ Firm considers 'son of Concorde'
  70. ^ Japan tests supersonic jet model
  71. ^ Kelly 2005, p. 52. Note: 128 was the maximum number of passengers certified.
  72. ^ ConcordeSST: Dimensions
  73. ^ a b Richard Seaman aircraft museum (comparison with Tu-144)
  74. ^ Aircraft 203: F-BTSC

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Bibliography

  • Beniada, Frederic. Concorde. St Paul, Minnesota: Zenith Press, 2006. ISBN 0-7603-2703-3.
  • Calvert, Brian. Flying Concorde, The Full Story. London: Crowood Press, 2002. ISBN 1-84037-352-0.
  • Endres, Günter. Concorde. St Paul, Minnestota: MBI Publishing Company, 2001. ISBN 0-7603-1195-1.
  • Kelly, Neil. The Concorde Story: 34 Years of Supersonic Air Travel. West Molesey, Surrey, UK: Merchant Book Company Ltd., 2005. ISBN 1-90477-905-0.
  • Knight, Geoffrey. Concorde: The Inside story. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1976. ISBN 0-297-77114-0.
  • McIntyre, Ian. Dogfight: The Transatlantic Battle over Airbus. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Publishers, 1992. ISBN 0-275-94278-3.
  • Orlebar, Christopher. The Concorde Story. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing, 2004. ISBN 1-85532-667-1.
  • Winchester, Jim. The World's Worst Aircraft: From Pioneering Failures to Multimillion Dollar Disasters. London: Amber Books Ltd., 2005. ISBN 1-904687-34-2.

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Concorde - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4654 words)
Concorde had a cruise speed of Mach 2.02 (around 2,170 km/h or 1,350 mph) and a maximum cruise altitude of 60,000 feet (18 300 metres) with a delta wing configuration and a reheat-equipped evolution of the engines originally developed for the Avro Vulcan strategic bomber.
Concorde's primary legacy is the experience gained in its design and manufacture which later became the basis of the Airbus consortium.
Concorde led directly to a general reduction of noise of aircraft flying out of JFK; it was found that Concorde was actually quieter than the other aircraft (due to the pilots temporarily throttling back their engines to reduce noise during overflight of residential areas).
Concorde - definition of Concorde in Encyclopedia (3844 words)
Concorde had a cruising speed of Mach 2.04 and a cruise altitude of 56,000 feet (17,000 metres) with a delta wing configuration and an evolution of the afterburner-equipped engines originally developed for the Avro Vulcan strategic bomber.
The Concorde was the safest airliner in the world according to passenger deaths per distance travelled until the 25 July 2000 crash of Air France Flight 4590 in Gonesse, France.
Concorde F-WTSA (102) made 314 flights (189 supersonic) and was then retired to Orly Airport in Paris on May 20, 1976, where it is on display to the public.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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