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Encyclopedia > Conciliarism

In the history of Christianity, the Conciliar movement or "Conciliarism" was a reform movement in the 14th and 15th century Roman Catholic Church which held that final authority in spiritual matters resided with the Roman Church as corporation of Christians, embodied by a general church council, not with the pope. The movement emerged in response to the Avignon papacy— the popes were removed from Rome and subjected to pressures from the kings of France— and the ensuing schism that inspired the summoning of the Council of Pisa (1409), the Council of Constance (1414-1418) and the Council of Basel (1431-1449). The eventual victor in the conflict was the institution of the Papacy, confirmed by the condemnation of conciliarism at the Fifth Lateran Council, 1512-17. The final gesture however, the doctrine of Papal Infallibility, was not promulgated until the First Vatican Council of 1870. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The history of Christianity... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      An Ecumenical Council (also sometimes Oecumenical... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... The Papal palace in Avignon In the history of the Roman Catholic Church, the Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1377 during which seven popes, all French, resided in Avignon: Pope Clement V: 1305–1314 Pope John XXII: 1316–1334 Pope Benedict XII: 1334–1342 Pope Clement VI... Historical map of the Western Schism. ... This article incorporates text from the public domain Catholic Encyclopedia Preliminaries The Great Schism of the West had lasted thirty years (since 1378), and none of the means employed to bring it to an end had been successful. ... Events January 1 - The Welsh surrender Harlech Castle to the English. ... The Council of Constance was an ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church, called by the Emperor Sigismund, a supporter of Antipope John XXIII, the pope recently elected at Pisa. ... // Events Council of Constance begins. ... Events May 19 - Capture of Paris by John, Duke of Burgundy September - Beginning of English Siege of Rouen Mircea the Old, ruler of Wallachia dies and is succeeded by Vlad I Uzurpatorul. ... The Council of Basel was a council of bishops and other ecclesiastics of the Roman Catholic Church that was held at Basel, Switzerland. ... Year 1431 was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Events January 6 - Constantine XI is crowned Byzantine Emperor. ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... The Lateran councils were ecclesiastical councils or synods of the Catholic Church held at Rome in the Lateran Palace next to the Lateran Basilica. ... In Catholic theology, papal infallibility is the dogma that, by action of the Holy Spirit, the Pope is preserved from even the possibility of error[1] when he solemnly declares or promulgates to the Church a dogmatic teaching on faith or morals as being contained in divine revelation, or at... The First Vatican Council was summoned by Pope Pius IX by the bull Aeterni Patris of June 29, 1868. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

Contents

Background

The 13th and 14th centuries were a period of new challenges to Papal authority in Catholic Europe. These new challenges were marked by disputes between the Papacy and the secular kings of Europe. In particular the quarrel between Philip the Fair of France and Pope Boniface VIII over the right to tax the clergy in France was especially heated. Philip was excommunicated and Boniface was accused of corruption, sorcery, and sodomy. In his "Unam Sanctam", Boniface asserted that the papacy held power over both the spiritual and temporal worlds and that only God could judge the pope. Philip responded by sending knights to Italy to arrest Boniface where he died in captivity. Philippe IV, recumbent statue on his tomb, Royal Necropolis, Saint Denis Basilica Philip IV (French: Philippe IV; 1268–November 29, 1314) was King of France from 1285 until his death. ... Pope Boniface VIII (c. ... On November 18, 1302, Pope Boniface VIII issued the Papal bull Unam sanctam (The One Holy), which historians consider one of the most extreme statements of Papal spiritual supremacy ever made. ...


Conciliarist thought was largely sparked by the move of the Roman papacy to Avignon, France in 1305. Although the move had precedent, the Avignon Papacy's (1305-1377) image was damaged by accusations of corruption, favoritism toward the French, and even heresy. Indeed Pope Clement VI who was criticized for his apparent extravagant lifestyle asserted that his "predecessors did not know how to be Pope." During the span of the Avignon Papacy all the popes were French as with 80% of the cardinals and 70% of the lower officers. The reputation of the Avignon Papacy led many to question the absolute authority of the pope in governing the universal Catholic Church. The Papal palace in Avignon In the history of the Roman Catholic Church, the Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1377 during which seven popes, all French, resided in Avignon: Pope Clement V: 1305–1314 Pope John XXII: 1316–1334 Pope Benedict XII: 1334–1342 Pope Clement VI... Clement VI, né Pierre Roger (1291 – December 6, 1352), the fourth of the Avignon Popes, was elected in May 1342, and reigned until his death. ... The Papal palace in Avignon In the history of the Roman Catholic Church, the Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1377 during which seven popes, all French, resided in Avignon: Pope Clement V: 1305–1314 Pope John XXII: 1316–1334 Pope Benedict XII: 1334–1342 Pope Clement VI... The Papal palace in Avignon In the history of the Roman Catholic Church, the Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1377 during which seven popes, all French, resided in Avignon: Pope Clement V: 1305–1314 Pope John XXII: 1316–1334 Pope Benedict XII: 1334–1342 Pope Clement VI... The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ...


The Great Schism (1378-1413), also known as the Western Schism, which was a dispute between the legal elections of Pope Urban VI in Rome and Pope Clement VII in Avignon. The schism became highly politicized as the kings of Europe chose to support whichever pope served their best interests. Both popes chose successors and thus the schism continued even after Urban and Clement's deaths. In this crisis, conciliarism took center stage as the best option for deciding which pope would step down. The cardinals decided to convene the Council of Pisa (1409) to decide who would be the one pope of the Catholic Church. The council was a failure and even led to the election of a third pope, John XXIII. The Council of Constance (1414-1418) successfully solved the Schism by deposing both John XXIII and the Avignon Pope Benedict XIII. It also decreed to maintain the council as the primary church body from then on. The Council of Basel (1431-1449) attempted to solidify conciliarism in the Catholic Church, but failed to take a lasting effect on the Church. The term Great Schism may refer to: The East-West Schism, in 1054 between Western Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christianity. ... Urban VI, née Bartolomeo Prignano ( 1318 – October 15, 1389), pope (1378 to 1389), was a native of Naples. ... For the antipope (1378-1394) see Antipope Clement VII. Pope Clement VII Clement VII, né Giulio di Giuliano de Medici (1478 – September 25, 1534) was pope from 1523 to 1534. ... This article incorporates text from the public domain Catholic Encyclopedia Preliminaries The Great Schism of the West had lasted thirty years (since 1378), and none of the means employed to bring it to an end had been successful. ... The Blessed John XXIII wearing a Papal Tiara Angelo Roncalli was born in Sotto il Monte (province of Bergamo), Italy on November 25, 1881. ... The Council of Constance was an ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church, called by the Emperor Sigismund, a supporter of Antipope John XXIII, the pope recently elected at Pisa. ... The Blessed John XXIII wearing a Papal Tiara Angelo Roncalli was born in Sotto il Monte (province of Bergamo), Italy on November 25, 1881. ... For Pedro de Luna, see Antipope Benedict XIII. Benedict XIII, born Pietro Francesco Orsini, and later in religion Vincenzo Maria Orsini (Gravina di Puglia, February 2, 1649 - February 23, 1730) was pope from 1724 to 1730. ... The Council of Basel was a council of bishops and other ecclesiastics of the Roman Catholic Church that was held at Basel, Switzerland. ... The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ...


The conciliar gains that were accepted at Constance and Basel were short lived. At the convening of the Fifth Lateran Council (1512-1517), Pope Julius II reasserted the supremacy of papal authority over the council. Populated by cardinals opposed to conciliarism, the council condemned the practices and authority of the council. In fact, the council was an essential copy of the pre-Conciliar councils such as Lateran IV (1205), Lyon (1274), and Vienna (1311). When elected pope, Julius II promised under oath that he would soon convoke a general council. ... Pope Julius II Julius II, né Giuliano della Rovere (December 5, 1443 - February 21, 1513), was pope from 1503 to 1513. ...


Conciliar Theory

William of Ockham (d. 1349) wrote some of the earliest documents outlining the basic understanding of conciliarism. Some of his arguments included that the election, or their representatives, by the faithful confer the position of pope and further limits the papal authority. The universal church is a congregation of the faithful, not the Roman Church, which promised to the Apostles by Jesus. While the universal Church cannot fall into heresy, it is known that the Pope has fallen into heresy in the past. Should the pope fall into heresy a council can be convened without his permission to judge him. William even stated that because it is a "universal" church, that the councils should include the participation of lay men and even women. William of Ockham William of Ockham (also Occam or any of several other spellings) (c. ... The Roman Catholic Church is the largest religious denomination of Christianity with over one billion members. ... Alternate meaning: See Apostle (Mormonism) The Christian Apostles were Jewish men chosen from among the disciples, who were sent forth (as indicated by the Greek word απόστολος apostolos= messenger), by Jesus to preach the Gospel to both Jews and Gentiles, across the... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ...


In his Defensor Pacis (1324), Marsilius of Padua agreed with William of Ockham that the universal Church is a church of the faithful, not the priests. Marsilius focused on the idea that the inequality of the priesthood has no divine basis and that Jesus, not the pope, is the only head of the Catholic Church. Contradicting the idea of Papal infallibility, Marsilius claimed that only the universal church is infallible, not the pope. The tract Defensor pacis (The Defender of Peace) laid the foundations of modern doctrines of sovereignty. ... Marsilius of Padua (Italian Marsilio or Marsiglio da Padova) (1290 – 1342) was an Italian medieval scholar. ... William of Ockham William of Ockham (also Occam or any of several other spellings) (c. ... In Catholic theology, papal infallibility is the dogma that, by action of the Holy Spirit, the Pope is preserved from even the possibility of error[1] when he solemnly declares or promulgates to the Church a dogmatic teaching on faith or morals as being contained in divine revelation, or at...


Conciliar theory has its roots and foundations in both history and theology. The precedent had been set by such important councils as the First Council of Nicaea (325) that had incredible importance to the foundation of the Catholic Church. Indeed, many of the most important decisions of the Catholic Church have been made through conciliar means. The basis for conciliarism can be rooted in the Apostles that acted as the first council that decided on the future of the Christian Church. The First Council of Nicaea, held in Nicaea in Bithynia (in present-day Turkey), convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in 325, was the first ecumenical[1] conference of bishops of the early Christian Church, and most significantly resulted in the first uniform Christian doctrine, called the Nicene Creed. ... The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... Alternate meaning: See Apostle (Mormonism) The Christian Apostles were Jewish men chosen from among the disciples, who were sent forth (as indicated by the Greek word απόστολος apostolos= messenger), by Jesus to preach the Gospel to both Jews and Gentiles, across the...


Conciliar theory was also largely influenced by the Christian Humanist movement of the 14th and 15th centuries. Christian Humanists combined secular humanist teachings with the Christian tradition to devise new interpretations on life and religion. William of Ockham, Marsilius of Padua, and Nicholas of Cusa are examples of Christian humanists in this period. Their beliefs included: focus on education especially in respects of ethics and logic, examining the classics such as Plato and Aristotle, focus on the connection between the Church and the laity, and renewed ideas on scripture. In many cases Christian humanists were largely anti-clerical and believed that anyone can teach and learn from the message of the Christian Bible. Christian humanists often referred back to the origins of the ancient Christian church as the most correct form of Christian organization. William of Ockham William of Ockham (also Occam or any of several other spellings) (c. ... Marsilius of Padua (Italian Marsilio or Marsiglio da Padova) (1290 – 1342) was an Italian medieval scholar. ... Nicholas of Cusa Nicholas of Cusa (1401– August 11, 1464) was a German cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church, a philosopher, jurist, mathematician, and an astronomer. ... PLATO was one of the first generalized Computer assisted instruction systems, originally built by the University of Illinois (U of I) and later taken over by Control Data Corporation (CDC), who provided the machines it ran on. ... Aristotle (Greek: AristotélÄ“s) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... The Bible (From Greek βιβλια—biblia, meaning books, which in turn is derived from βυβλος—byblos meaning papyrus, from the ancient Phoenician city of Byblos which exported papyrus) is the sacred scripture of Christianity. ...


Opposition to Conciliarism

Many members of the Church however, continued to believe that the pope, as the successor of Peter, retains the sole authority to the Church. Tommaso De Vio vigorously defended Papal authority in his "On the comparison of the authority of pope and council". He wrote that "Peter alone had the vicariate of Jesus Christ and only he received the power of jurisdiction immediately from Christ in an ordinary way, so that the others (the Apostles) were to receive it from him in the ordinary course of the law and were subject to him." and that "it must be demonstrated that Christ gave the plenitude of ecclesiastical power not to the community of the Church but to a single person in it." Tommaso De Vio represents the many cardinals and theologians that opposed the conciliar movement based on Peter's successors. Look up Peter, peter in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Martin Luther and Cardinal Cajetan. ... The Roman Catholic Church bases Papal Authority on two sources: Matthew 16:18 of the Christian Bible and Adversus Haereses by Irenaeus. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Martin Luther and Cardinal Cajetan. ...


Modern Conciliarism

Although Conciliarist strains of thought remain within the Church, particularly the American Church, Rome and the teaching of the Roman Church maintains that the Pope is the Vicar of Christ on earth, and has the authority to issue infallible statements. This Papal Infallibility has only been invoked twice (Pius IX's solemn declaration of Mary's Immaculate Conception in 1854 and Pius XII's solemn declaration of Mary's Assumption in 1950). The teaching of the Second Vatican Council on the College of Bishops contained within the decree Lumen Gentium has sometimes been interpreted as conciliarism, or a least conducive to it, by liberal and conservative Catholics alike. However, the text of the document as well as an explanatory note (Nota Praevia) by Paul VI makes the distinction clear. There are Christians, especially of the Anglo-Catholic and Eastern Orthodox communions, who maintain the absolute supremacy of an ecumenical council. See conciliarity. However, this belief, from the Orthodox view, has no historical connection with the above events in the history of the Western Church. In Catholic theology, papal infallibility is the dogma that, by action of the Holy Spirit, the Pope is preserved from even the possibility of error[1] when he solemnly declares or promulgates to the Church a dogmatic teaching on faith or morals as being contained in divine revelation, or at... The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was an Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church opened under Pope John XXIII in 1962 and closed under Pope Paul VI in 1965. ... The College of Bishops is an organization consisting of all the bishops in the Roman Catholic Church. ... Lumen Gentium, the Dogmatic Constitution on the Church, is one of the principal documents of the Second Vatican Council. ... Paul VI, Giovanni Battista Enrica Antonia Maria Montini (September 26, 1897 – August 6, 1978), served as Pope from 1963 to 1978. ... ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... Conciliarity refers to the adherence of various Christian communities to the authority of ecumenical councils and to synodal church government. ...


Sources

1. Burns, J.H. and Thomas M. Izbicki. Conciliarism and Papalism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997
2. Nicholas of Cusa. "The Catholic Concordance". Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
3. Oakley, Francis. "Conciliarism at the Fifth Lateran Council?". Church History, Vol. 41, No. 4 (Dec., 1972)
4. Oakley, Francis. Council over Pope?. New York: Herder and Herder, 1969.
5. Oakley, Francis. The Conciliarist Tradition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.


  Results from FactBites:
 
Conciliarism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (219 words)
In the history of Christianity, the Conciliar movement or "Conciliarism" was a reform movement in the 14th and 15th century Catholic Church which held that final authority in spiritual matters resided with the Church as corporation of Christians, embodied by a general church council, not with the pope.
The movement emerged in response to the Avignon papacy— the popes removed from Rome and subject to pressures from the kings of France— and the ensuing schism that inspired the summoning of the Council of Pisa (1409) and the Council of Constance (1414-1418).
The eventual victor in the conflict was the institution of the Papacy, confirmed by the condemnation of conciliarism at the Fifth Lateran Council, 1512-17.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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