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Encyclopedia > Concerto in F (Gershwin)

Concerto in F is a composition by George Gershwin for solo piano and orchestra which is closer in form to a traditional concerto than the earlier jazz-influenced Rhapsody in Blue. It was written in 1925 on a commission from the conductor and director Walter Damrosch. George Gershwin photograph by Edward Steichen in 1927. ... A piano concerto is a concerto for solo piano and orchestra. ... In classical music, the word concerto (pl. ... Rhapsody in Blue is a composition by George Gershwin which combines elements of classical music with jazz-influenced effects. ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Walter Johannes Damrosch (born in Breslau, Prussia, January 30, 1862; died in New York City, December 22, 1950) was an American symphony conductor. ...


Damrosch had been present at the February 12, 1924 concert arranged and conducted by Paul Whiteman at Aeolian Hall titled An Experiment in Modern Music which became famous for the premiere of Gershwin's Rhapsody in Blue, for which the composer performed the piano solo. The day after the concert, Damrosch contacted Gershwin to commission from him a full-scale piano concerto for the New York Symphony Orchestra, closer in form to a classical concerto and orchestrated by the composer. Although Gershwin would later recieve formal training and lessons from influential figures like Henry Cowell, Wallingford Riegger and Arnold Schoenberg in advanced composition, harmony and orchestration, in 1925 Gershwin, without such training and a deadline to complete the work, bought books on theory, concerto form and orchestration and tought himself the skills needed. Because of contractual obligations for three different Broadway musicals, he was not able to begin sketching ideas until May of 1925. He began the two-piano score on July 22 after returning from a trip to London, and the original drafts were entitled New York Concerto. The first movement was written in July, the second in August, and the third in September. Gershwin completed the full orchestrations on November 10 (this is supposedly the first work that he ever orchestrated). February 12 is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... See also: 1923 in music, other events of 1924, 1925 in music and the list of years in music. // Events October 17 - Leos Janaceks String Quartet No. ... 1928 Columbia Records label with caricature of Paul Whiteman Paul Whiteman (March 28, 1890 – December 29, 1967) was a popular american orchestral leader. ... Aeolian Hall was a concert hall near Times Square in Midtown Manhattan, New York City located at 29-33 West 42nd Street across the street from Bryant Park. ... A piano concerto is a concerto for solo piano and orchestra. ... The New York Symphony Society was an orchestra founded in New York City by Leopold Damrosch in 1878. ... In classical music, the word concerto (pl. ... For the use of the term orchestration in computer science, see orchestration (computers) Orchestration is the study and practice of adapting music for an orchestra or musical ensemble. ... Henry Cowell (March 11, 1897 - December 10, 1965) was an American composer, musical theorist, pianist, teacher, publisher, and impresario. ... Wallingford Riegger (29 April 1885 - 2 April 1961) was an American music composer, well known for orchestral. ... Arnold Schoenberg, Los Angeles, 1938 Schoenberg redirects here. ... A musical composition is a piece of original music designed for repeated performance (as opposed to strictly improvisational music, in which each performance is unique). ... Harmony, Greek ἁρμονία harmonía meaning a fastening or join. The concept of harmony dates as far back as Pythagoras. ... For the use of the term orchestration in computer science, see orchestration (computers) Orchestration is the study and practice of adapting music for an orchestra or musical ensemble. ... For other uses, see London (disambiguation). ...


Gershwin hired a 60-piece orchestra to run through his first draft in November of 1925. Damrosch attended and gave Gershwin advice, and he thereafter made a few cuts and revisions. The premiere performance was on 3 December 1925 in New York's Carnegie Hall by the New York Symphony Orchestra with Damrosch conducting (three years later the orchestra would merge with the Philharmonic Symphony Society into the now-famous New York Philharmonic Orchestra, and one of the new orchestra's first projects was the commission and December 1928 premiere of Gershwin's next symphonic work An American in Paris) and Gershwin playing the piano solo. The concert was sold out and the concerto was very well received by the general public. However, the reviews were mixed with many critics unable to classify it as jazz or classical. Indeed, there was a great variety of opinion among Gershwin's contemporaries; Igor Stravinsky thought the work was one of genius, whereas Sergei Prokofiev disliked it intensely. December 3 is the 337th (in leap years the 338th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... See also: 1924 in music, other events of 1925, 1926 in music and the list of years in music. Events March 1 - Edgar Varèses Intégrales is premiered in New York City March 21 - Maurice Ravels LEnfant et les sortilèges is premiered in Monte Carlo... Carnegie Hall Carnegie Hall is a concert venue in Midtown Manhattan in New York City located at 881 7th Avenue, occupying the east stretch of 7th Avenue between West 56th Street and West 57th Street. ... The New York Symphony Society was an orchestra founded in New York City by Leopold Damrosch in 1878. ... The New York Philharmonic is an American orchestra based in New York City. ... An American in Paris is a symphonic composition by American composer George Gershwin which debuted in 1928. ... Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky (Russian: И́горь Фёдорович Страви́нский Igor Fjodorovič Stravinskij) (June 17, 1882 – April 6, 1971) was a Russian-born composer of modern classical music. ... Sergei Sergeyevich Prokofiev (Russian: , Sergej Sergejevič Prokofev, 15/April 271, 1891–March 5, 1953) was a Ukrainian-born Russian composer who mastered numerous musical genres and came to be admired as one of the greatest composers of the 20th century. ...


The concerto is in the traditional three movements:

  1. Allegro
  2. Adagio - Andante con moto
  3. Allegro agitato

There are strong thematic links between the outer movements, while the second movement is the most obviously jazz influenced.


The Concerto in F shows considerable development in Gershwin's compositional technique namely because he orchestrated the entire work himself, unlike the Rhapsody in Blue which was done by Ferde GrofĂ©, the orchestrator for Paul Whiteman's orchestra. The English composer William Walton commented that he adored Gershwin's orchestration of the concerto, he himself being a famous orchestrator. Gershwin scored his concerto for 2 flutes and a piccolo, 2 oboes and an English horn, 2 B flat clarinets and a B flat bass clarinet, 2 bassoons, 4 French horns in F, 3 B flat trumpets, 3 trombones and a tuba, 3 timpani (one player), 3 percussionists (first player: bass drum, bells, xylophone; second player: snare drum with regular and brush sticks, wood block, slapstick; third player: crash cymbals, suspended cymbal, triangle), solo piano and strings. Rhapsody in Blue is a composition by George Gershwin which combines elements of classical music with jazz-influenced effects. ... Ferde Grofé (New York City, March 27, 1892 – Santa Monica, California, April 3, 1972) was an American composer, pianist, and arranger. ... 1928 Columbia Records label with caricature of Paul Whiteman Paul Whiteman (March 28, 1890 – December 29, 1967) was a popular american orchestral leader. ... Sir William Turner Walton, OM (March 29, 1902–March 8, 1983) was a British composer whose style was influenced by the works of Stravinsky, Sibelius and jazz. ... The Flute is a musical instrument of the woodwind family. ... A Yamaha piccolo. ... Modern Oboe The oboe is a double reed musical instrument of the woodwind family. ... Cor anglais The cor anglais or English horn is a musical instrument of the woodwind family. ... Two soprano clarinets: a Bâ™­ clarinet (left) and an A clarinet (right, with no mouthpiece). ... The bass clarinet is a musical instrument of the clarinet family. ... A Fox Instruments bassoon. ... The horn is a brass instrument consisting of tubing wrapped into a coiled form. ... Trumpeter redirects to here. ... A lip-reed aerophone with a predominantly cylindrical bore, the trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. ... The tuba is the largest of the low-brass instruments and is one of the most recent additions to the modern symphony orchestra, first appearing in the mid-19th century, when it largely replaced the ophicleide. ... A timpanist in the United States Air Forces in Europe Band. ... Percussion instruments are played by being struck, shaken, rubbed or scraped. ... A bass drum is a large drum that produces a note of low definite or indefinite pitch. ... Tubular bells (also known as chimes) are musical instruments in the percussion family. ... Xylophone in Bali 1937 The xylophone (from the Greek meaning wooden sound) is a musical instrument in the percussion family which probably originated in Indonesia (Nettl 1956, p. ... The snare drum or side drum is a tubular drum made of wood or metal with skins, or heads, stretched over the top and bottom openings. ... A drum stick or drumstick is an item used to hit percussion instruments, including but not only drums, to produce sound. ... A drum stick or drumstick is an item used to hit percussion instruments, including but not only drums, to produce sound. ... Wood block Tubular wood block A wood block is essentially a small slit drum made from a single piece of wood and used as a percussion instrument. ... The whip or slapstick is a percussion instrument consisting of two wooden boards joined by a hinge at one end. ... This article is about the tone family of cymbals known as crash cymbals; For cymbals played by hand in pairs, see clash cymbals. ... Classical suspended cymbal A suspended cymbal is any single cymbal played with a stick or beater rather than struck against another cymbal. ... The triangle is an idiophonic musical instrument of the percussion family. ... A baby grand piano, with the lid up. ... A string instrument (or stringed instrument) is a musical instrument that produces sound by means of vibrating strings. ...


The first movement features a recurring idea of a popular dance of the period, the Charleston and is clearly of the jazz idiom but is also written in a mature sonata form. It also plays heavily on an open octave with a fifth in between. This pattern is the very first thing played, as the melody, and it recurs as a bass harmony throughout the first and third movements. Another pattern in both the first and third movements is using the dominant seventh chord as a scale. This is used for a large part of melody and harmony. The second movement is the blues, with a slow begining, a faster piano part, and a gradual build untill near the end. When the full orchestra and piano are playing loud and it seems the piece will come to a crashing finish, everything pulls back to the original quiet melody and ends peacefuly. The final movement is a pulsating, energetic finale that features the dominant seventh melody and the main melody from the first movement, the blues melody from the second movement, and a melody of it's own. One section, at the Grandioso, is exactly the same as the corresponding section in the first movement, but this time, the scales at the end lead back into the tremulendo-like patterns from the begining. The third movement ends by pulling together the original octave and fifth pattern with the dominant seventh scale in octaves on the piano; the orchestra crescendos and the concerto ends with a bang. A performance of the complete work lasts around thirty minutes. Charlestons rhythm: crotchet-crotchet-dotted crotchet-quaver A USPS stamp from the Celebrate the Century series: Flappers Doing the Charleston by John Held Jr. ... Jazz is an original American musical art form originating around the start of the 20th century in New Orleans, rooted in Western music technique and theory, and is marked by the profound cultural contributions of African Americans. ... The blues is blal vaökdgohdtzkhchg cnlncgdl a vocal and instrumental form of music based on the full twelve note chromatic scale plus the microtonal intervals and a characteristic eight and twelve-bar chord progression. ...


Sources

  • Kennedy Center/National Symphony Program Notes
  • San Francisco Symphony - Program Notes

  Results from FactBites:
 
concerto - Columbia Encyclopedia article about concerto (559 words)
Bach's six Brandenburg concertos and the concertos of Handel represent the fullest development of the baroque type.
Mozart established the classical concerto in three movements, the first of which is a fusion of ritornello form with the newer sonata form, for solo instrument and orchestra.
, as in the concertos of Schoenberg and Berg.
George Gershwin - Free Encyclopedia (456 words)
Gershwin composed both for Broadway and for the classical concert hall, and his music contains elements of both.
In 1910, the Gershwins had acquired a piano for Ira's music lessons, but George took over, successfully playing by ear.
It was in Hollywood, while working on the score of The Goldwyn Follies, that George Gershwin collapsed and, on July 11, 1937, died of a brain tumour.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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