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Encyclopedia > Concerto

The term Concerto (plural concertos or concerti) usually refers to a musical work in which one solo instrument is accompanied by an orchestra. The concerto, as understood in this modern way, arose in the Baroque period side by side with the concerto grosso, which contrasted a small group of instruments with the rest of the orchestra. While the concerto grosso is confined to the Baroque period, the solo concerto has continued as a vital musical force to this day. This article will concentrate on the development of the solo concerto. For the song titled Orchestra, see The Servant (band). ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... The concerto grosso (Italian for big concert(o), plural concerti grossi) is a form of baroque music in which the musical material is passed between a small group of soloists (the concertino) and full orchestra (the ripieno). ...


The etymology of the word "concerto" is somewhat problematic, as the Italian ‘concertare’ can mean ‘to contend, dispute’ but it also has the contrary meaning of ‘to agree’. The idea of two opposing forces is inherent in the use of the term.

Contents

The Baroque concerto

In the late 16th century there is often no clear distinction made between a concerto and a sinfonia. Both of these terms were even used throughout the 17th century, in Italy, to describe vocal music with instrumental accompaniment; Giovanni Gabrieli published motets using either of these terms indiscriminately. Viadana’s Cento concerti ecclesiastici (1602) are examples of the early concerto for limited forces: he uses one to four voices with continuo, composed in such a way that the works can still be performed if one or more of the voices is absent. (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... In music, a sinfonia can be one of three things: 1) In the very late Renaissance and early Baroque, a sinfonia was an alternate name for a canzona, fantasia or ricercar. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... A typical accompaniment pattern of a Mozart concert or aria. ... Giovanni Gabrieli Giovanni Gabrieli (c. ... In Western music, motet is a word that is applied to a number of highly varied choral musical compositions. ... Lodovico Grossi da Viadana (usually Lodovico Viadana, though his given name was Grossi) (c. ... Figured bass, or thoroughbass, is a kind of integer musical notation used to indicate intervallic content (the intervals which make up a sonority), later chords, in relation to a bass note. ...


From about 1675 composers started to write works for divided orchestra, the standard term for which is concerto grosso. The smaller division, which was effectively a group of soloists, was referred to in these works as the concertino and the accompanying instruments were called the ripieno, while tutti was used to indicate the two groups playing simultaneously. In the concerti grossi of Arcangelo Corelli and Giuseppe Torelli, the violin in the concertino is sometimes given extended solo passages. These are the beginnings of the solo concerto. The concerto grosso (Italian for big concert(o), plural concerti grossi) is a form of baroque music in which the musical material is passed between a small group of soloists (the concertino) and full orchestra (the ripieno). ... Arcangelo Corelli (February 17, 1653 – January 8, 1713) was an influential Italian violinist and composer of Baroque music. ... Giuseppe Torelli Giuseppe Torelli (Verona, April 22, 1658 - Bologna, February 8, 1709) was an Italian violinist, pedagogue and composer. ... For the Anne Rice novel, see Violin (novel). ...


The first major innovations in the development of the solo concerto were made by Antonio Vivaldi, who established the ritornello form: solo passages alternate with orchestral tutti, which often repeat the same material, giving unity to the movement. He established the three-movement form (fast–slow–fast) which has been the norm for the solo concerto ever since. He wrote several hundred concertos, the most famous being the group of four for violin entitled The Four Seasons. His 12 Concerti, Op. 3 "L'estro armonico" are also arguably the most influential pieces of the first half of the Eighteenth Century. “Vivaldi” redirects here. ... In Baroque music, ritornello was the word for a recurring passage for orchestra in the first or final movement of a solo concerto or aria (also in works for chorus). ... In music, a tutti section in a concerto is one in which the orchestra plays and the soloist does not. ... The Four Seasons (Le quattro stagioni in original Italian) is a set of four violin concertos by Antonio Vivaldi. ...


By Johann Sebastian Bach's time the concerto as a polyphonic instrumental form was thoroughly established. The term frequently appears in the autograph title-pages of his church cantatas, even when the cantata contains no instrumental prelude. Although his six Brandenburg concertos are often thought of as concerti grossi, the fourth has a very prominent violin part while the other two soloists are reduced to a much smaller role. The fifth is in effect a solo harpsichord concerto. The origins of the keyboard concerto are to be found in such concertos by Bach. He also wrote about six solo concertos for violin, only two of which are extant, and a concerto for two violins and orchestra. Bach’s concertos are modeled on those of Vivaldi, but they expand the form, giving a coherent motivic unity to the contrapuntal textures of each movement. “Bach” redirects here. ... Polyphony is a musical texture consisting of two or more independent melodic voices, as opposed to music with just one voice (monophony) or music with one dominant melodic voice accompanied by chords (homophony). ... A cantata (Italian, sung) is a vocal composition with an instrumental accompaniment and generally containing more than one movement. ... A prelude is a short piece of music, usually in no particular internal form, which may serve as an introduction to succeeding movements of a work that are usually longer and more complex. ... Johann Sebastian Bach, c. ... A harpsichord concerto is a concerto for harpsichord and orchestra. ... For other uses, see Counterpoint (disambiguation). ...


The Classical concerto

The concertos of Bach’s sons are perhaps the best links between those of the Baroque period and those of Mozart. C.P.E. Bach’s keyboard concertos contain some brilliant soloistic writing. Some of them have movements that run into one another without a break, and there are frequent cross-movement thematic references. Mozart, as a boy, made arrangements for harpsichord and orchestra of three sonata movements by Johann Christian Bach. By the time he was twenty, he was able to write concerto ritornelli that gave the orchestra admirable opportunity for asserting its character in an exposition with some five or six sharply contrasted themes, before the soloist enters to elaborate on the material. He wrote two concertos for flute (as well as one for Flute and Harp), and one each for oboe, clarinet, and bassoon, four for horn, and a Sinfonia Concertante for Violin, Viola and Orchestra. They all exploit the characteristics of the solo instrument brilliantly. His five violin concertos, written in quick succession, show a number of influences, notably Italian and Austrian. Several passages have leanings towards folk music, as manifested in Austrian serenades. However, it was in his twenty-three original piano concertos that he excelled himself. It is conventional to state that the first movements of concertos from the Classical period onwards follow the structure of sonata form. Mozart, however, treats sonata form in his concerto movements with so much freedom that any broad classification becomes impossible. For example, some of the themes heard in the exposition may not be heard again in subsequent sections. The piano, at its entry, may introduce entirely new material. There may even be new material in the so-called recapitulation section, which in effect becomes a free fantasia. Towards the end of the first movement, and sometimes in other movements too, there is a traditional place for an improvised cadenza. The slow movements may be based on sonata form or abridged sonata form, but some of them are romances. The finale is sometimes a rondo, or even a theme with variations. Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (March 8, 1714 – December 14, 1788) was a German musician and composer, the second of five sons of Johann Sebastian Bach and Maria Barbara Bach. ... Johann Christian Bach (September 5, 1735 – January 1, 1782) was a composer of the Classical era, the eleventh and youngest son of Johann Sebastian Bach. ... â™  This article is about the family of musical instruments. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozarts Oboe Concerto in C major, K. 314 was later reworked by the composer as a flute concerto in D major. ... Mozarts Clarinet concerto in A major, K. 622 was written in 1791 for the clarinetist Anton Stadler. ... The Bassoon Concerto in B flat major (K191), written in 1774 by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, is the most standard piece in the entire bassoon repertory. ... For other uses, see Horn. ... In the 1770s Mozart had been experimenting with the Sinfonia concertante genre, leading in 1779 to the Sinfonia Concertante for Violin, Viola and Orchestra K. 364, which can be considered his most successful realisation in this cross-over genre between Symphony and Concerto. ... Folk music can have a number of different meanings, including: Traditional music: The original meaning of the term folk music was synonymous with the term Traditional music, also often including World Music and Roots music; the term Traditional music was given its more specific meaning to distinguish it from the... Serenade by Judith Leyster. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... The fantasia (also English: , German: , French: ) is a musical composition with its roots in the art of improvisation. ... In music, a cadenza (Italian for cadence) is, generically, an improvised or written-out ornamental passage played or sung by a soloist or soloists, usually in a free rhythmic style, and often allowing for virtuosic display. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... a rondo is played between episode which are played by non solo people Rondo, and its French equivalent rondeau, is a word that has been used in music in a number of ways, most often in reference to a musical form, but also in reference to a character-type that... In music, variation is a formal technique where material is altered during repetition; reiteration with changes. ...

Further information: Mozart Piano Concertos

The Mozart piano concertos are a set of 27 concertos for piano and orchestra written by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart between 1767 and 1791. ...

The Romantic concerto

Violin concertos

Main article: Violin concerto

In the 19th century the concerto as a vehicle for virtuosic display flourished as never before. It was the age in which the artist was seen as hero, to be worshipped and adulated with rapture. Early Romantic traits can be found in the violin concertos of Viotti, but it is Spohr’s twelve violin concertos, written between 1802 and 1827, that truly embrace the Romantic spirit with their melodic as well as their dramatic qualities. Beethoven’s Violin Concerto is unique in its scale and melodic qualities. Recitative elements are often incorporated, showing the influence of Italian opera on purely instrumental forms. Mendelssohn opens his violin concerto (1844) with the singing qualities of the violin solo. Even later passage work is dramatic and recitative-like, rather than merely virtuosic. The wind instruments state the lyrical second subject over a low pedal G on the violin – certainly an innovation. The cadenza, placed at the start of the recapitulation, is fully written out and integrated into the structure. A violin concerto is a concerto for solo violin (occasionally, two or more violins) and instrumental ensemble, customarily orchestra. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... A virtuoso (from Italian virtuoso, late Latin virtuosus, Latin virtus meaning: skill, manliness, excellence) is an individual who possesses outstanding technical ability at singing or playing a musical instrument. ... Giovanni Battista, was a common Italian name (see Battista) in the 16th-18th centuries, which in English means John the Baptist. A very common nickname for this name was Giambattista, Gianbattista or Giovambattista. ... Self-portrait of Spohr as a young man. ... --69. ... Year 1827 (MDCCCXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Recitative, a form of composition often used in operas, oratorios, and cantatas (and occasionally in operettas and even musicals), is melodic speech set to music, or a descriptive narrative song in which the music follows the words. ... For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, born and known generally as Felix Mendelssohn (February 3, 1809 – November 4, 1847) was a German composer and conductor of the early Romantic period. ...


The great violin virtuoso Niccolò Paganini was a legendary figure who, as a composer, exploited the technical potential of his instrument to its very limits. Each one exploits rhapsodic ideas but is unique in its own form. The Belgian violinist Henri Vieuxtemps contributed several works to this form. Édouard Lalo’s Symphonie Espagnole (1875) displays virtuoso writing with a Spanish flavor. Max Bruch wrote three violin concertos, but it is the first, in G minor, that has remained a firm favorite in the repertoire. The opening movement relates so closely to the two remaining movements that it functions like an operatic prelude. Tchaikovsky’s violin concerto (1878) is a powerful work which succeeds in being lyrical as well as superbly virtuosic. In the same year Brahms wrote his violin concerto for the virtuoso Joseph Joachim. This work makes new demands on the player, so much so that when it was first written it was referred to as a "concerto against the violin". The first movement brings the concerto into the realm of symphonic development. The second movement is traditionally lyrical, and the finale is based on a lively Hungarian theme. Niccolò (or Nicolò) Paganini (October 27, 1782 – May 27, 1840) was an Italian violinist, violist, guitarist, and composer. ... Henri François Joseph Vieuxtemps (February 17, 1820 – June 6, 1881) was a Belgian composer and violinist active in France. ... Édouard (Victor Antoine) Lalo (January 27, 1823 - April 22, 1892) was a French composer of Spanish descent. ... Max Christian Friedrich Bruch (Cologne, January 6, 1838 – Friedenau, October 20, 1920) was a German Romantic composer and conductor who wrote over 200 works, including a violin concerto which is a staple of the violin repertoire. ... A Prelude is something that serves as a preceding event or introduces what follows after it. ... “Tchaikovsky” redirects here. ... Johannes Brahms Johannes Brahms (May 7, 1833 – April 3, 1897) was a German composer of the Romantic period. ... Joseph Joachim Joseph Joachim (June 28, 1831 – August 15, 1907) (pronounced YO-a-chim) was a violinist, conductor, composer and teacher. ...


Cello concertos

Main article: Cello concerto

Following on from the Classical examples of Joseph Haydn and Luigi Boccherini, the concertos of Robert Schumann, Carl Reinecke, David Popper, and Julius Klengel focus on the lyrical qualities of the instrument. Beethoven contributed to the repertoire with a Triple Concerto for piano, violin, cello and orchestra while later in the century, Brahms wrote a Double Concerto for violin, cello and orchestra. Dvořák’s cello concerto ranks among the supreme examples from the Romantic era. The instrument was also popular with composers of the Franco-Belgian tradition: Saint-Saëns and Vieuxtemps wrote two cello concertos each and Lalo one. Tchaikovsky’s contribution to the genre is a series of Variations on a Rococo Theme. He also left very fragmentary sketches of a projected Cello Concerto which was only completed in 2006. A violoncello concerto is a concerto for solo violoncello with orchestra or, very occasionally, smaller groups of instruments. ... “Haydn” redirects here. ... Luigi Boccherini Luigi Rodolfo Boccherini (February 19, 1743 – May 28, 1805) was a classical era composer and cellist from Italy, whose music retained a courtly and galante style while he matured somewhat apart from the major European musical centers. ... For other persons named Robert Schumann, see Robert Schumann (disambiguation). ... Carl Heinrich Carsten Reinecke (born June 23, 1824 in Hamburg, Germany; died March 10, 1910 in Leipzig, Germany), musician. ... David Popper (June 18, 1846 – August 7, 1913) was a Bohemian cellist and composer. ... Julius Klengal was a cellist, who is most famous for his etudes and solo pieces written for the instrument. ... Ludwig van Beethoven Ludwig van Beethoven (baptized December 17, 1770 – March 26, 1827) was a German composer of Classical music, the predominant musical figure in the transitional period between the Classical and Romantic eras. ... Johannes Brahms Johannes Brahms (May 7, 1833 – April 3, 1897) was a German composer of classical music. ... Dvořák is a common Czech surname (the feminine form is Dvořáková) derived from dvůr (=court, estate). ... Charles Camille Saint-Saëns (IPA: [ʃaʁl. ... Henri Vieuxtemps Henri François Joseph Vieuxtemps (February 17, 1820 – June 6, 1881) was a Belgian composer and violinist active in France. ... Édouard Victoire Antoine Lalo (January 27, 1823 - April 22, 1892) was a French composer of Spanish descent. ... Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (Russian Пётр Ильи́ч Чайко́вский, sometimes transliterated as Piotr, Anglicised as Peter Ilich), (May 7, 1840 – November 6, 1893 (N.S.); April 25, 1840 – October... The Variations on a Rococo theme for violoncello and orchestra in A major Op. ... Unfinished works have always fascinated composers, music theorists, and historians; Tchaikovskys projected Cello Concerto is no different. ...


Piano concertos

Main article: Piano concerto

Beethoven’s five piano concertos increase the technical demands made on the soloist. The last two are particularly remarkable, integrating the concerto into a large symphonic structure with movements that frequently run into one another. His Piano Concerto no 4 starts, against tradition, with a statement by the piano, after which the orchestra magically enters in a foreign key, to present what would normally have been the opening tutti. The work has an essentially lyrical character. The slow movement is a dramatic dialogue between the soloist and the orchestra. Concerto no 5 has the basic rhythm of a Viennese military march. There is no lyrical second subject, but in its place a continuous development of the opening material. He also wrote a Triple Concerto for piano, violin, cello, and orchestra. A piano concerto is a concerto for solo piano and orchestra. ... March music is a genre of music originally written for and performed by military bands. ...


The piano concertos of Mendelssohn, Field, and Hummel provide a link from the Classical concerto to the Romantic concerto. Chopin wrote two piano concertos in which the orchestra is very much relegated to an accompanying role. Schumann, despite being a pianist-composer, wrote a piano concerto in which virtuosity is never allowed to eclipse the essential lyrical quality of the work. The gentle, expressive melody heard at the beginning on woodwind and horns (after the piano’s heralding introductory chords) bears the material for most of the argument in the first movement. In fact, argument in the traditional developmental sense is replaced by a kind of variation technique in which soloist and orchestra interweave their ideas. John Field John Field (July 26, 1782 – January 23, 1837) was an Irish composer and pianist. ... Johann Nepomuk Hummel Johann Nepomuk Hummel or Jan Nepomuk Hummel (14 November 1778 – 17 October 1837) was a composer and virtuoso pianist of Austrian origin who was born in Pressburg (present-day Bratislava, Slovakia). ... Chopin redirects here. ... For other persons named Robert Schumann, see Robert Schumann (disambiguation). ...


Liszt's mastery of piano technique matched that of Paganini for the violin. His two concertos left a deep impression on the style of piano concerto writing, influencing Rubinstein, and especially Tchaikovsky, whose first piano concerto's rich chordal opening is justly famous. Grieg’s concerto likewise begins in a striking manner after which it continues in a lyrical vein. “Liszt” redirects here. ... Famous people named Rubinstein include: Amnon Rubinstein, an Israeli scholar, politician and columnist. ... Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (Russian Пётр Ильи́ч Чайко́вский, sometimes transliterated as Piotr, Anglicised as Peter Ilich), (May 7, 1840 – November 6, 1893 (N.S.); April 25, 1840 – October... Edvard Grieg Edvard Hagerup Grieg (15 June 1843 – 4 September 1907) was a Norwegian composer and pianist who composed in the romantic period. ...


Brahms's First Piano Concerto in D minor (pub 1861) was the result of an immense amount of work on a mass of material originally intended for a symphony. His Second Piano Concerto in Bb major (1881) has four movements and is written on a larger scale than any earlier concerto. Like his violin concerto, it is symphonic in proportions. Johannes Brahms Johannes Brahms (May 7, 1833 – April 3, 1897) was a German composer of classical music. ...


Fewer piano concertos were written in the late Romantic Period. But Grieg-inspired Sergei Rachmaninoff wrote 4 piano concertos from the 1890's into 1901. His 2nd and 3rd, being the most popular of the 4, went on to become among the most famous in piano repertoire and shining examples of Russian musicianship. Sergei Vasilievich Rachmaninoff (Russian: , Sergej Vasilevič Rakhmaninov, 1 April 1873 (N.S.) or 20 March 1873 (O.S.) – 28 March 1943) was a Russian composer, pianist, and conductor, one of the last great champions of the Romantic style of European classical music. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The beginning of the opening theme of the The Piano Concerto No. ...


Small-scale works

Besides the usual three-movement works with the title "concerto", many 19th-century composers wrote shorter pieces for solo instrument and orchestra, often bearing descriptive titles. Schumann called such pieces Concertstück and Phantasie. Liszt wrote the Totentanz for piano and orchestra, a paraphrase of the Dies Irae. Max Bruch wrote a popular Scottish Fantasy for violin and orchestra, César Franck wrote Les Djinns and Variations symphoniques, and Gabriel Fauré wrote a Ballade for piano and orchestra. For other uses, see Dies Irae (disambiguation). ... César-Auguste-Jean-Guillaume-Hubert Franck (December 10, 1822 – November 8, 1890), a composer, organist and music teacher of Belgian origin who lived in France, was one of the great figures in classical music in the second half of the 19th century. ... Gabriel Urbain Fauré (May 12, 1845 – November 4, 1924) was a French composer, organist, pianist, and teacher. ... The ballade was a verse form consisting of three (sometimes five) stanzas, each with the same metre, rhyme scheme and last line, with a shorter concluding stanza (an envoi). ...


The concerto in the 20th century

Many of the concertos written in the early 20th century belong more to the late Romantic school than to any modernistic movement. Masterpieces were written by Edward Elgar (a violin concerto and a cello concerto), Sergei Rachmaninoff (four piano concertos), Jean Sibelius (a violin concerto), Frederick Delius (for violin, for cello, for piano, and a double concerto for violin and cello), Karol Szymanowski (two violin concertos and a "Symphonie Concertante" for piano), and Richard Strauss (two horn concertos, a violin concerto, Don Quixote - a tone poem which features the cello as a soloist - and among later works, an oboe concerto). (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Sir Edward Elgar Sir Edward William Elgar, 1st Baronet, OM, GCVO (2 June 1857 – 23 February 1934) was an English Romantic composer. ... Sergei Vasilievich Rachmaninoff (Russian: , Sergej Vasilevič Rakhmaninov, 1 April 1873 (N.S.) or 20 March 1873 (O.S.) – 28 March 1943) was a Russian composer, pianist, and conductor, one of the last great champions of the Romantic style of European classical music. ... Johan Julius Christian Jean / Janne Sibelius ( ; December 8, 1865 – September 20, 1957) was a Finnish composer of classical music and one of the most notable composers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... Frederick Albert Theodore Delius CH (January 29, 1862, – June 10, 1934) was an English composer born in Bradford in the West Riding of Yorkshire in the north of England. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Karol Szymanowski Karol Szymanowski Karol Maciej Korwin-Szymanowski (October 6, 1882–March 28, 1937) was a Polish composer and pianist. ... This article is about the German composer of tone-poems and operas. ...


However, in the first decades of the 20th century, several composers such as Debussy, Schoenberg, Berg, Stravinsky and Bartók started experimenting with ideas that were to have far-reaching consequences for the way music is written and, in some cases, performed. Some of these innovations include a more frequent use of modality, the exploration of non-western scales, the development of atonality, the wider acceptance of dissonances, the invention of the twelve-tone technique of composition and the use of polyrhythms and complex time signatures. Claude Debussy Claude Achille Debussy (August 22, 1862 – March 25, 1918), composer of impressionistic classical music. ... Arnold Schoenberg, Los Angeles, 1948 Arnold Schoenberg (the anglicized form of Schönberg — Schoenberg changed the spelling officially when he left Germany and re-converted to Judaism in 1933; September 13, 1874 – July 13, 1951) was an Austrian and later American composer. ... Bust of Alban Berg at Schiefling, Carinthia, Austria Alban Maria Johannes Berg (February 9, 1885 – December 24, 1935) was an Austrian composer. ... Igor Fyodorovitch Stravinsky () (June 17, 1882 – April 6, 1971) was a composer of modern classical music. ... Béla Viktor János Bartók (March 25, 1881 – September 26, 1945) was a composer, pianist and collector of East European folk music. ... In music, modality is the subject concerning certain diatonic scales known as modes (e. ... Scale (botany) Scale (zoology) Scale (medical) Scale (music) Scale (measurement) Scale (chemical) Scale (social sciences) Scale (spatial) Scale (computing) Order of magnitude Logarithmic scale Scale model Architects scale Engineers scale This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the... Atonality describes music not conforming to the system of tonal hierarchies, which characterizes the sound of classical European music between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries. ... In music, a consonance (Latin consonare, sounding together) is a harmony, chord, or interval considered stable, as opposed to a dissonance, which is considered unstable. ... Twelve-tone technique (also dodecaphony) is a method of musical composition devised by Arnold Schoenberg. ... Polyrhythm is the simultaneous sounding of two or more independent rhythms. ... The time signature (also known as meter signature) is a notational device used in Western musical notation to specify how many beats are in each bar and which note value (minim, crotchet, eighth note and so on) constitutes one beat. ...


These changes also affected the concerto as a musical form. Beside more or less radical effects on musical language, they led to a redefinition of the concept of virtuosity in order to include new and extended instrumental techniques as well as a focus on aspects of sound that had been neglected or even ignored before such as pitch, timbre and dynamics. In some cases, they also brought about a new approach to the role of the soloist and its relation to the orchestra. Pitch may refer to: Look up Pitch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In music, timbre, or sometimes timber, (from Fr. ... “Fortissimo” redirects here. ...


Violin concertos

Two great innovators of early 20th-century music, Schoenberg and Stravinsky, both wrote violin concertos. The material in Schoenberg’s concerto, like that in Berg’s, is linked by the twelve-tone serial method. Bartók, another major 20th century composer, wrote two important concertos for violin. Russian composers Prokofiev and Shostakovich both wrote two concertos while Khachaturian wrote a concerto and a Concerto-Rhapsody for the instrument. Paul Hindemith’s concertos hark back to the forms of the 19th century, even if the harmonic language which he used was different. Arnold Schoenberg, Los Angeles, 1948 Arnold Schoenberg (the anglicized form of Schönberg — Schoenberg changed the spelling officially when he left Germany and re-converted to Judaism in 1933; September 13, 1874 – July 13, 1951) was an Austrian and later American composer. ... Igor Stravinsky. ... Bust of Alban Berg at Schiefling, Carinthia, Austria Alban Maria Johannes Berg (February 9, 1885 – December 24, 1935) was an Austrian composer. ... Twelve-tone technique (also dodecaphony) is a method of musical composition devised by Arnold Schoenberg. ... Bartok redirects here. ... Sergei Sergeyevich Prokofiev (Серге́й Серге́евич Проко́фьев) (April 271, 1891 – March 5, 1953) was one of the Soviet Unions greatest composers. ... Dmitri Dmitrievich Shostakovich (Russian Дмитрий Дмитриевич Шостакович) (September 25, 1906 – August 9, 1975) was a Russian composer of the Soviet period. ... Aram Ilich Khachaturian (Armenian: Արամ Խաչատրյան, Russian: Аpaм Ильич Xaчaтypян) (June 6, 1903 – May 1, 1978) was a composer of classical music. ... Paul Hindemith (November 16, 1895 – December 28, 1963) was a German classical composer, violist, teacher, theorist and conductor. ...


Three violin concertos from David Diamond show the form in neoclassical style. David Leo Diamond (July 9, 1915 – June 13, 2005) was an American composer of classical music. ...


More recently, Dutilleux's L'Arbre des Songes has proved an important addition to the repertoire and a fine example of the composer's atonal yet melodic style. Henri Dutilleux (born January 22, 1916 in Angers, France) is one of the most important French composers of the second half of the 20th century, producing work in the tradition of Maurice Ravel, Claude Debussy, and Albert Roussel, but in a style distinctly his own. ...


Other composers of major violin concertos include Sibelius, Vaughan Williams, Walton, Britten, Martin, Nielsen and Ligeti. Contrary to what Rachel Lewis believes. ... Ralph Vaughan Williams (October 12, 1872 – August 26, 1958) was an influential British composer. ... There are many people and places named Walton: Places In New Zealand: Walton, North Island In the United Kingdom: Walton, Buckinghamshire Walton, Cheshire Walton, Cumbria Walton, Derbyshire Walton-upon-Trent, Derbyshire Walton-on-the-Naze, Essex Walton, Leicestershire Walton, Merseyside Walton, Milton Keynes Walton, Peterborough Walton, Powys Walton, Somerset Walton... Edward Benjamin Britten, Baron Britten (November 22, 1913 – December 4, 1976) was a British composer and pianist. ... Look up Martin in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Nielsen, a surname originally meaning son of Niels (cf. ... Ligeti may refer to: György Ligeti (1923–2006) Lukas Ligeti (son of György Ligeti and composer/percussionist) Miklós Ligeti - Hungarian sculptor Categories: | | ...


Cello concertos

In the 20th century, particularly after the Second World War, the cello enjoyed an unprecedented popularity. As a result, its concertante repertoire caught up with those of the piano and the violin both in terms of quantity and quality.


An important factor in this phenomenon was the rise of virtuoso cellist Mstislav Rostropovich. His outstanding technique and passionate playing prompted dozens of composers to write pieces for him, first in his native Soviet Union and then abroad. His creations include such masterpieces as Sergei Prokofiev's Symphony-Concerto, Dmitri Shostakovich's two cello concertos, Benjamin Britten's Cello-Symphony (which emphasizes, as its title suggests, the equal importance of soloist and orchestra), Henri Dutilleux' Tout un monde lointain, Witold Lutosławski's cello concerto, Dmitri Kabalevsky's two cello concertos, Aram Khatchaturian's Concerto-Rhapsody, Arvo Pärt's Pro et Contra, Alfred Schnittke and Krzysztof Penderecki second cello concertos, Sofia Gubaidulina's Canticles of the Sun, James MacMillan's cello concerto and Olivier Messiaen's Concert à Quatre (a concerto for cello, piano, oboe, flute and orchestra which was almost finished at the time of his death and completed by Yvonne Loriod and George Benjamin). Mstislav Leopoldovich Rostropovich KBE (Russian: Мстисла́в Леопо́льдович Ростропо́вич, Mstislav Leopoldovič Rostropovič, IPA: ), (March 27, 1927 – April 27, 2007), known to close friends as “Slava”, was a Russian cellist and conductor. ... Sergei Sergeyevich Prokofiev (Russian: , Sergej Sergejevič Prokofijev; April 27 (April 151 O.S.), 1891–March 5, 1953) was a Russian and Soviet composer who mastered numerous musical genres and came to be admired as one of the greatest composers of the 20th century. ... Sergei Prokofievs Symphony-Concerto in E minor (sometimes also called Sinfonia Concertante), is a large-scale work for cello and orchestra. ... Dmitri Shostakovich   (Russian: , Dmitrij Dmitrievič Å ostakovič) (September 25 [O.S. September 12] 1906–August 9, 1975) was a Russian composer of the Soviet period. ... Edward Benjamin Britten, Baron Britten, OM CH (November 22, 1913 Lowestoft, Suffolk - December 4, 1976 Aldeburgh, Suffolk) was a British composer, conductor, and pianist. ... The Symphony for Cello and Orchestra or Cello Symphony Op. ... Henri Dutilleux (born January 22, 1916 in Angers, France) is one of the most important French composers of the second half of the 20th century, producing work in the tradition of Maurice Ravel, Claude Debussy, and Albert Roussel, but in a style distinctly his own. ... Witold LutosÅ‚awski at his home. ... Dmitri Kabalevsky Dmitri Borisovich Kabalevsky (Russian: ) (December 30, 1904 – February 18, 1987) was a Russian Soviet composer. ... Aram Ilich Khachaturian (Armenian: Արամ Խաչատրյան, Russian: Аpaм Ильич Xaчaтypян) (June 6, 1903 – May 1, 1978) was a composer of classical music. ... Arvo Pärt (born September 11, 1935 in Paide), (IPA: ˈɑr̺vÉ” ˈpær̺t) is an Estonian composer, often identified with the school of minimalism and more specifically, that of mystic minimalism or sacred minimalism. He is considered a pioneer of this style, along with contemporaries Henryk Górecki... Alfred Schnittke April 6, 1989, Moscow Alfred Garyevich Schnittke (Russian: Альфре́д Га́рриевич Шни́тке, November 24, 1934 Engels - August 3, 1998 Hamburg) was a Russian and Soviet composer. ... Krzysztof Penderecki. ... Sofia Gubaidulina in Sortavala 1981 Sofia Asgatovna Gubaidulina, (Russian София Асгатовна Губайдулина) (born October 24, 1931) is a Russian-Tatar composer of deeply religious music. ... Dr James MacMillan (born on July 16, 1959) is a Scottish classical composer. ... Olivier Messiaen It has been suggested that List of students of Olivier Messiaen be merged into this article or section. ... Yvonne Loriod is a French pianist who became the second wife of composer Olivier Messiaen. ... George Benjamin (born January 31, 1960, London, England) is a British composer of classical music. ...


In addition, it must be noted that several composers who were not directly influenced by Rostropovich wrote important cello concertos: Paul Hindemith, Arthur Honegger, Samuel Barber, Joaquín Rodrigo, Nikolai Myaskovsky, Erich Wolfgang Korngold, William Walton, Heitor Villa-Lobos, György Ligeti and Einojuhani Rautavaara for instance. This shows that the cello had become a major concertante instrument like the violin and the piano. Paul Hindemith aged 28. ... Arthur Honegger in 1921. ... Samuel Barber, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1944 Samuel Osborne Barber II (March 9, 1910 – January 23, 1981) was an American composer of classical music ranging from orchestral, to opera, choral, and piano music. ... Joaquín Rodrigo Vidre (22 November 1901 – 6 July 1999) was a Spanish composer of classical music and a virtuoso pianist. ... Nikolai Myaskovsky (ru: Николай Мясковский) (April 20, 1881 – August 8, 1950) was a Russian composer. ... Korngold conducting the Warner Brothers studio orchestra (Rhino Records) Erich Wolfgang Korngold (May 29, 1897 – November 29, 1957) was a 20th century romantic composer. ... Sir William Turner Walton, OM (March 29, 1902–March 8, 1983) was a British composer whose style was influenced by the works of Stravinsky, Sibelius and jazz. ... Heitor Villa-Lobos (March 5, 1887 - November 17, 1959) was a Brazilian composer, possibly the best-known classical composer born in South America. ... “Ligeti” redirects here. ... Einojuhani Rautavaara (born October 9, 1928) is a Finnish composer of classical music, probably the best known Finnish composer of his generation. ...


Piano concertos

Ravel's Piano Concerto in G and Concerto for the Left Hand are among the best examples of the form in the early 20th century. Joseph-Maurice Ravel (March 7, 1875 – December 28, 1937) was a French composer and pianist, best known for his orchestral work, Boléro, and his famous 1922 orchestral arrangement of Modest Mussorgskys Pictures at an Exhibition. ...


Schoenberg’s Piano Concerto (1942) is unified into a single movement. Arnold Schoenberg, Los Angeles, 1948 Arnold Schoenberg, (the anglicized form of Schönberg—Schoenberg changed the spelling officially when he became a U.S. citizen) (September 13, 1874 – July 13, 1951) was a composer, born in Vienna, Austria. ... Arnold Schoenbergs Piano Concerto, Op. ...


Stravinsky wrote three works for solo piano and orchestra: Concerto for Piano and Wind Instruments, Capriccio for Piano and Orchestra, and Movements for Piano and Orchestra. Prokofiev, another Russian composer, wrote no less than five piano concertos which he himself performed. Shostakovich composed two. Both are superb works, amongst the finest that he wrote (the same can be said of his other four concertos - see above). Fellow soviet composer Khatchaturian contributed to the repertoire with a piano concerto and a Concerto-Rhapsody. Igor Fyodorovitch Stravinsky () (June 17, 1882 – April 6, 1971) was a composer of modern classical music. ... The Concerto for Piano and Wind Instruments was written by Igor Stravinsky in Paris in 1923-1924. ... The Capriccio for Piano and Orchestra (French: Capriccio pour piano et orchestre) was written by Igor Stravinsky in Nice between 1926 and 1929. ... Sergei Sergeyevich Prokofiev (Russian: , Sergej Sergejevič Prokofijev; April 27 (April 151 O.S.), 1891–March 5, 1953) was a Russian and Soviet composer who mastered numerous musical genres and came to be admired as one of the greatest composers of the 20th century. ... Dmitri Dmitrievich Shostakovich (Russian Дмитрий Дмитриевич Шостакович) (September 25, 1906 – August 9, 1975) was a Russian composer of the Soviet period. ... Aram Khachaturian (Armenian: Ô±Ö€Õ¡Õ´ Ô½Õ¡Õ¹Õ¡Õ¿Ö€ÕµÕ¡Õ¶, Aram Xačatryan; Russian: Аpaм Ильич XaчaÑ‚ypян, Aram Ilič Hačaturjan) (June 6, 1903 – May 1, 1978) was an Armenian composer whose works were often influenced by Armenian folk music. ... Aram Khachaturian wrote his Piano Concerto in 1936. ...


Bartók also wrote three piano concertos. Like their violin counterparts, they show the various stages in his musical development. Béla Viktor János Bartók (March 25, 1881 – September 26, 1945) was a composer, pianist and collector of East European folk music. ...


Ralph Vaughan Williams wrote concertos for piano and for two pianos while Britten's concerto for piano (1938) is a fine work from his early period. A statue of Ralph Vaughan Williams in Dorking. ... Edward Benjamin Britten, Baron Britten (November 22, 1913 – December 4, 1976) was a British composer and pianist. ...


Ligeti's concerto is a good example of a more recent piece (1985) that uses complex rhythms. Ligeti may refer to: György Ligeti (1923–2006) Lukas Ligeti (son of György Ligeti and composer/percussionist) Miklós Ligeti - Hungarian sculptor Categories: | | ...


Concertos for other instruments

The 20th century also witnessed a growth of the concertante repertoire of instruments which had seldom or never been used in this capacity. As a result, almost all the instruments of the classical orchestra now have a concertante repertoire. Examples include:

Amongst the works of the prolific composer Alan Hovhaness may be noted Prayer of St. Gregory for trumpet and strings. Portrait by Ilya Repin, 1887. ... Sophie-Carmen Eckhardt-Gramatté (December 24, 1901 - December 2, 1974) was a Russian-born Canadian composer and virtuoso pianist and violinist. ... Sofia Gubaidulina in Sortavala 1981 Sofia Asgatovna Gubaidulina, (Russian София Асгатовна Губайдулина) (born October 24, 1931) is a Russian-Tatar composer of deeply religious music. ... Jacques Hétu (born August 8, 1938, Trois-Rivières, Quebec) is a Canadian composer. ... André Jolivet (August 8, 1905 – December 20, 1974) was a French composer. ... Sir Peter Maxwell Davies, CBE (b. ... Denys Bouliane (born May 8, 1955 in Grand-Mère, Québec) is a Canadian composer and conductor. ... Sir Malcolm Arnold Sir Malcolm Henry Arnold, CBE (21 October 1921 – 23 September 2006) was an English composer. ... Aaron Copland Aaron Copland (November 14, 1900 – December 2, 1990) was an American composer of concert and film music, as well as an accomplished pianist. ... Edison Denisov (April 6, 1929 - November 24, 1996) was a Russian composer from Tomsk, Siberia. ... Pascal Dusapin (29th May, 1955), is a French composer born in Nancy. ... Jacques Hétu (born August 8, 1938, Trois-Rivières, Quebec) is a Canadian composer. ... Paul Hindemith aged 28. ... Carl Nielsen Carl August Nielsen (June 9, 1865, Sortelung – October 3, 1931, Copenhagen) was a conductor, violinist, and the most internationally known composer from Denmark. ... Krzysztof Penderecki. ... Einojuhani Rautavaara (born October 9, 1928) is a Finnish composer of classical music, probably the best known Finnish composer of his generation. ... Igor Stravinsky. ... Tōru Takemitsu (武満 å¾¹ Takemitsu Tōru, October 8, 1930–February 20, 1996) was a Japanese composer of music, and four time winner of the Japanese Academy Award, who explored the compositional principles of Western classical music and his native Japanese tradition both in isolation and in combination. ... Hans Werner Henze (born July 1, 1926 in Gütersloh, Westphalia, Germany) is a composer well known for his left-wing political beliefs. ... Sir Peter Maxwell Davies, CBE (b. ... Einojuhani Rautavaara (born October 9, 1928) is a Finnish composer of classical music, probably the best known Finnish composer of his generation. ... Sir Malcolm Arnold Sir Malcolm Henry Arnold, CBE (21 October 1921 – 23 September 2006) was an English composer. ... Edison Denisov (April 6, 1929 - November 24, 1996) was a Russian composer from Tomsk, Siberia. ... Pascal Dusapin (29th May, 1955), is a French composer born in Nancy. ... Chris Paul Harman (born 1970) is a Canadian composer of Contemporary classical music. ... Jacques Hétu (born August 8, 1938, Trois-Rivières, Quebec) is a Canadian composer. ... André Jolivet (August 8, 1905 – December 20, 1974) was a French composer. ... Carl Nielsen Carl August Nielsen (June 9, 1865, Sortelung – October 3, 1931, Copenhagen) was a conductor, violinist, and the most internationally known composer from Denmark. ... Krzysztof Penderecki. ... Einojuhani Rautavaara (born October 9, 1928) is a Finnish composer of classical music, probably the best known Finnish composer of his generation. ... Joaquín Rodrigo Vidre (22 November 1901 – 6 July 1999) was a Spanish composer of classical music and a virtuoso pianist. ... Tōru Takemitsu (武満 å¾¹ Takemitsu Tōru, October 8, 1930–February 20, 1996) was a Japanese composer of music, and four time winner of the Japanese Academy Award, who explored the compositional principles of Western classical music and his native Japanese tradition both in isolation and in combination. ... Daniel George Theaker (born March 30, 1967 in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada) is a neoromantic composer, conductor and woodwind instrumentalist. ... Sir Malcolm Arnold Sir Malcolm Henry Arnold, CBE (21 October 1921 – 23 September 2006) was an English composer. ... Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco (April 3, 1895 – March 16, 1968) was an Italian Jewish composer. ... Alan Hovhaness with an Indonesian rebab Alan Hovhaness (March 8, 1911 – June 21, 2000) was an American composer of Armenian and Scottish descent. ... Yngwie Johann Malmsteen (IPA pronunciation: //) (born Lars Johann Yngve Lannerbäck on June 30, 1963 in Stockholm, Sweden) is a Swedish guitarist, composer and bandleader. ... Joaquín Rodrigo Vidre (22 November 1901 – 6 July 1999) was a Spanish composer of classical music and a virtuoso pianist. ... Heitor Villa-Lobos (March 5, 1887 - November 17, 1959) was a Brazilian composer, possibly the best-known classical composer born in South America. ... Sir Malcolm Arnold Sir Malcolm Henry Arnold, CBE (21 October 1921 – 23 September 2006) was an English composer. ... Heitor Villa-Lobos (March 5, 1887 - November 17, 1959) was a Brazilian composer, possibly the best-known classical composer born in South America. ... A statue of Ralph Vaughan Williams in Dorking. ... Reinhold Moritzovich Glière Reinhold Moritzovich Glière (Russian: , Rejngold Moricevič Glièr) (January 11, 1875 [O.S. 30 December 1874] – June 23, 1956) was a Soviet composer of German descent. ... Alberto Evaristo Ginastera (Buenos Aires, April 11, 1916 – June 25, 1983 Geneva) was an Argentinian composer of classical music. ... Darius Milhaud Darius Milhaud (IPA: ) (September 4, 1892 – June 22, 1974) was a French composer and teacher. ... André Jolivet (August 8, 1905 – December 20, 1974) was a French composer. ... Joaquín Rodrigo Vidre (22 November 1901 – 6 July 1999) was a Spanish composer of classical music and a virtuoso pianist. ... Heitor Villa-Lobos (March 5, 1887 - November 17, 1959) was a Brazilian composer, possibly the best-known classical composer born in South America. ... Einojuhani Rautavaara (born October 9, 1928) is a Finnish composer of classical music, probably the best known Finnish composer of his generation. ... Manuel de Falla y Matheu (November 23, 1876 – November 14, 1946) was a Spanish composer of classical music. ... Philip Glass (born January 31, 1937) is a three-times Academy Award-nominated American composer. ... Francis Jean Marcel Poulenc (IPA: ) (January 7, 1899 - January 30, 1963) was a French composer and a member of the French group Les Six. ... Sir Malcolm Arnold Sir Malcolm Henry Arnold, CBE (21 October 1921 – 23 September 2006) was an English composer. ... Elliott Cook Carter, Jr. ... Reinhold Moritzovich Glière Reinhold Moritzovich Glière (Russian: , Rejngold Moricevič Glièr) (January 11, 1875 [O.S. 30 December 1874] – June 23, 1956) was a Soviet composer of German descent. ... Paul Hindemith aged 28. ... Alan Hovhaness with an Indonesian rebab Alan Hovhaness (March 8, 1911 – June 21, 2000) was an American composer of Armenian and Scottish descent. ... “Ligeti” redirects here. ... This article is about the German composer of tone-poems and operas. ... Sir Malcolm Arnold Sir Malcolm Henry Arnold, CBE (21 October 1921 – 23 September 2006) was an English composer. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Jacques Hétu (born August 8, 1938, Trois-Rivières, Quebec) is a Canadian composer. ... Paul Hindemith aged 28. ... Joseph Jongen (December 14, 1873–July 12, 1953) was a Belgian organist, composer, and music educator. ... Francis Jean Marcel Poulenc (IPA: ) (January 7, 1899 - January 30, 1963) was a French composer and a member of the French group Les Six. ... Sir Malcolm Arnold Sir Malcolm Henry Arnold, CBE (21 October 1921 – 23 September 2006) was an English composer. ... Denys Bouliane (born May 8, 1955 in Grand-Mère, Québec) is a Canadian composer and conductor. ... Edison Denisov (April 6, 1929 - November 24, 1996) was a Russian composer from Tomsk, Siberia. ... Chris Paul Harman (born 1970) is a Canadian composer of Contemporary classical music. ... Portrait of Martinů Bohuslav Martinů ( ; December 8, 1890—August 28, 1959) was a Czech composer. ... Krzysztof Penderecki. ... This article is about the German composer of tone-poems and operas. ... A statue of Ralph Vaughan Williams in Dorking. ... Bernd Alois Zimmermann (Bliesheim, March 20, 1918 - Grosskönigsdorf, August 10, 1970) is a German composer. ... Philip Glass (born January 31, 1937) is a three-times Academy Award-nominated American composer. ... André Jolivet (August 8, 1905 – December 20, 1974) was a French composer. ... Dr James MacMillan (born on July 16, 1959) is a Scottish classical composer. ... Darius Milhaud Darius Milhaud (IPA: ) (September 4, 1892 – June 22, 1974) was a French composer and teacher. ... Sir Malcolm Arnold Sir Malcolm Henry Arnold, CBE (21 October 1921 – 23 September 2006) was an English composer. ... Paul Hindemith aged 28. ... André Jolivet (August 8, 1905 – December 20, 1974) was a French composer. ... Pascal Dusapin (29th May, 1955), is a French composer born in Nancy. ... Darius Milhaud Darius Milhaud (IPA: ) (September 4, 1892 – June 22, 1974) was a French composer and teacher. ... A statue of Ralph Vaughan Williams in Dorking. ... Sir Malcolm Arnold Sir Malcolm Henry Arnold, CBE (21 October 1921 – 23 September 2006) was an English composer. ... Béla Bartók wrote his Viola Concerto (BB128) in July-August 1945, in Saranac Lake, New York, while suffering from the terminal stages of leukemia. ... Edison Denisov (April 6, 1929 - November 24, 1996) was a Russian composer from Tomsk, Siberia. ... Sofia Gubaidulina in Sortavala 1981 Sofia Asgatovna Gubaidulina, (Russian София Асгатовна Губайдулина) (born October 24, 1931) is a Russian-Tatar composer of deeply religious music. ... Paul Hindemith aged 28. ... Darius Milhaud Darius Milhaud (IPA: ) (September 4, 1892 – June 22, 1974) was a French composer and teacher. ... The Viola Concerto by William Walton was written in 1929 for the famous violist Lionel Tertis. ... Krzysztof Penderecki. ... Tōru Takemitsu (武満 å¾¹ Takemitsu Tōru, October 8, 1930–February 20, 1996) was a Japanese composer of music, and four time winner of the Japanese Academy Award, who explored the compositional principles of Western classical music and his native Japanese tradition both in isolation and in combination. ... Alfred Schnittke April 6, 1989, Moscow Alfred Garyevich Schnittke (Russian: Альфре́д Га́рриевич Шни́тке, November 24, 1934 Engels - August 3, 1998 Hamburg) was a Russian and Soviet composer. ... Alan Hovhaness with an Indonesian rebab Alan Hovhaness (March 8, 1911 – June 21, 2000) was an American composer of Armenian and Scottish descent. ...


Today the concerto tradition has been continued by composers such as Maxwell Davies, whose series of Strathclyde Concertos exploit some of the instruments less familiar as soloists. Sir Peter Maxwell Davies, CBE (b. ... Strathclyde (Srath Chluaidh in Gaelic) was one of the regional council areas of Scotland from 1975 to 1996. ...


Concertos for two or more instruments

Many composers also wrote concertos for two or more soloists, for example Vivaldi (for 2, 3 or 4 violins, for 2 cellos, for 2 mandolins, for 2 trumpets, for 2 flutes, for oboe and bassoon, for cello and bassoon... etc.) and Bach (for 2 violins, for 2, 3, or 4 harpsichords). Following the tradition of Mozart who wrote concerti for both two pianos and three pianos, Poulenc wrote a concerto for two pianos. Mozart also wrote a concerto for flute and harp. In the Romantic era, Beethoven wrote a triple concerto for piano, violin, and cello, Brahms a double concerto for violin and cello and Bruch a double concerto for viola and clarinet. Notable examples in the 20th century include Ligeti's Concerto for flute and oboe, Lutoslawski's Concerto for oboe and harp and Messiaen's Concert à Quatre for piano, cello, oboe and flute. Benjamin Britten wrote a double concerto for violin and viola and Michael Tippett a triple concerto for violin, viola, and cello. Antonio Vivaldi Antonio Vivaldi (March 4, 1678, Venice – July 28, 1741, Vienna), nicknamed Il Prete Rosso, meaning The Red Priest, was an Italian priest and baroque music composer. ... In music, the BACH motif is the sequence of notes B flat, A, C, B natural. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) was one of the most significant and influential of all composers of Western classical music. ... Francis Jean Marcel Poulenc (January 7, 1899 - January 30, 1963) was a French composer. ... Ludwig van Beethoven Ludwig van Beethoven (baptized December 17, 1770 – March 26, 1827) was a German composer of Classical music, the predominant musical figure in the transitional period between the Classical and Romantic eras. ... Johannes Brahms Johannes Brahms (May 7, 1833 – April 3, 1897) was a German composer of classical music. ... Max Christian Friedrich Bruch (Cologne, January 6, 1838 – Friedenau, October 20, 1920) was a German Romantic composer and conductor who wrote over 200 works, including a violin concerto which is a staple of the violin repertoire. ... Ligeti may refer to: György Ligeti (1923–2006) Lukas Ligeti (son of György Ligeti and composer/percussionist) Miklós Ligeti - Hungarian sculptor Categories: | | ... . Witold Lutosławski (January 25, 1913, Warsaw, Poland - February 7, 1994, Warsaw) was a Polish composer. ... Olivier Messiaen (December 10, 1908–April 27, 1992) was a French composer, organist, and ornithologist. ... Edward Benjamin Britten, Baron Britten, OM CH (November 22, 1913 Lowestoft, Suffolk - December 4, 1976 Aldeburgh, Suffolk) was a British composer, conductor, and pianist. ... Sir Michael Kemp Tippett, O.M. (2 January 1905 – 8 January 1998) was one of the foremost English composers of the 20th century. ...


Media

01 - Vivaldi Spring mvt 1 Allegro - John Harrison violin. ... “Vivaldi” redirects here. ... The Four Seasons (Le quattro stagioni in original Italian) is a set of four violin concertos by Antonio Vivaldi. ...

See also

A clarinet concerto is a concerto for clarinet and orchestra (or concert band). ... A flute concerto is a concerto for solo flute and instrumental ensemble, customarily the orchestra. ... A harpsichord concerto is a concerto for harpsichord and orchestra. ... A piano concerto is a concerto for solo piano and orchestra. ... The viola concerto is a concerto contrasting a viola with another body, usually a full orchestra or string orchestra but sometimes smaller. ... A violin concerto is a concerto for solo violin (occasionally, two or more violins) and instrumental ensemble, customarily orchestra. ... A violoncello concerto (commonly called a cello concerto) is a concerto for solo violoncello with orchestra or, very occasionally, smaller groups of instruments. ... Although a concerto is usually a piece of music for one or more solo instruments accompanied by a full orchestra, several composers have written works with the apparently contradictory title Concerto for Orchestra. ... A concertino (or Konzertstück) is a short concerto. ... In music, a chorale concerto is a short sacred composition for one or more voices and instruments, principally from the very early German Baroque era. ... The concerto grosso (Italian for big concert(o), plural concerti grossi) is a form of baroque music in which the musical material is passed between a small group of soloists (the concertino) and full orchestra (the ripieno). ... Lou Harrisons Double Concerto for Violin and Cello with Javanese Gamelan was composed in 1981-1982 upon the request of Kenneth Goldsmith of the Mirecourt Trio after the completion of Scenes from Cavafy. ...

References

  • The New Grove Dictionary of Music & Musicians; ed. Stanley Sadie; 1980; ISBN 1-56159-174-2
  • The concerto; ed. Ralph Hill, Pelican 1952

  Results from FactBites:
 
Concerto - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1990 words)
The concerto as a form arose in the Baroque period side by side with the concerto grosso which contrasted a small group of instruments with the rest of the orchestra.
He wrote one concerto each for flute, oboe, clarinet and bassoon, four for horn, one for flute and harp and a sinfonia concertante for violin and viola.
Brahms's first piano concerto in D minor (pub 1861) was the result of an immense amount of work on a mass of material originally intended for a symphony.
Concerto - LoveToKnow 1911 (1039 words)
Indeed, so entirely does the actual concerto form, as Bach understands it, depend upon the opposition of masses of tone unequal in volume with a compensating inequality in power of commanding attention, that Bach is able to rewrite an instrumental movement as a chorus without the least incongruity of style.
This admirably illustrates Bach's grasp of the true idea of a concerto, namely, that whatever the relations may be between the forces in respect of volume or sound, the whole treatment of the form must depend upon the healthy relation of function between that force which commands more and that which commands less attention.
This concerto is, on the other hand, remarkable as being the last in which a blank space is left for a cadenza, Brahms having in his friend Joachim a kindred spirit worthy of such trust.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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