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Encyclopedia > Conceptual art
Joseph Kosuth, One and Three Chairs (1965)
Joseph Kosuth, One and Three Chairs (1965)

Conceptual art is art in which the concept(s) or idea(s) involved in the work take precedence over traditional aesthetic and material concerns. Many of the works of the artist Sol LeWitt may be constructed by anyone simply by following a set of written instructions.[1] This method was fundamental to LeWitt's definition of Conceptual art, one of the first to appear in print: Image File history File links Kosuth_OneAndThreeChairs. ... Image File history File links Kosuth_OneAndThreeChairs. ... Joseph Kosuth (born January 31, 1945) is an influential American conceptual artist. ... The Bath, a painting by Mary Cassatt (1844–1926). ... For other uses, see Concept (disambiguation). ... IDEA may refer to: Electronic Directory of the European Institutions IDEA League Improvement and Development Agency Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Indian Distance Education Association Integrated Data Environments Australia Intelligent Database Environment for Advanced Applications IntelliJ IDEA - a Java IDE Interactive Database for Energy-efficient Architecture International IDEA (International Institute... The Parthenons facade showing an interpretation of golden rectangles in its proportions. ... Four-Sided Pyramid, created by LeWitt in 1997, stands in the scupture garden of the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C. Sol LeWitt (born 1928 in Hartford, Connecticut) is a conceptual artist and painter. ...

In conceptual art the idea or concept is the most important aspect of the work. When an artist uses a conceptual form of art, it means that all of the planning and decisions are made beforehand and the execution is a perfunctory affair. The idea becomes a machine that makes the art. – Sol LeWitt, "Paragraphs on Conceptual Art", Artforum, June 1967.

For the layman, this quotation highlights a key difference between a conceptualist installation and a traditional work of art - that the conceptualist's work may require little or no physical craftsmanship in its execution, whereas traditional art is distinguished by requiring physical skill and the making of aesthetic choices. As Tony Godfrey has put it, after Joseph Kosuth's definition of art, conceptual art is an art which questions the very nature of what is understood as art. Four-Sided Pyramid, created by LeWitt in 1997, stands in the scupture garden of the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C. Sol LeWitt (born 1928 in Hartford, Connecticut) is a conceptual artist and painter. ...


The inception of the term in the 1960s referred to a strict and focused practice of idea-based art that often defied traditional visual criteria associated with the visual arts in its presentation as text. However, through its association with the Young British Artists and the Turner Prize during the 1990s, its popular usage, particularly in the UK, developed as as synonym for all contemporary art that does not practise the traditional skills of painting and sculpture.[2] To clarify this popular confusion, it might be said that one of the reasons why the term conceptual art has come to be associated with various contemporary practices far removed from the aims and formal properties it was originally intended to define might be understood as a problem in defining the term itself. As the artist Mel Bochner suggested as early as 1970, in explaining why he does not like the epithet "conceptual", it is not always entirely clear what "concept" ultimately refers to, and it runs the risk of being confused with "intention." Thus, in describing or defining a work of art as conceptual it is important not to confuse what is refered to as "conceptual" with an artist's "intention." The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living by Damien Hirst (1991). ... The Turner Prize is an annual prize given to a British visual artist under 50, named after the painter J.M.W. Turner. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... For building painting, see painter and decorator. ... A sculpture is a three-dimensional object, which for the purposes of this article is man-made and selected for special recognition as art. ... One of two Bochner installations at the Kraus Campo on the campus of Carnegie Mellon, designed by landscape architect Michael Van Valkenburgh. ...

Contents

History

Fountain by Marcel Duchamp, 1917, photograph by Alfred Stieglitz
Fountain by Marcel Duchamp, 1917, photograph by Alfred Stieglitz

The French artist Marcel Duchamp paved the way for the conceptualists, providing them with examples of prototypically conceptual works -- the readymades, for instance. The most famous of Duchamp's readymades was Fountain (1917), a standard urinal basin signed by the artist with the pseudonym "R.Mutt", and submitted for inclusion in the annual, un-juried exhibition of the Society of Independent Artists in New York--it was rejected.[3] In traditional terms, a commonplace object such as a urinal cannot be said to be art because it is not made by an artist or with any intention of being art, it is not unique, and it possesses few of the expected visual properties of the traditional, hand-crafted art object. Duchamp's relevance and theoretical importance for future "conceptualists" was later acknowledged by US artist Joseph Kosuth in his 1969 essay, "Art after Philosophy," when he wrote: "All art (after Duchamp) is conceptual (in nature) because art only exists conceptually." Download high resolution version (594x814, 59 KB) The copyright status of this work is difficult or impossible to determine. ... Download high resolution version (594x814, 59 KB) The copyright status of this work is difficult or impossible to determine. ... Marcel Duchamp. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Alfred Stieglitz (January 1, 1864 – July 13, 1946) was an American-born photographer who was instrumental over his fifty-year career in making photography an acceptable art form alongside painting and sculpture. ... Marcel Duchamp. ... Found art, or more commonly and less confusingly, Found Object (French: objet trouvé) is a term used to describe art created from common objects not normally considered to be artistic (also assemblage). ... Fountain by Marcel Duchamp. ... Joseph Kosuth (born January 31, 1945) is an influential American conceptual artist. ...


Conceptual art emerged as a movement during the 1960s. In part, it was a reaction against formalism as it was then articulated by the influential New York art critic Clement Greenberg. In 1961 the term "concept art," coined by the artist Henry Flynt in his article bearing the term as its title, appeared in a Fluxus publication.[4] However it assumed a different meaning when employed by Joseph Kosuth and the English Art and Language group, who discarded the conventional art object in favour of a documented critical inquiry into the artist's social, philosophical and psychological status. By the mid-1970s they had produced publications, indexes, performances, texts and paintings to this end. In 1970 Conceptual Art and Conceptual Aspects, the first dedicated conceptual art exhibition, was mounted at the New York Cultural Center.[5] The term formalism describes an emphasis on form over content or meaning in the arts, literature, or philosophy. ... NY redirects here. ... Clement Greenberg (January 16, 1909 - May 7, 1994) was an influential American art critic closely associated with the abstract art movement in the United States. ... Henry Flynt was born in 1940 in Greensboro, NC. He is a philosopher, musician, anti-art activist and exhibited artist, whom unsympathetic reviewers often link to Fluxus. ... Fluxus (from to flow) is an art movement noted for the blending of different artistic disciplines, primarily visual art but also music and literature. ... Joseph Kosuth (born January 31, 1945) is an influential American conceptual artist. ... Art & Language is a group of conceptual artists who have produced collaborative work under this name since the late 1960s. ...


Conceptual art also reacted against the commodification of art; it attempted a subversion of the gallery or museum as the location and determiner of art, and the art market as the owner and distributor of art. Lawrence Weiner said : "Once you know about a work of mine you own it. There's no way I can climb inside somebody's head and remove it." Many conceptual artists' work can therefore only be known about through documentation which is manifested by it, e.g. photographs, written texts or displayed objects, which some might argue are not in themselves the art. It is sometimes (as in the work of Robert Barry, Yoko Ono, and Weiner himself) reduced to a set of written instructions describing a work, but stopping short of actually making it—emphasising that the idea is more important than the artifact. Commodification is the transformation of what is normally a non-commodity into a commodity, to assign economic value to something that traditionally would not be considered in economic terms, for example, an idea, identity, gender. ... Lawrence Weiner (born February 10, 1942) was one of the central figures of conceptual art. ... Yoko Ono Lennon (小野 洋子 Ono Yōko (ONO Yōko), born February 18, 1933) is a Japanese-American artist and musician. ...


The first wave of the "conceptual art" movement extended from approximately 1967 to 1978. Early "concept" artists like Henry Flynt, Robert Morris and Ray Johnson influenced the later, widely-accepted movement of conceptual artists like Dan Graham, Hans Haacke, and Douglas Huebler. Henry Flynt was born in 1940 in Greensboro, NC. He is a philosopher, musician, anti-art activist and exhibited artist, whom unsympathetic reviewers often link to Fluxus. ... Bronze Gate (2005) is a cor-ten steel work by Robert Morris. ... Raymond Edward Johnson (1927 - 1995) was an important post-Surrealism, pre-Pop collage artist. ... Dan Graham (born 1942) is a U.S. artist He is based in New York, is an influential figure in the field of contemporary art, both a practitioner of conceptual art and a well-versed art critic and theorist. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Douglas Huebler (October 27, 1924 - July 12, 1997) was an American conceptual artist. ...


The Young British Artists (YBAs), led by Damien Hirst, came to prominence in the 1990s and their work is seen as conceptual, even though it relies very heavily on the art object to make its impact. The term is used in relation to them on the basis that the object is not the artwork, or is often a found object, which has not needed artistic skill in its production. Tracey Emin is seen as a leading YBA and a conceptual artist, even though she has denied that she is and has emphasised personal emotional expression. The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living by Damien Hirst (1991). ... The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living by Damien Hirst (1991) Damien Hirst (born June 7, 1965) is an English artist and the most prominent of the group that has been dubbed Young British Artists (or YBAs). ... Fountain by Marcel Duchamp. ... Front cover of Tracey Emins memoir, Strangeland, published in 2005. ...


Many of the concerns of the "conceptual art" movement have been taken up by many contemporary artists since the initial wave of conceptual artists. While many of these artists may not term themselves "conceptual artists", ideas such as anti-commodification, social and/or political critique, and ideas/information as medium continue to be aspects of contemporary art, especially among artists working with installation art, performance art, net.art and electronic/digital art. Many critics and artists may speak of conceptual aspects of a given artist or art work, reflecting the enduring influence that many of the original conceptual artists have had on the art world. Installation art uses sculptural materials and other media to modify the way we experience a particular space. ... This article is about Performance art. ... The correct title of this article is . ... Electronic art is art which makes use of electronic media or, more broadly, refers to technology and/or electronic media. ... Computer-generated image created by Gilles Tran using POV-Ray 3. ...


Examples of conceptual art

1953 : Robert Rauschenberg exhibits Erased De Kooning Drawing, a drawing by Willem De Kooning which Rauschenberg erased. It raised many questions about the fundamental nature of art, challenging the viewer to consider whether erasing another artist's work could be a creative act, as well as whether the work was only "art" because the famous Rauschenberg had done it. Robert Rauschenberg, Canyon, 1959. ... Willem de Koonings Woman V (1952-53), National Gallery of Australia Willem de Kooning (April 24, 1904 – March 19, 1997) was an abstract expressionist painter, born in Rotterdam, Netherlands. ...


1957: Yves Klein, Aerostatic Sculpture (Paris). This was composed of 1001 blue balloons released into the sky from Galerie Iris Clert to promote his Le Vid exhibition. Klein also exhibited 'One Minute Fire Painting' which was a blue panel into which 16 firecrackers were set. Later in 1957 Klein declared that his paintings were now invisible and to prove it he exhibited an empty room. This exhibition was called 'The Surfaces and Volumes of Invisible Pictorial Sensibility'. Yves Klein (28 April 1928 - 6 June 1962) was a French artist and is considered an important figure in post-war European neo-Dadaism. ... Exterior of Galerie Iris Clert during le Plein exhibition Galerie Iris Clert (French for Iris Clert Gallery) was an art gallery named after its owner and curator, Iris Clert. ...


1960: Yves Klein's action called A Leap Into The Void, in which he attempts to fly by leaping out of a window. He stated: "The painter has only to create one masterpiece, himself, constantly." Yves Klein (28 April 1928 - 6 June 1962) was a French artist and is considered an important figure in post-war European neo-Dadaism. ...


1960: The artist Stanley Brouwn declares that all the shoe shops in Amsterdam constitute an exhibition of his work. In Vancouver, Iain and Ingrid Baxter exhibited the contents of a four room apartment wrapped in plastic bags.


1961: Robert Rauschenberg sent a telegram to the Galerie Iris Clert which said: 'This is a portrait of Iris Clert if I say so.' as his contribution to an exhibition of portraits. Robert Rauschenberg, Canyon, 1959. ... Exterior of Galerie Iris Clert during le Plein exhibition Galerie Iris Clert (French for Iris Clert Gallery) was an art gallery named after its owner and curator, Iris Clert. ... Iris Clert was the owner of the Galerie Iris Clert from 1955 to 1971. ...


1961: Piero Manzoni exhibited tins of his own feces. He puts the tins on sale for their own weight in gold. He also sells his own breath (enclosed in balloons) as Bodies of Air, and signs people's bodies, thus declaring them to be living works of art either for all time or for specified periods of time (this depends on how much they are prepared to pay). Piero Manzoni (Soncino, Cremona July 13, 1933 - Milan February 6, 1963) was an Italian artist best known for his ironic conceptual art in direct response to the work of Yves Klein When Manzoni did paintings, he experimented with various pigments and materials. ...


1962: Christo's Iron Curtain work. This consists of a barricade of oil barrels in a narrow Paris street which caused a large traffic jam. The artwork was not the barricade itself but the resulting traffic jam. Christo (born Hristo Yavashev, Bulgarian: Христо Явашев) and Jeanne-Claude are an artistic couple practicing environmental, installation art. ...


1962: Yves Klein presents Immaterial Pictorial Sensitivity in various ceremonies on the banks of the Seine. He offers to sell his own 'pictorial sensitivity' (whatever that was, he did not define it) in exchange for gold leaf. In these ceremonies the purchaser gave Klein the gold leaf in return for a certificate. Since Klein's sensitivity was immaterial, the purchaser was then required to burn the certificate whilst Klein threw the gold leaf into the Seine. (There were seven purchasers.) Yves Klein (28 April 1928 - 6 June 1962) was a French artist and is considered an important figure in post-war European neo-Dadaism. ...


1962: Piero Manzoni created The Base of the World, thereby exhibiting the entire planet as his artwork. Piero Manzoni (Soncino, Cremona July 13, 1933 - Milan February 6, 1963) was an Italian artist best known for his ironic conceptual art in direct response to the work of Yves Klein When Manzoni did paintings, he experimented with various pigments and materials. ...


1963: Henry Flynts article Concept Art is published in "An Anthology...". This collection of concepts by artists and musicians was edited by Jackson MacLow and La Monte Young. It documents the development of intermedia art in the context of John Cage and Fluxus. Henry Flynt was born in 1940 in Greensboro, NC. He is a philosopher, musician, anti-art activist and exhibited artist, whom unsympathetic reviewers often link to Fluxus. ...


1964: Yoko Ono publishes Grapefruit: A Book of Instructions and Drawings. An example of Heuristic art, or a series of instructions for how to obtain an aesthetic experience. Yoko Ono Lennon (小野 洋子 Ono Yōko (ONO Yōko), born February 18, 1933) is a Japanese-American artist and musician. ...


1965: A complex conceptual art piece by John Latham called Still and Chew. He invites art students to protest against the values of Clement Greenberg's Art and Culture (much praised and taught in London's St. Martin's School of Art where Latham taught). Pages of Greenberg's book (borrowed from the college library) are chewed by the students, dissolved in acid and the resulting solution returned to the library bottled and labelled. Latham was then fired from his part-time position. Joseph Kosuth dates the concept of One and Three Chairs in the year 1965. The presentation of the work consists of a chair, its photo and a blow up of a definition of the word "chair". Kosuth has chosen the definition from a dictionary. Four versions with different definitions are known. John Aubrey Clarendon Latham, (February 23, 1921 – January 1, 2006, born in Zambia) was a conceptual artist whose work was founded upon his personal ethical and scientific beliefs. ... Clement Greenberg (January 16, 1909 - May 7, 1994) was an influential American art critic closely associated with the abstract art movement in the United States. ... Central Saint Martins - Southampton Row, Holborn Central Saint Martins (ex-St Martins) in Charing Cross Road. ... Joseph Kosuth (born January 31, 1945) is an influential American conceptual artist. ... Joseph Kosuth, One and Three Chairs (1965) One and Three Chairs, 1965, is a work by Joseph Kosuth. ...


1967: Sol LeWitt´s Paragraphs on Conceptual Art were published by the American art journal Artforum. The Paragraphs mark the transgression from Minimal to Conceptual Art. Four-Sided Pyramid, created by LeWitt in 1997, stands in the scupture garden of the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C. Sol LeWitt (born 1928 in Hartford, Connecticut) is a conceptual artist and painter. ... Artforum is an international monthly magazine specializing in contemporary art. ...


1968: Lawrence Weiner relenquishes the physical making of his work and formulates his "Declaration of Intent," one of the most important conceptual art statements following LeWitt's "Paragraphs on Conceptual Art." The declaration, which underscores his subsequent practice reads: "1. The artist may construct the piece. 2. The piece may be fabricated. 3. The piece need not be built. Each being equal and consistent with the intent of the artist the decision as to condition rests with the receiver upon the occasion of receivership." Lawrence Weiner (born February 10, 1942) was one of the central figures of conceptual art. ...


1969: Robert Barry's Telepathic Piece of which he said 'During the exhibition I will try to communicate telepathically a work of art, the nature of which is a series of thoughts that are not applicable to language or image'. The first issue of "Art-Langague" is published in May. It is subtitled as "The Journal of conceptual art" and edited by Terry Atkinson, David Bainbridge, Michael Baldwin and Harold Hurrell. The editors are English members of the artists group Art & Language. The English journal "Studio International" published Joseph Kosuth´s article "Art after Philosophy" in three parts (October-December). It became the most discussed article on "Conceptual Art". This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Art & Language is a group of conceptual artists who have produced collaborative work under this name since the late 1960s. ... Joseph Kosuth (born January 31, 1945) is an influential American conceptual artist. ...


1970: Painter John Baldessari exhibits a film in which he sets a series of erudite statements by Sol LeWitt on the subject of conceptual art to popular tunes like 'Camptown Races' and 'Some Enchanted Evening'. John Baldessari, (b. ...


1970: Douglas Huebler exhibits a series of photographs which were taken every two minutes whilst driving along a road for 24 minutes. Douglas Huebler (October 27, 1924 - July 12, 1997) was an American conceptual artist. ...


1970: Douglas Huebler asks museum visitors to write down 'one authentic secret'. The resulting 1800 documents are compiled into a book which, by some accounts, makes for very repetitive reading as most secrets are similar. Douglas Huebler (October 27, 1924 - July 12, 1997) was an American conceptual artist. ...


1971: Hans Haacke's 'Real Time Social System'. This piece detailed the real estate holdings of the third largest landowners in New York City. The properties were mostly in Harlem and the Lower East Side, were decrepit and poorly maintained, and represented the largest concentration of real estate in those areas under the control of a single group. The captions gave various financial details about the buildings, including recent sales between companies owned or controlled by the same family. The Guggenheim museum cancelled the exhibition, stating that the overt political implications of the work constituted "an alien substance that had entered the art museum organism". There is no evidence to suggest that the trustees of the Guggenheim were linked financially to the family which was the subject of the work. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


1972: Fred Forrest buys an area of blank space in the newspaper Le Monde and invites readers to fill it with their own works of art.


1975-76: Three issues of the journal "The Fox" were published in New York. The editor was Joseph Kosuth. "The Fox" became an important platform for the American members of Art & Language. Karl Beveridge, Ian Burn, Sarah Charlesworth, Michael Corris, Joseph Kosuth, Andrew Menard, Mel Ramsden and Terry Smith wrote articles which thematized the context of contemporary art. These articles exemplify the development of an institutional critique within the inner circle of Conceptual Art. The criticism of the art world integrates social, political and economic reasons. Joseph Kosuth (born January 31, 1945) is an influential American conceptual artist. ... Art & Language is a group of conceptual artists who have produced collaborative work under this name since the late 1960s. ... Sarah Charlesworth (born 29 March 1947) is an American conceptual artist and photographer. ... Michael Corris is a Conceptual artist, art historian and writer on conceptual art. ... Joseph Kosuth (born January 31, 1945) is an influential American conceptual artist. ...


1977: Walter De Maria's 'Vertical Earth Kilometer' in Kassel, Germany. This was a one kilometer brass rod which was sunk into the earth so that nothing remained visible except a few centimeters. Despite its size, therefore, this work exists mostly in the viewer's mind. Seen/Unseen Known/Unknown at Naoshima, Kagawa prefecture, Japan Walter De Maria is an American sculptor and composer. ... This article is about the city of Kassel in Hessen, Germany. ...


1989: Christopher Williams' Angola to Vietnam is first exhibited. The work consists of a series of black-and-white photographs of glass botanical specimens from the Botanical Museum at Harvard University, chosen according to a list of the thirty-six countries in which political disappearances were known to have taken place during the year 1985. The name Christopher Williams may refer to: Christopher Williams (singer), an R&B artist. ... The Harvard University Herbaria (sometimes called The Botanical Museum) is a natural history museum devoted to botany. ... Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA and a member of the Ivy League. ...


1991: Charles Saatchi funds Damien Hirst and the next year in the Saatchi Gallery exhibits his The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living, a shark in formaldehyde in a vitrine. Charles Saatchi Charles Saatchi (born June 9, 1943) was the co-founder with his brother Maurice of the global advertising agency Saatchi & Saatchi, which became the worlds biggest before the brothers were forced out of their own company in 1995. ... The Saatchi Gallerys new premises in Chelsea, opening early 2007. ...


1993: Matthieu Laurette established his artistic birth certificate by taking part in a French TV game called 'Tournez manège' (The Dating Game) where the female presenter asked him who he was, to which he replied: 'A multimedia artist'. Laurette had sent out invitations to an art audience to view the show on TV from their home, turning his staging of the artist into a performed reality. Matthieu Laurette (born 1970 in Villeneuve Saint Georges, France) is a media and conceptual contemporary French artist who works in a variety of media, from TV and video to installation and public interventions. ...


1993: Vanessa Beecroft holds her first performance in Milan, Italy, using models to act as a second audience to the display of her diary of food. Vanessa Beecroft (Genoa, Italy, 1969) is an Italian contemporary artist living in New York. ...


1999: Tracey Emin is nominated for the Turner Prize. Part of her exhibit is My Bed, her dishevelled bed, surrounded by detritus such as condoms, blood-stained knickers, bottles and her bedroom slippers. Front cover of Tracey Emins memoir, Strangeland, published in 2005. ... The Turner Prize is an annual prize given to a British visual artist under 50, named after the painter J.M.W. Turner. ...


2001: Martin Creed wins the Turner Prize for The Lights Going On and Off, an empty room in which the lights go on and off.[6] Martin Creed (born 1968) is a British artist noted for his works which hark back to the conceptual art of the 1960s and 1970s. ...


2004: Andrea Fraser's video Untitled, a document of her sexual encounter in a hotel room with a collector (the collector having agreed to pay $20,000 for the encounter) is exhibited at the Friedrich Petzel Gallery. It is accompanied by her 1993 work Don't Postpone Joy, or Collecting Can Be Fun, a 27-page transcript of an interview with a collector in which the majority of the text has been deleted. Andrea Fraser is a New York based performance artist, mainly known for her work as an institutional critique artist. ...


2005: Simon Starling wins the Turner Prize for Shedboatshed, a wooden shed which he had turned into a boat, floated down the Rhine and turned back into a shed again.[7] Simon Starling (born 1967 in Epsom, Surrey) is an English conceptual artist and was the winner of the 2005 Turner Prize. ...


Controversy in the UK

In Britain, the rise to prominence of the Young British Artists (YBAs) after the 1988 Freeze show, curated by Damien Hirst, and subsequent promotion of the group by the Saatchi Gallery during the 1990s, generated a media backlash, where the phrase "conceptual art" came to be a term of derision applied to much contemporary art. This was amplified by the Turner Prize whose more extreme nominees (most notably Hirst and Emin) caused a controversy annually.[2] The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living by Damien Hirst (1991). ... Freeze was the title of an art exhibition organised by Damien Hirst and other students from Goldsmiths College. ... The Saatchi Gallerys new premises in Chelsea, opening early 2007. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... The Turner Prize is an annual prize given to a British visual artist under 50, named after the painter J.M.W. Turner. ...


The Stuckist group of artists, founded in 1999, proclaimed themselves "pro-contemporary figurative painting with ideas and anti-conceptual art, mainly because of its lack of concepts." They also called it pretentious, "unremarkable and boring" and on July 25, 2002 deposited a coffin outside the White Cube gallery, marked "The Death of Conceptual Art".[8] They staged yearly demonstrations outside the Turner Prize. The logo on the Stuckism International web site Stuckism is an art movement that was founded in 1999 in Britain by Billy Childish and Charles Thomson to promote figurative painting in opposition to conceptual art. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... White Cube is a contemporary art venue in Hoxton in the East End of London. ...


In 2002, Ivan Massow, the Chairman of the Institute of Contemporary Arts branded conceptual art "pretentious, self-indulgent, craftless tat" and in "danger of disappearing up its own arse ... led by cultural tsars such as the Tate's Sir Nicholas Serota."[9] Massow was consequently forced to resign. At the end of the year, the Culture Minister, Kim Howells (an art school graduate) denounced the Turner Prize as "cold, mechanical, conceptual bullshit".[10] Ivan Massow (born 1967) is a prominent businessman and British politician, formerly chairman of Londons Institute of Contemporary Arts. ... External view of the entrance to the ICA from the Mall. ... The Tate Gallery in the United Kingdom is a network of four galleries: Tate Britain (opened 1897), Tate Liverpool (1988), Tate St Ives (1993), Tate Modern (2000), with a complementary website Tate Online (1998). ... Nicholas Serota Sir Nicholas Serota (born 1946) is a curator, and is currently Director of the Tate Gallery, the United Kingdoms national gallery of modern and British art. ... Kim Scott Howells (born November 27, 1946 in Merthyr Tydfil) is a Labour politician in Wales, and member of Parliament for Pontypridd. ...


In October 2004 the Saatchi Gallery told the media that "painting continues to be the most relevant and vital way that artists choose to communicate."[11] Following this statement Charles Saatchi began to sell prominent works from his YBA collection. The Saatchi Gallerys new premises in Chelsea, opening early 2007. ... Charles Saatchi Charles Saatchi (born June 9, 1943) was the co-founder with his brother Maurice of the global advertising agency Saatchi & Saatchi, which became the worlds biggest before the brothers were forced out of their own company in 1995. ...


Notable conceptual artists

Art & Language is a group of conceptual artists who have produced collaborative work under this name since the late 1960s. ... American Supermarket Exhibition 1964. ... Michael Asher is a Los Angeles conceptual artist whose installations have been exhibited in numerous museums and galleries both in the United States and abroad, including the Kunstverein Hamburg, The Renaissance Society in Chicago, Centre Georges Pompidou, Musee National dArt Moderne and ARC in Paris, The Museum of Modern... John Baldessari, (b. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Joseph Beuys (May 12, 1921 – January 23, 1986) was an influential German artist who came to prominence in the 1960s. ... One of two Bochner installations at the Kraus Campo on the campus of Carnegie Mellon, designed by landscape architect Michael Van Valkenburgh. ... Allan Bridge was an American conceptual artist best known for his creation in 1980 of the confessional phone system known as the Apology Project. ... Marcel Broodthaers (born January 28, 1924 in Brussels, Belgium - died January 28, 1976 in Cologne, Germany), was a Belgian poet, filmmaker and artist with a highly literate and often witty approach to creating art works. ... Victor Burgin (born 1941) is an artist. ... Chris Burden during the performance of his 1974 piece Trans-fixed where he was nailed to the hood of a Volkswagen Chris Burden (born in Boston, Massachusetts in 1946) is an American artist. ... Daniel Buren (born March 25, 1938) is a French conceptual artist. ... Mark Divo born 1966 in Luxemburg. ... Marcel Duchamp. ... Shahram Entekhabi An Iranian born artist and architect whose work has been the subject of many exhibitiions all over the world, currently living and working across London, Berlin and Tehran. ... Andrea Fraser is a New York based performance artist, mainly known for her work as an institutional critique artist. ... Gilbert Prousch (or Proesch) (born in San Martin (San Martino), Italy, September 11, 1943) and George Passmore (born in Devon, England January 8, 1942), better known as Gilbert & George, are artists. ... Dan Graham (born 1942) is a U.S. artist He is based in New York, is an influential figure in the field of contemporary art, both a practitioner of conceptual art and a well-versed art critic and theorist. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Iris Häussler is a German sculptor, conceptual- and installation artist who currently lives in Toronto, Canada. ... Douglas Huebler (October 27, 1924 - July 12, 1997) was an American conceptual artist. ... The third phase of Holzers For the City, projected on the Fifth Avenue side of the New York Public Library, October 6-9, 2005. ... Zhang Huan (born 1965) is a Chinese artist based in New York. ... Douglas Huebler (October 27, 1924 - July 12, 1997) was an American conceptual artist. ... Raymond Edward Johnson (1927 - 1995) was an important post-Surrealism, pre-Pop collage artist. ... It has been suggested that Kabakov be merged into this article or section. ... On Kawara (born 1933) is a Japanese conceptual artist. ... Mary Kelly (born 1941), American conceptual artist, teacher and writer. ... Yves Klein (28 April 1928 - 6 June 1962) was a French artist and is considered an important figure in post-war European neo-Dadaism. ... Joseph Kosuth (born January 31, 1945) is an influential American conceptual artist. ... John Aubrey Clarendon Latham, (February 23, 1921 – January 1, 2006, born in Zambia) was a conceptual artist whose work was founded upon his personal ethical and scientific beliefs. ... Matthieu Laurette (born 1970 in Villeneuve Saint Georges, France) is a media and conceptual contemporary French artist who works in a variety of media, from TV and video to installation and public interventions. ... Four-Sided Pyramid, created by LeWitt in 1997, stands in the scupture garden of the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C. Sol LeWitt (born 1928 in Hartford, Connecticut) is a conceptual artist and painter. ... Mark Lombardi (1951 – March 22, 2000) was an American Neo-Conceptualist and an abstract artist. ... Collection of One Hundred Plaster Surrogates, 1982/90. ... Yoko Ono Lennon (小野 洋子 Ono Yōko (ONO Yōko), born February 18, 1933) is a Japanese-American artist and musician. ... Adrian Piper (September 20, 1948) is an African American artist. ... William Pope. ... Martha Rosler was born in Brooklyn, New York, where she now lives. ... Born in 1944 in Cleveland, Ohio, Allen Ruppersberg is one of the first generation of American Conceptual artists that changed the way art was thought about and made. ... Wolf Vostell was one of the most important German artists after the Second World War. ... Lawrence Weiner (born February 10, 1942) was one of the central figures of conceptual art. ... Gillian Wearing (born 1963) is an English artist. ... The name Christopher Williams may refer to: Christopher Williams (singer), an R&B artist. ...

Further reading

Books:

  • Klaus Honnef, Concept Art, Cologne: Phaidon, 1971
  • Ermanno Migliorini, Conceptual Art, Florence: 1971
  • Ursula Meyer, ed., Conceptual Art, New York: Dutton, 1972
  • Gregory Battcock, ed., Idea Art: A Critical Anthology, New York: E. P. Dutton, 1973
  • Juan Vicente Aliaga & José Miguel G. Cortés, ed., Arte Conceptual Revisado/Conceptual Art Revisited, Valencia: Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, 1990
  • Thomas Dreher, Konzeptuelle Kunst in Amerika und England zwischen 1963 und 1976 (Thesis Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München), Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 1992
  • Robert C. Morgan, Conceptual Art: An American Perspective, Jefferson, NC/London: McFarland, 1994
  • Robert C. Morgan, Art into Ideas: Essays on Conceptual Art, Cambridge et al.: Cambridge University Press, 1996
  • Tony Godfrey, Conceptual Art, London: 1998
  • Alexander Alberro & Blake Stimson, ed., Conceptual Art: A Critical Anthology, Cambridge, Mass., London: MIT Press, 1999
  • Michael Newman & Jon Bird, ed., Rewriting Conceptual Art, London: Reaktion, 1999
  • Anne Rorimer, New Art in the 60s and 70s: Redefining Reality, London: Thames & Hudson, 2001
  • Daniel Marzona, Conceptual Art, Cologne: Taschen, 2005

Exhibit catalogues:

  • January 5-31,1969, exh.cat., New York: Seth Siegelaub, 1969
  • When Attitudes Become Form, exh.cat., Bern: Kunsthalle Bern, 1969
  • 557,087, exh.cat., Seattle: Seattle Art Museum, 1969
  • Konzeption/Conception, exh.cat., Leverkusen: Städt. Museum Leverkusen et al., 1969
  • Conceptual Art and Conceptual Aspects, exh.cat., New York: New York Cultural Center, 1970
  • Art in the Mind, exh.cat., Oberlin, Ohio: Allen Memorial Art Museum, 1970
  • Information, exh.cat., New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1970
  • Software, exh.cat., New York: Jewish Museum, 1970
  • Situation Concepts, exh.cat., Innsbruck: Forum für aktuelle Kunst, 1971
  • Art conceptuel I, exh.cat., Bordeaux: capcMusée d’art contemporain de Bordeaux, 1988
  • L'art conceptuel, exh.cat., Paris: ARC–Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, 1989
  • Christian Schlatter, ed., Art Conceptuel Formes Conceptuelles/Conceptual Art Conceptual Forms, exh.cat., Paris: Galerie 1900–2000 and Galerie de Poche, 1990
  • Reconsidering the Object of Art: 1965-1975, exh.cat., Los Angeles: Museum of Contemporary Art, 1995
  • Global Conceptualism: Points of Origin, 1950s-1980s, exh.cat., New York: Queens Museum of Art, 1999

See also

This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Danger Music is an experimental form of avant-garde 20th and 21st century classical music. ... Postmodern art (sometimes called po-mo) is a term used to describe art which is thought to be after or in contradiction to some aspect of modernism. ... Fountain by Marcel Duchamp. ... Installation art uses sculptural materials and other media to modify the way we experience a particular space. ... Dejeuner sur lHerbe by Pablo Picasso At the Moulin Rouge: Two Women Waltzing by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, 1892 The Scream by Edvard Munch, 1893 I and the Village by Marc Chagall, 1911 Fountain by Marcel Duchamp, 1917 Campbells Soup Cans 1962 Synthetic polymer paint on thirty-two... Video art is a type of art which relies on moving pictures and is comprised of video and/or audio data. ... The Mona Lisa is one of the most recognizable artistic paintings in the Western world. ... Fountain by Marcel Duchamp. ... Internet art is art or, more precisely, cultural production which uses the Internet as its primary medium and, more importantly, its subject, much like video art uses video as its medium - but is also very much about video, although many artists working with the Net view video as only a... Information art is an emerging field of electronic art that synthesizes computer science, information technology, and more classical forms of art including performance, visual art, and media. ... Conceptual architecture is a term used to describe certain buildings and practices that make use of conceptualism in architecture. ... Neo-conceptual art describes art practices that derive from the conceptual art movement of the 1960s and 70s. ... The Moscow Conceptualist, or Russian Conceptualist, movement began with the Sots art of Komar and Melamid in the early 1970s, and continued as a trend in Russian art into the 1980s. ... The Gutai group (also spelled Gutaï or Gutaj, but in every case pronounced to rhyme with to tie) was an artistic movement and association of artists founded (according to most sources) by Jiro Yoshihara in Japan in 1954. ...

Individual works

Fountain by Marcel Duchamp. ... The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even (The Large Glass). ... Joseph Kosuth, One and Three Chairs (1965) One and Three Chairs, 1965, is a work by Joseph Kosuth. ...

References

  1. ^ Facsimile of original instructions for Wall Drawing 811 by Phil Gleason, with a view of the installed work at Franklin Furnace. October 1996.
  2. ^ a b Turner prize history: Conceptual art Tate gallery tate.org.uk. Accessed August 8, 2006
  3. ^ Tony Godfrey, Conceptual Art, London: 1998. p. 28
  4. ^ The first text in which the category "concept art" appeared was written by Henry Flynt around 1961-1963.
  5. ^ artlex.com
  6. ^ BBC Online
  7. ^ The Times
  8. ^ stuckism.com
  9. ^ The Guardian
  10. ^ The Daily Telegraph
  11. ^ Reynolds, Nigel 2004 "Saatchi's latest shock for the art world is – painting" The Daily Telegraph 10 February 2004. Accessed April 15, 2006

External links

Western art movements
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Conceptual Art - MSN Encarta (739 words)
Around the same time, another founder of the conceptual movement, Joseph Kosuth, declared that conceptual art is based on an inquiry into the nature of art itself.
Another important precedent to conceptual art is minimal art, a movement that developed in the late 1950s and early 1960s.
Conceptual artists originally attempted to rid art of all so-called objecthood and thus of its commercial value as well, and their endeavor survived for only a few years in its purest form.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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