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Encyclopedia > Concentration of media ownership

Concentration of media ownership (also known as media consolidation) is a commonly used term among media critics, policy makers, and others to characterize ownership structure of mass media industries. These individual media industries are often referred to as a 'Media Institution'. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Media conglomerate. ...


Media ownership is said to be exemplified usually in one or more of the following ways. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


First there is a state of oligopoly or monopoly in a given media industry. For example, movie production is known to be dominated by major studios since the early 20th Century; before that, there was a period in which Edison's Trust monopolized the industry. The music and television industries recently witnessed cases of media consolidation, with Sony Music Entertainment's parent company merging their music division with Bertelsmann AG's BMG to form Sony BMG and TimeWarner's The WB and CBS Corp.'s UPN merging to form The CW. In the case of Sony BMG, there existed a "Big Five" (now "Big Four") of major record companies, while The CW's creation was an attempt to consolidate ratings and stand up to the "Big Three" of American network (terrestrial) television. An oligopoly is a market form in which a market or industry is dominated by a small number of sellers (oligopolists). ... In economics, a monopoly (from the Latin word monopolium - Greek language monos, one + polein, to sell) is defined as a persistent market situation where there is only one provider of a product or service. ... Sony Music Entertainment is a major global record label controlled by the Sony Corporation. ... BMG (Bertelsmann Music Group) is one of the six divisions of Bertelsmann. ... Bertelsmann is a transnational media corporation founded in 1835, based in G tersloh, Germany. ... The WB Television Network is a television network in the United States, founded as a joint venture between the Warner Bros. ... UPN (which originally stood for the United Paramount Network) was a television network in over 200 markets in the United States. ... The Crimson White, known colloquially as The CW, is the student-run newspaper of the University of Alabama. ... Big five can have the following meanings: In international diplomacy, it refers to the five permanent members of the UN Security Council: the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Russia, and the Peoples Republic of China. ... // Big Four may refer to: The Big Four, a name given to the powerful four men who owned the Central Pacific Railroad. ... The record industry (or recording industry) is the industry that manufactures and distributes mechanical recordings of music. ... The big three is a term used to refer to three large powers or companies: // February 2: The Big Three of the WWII Allies at the Yalta Conference: Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. ... A television network is a distribution network for television content whereby a central operation provides programming for many television stations. ...


Second, there may be some large-scale owners in an industry that are not the causes of monopoly or oligopoly. Clear Channel Communications, especially since the Telecommunications Act of 1996, acquired many radio stations across the United States, and came to own more than 1,200 stations. However, the radio broadcasting industry in the United States and elsewhere can be regarded oligopolistic regardless of the existence of such a player. Because radio stations are local in reach, each licensed a specific part of airwave by the FCC in a specific local area, any local market is served by a limited number of stations. In most countries, this system of licensing makes many markets local oligopolies. The similar market structure exists for television broadcasting, cable systems and newspaper industries, all of which are characterized by the existence of large-scale owners. Concentration of ownership is often found in these industries. Not to be confused with clear channel radio stations, which are AM radio stations with certain technical parameters. ... The Telecommunications Act of 1996 was the first major overhaul of United States telecommunications law in nearly 62 years, amending the Communications Act of 1934. ... A radio station is an audio (sound) broadcasting service, traditionally broadcast through the air as radio waves (a form of electromagnetic radiation) from a transmitter to an antenna and a thus to a receiving device. ... The FCCs official seal. ... Chichicastenango, Guatemala traditional market Market stall in internally displaced persons camp in Kitgum, northern Uganda Mercado dos Lavradores, Funchal (Madeira Islands) A market is a mechanism which allows people to trade, normally governed by the theory of supply and demand. ...


Third, concentration of media ownership often suggest the presence of media conglomerates. When a company owns many different types of media businesses, it is referred to as a media conglomerate. The seven current media conglomerates are Disney, CBS, Time Warner, News Corp, Bertelsmann AG, Viacom and General Electric. These companies together own more than 90% of the media market. This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Walt Disney Company (NYSE: DIS) is one of the largest media and entertainment corporations in the world. ... CBS Corporation (NYSE: CBS) is an American media conglomerate focused on broadcasting, publishing, billboards, and television production, with most of its operations in the United States. ... Time Warner Inc. ... News Corporation (NYSE: NWS) is a media conglomerate that operates world-wide. ... Bertelsmann AG is a transnational media corporation founded in 1835, based in Gütersloh, Germany. ... This page is about the post-2005 Viacom. ... GE redirects here. ...

Contents

Debates

Concentration of media ownership is very frequently seen as a problem of contemporary media and society. When media ownership is concentrated in one or more of the ways mentioned above, a number of undesirable consequences follow, including the following:

  • For the general public, there are less diverse opinions and voices available in the media.
  • For minorities and others, fewer opportunities are available for voicing their concerns and reaching the public.
  • Healthy, market-based competition is absent, leading to slower innovation and increased prices.

It is important to elaborate upon the issue of media consolidation and its effect upon the diversity of information reaching a particular market. Critics of consolidation raise the issue of whether monopolistic or oligopolistic control of a local media market can be fully accountable and dependable in serving the public interest. If, for example, only one or two media conglomerates dominate in a single market, the question is not only that of whether they will present a diversity of opinions, but also of whether they are willing to present information that may be damaging to either their advertisers or to themselves. If it is in the best interests of the media conglomerates not to run a story or allow a particular opinion, but in the best interests of the public interest to run it, it arguably makes better business sense to opt for the former over the latter. On the local end, reporters have often seen their stories refused or edited beyond recognition, in instances where they have unearthed potentially damaging information concerning either the media outlet's advertisers or its parent company. For example, in 1997, the Fox affiliate in Tampa, Florida fired two reporters and suppressed a story they had produced about one of the Fox network's major advertisers, Monsanto, concerning the health effects of Bovine Growth Hormone (BGH). Fox took action after Monsanto threatened to sue over the story. Competition is the act of striving against another force for the purpose of achieving dominance or attaining a reward or goal, or out of a biological imperative such as survival. ... For the animal, see Fox. ... Nickname: Location in Hillsborough County and the state of Florida. ... The Monsanto Company (NYSE: MON) is a multinational agricultural biotechnology corporation. ... Bovine somatotropin (bST), or bovine growth hormone (BGH), is a protein hormone that occurs naturally in the pituitary gland of cattle. ...


Consequently, if the companies dominating a media market choose to suppress stories that do not serve their interests, the public suffers, since they are not adequately informed of some crucial issues that may affect them. If the only media outlets in town refuse to air a story, then the question becomes, who will?


Critics of media deregulation and the resulting concentration of ownership fear that such trends will only continue to reduce the diversity of information provided, as well as to reduce the accountability of information providers to the public. The ultimate consequence of consolidation, critics argue, is a poorly-informed public, restricted to a reduced array of media options that offer only information that does not harm the media oligopoly's growing range of interests.


For those critics, media deregulation is a dangerous trend, facilitating an increase in concentration of media ownership, and subsequently reducing the overall quality and diversity of information communicated through major media channels. Increased concentration of media ownership can lead to the censorship of a wide range of critical thought. Deregulation is the process by which governments remove, reduce, or simplify restrictions on business and individuals in order to (in theory) encourage the efficient operation of markets. ...


Another concern is that consolidated media is not flexible enough to serve local communities in case of emergency. This happened in Minot, North Dakota, in 2002, after a train filled with anhydrous ammonia derailed. None of the leading radio stations in Minot carried information on the derailment or evacuation procedures, largely because they were all owned by Clear Channel Communications and received automated feeds from the corporate headquarters in San Antonio, Texas. Scores of people were injured and three people died. Nickname: Magic City Map Location in Ward County, North Dakota Political Statistics Founded 1886 Incorporated June 28, 1887 County Ward County Mayor Curt Zimbelman Geographic Statistics Area  - Total  - Land  - Water 37. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... An SP freight train west of Chicago in 1992. ... Ammonia is a chemical compound with the formula NH3. ... Not to be confused with clear channel radio stations, which are AM radio stations with certain technical parameters. ... Nickname: Alamo City; River City Location in the state of Texas Coordinates: Counties Bexar County Government  - Mayor Phil Hardberger Area  - City  412. ...


Some typical counter-arguments to the criticisms above include the following:

  • Increased competitiveness due to the larger capital of the owners, especially to compete against some of the global, giant media conglomerates
  • Reduced cost of operations as a result of consolidation of some functions
  • More segmented or differentiated products and services to respond to a wider variety of demands better.

An opposite evolution: massive diversification via citizen media

On the other hand, a massive diversification of media, thanks to the Internet, materialized by millions of websites, fora, blogs and wikis is taking place. That evolution, often labelled citizen journalism or citizen media, makes it possible for practically everybody to be a media creator, owner and actor, instead of a passive user. A website (or Web site) is a collection of web pages, images, videos and other digital assets and hosted on a particular domain or subdomain on the World Wide Web. ... A typical Internet forum discussion, with common elements such as emoticons, avatars, and quotes. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Look up Wiki in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Citizen journalism, also known as participatory journalism, is the act of citizens playing an active role in the process of collecting, reporting, analyzing and disseminating news and information according to the seminal report We Media: How Audiences are Shaping the Future of News and Information, by Shayne Bowman and Chris... Citizen Media, Participatory Media, or Democratic Media refers to any form of content produced by private citizens, which has as its goal to inform and empower all members of society. ...


Citizen media gradually take audiences out of the traditional media and weaken the role of information professionals. Traditional media are slowly trying to adapt by becoming more "participative", asking their readers or watchers to send their own news.


Although citizen media allows more opportunities for media creation, it has been observed to have narrower readership. The top 100 websites receive 62% of the online audience,[citation needed] compared to the top 100 newspapers, magazines, and radio stations who receive about 30% of their respective audiences on average.[citation needed]


Media consolidation in particular countries

Australia

Further information: Media ownership in Australia

Controls over media ownership in Australia are laid down in the Broadcasting Services Act 1992, administered by the Australian Broadcasting Authority. Even with laws in place Australia has a high concentration of media ownership. Ownership of national and the newspapers of each capital city are dominated by two coporations, Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation, (which was founded in Adelaide) and John Fairfax Holdings.These two coporations along with West Australian Newspapers and the Harris Group work together to create Australian Associated Press which distributes the news and then sells it on to other outlets such as the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Although much of the everyday main stream news is drawn from the Australian Associated Press all the privately owned media outlets still compete with each other for exclusive Pop culture news. Rural and regional media is dominated by Rural Press Limited which is owned also by John Fairfax Holdings, with significant holdings in all states and territories. There are rules governing foreign ownership of Australian media and these rules are being considered for loosening by the current Howard Government. Australian media ownership is one of the most concentrated in the world. ... The Australian Broadcasting Authority (commonly called the ABA in Australia) is an agency of the Australian federal government, responsible for regulating the television, radio, and Internet industries. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... News Corporation (abbreviated to News Corp) (NYSE: NWS, NYSE: NWSa, ASX: NWS, LSE: NCRA) is one of the worlds largest media conglomerates. ... Adelaide is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of South Australia, and is the fifth largest city in Australia, with a population of over 1. ... John Fairfax Holdings Limited (ABN 15 008 663 161) is an Australian Public Company operating in the media industry, working predominantly with newspapers. ... The West Australian (often simply called The West) is Perths only locally edited daily newspaper, and is owned by ASX-listed West Australian Newspapers Limited. ... Australian Associated Press is Australias national news agency and is Australias largest independent originator and aggregator of news and information, serving the media, government, business and financial markets. ... The Australian Broadcasting Corporation or ABC is Australias national non-profit public broadcaster. ... Popular culture, or pop culture, is the vernacular (peoples) culture that prevails in a modern society. ... Rural Press Limited owns roughly 160 newspapers and magazines, including The Canberra Times. ... John Fairfax Holdings Limited (ABN 15 008 663 161) is an Australian Public Company operating in the media industry, working predominantly with newspapers. ... John Howard John Winston Howard (born July 26, 1939), is an Australian politician and the 25th Prime Minister of Australia, coming to office on March 11, 1996 and winning re-election in 1998, 2001 and 2004. ...


According to Reporters Without Borders in 2004, Australia is in 41st position on a list of countries ranked by Press Freedom; well behind New Zealand (9th) and United Kingdom (28th). This ranking is primarily due to the limited diversity in media ownership. The problem has even created a show in it self Media Watch (Australian TV series) on a government funded station Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) which is one of two government administered free to air channels the other being Special Broadcasting Service(SBS). Reporters Without Borders, or RWB (French: Reporters sans frontières, Spanish: Reporteros Sin Fronteras, or RSF) is a French origin international non-governmental organization that advocates freedom of the press, founded by its current general-secretary, Robert Menard. ... Media Watch is an Australian television series screening on the ABC. It currently screens from 9. ... The Australian Broadcasting Corporation or ABC is Australias national non-profit public broadcaster. ... The Special Broadcasting Service (SBS) is one of two government funded Australian public broadcasting radio and television networks, the other being the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC). ...


Canada:

Radio and television ownership in Canada is governed by the CRTC. The CRTC does not regulate ownership of newspapers or Internet media, although ownership in those media may be taken into consideration in decisions pertaining to a licensee's broadcasting operations. The Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC, in French Conseil de la radiodiffusion et des télécommunications canadiennes) was established in 1968 by the Canadian Parliament to replace the Board of Broadcast Governors. ...


Apart from the public Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, commercial media in Canada are primarily owned by a small number of companies, including CTVglobemedia, Canwest Global, CHUM, Rogers, Standard, Shaw, Astral, Newcap and Quebecor. Each of these companies holds a diverse mix of television, cable television, radio, newspaper, magazine and/or internet operations. Some smaller media companies also exist. The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), a Canadian crown corporation, is the country’s national public radio and television broadcaster. ... CTVglobemedia, previously Bell Globemedia until December 31, 2006, [1] is one of Canadas largest private media companies. ... CanWest Global Communications Corp. ... CHUM Limited is a media company based in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... Rogers Communications Inc. ... Standard Broadcasting Corporation is a Canadian radio broadcasting company. ... Shaw Communications Inc. ... Astral Media Inc. ... Newcap Broadcasting is a Canadian group of radio stations, owned by Newfoundland Capital Corporation. ... Quebecor Inc. ...


Due to Canada's smaller population, some types of media consolidation have always been allowed. In small markets where the population could not adequately support multiple television stations competing for advertising dollars, the CRTC began permitting twinstick operations, in which the same company operated both CBC and CTV affiliates in the same market, in 1967. This model of television ownership was restricted to smaller markets until the mid-1990s, when the CRTC began to allow companies to own multiple television stations in large markets such as Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver. A twinstick, in Canadian broadcasting, is an informal term for two television stations, broadcasting in the same market, which are owned by the same company. ... CBC Television is the primary English language television service of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. ... CTV is Canadas largest privately owned English language television network. ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... The 1990s decade refers to the years from the start of 1990 to the end of 1999. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (salvation through harmony) Coordinates: Country Canada Province Quebec Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... This article refers to the city in British Columbia, Canada. ...


As of 2005, almost all Canadian television stations are owned by national media conglomerates. These acquisitions have been controversial; stations in smaller markets have frequently had their local news programming cut back or even eliminated. For instance, CTV's stations in Northern Ontario and in Atlantic Canada are served by a single regional newscast for each region, with only brief local news inserts for headlines of purely local interest. This, in turn, has contributed to the rise of independent local webmedia such as SooToday.com, The Tyee and rabble.ca. 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Northern Ontario is the part of the province of Ontario, Canada, which lies north of Lake Huron, Georgian Bay, the French River and Lake Nipissing. ... The four Canadian Atlantic provinces. ... SooToday. ... The Tyee is a Canadian online web magazine, which focuses on coverage of news and media issues in British Columbia. ... rabble is a Canadian website which among other services publishes journalism on a daily basis primarily relating to social justice and progressive politics. ...


Many, though not all, Canadian newspapers are also owned by the same media conglomerates which own the television networks. Companies which own both television and newspaper assets have strict controls on the extent to which they can merge the operations. The issue of newspaper ownership has been particularly controversial in Canada, especially in the mid-1990s when Conrad Black's Hollinger acquired the Southam chain. Black's 1999 sale of the Hollinger papers resulted in an increase in the diversity of newspaper ownership, with new ownership groups such as Osprey Media entering the business, but was even more controversial because the CRTC, waiving its former rules against broadcasting companies acquiring newspaper assets, permitted Canwest Global to purchase many of the Hollinger papers. The Toronto Star is a partial exception to this — it is owned by an independent company, but is itself a part owner of Bell Globemedia. The 1990s decade refers to the years from the start of 1990 to the end of 1999. ... Conrad Moffat Black, Baron Black of Crossharbour PC, OC, KCSG (born 25 August 1944, in Montreal, Quebec), is a prominent and controversial British biographer, financier and former newspaper magnate. ... Hollinger Inc. ... Southam Newspapers is a Canadian newspaper chain owned by CanWest. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... Osprey Media is a Canadian newspaper chain that publishes 22 daily and 27 weekly newspapers in the province of Ontario. ... The Toronto Star is Canadas highest-circulation newspaper, though its print edition is distributed almost entirely within Ontario. ... Bell Globemedia Inc. ...


In radio, a company is normally restricted to owning no more than three stations in a single market, of which only two can be on the same broadcast band. (That is, a company may own two FM stations and an AM station, or two AMs and one FM, but may not own three FMs.) Under certain circumstances, local marketing agreements may be implemented, or the ownership rule may be waived entirely. For example, in Windsor, Ontario, CHUM Limited owns all of the city's commercial broadcast outlets, due to the city's unique circumstances — being in the immediate environs of the Metro Detroit market in the United States, Windsor has historically been a difficult market for commercial broadcasters, so the CRTC waived its usual ownership restrictions to help protect the Windsor stations' financial viability. FM radio is a broadcast technology invented by Edwin Howard Armstrong that uses frequency modulation to provide high-fidelity sound over broadcast radio. ... Mediumwave radio transmissions (sometimes called Medium frequency or MF) are those between the frequencies of 300 kHz and 3000 kHz. ... PENIS PENIS PENIS PENIS PENIS PENIS PENIS PENIS PENIS PENIS PENIS PENIS PENIS PENIS PENIS PENIS PENIS PENIS PENIS PENIS PENIS PENIS PENIS PENIS PENIS PENIS PENIS PENIS PENIS PENIS PENIS PENIS PENIS PENIS PENIS PENIS PENIS PENIS PENIS PENIS PENIS PENIS PENIS PENIS PENIS PENIS PENIS PENIS PENIS PENIS... Nickname: Motto: The river and the land sustain us. ... A simulated-color satellite image of Metro Detroit, with Windsor across the river, taken on NASAs Landsat 7 satellite. ...


When licensing a new broadcast outlet, the CRTC has a general (but not strict) tendency to favour new and local broadcasters. However, in the modern media context such broadcasters often struggle for financial viability, and are often subsequently acquired by larger companies. The CRTC rarely denies the acquisition applications. Canada also has strict laws around non-Canadian ownership of cultural industries; a media company in Canada may not be more than 20 per cent foreign-owned.


Europe

Axel Springer AG is one of the largest newspaper publishing companies in Europe, claiming to have over 150 newspapers and magazines in over 30 countries in Europe. Axel Springer AG is one of the largest newspaper publishing companies in Europe, claiming to have over 150 newspapers and magazines in over 30 countries, including several central and eastern european countries: Hungary, Poland, the Czech Republic, Russia and western european countries: Germany, France, Spain, Switzerland, more than 10,000...


Bertelsmann is one of the world's largest media companies, and has close links with the science and technology publisher Springer Science+Business Media, which was created from Bertelsmann's majority purchase of Springer-Verlag in 1999 and then a merger with Kluwer Academic Publishers in 2003. Bertelsmann AG is a transnational media corporation founded in 1835, based in Gütersloh, Germany. ... Springer Science+Business Media or Springer (IPA: ) is a worldwide publishing company based in Germany which focuses on academic journals and books in the fields of science, technology, mathematics, and medicine. ... Bertelsmann AG is a transnational media corporation founded in 1835, based in Gütersloh, Germany. ... Springer Science+Business Media or Springer (IPA: ) is a worldwide publishing company based in Germany which focuses on academic journals and books in the fields of science, technology, mathematics, and medicine. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... A Dutch STM publishing company now known as Springer. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Silvio Berlusconi, the former Prime Minister of Italy, was the owner of the three largest Italian TV stations, and gained control of the three state owned stations on his elections, a control he has not refrained from exercising.   (born September 29, 1936) is an Italian politician, entrepreneur, and media proprietor. ... In Italy, the President of the Council of Ministers (Italian: Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri) is the countrys prime minister or head of government, and occupies the fourth-most important state office. ... A television station is a type of radio station that broadcasts both audio and video to television receivers in a particular area. ...   (born September 29, 1936) is an Italian politician, entrepreneur, and media proprietor. ...


United States

Little mass media regulation existed in the United States prior to the creation of the Federal Radio Commission in 1927. The Telecommunications Act of 1934 was a fundamental decision on how broadcast mass media would function from then on. At the time, radio technology had become widespread among the masses, and the electromagnetic spectrum was regarded as public property. The Act reappropriated the spectrum to itself, and claimed the right to assign spectrum ranges to private parties as long as they broadcast in the public interest. This act created the Federal Communications Commission to replace the Federal Radio Commission. Lobbyists from the largest radio broadcasters, ABC and NBC, successfully petitioned to attach a cost to the license required to broadcast, and were thus able to "price out" many amateur broadcasters that had previously existed. Such was the precedent for much of the following regulatory decisions, which have mostly focused on the percentage of a market deemed allowable to a single company. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ...


The Telecommunications Act of 1996 set the modern tone of "deregulation," a relaxing of percentage constrictions that solidified the previous history of privatizing the utility and commodifying the spectrum. The legislation, touted as a step that would foster competition, actually resulted in the subsequent mergers of several large companies, a trend which still continues. The Telecommunications Act of 1996 was the first major overhaul of United States telecommunications law in nearly 62 years, amending the Communications Act of 1934. ...


The FCC held one official forum, February 27, 2003, in Richmond, Virginia in response to public pressures to allow for more input on the issue of elimination of media ownership limits. Some complain that more than one forum was needed. [1] [2] On June 2, 2003, The U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC), in a 3-2 vote, approved new media ownership laws that removed many of the restrictions previously imposed to limit ownership of media within a local area.The changes were not, as is customarily done, made available to the public for a comment period. Two commissioners requested this public comment period (the same two who voted against the changes) and their requests were denied without justification. The news coverage of this event in the mainstream press was very low-key. The FCCs official seal. ... February 27 is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Nickname: Motto: Sic Itur Ad Astra (Thus do we reach the stars) Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: Country United States State Virginia County Independent City Government  - Mayor L. Douglas Wilder (I) Area  - City 62. ... June 2 is the 153rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (154th in leap years), with 212 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The FCCs official seal. ...


A few of the points included:

  • Single-company ownership of media in a given market is now permitted up to 45% (formerly 35%, up from 25% in 1985) of that market.
  • Restrictions on newspaper and TV station ownership in the same market were removed.
  • All TV channels, magazines, newspapers, cable, and internet services are now counted, weighted based on people's average tendency to find news on that medium. At the same time, whether a channel actually contains news is no longer considered in counting the percentage of a medium owned by one owner.
(Thus it is now possible for two companies to own all of a city's 2 newspapers, 3 local TV stations, 2 national TV networks, and 8 local radio stations, (up to 45% of the media each) so long as there are other companies owning the shopping channel, the discovery channel, and at least 10% of other non-news outlets.)
  • Previous requirements for periodic review of license have been changed. Licenses are no longer reviewed for "public-interest" considerations.

More information on the new consolidation rules is available from the FCC website. In particular, there are press releases from the commissioners who voted for the changes, and from those who voted against them. Those two commissioners independently attend media reform events around the country to listen to the public on this issue.


By corporation

The Walt Disney Company (NYSE: DIS) is one of the largest media and entertainment corporations in the world. ... This page is about the post-2005 Viacom. ... CBS Corporation (NYSE: CBS) is an American media conglomerate focused on broadcasting, publishing, billboards, and television production, with most of its operations in the United States. ... Time Warner Inc. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... News Corporation (NYSE: NWS) is a media conglomerate that operates world-wide. ... Bertelsmann AG is a transnational media corporation founded in 1835, based in Gütersloh, Germany. ... GE redirects here. ... The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) operates television and radio networks in the United States and is also shown on basic cable in Canada. ... Buena Vista Motion Pictures Group, a fictitious business name of Walt Disney Motion Pictures Group, Inc. ... Image:The Current Miramax type in 2003 “Miramax” redirects here. ... CBS is one of the largest radio and television networks in the United States. ... Jean-François Millet Le Semeur (The Sower) Simon & Schuster logo, circa 1961. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... A pocket watch, a device used to tell time Look up time in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Screenshot of AOL.com AOL LLC (formerly America Online, Inc. ... RTL Group is Europes largest TV, radio and production company, and is majority-owned by German media conglomerate Bertelsmann. ... Métropole 6, known popularly as simply M6, is a French television service owned by a company called Métropole Télévision. ... Vox is the Latin word for voice. ... Five (often referred as five, as per the logo), formerly, and more commonly known as Channel 5, is the British fifth and final national analogue terrestrial TV channel. ... Lagardère SCA is a large French group of companies, diversified in publishing and aerospace, formerly known as Matra. ... Hachette Filipacchi Médias, S.A. (HFM) is the largest magazine publisher in the world. ... Lagardère Media is the name for the media activities of the Lagardère Group. ... CanalSat is a French digital satellite and DSL pay television service owned by Canal+ Group (66%) and Lagardere Active (34%), a subsidiary of Lagardère. ... Hachette Livre is the largest publisher in France. ... The European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company EADS N.V. (EADS) is a large European aerospace corporation, formed by the merger on July 10, 2000 of Aérospatiale-Matra of France, Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA (CASA) of Spain, and DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG (DASA) of Germany. ... Vivendi SA (formerly known as Vivendi Universal) is a French media conglomerate with activities in music, television and film, publishing, telecommunications, the Internet as well as video games. ... The title of this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Edouard Etienne Alphonse de Rothschild (born December 27, 1957 in Neuilly-sur-Seine France) is a businessman and part of the prominent Rothschild banking family. ... Libération (affectionately known as Libé) is a French newspaper founded in Paris in 1973 by Jean-Paul Sartre, Pierre Victor alias Benny Lévy and Serge July in the wake of the protest movements of May 1968. ... Formerly named Societé des Avions Marcel Bloch or MB, the Dassault Aviation is a French aircraft manufacturer of military, regional and business jets. ... Socpresse is a French group which control conservative daily Le Figaro, as well as LExpress and Valeurs Actuelles, and the football club FC Nantes Atlantique. ... Le Figaro (English: ) is one of the leading French morning daily newspapers. ... The Carlyle Group is a Washington, D.C. based global private equity investment firm with more than $54. ... LExpress is Frances first weekly news magazine. ... Le Monde is also the name of a song by the Thievery Corporation. ... Télérama is a weekly French magazine owned by the French daily newspaper Le Monde. ... Le Monde diplomatique (nicknamed Le Diplo by its French readers) is a monthly publication offering analysis and opinion on politics, culture, and current affairs. ... Bouygues (Euronext: EN) is a French industrial group listed on Euronext Paris. ... TF1 is a private French TV network, controlled by TF1 Group, whose major share-holder is Bouygues. ... A holding company is a company that owns enough voting stock in another firm to control management and operations by influencing or electing its board of directors. ... The Bouygues Télécom (IPA: ) is a French mobile phone company, part of the Bouygues group. ... The News of the World is a British tabloid newspaper published every Sunday. ... This article is about a British tabloid. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom since 1785, and under its current name since 1788. ... The Sunday Times is a Sunday broadsheet newspaper distributed in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, published by Times Newspapers Ltd, a subsidiary of News International which is in turn owned by News Corporation. ... link titlelink titleThe name Sky Television may refer to: British Sky Broadcasting (BSkyB) in the United Kingdom SKY Network Television in New Zealand This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... BSB logo British Satellite Broadcasting (BSB) was a company set up in 1986 to provide direct broadcast satellite television services to the United Kingdom. ... British Sky Broadcasting (BSkyB - formerly two companies, Sky Television and British Satellite Broadcasting, which merged) is a company that operates the most popular subscription television service in the Ireland. ... Categories: Companies traded on NYSE | Corporation stubs | Entertainment companies of the United States | Media companies of the United States | News Corporation subsidiaries ... The New York Post is the 13th-oldest[] newspaper published in the United States and the oldest to have been published continually as a daily. ... Hughes Electronics Corporation was formed in 1985 when Hughes Aircraft was sold by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute to General Motors for $5 billion. ... A standard DIRECTV satellite dish with 1 LNB on a roof DIRECTV (trademarked as DIRECTV) is a direct broadcast satellite (DBS) service based in El Segundo, California, USA, that transmits digital satellite television and audio to households in the United States, the Caribbean and Latin America except for Mexico. ... Intermix Media, Inc. ... List Of Newspapers Australia: The Australian [1], The Weekend Australian The Hobart Mercury [2], The Northern Territory News (Darwin, Australia) [3] The Daily Telegraph [4] (Sydney) The Sunday Telegraph [5] Sportsman Herald Sun [6] Sunday Herald Sun The Herald And Weekly Times Ltd [7] The Courier Mail (Brisbane) [8] The... Modern Times Group (MTG) is a Swedish media company. ... The Stockholm Stock Exchange is a stock exchange located in Stockholm, Sweden. ... Viasat is a DBS distributor and TV broadcaster, owned by the Swedish media conglomerate Modern Times Group. ... For other newspapers with the same name, see Metro (newspaper). ... 20 Minuten is a free daily newspaper in Switzerland, distributed to commuters in more than 150 train stations. ... Daily Mail and General Trust plc (DMGT) is one of the UKs largest media companies and has interests in national and regional newspapers, television and radio. ... Bolloré is a French investment and industrial holding group Headquartered in Puteau, on the western outskirts of Paris, France. ... Vincent Bolloré (b. ... Havas was the first French news agency, created in 1835 by Charles-Louis Havas. ... Aegis Group plc is a £1. ... Direct 8 is a new French television network, owned by Vincent Bolloré. It is available through digital terrestrial television. ...

See also

This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The propaganda model is a theory advanced by Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky that alleges systemic biases in the mass media and seeks to explain them in terms of structural economic causes. ... Much of the worlds assets, particularly in the media industry, are concentrated in the hands of a small number of large corporations. ... Australian media ownership is one of the most concentrated in the world. ... A media proprietor is a person who controls, either through personal ownership or a dominant position in a public company, a significant part of the mass media. ... The Telecommunications Act of 1996 was the first major overhaul of United States telecommunications law in nearly 62 years, amending the Communications Act of 1934. ... Deregulation is the process by which governments remove, reduce, or simplify restrictions on business and individuals in order to (in theory) encourage the efficient operation of markets. ... Media Democracy is a production and distribution model which promotes a mass media system that informs and empowers all members of society, and enhances democratic values. ...

External links

  • Essay examining the reasons and consequences of media ownership
  • Free Press an organization opposing media ownership concentration
  • A visual representation of 25 years of media mergers and how the biggest media conglomerates in the United States came to be
  • Lasar's Letter on the Federal Communications Commission Media ownership controversy timeline, 1996-2004
  • Media ownership study ordered destroyed
  • Media Conglomerates, Mergers, Concentration of Ownership

For changes:

  • Chairman Powell
  • Commissioner Martin
  • Commissioner Abernathy

Against:

  • Commissioner Copps
  • Commissioner Adelstein

References


  Results from FactBites:
 
Concentration of Newspaper Ownership (2392 words)
In the late sixties, concentration of newspaper ownership was enough of a public concern in Canada for the Senate to strike a special committee on March 18, 1969.
Woven throughout the report are proposals to halt the concentration trend and to raise the calibre of the press in general.
That a council be created to oversee press ownership, mandated to authorize newspaper and magazine mergers or acquisitions and operating on the fundamental principle that "all transactions that increase concentration of ownership in the mass media are undesirable and contrary to the public interest B unless shown to be otherwise." (p.
Mass media - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (864 words)
Mass media is a term used to denote, as a class, that section of the media specifically conceived and designed to reach a very large audience (typically at least as large as the whole population of a nation state).
Media (the plural of medium) is a truncation of the term media of communication, referring to those organized means of dissemination of fact, opinion, entertainment, and other information, such as newspapers, magazines, cinema films, radio, television, the World Wide Web, billboards, books, Compact discs, DVDs, videocassettes, and other forms of publishing.
The term "corporate media" is rather used by leftist media critics to imply that the mainstream media is manipulated by large multinational corporations.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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