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Encyclopedia > Concentration camp
It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. (Discuss)
It has been suggested that some sections of this article be split into a new article entitled List of places cited as concentration camps. (Discuss)

A concentration camp is a large detention center created for political opponents, enemy aliens, specific ethnic or religious groups, civilians of a critical war-zone, or other groups of people, often during a war. The term is used for facilities whose inmates are selected according to some criteria, rather than individuals who are incarcerated after due process of law fairly applied by a judiciary. Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Concentration camp. ... Image File history File links Splitsection. ... Historic detention cell In middle school and high school, detention very specifically refers to a period after the end of the school day (sometimes, before the school day) or during the weekend, when students who have misbehaved must remain in a designated classroom for a certain time period as punishment... Individual rights Free speech, free press Soap box, Speakers corner (Hyde Park), blog (weblog) prior restraint, censorship, self-censorship, censor Right to assembly Gay rights, Stonewall Feminism, ERA, equal pay, Title IX Famous political dissenters Gandhi Steve Biko Nelson Mandela Martin Luther King, Jr. ... In law during wartime, an enemy alien is a citizen of a country which is in a state of war with the land in which he or she is located. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Fishers of Men, oil on panel by Adriaen van de Venne (1614) Various religious symbols Religion is commonly defined as a group of beliefs concerning the supernatural, sacred, or divine, and the moral codes, practices, values, institutions, and rituals associated with such belief. ... A civilian is a person who is not a member of a military. ... The United States detonated an atomic bomb over Nagasaki on August 9, 1945, effectively ending World War II. The bombings of Nagasaki and Hiroshima (on August 6) immediately killed between 100,000 and 200,000 people and are the only known instances nuclear weapons have ever been used in war. ... Due process of law is a legal concept that ensures the government will respect all of a persons legal rights instead of just some or most of those legal rights, when the government deprives a person of life, liberty, or property. ... In law, the judiciary or judicature is the system of courts which administer justice and provide a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ...


Camps for prisoners of war (POW camps) are not usually called concentration camps although informally, and in some languages, they may be. Prisoner of War camps Contents // Categories: Substubs | Prisons and detention centres ...


Use of the word concentration comes from the idea of concentrating a group of people who are in some way undesirable in one place, where they can be watched by those who incarcerated them. For example, in a time of insurgency, potential supporters of the insurgents are placed where they cannot provide them with supplies or information. The first camps to bear the name were set up in Cuba during the Spanish-American War, though they were not designated as concentration camps; that term was first used by the British Empire during the Boer War. An insurgency is an armed revolt or insurrection against an established civil or political authority, such as a constituted government or an occupation by an invading force. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... There were two Boer Wars: the First Boer War (1880-1881) the Second Boer War (1899-1902). ...


Before and during the Second World War Nazi Germany set up camps called concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, abbreviated KZ) which were initially intended to concentrate those considered by the regime as undesirable on ethnic or political grounds; they were initially treated harshly and in many cases made to work as virtual slaves. Later camps were set up which were designed simply to exterminate those consigned to them as efficiently as possible. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


The Soviet Union under Stalin set up camps, not actually called concentration camps, whose objective was to incarcerate ethnic groups, those considered politically undesirable, and criminals. Inmates were worked as slaves, severely mistreated, executed for trivial "offences" committed while in the camp, and starved to death recklessly in huge numbers, but they do not appear to have been extermination camps as such. (Many other people were imprisoned and executed, but not as part of the camp system.) Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 1879[1] – March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and leader of the Soviet Union. ...


(In many cases in Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union those sent to camps were first subjected to some form of trial to lend a veneer of apparent legality to the procedure, but it is generally accepted that this was a sham.) Look up trial in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The term concentration camp lost its original relatively innocent meaning when the Nazi camps were discovered, and has ever since been understood to refer to a place of mistreatment, starvation, forced labour, and murder. The expression since then has only been used in this extremely pejorative sense; no government or organization has used it to describe its own facilities, using instead terms such as internment camp, resettlement camp, detention facility, etc. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Concentration camp. ...

Contents


History and usage of the term

The Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed. defines concentration camp as: The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP). ...

a camp where non-combatants of a district are accommodated, such as those instituted by Lord Kitchener during the South African war of 1899-1902; one for the internment of political prisoners, foreign nationals, etc., esp. as organized by the Nazi regime in Germany before and during the war of 1939-45

Early civilisations such as the Assyrians used forced resettlement of populations as a means of controlling territory, but it was not until much later that records exist of groups of civilians being concentrated into large prison camps. The Earl Kitchener The Right Honourable Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, KG, KP, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, ADC, PC (24 June 1850–5 June 1916) was a British Field Marshal, diplomat and statesman. ... Boer guerrillas during the Second Boer War There were two Boer wars, one in 1880-81 and the second from October 11, 1899-1902 both between the British and the settlers of Dutch origin (called Boere, Afrikaners or Voortrekkers) in South Africa that put an end to the two independent... Relief from Assyrian capital of Dur Sharrukin, showing transport of Lebanese cedar (8th c. ...


In the English-speaking world, the term "concentration camp" was first used to describe camps operated by the British in South Africa during the 1899-1902 Second Boer War. Originally conceived as a form of humanitarian aid to the families whose farms had been destroyed in the fighting, the camps were later used to confine and control large numbers of civilians in areas of Boer guerilla activity. Tens of thousands of Boer civilians, and black workers from their farms, died as a result of diseases developed due to overcrowding, inadequate diets and poor sanitation. The term "concentration camp" was coined at this time to signify the "concentration" of a large number of people in one place, and was used to describe both the camps in South Africa (1899-1902) and those established by the Spanish to support a similar anti-insurgency campaign in Cuba (circa 1895-1898 [1]), although at least some Spanish sources disagree with the comparison [2]. 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants British Empire Orange Free State, South African Republic Commanders Frederick Roberts later Lord Kitchener Christiaan Rudolf de Wet and Paul Kruger Casualties Military dead:22,000 Civilian dead:N/A Total dead:22,000 Military dead:6,500 Civilian dead:24,000 Total dead:30,500 The Second Boer... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Over the course of the twentieth century, the arbitrary internment of civilians by the authority of the state became more common and reached a climax with the practice of genocide in the death camps of the Nazi regime in Germany, and with the Gulag system of forced labor camps of the Soviet Union. As a result of this trend, the term "concentration camp" carries many of the connotations of "extermination camp" and is sometimes used synonymously. A concentration camp, however, is not by definition a death-camp. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Concentration camp. ... Genocide is defined by the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) Article 2 as any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group, as such: Killing members of the group; Causing... A death camp is either a concentration camp, the important (though not necessarily single) function of which is to facilitate mass murder of the people deported into such a camp (such as the Nazis Auschwitz and Majdanek, which acquired their murderous functions only some time after they had been... The term National Socialism has been used in self-description by a number of different political groups and ideologies, some of which have no connection with the Nazis; see National socialism (disambiguation). ... Gulag ( , Russian: ) is an acronym for Главное Управление Исправительно—Трудовых Лагерей и колоний, Glavnoye Upravleniye Ispravitelno-trudovykh Lagerey i kolonii, The Chief Directorate [or Administration] of Corrective Labour Camps and Colonies of the NKVD. Anne Applebaum, in her book Gulag: A History, explains: Literally, the word GULAG is an acronym, meaning Glavnoe Upravlenie Lagerei, or Main Camp... A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in penal labour. ...


Since the nature of Germany's so-called "concentration camps" became known, the term is sometimes used as propaganda, with greater or lesser justification, to imply that a camp is designed to exterminate, rather than merely to concentrate, its inmates. For example, many of the slave-labor concentration camps were used by major German corporate manufacturers as cheap or free sources of factory labor. It has been suggested that Propaganda in the United States be merged into this article or section. ...


The term is not often applied to camps such as Andersonville during the American Civil War. Although large numbers of prisoners were concentrated there in horrific conditions from 1863 to 1865, and perhaps a quarter of them died, the prisoners were combatants and the camp is generally classified as a POW camp. Andersonville prison The Andersonville prison, located at Camp Sumter, was the largest Confederate military prison during the American Civil War. ... Combatants Union (remaining U.S. states) Confederate States of America Commanders Abraham Lincoln† Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties KIA: 110,000 Total dead: 360,000 Wounded: 275,200 KIA: 94,000 Total dead: 258,000 Wounded: 137,000+  The... 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar). ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Prisoner of War camps Contents // Categories: Substubs | Prisons and detention centres ...


What follows is a brief history of concentration camps established by various countries and regimes.


Argentina

During the Dirty War which accompanied the 1976-1983 military dictatorship, there were about 100 places throughout the country that served as concentration camps in the Nazi sense, where people were interrogated, tortured, and killed, but not forced to work or concentrated for eventual release. Prisoners were often forced to hand and sign over property, in acts of individual, rather than official and systematic, corruption. Small children who were taken with their relatives, and babies born to prisoners, were frequently given for adoption to politically acceptable, often military, families. This is documented by a number of cases dating since the 1990s in which adopted children have identified their real families. Dirty War (in Spanish: Guerra Sucia) refers to a program of a state-sponsored war on domestic citizens in response to strikes, social unrest, violence or subversion that is claimed to threaten a countrys stability. ...


These were relatively small secret detention centres rather than actual camps. The peak years were 1976-78. Nearly 9,000 people are definitely known to have been killed: see the authoritative 1984 CONADEP (Argentine National Commission on the Disappearance of Persons) Report. It states that "We have reason to believe that the true figure is much higher"; a figure of 30,000 is often quoted. This worst case total figure, although frightful, is a small fraction of the throughput of just one of the smaller Nazi camps. A list of camps, full details, and documentation are to be found in the Report. The CONADEP (National Commission on the Disappearance of Persons) was created by Argentine President Raúl Alfonsín on December 15, 1983, shortly after his inauguration to investigate the fate of the desaparecidos and other human rights violations performed between 1976 and 1983. ...


External links

  • Report of Conadep (Argentine National Commission on the Disappearance of Persons) - 1984. English translation

Austria-Hungary

During the First World War, internment camps were set up, mostly for Serbs and other pro-Serbian Yugoslavs. Men, women, the children and the elderly were displaced from their homes and sent to concentration camps all over the Empire such as Doboj (46,000), Arad, Győr, Neusiedl am See. Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Serbs (Serbian: Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia-Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in Croatia. ... Yugoslav refers to: Yugoslavia Kingdom of Yugoslavia Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslavs This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Doboj (Cyrilic: Добој) is a town in northern Bosnia, situated on the river Bosna. ... County Arad County Status County capital Mayor Gheorghe Falcă, Democratic Party, since 2004 Area 46. ... GyÅ‘r listen [â–¶]help (German: Raab, Slovak: Ráb) is the most important city of Northwest-Hungary, the capital of GyÅ‘r-Moson-Sopron county and lies on one of the important roads of Central Europe, halfway between Budapest and Vienna. ... Neusiedl am See (Hungarian: Nezsider) is a town in Burgenland, Austria Geographic coordinates: 47°56′55″N, 16°50′35″E Categories: | ...


Some 20 thousand pro-Russian Ukrainians were incarcerated in concentration camp Talerhof (Austrian province of Styria) from September 4, 1914 until May 10, 1917. A full third of the prisoners held died either by being shot gassed, or from shock after experimental surgeries by doctors who were figuring out the pain threshold of humans. Styria (Steiermark in German, Štajerska in Slovenian) can refer to: Styria - a federal state of Austria Styria - an informal province in Slovenia Styria - a duchy of the Holy Roman Empire and crownland of Austria-Hungary This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise... September 4 is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years). ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... May 10 is the 130th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (131st in leap years). ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ...


Bosnia and Herzegovina

According to the Alliance of Detainees of Bosnia and Herzegovina in the period between 1992 and 1995, 520 camps and detention facilities existed under Serb control, which were active in 50 different municipalities in Bosnia. Estimates of how many people were detained there range from a provisional minimum estimate by the Alliance of Detainees of 100,000 people and up to 200,000 people reported by other sources, including non-governmental organizations 1. Following are some of the detention camps in Bosnia and Herzegovina operated by one of the three armies, sorted in alphabetical order: 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Detention camp Ran by Held Number of detainees Number killed
Batkovic Bosnian Serb Army Bosniaks no data no data
Čelebići Bosnian Muslim Army Serbs 350 - 500 15
Dretelj Bosnian Croat Army Bosniaks 1,900 no data
Hrasnica Bosnian Muslim Army Serbs no data no data
Igman Bosnian Muslim Army Serbs 13 - 15 no data
Karakaj Bosnian Serb Army Bosniaks 4,000 400 1
Keraterm Bosnian Serb Army Bosniaks 1,000 - 3,500 300 1
Kozarac Bosnian Serb Army Bosniaks no data no data
Luka Brčko Bosnian Serb Army Bosniaks 5,000 200 - 500 1
Ljubuški Bosnian Croat Army Bosniaks 500 no data
Manjača Bosnian Serb Army Bosniaks 4,500 - 6,000 175 - 1,000
Mostar Bosnian Croat Army Bosniaks 2,000 - 3,000 no data
Omarska Bosnian Serb Army Bosniaks 3,000 - 5,000 773 - 5,000 1
Potočari Bosnian Serb Army Bosniaks 20,000 - 25,000 2,000 - 4,000 1
Tarčin-Silos Bosnian Muslim Army Serbs 1,000 no data
Trnopolje Bosnian Serb Army Bosniaks 6,000 200 - 500 1
Visoko Bosnian Muslim Army Serbs 150 - 200 no data
Zenica Bosnian Muslim Army Serbs 450 - 2,000 no data

Numerous atrocities were committed against prisoners, subject to ICTY prosecution. Some indictments include war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Serbs (Serbian: Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia-Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in Croatia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Serbs (Serbian: Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia-Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in Croatia. ... Igman is a mountain in central Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Serbs (Serbian: Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia-Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in Croatia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Keraterm camp was a detention camp (also refered to as prison and concentration camp) near the town of Prijedor in northern Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Bosnian War from 1992 to 1995. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ljubuški is a town in western Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Manjača camp detainees in 1992 Manjača camp (pronounced:Mañacha) was a detention camp (also refered to as prison and concentration camp) on mountain Manjača near the city of Banja Luka in northern Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Bosnian War from 1992 to 1995. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Canton Herzegovina-Neretva Canton Mayor Ljubo Beslic Area  1,100 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Density 105,448 95. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Omarska camp detainees Omarska camp was a detention camp (also refered to as prison and concentration camp) in Omarska mining town near Prijedor in northern Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Bosnian War from 1992 to 1995. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Identified victims of Srebrenica Massacre The Srebrenica massacre was the July 1995 killing of an estimated 8,106 Bosniak males, ranging in age from teenagers to the elderly, in the region of Srebrenica in Bosnia and Herzegovina by a Serb Army of Republika Srpska under general Ratko Mladić including Serbian... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Serbs (Serbian: Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia-Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in Croatia. ... Starved detainees at the Trnopolje camp, ITN pictures that went around the world Trnopolje camp was a detention camp (also refered to as ghetto, prison and concentration camp) in the village of Trnopolje near the city of Prijedor in northern Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Bosnian War from 1992-1995. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Visoko is a small but famous and noteworthy city in central Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Serbs (Serbian: Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia-Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in Croatia. ... Zenica (Cyrilic: Зеница) is an industrial city (the fourth largest, after Sarajevo, Banja Luka and Tuzla) in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the capital of the Zenica-Doboj Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina entity. ... Serbs (Serbian: Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia-Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in Croatia. ... The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia is a body of the United Nations established to prosecute war crimes in the former Yugoslavia. ... A war crime is a punishable offense, under international law, for violations of the law of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Genocide is defined by the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) Article 2 as any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group, as such: Killing members of the group; Causing...


The British

South Africa

Lizzie van Zyl, shortly before her death in Bloemfontein Concentration Camp
Lizzie van Zyl, shortly before her death in Bloemfontein Concentration Camp

The term concentration camp was first used by the British military during the Boer War (1899-1902). Facing attack by Boer guerrillas, British forces rounded up the Boer women and children as well as black people living on Boer land, and sent them to 34 tented camps scattered around South Africa. This was done as part of a scorched earth policy to deny the boer guerrillas access to the supplies of food and clothing they needed to continue the war. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x667, 54 KB) Summary http://public. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x667, 54 KB) Summary http://public. ... Coat of arms of Bloemfontein Bloemfontein (Dutch for fountain of flowers) is one of South Africas three capital cities, along with Pretoria and Cape Town. ... Combatants British Empire Orange Free State, South African Republic Commanders Frederick Roberts later Lord Kitchener Christiaan Rudolf de Wet and Paul Kruger Casualties Military dead:22,000 Civilian dead:N/A Total dead:22,000 Military dead:6,500 Civilian dead:24,000 Total dead:30,500 The Second Boer... Boer is the Afrikaans (and Dutch) word for farmer which came to denote the descendants of the Afrikaans-speaking migrating farmers of the expanding eastern Cape frontier. ... Guerrilla (also called a partisan) is a term borrowed from the Spanish guerrilla meaning little war, and used to describe small combat groups and the individual members of such groups (see Etymology). ... Boer is the Afrikaans (and Dutch) word for farmer which came to denote the descendants of the Afrikaans-speaking migrating farmers of the expanding eastern Cape frontier. ... A tent is a shelter, consisting of sheets of fabric or other material draped over or attached to a frame of poles. ... Horses shot by the British at Winburg during the Second Boer War A scorched earth policy is a military tactic which involves destroying anything that might be useful to the enemy while advancing through or withdrawing from an area. ... Boer is the Afrikaans (and Dutch) word for farmer which came to denote the descendants of the Afrikaans-speaking migrating farmers of the expanding eastern Cape frontier. ... Guerrilla (also called a partisan) is a term borrowed from Spanish (from guerra meaning war) used to describe small combat groups. ...


The camps were situated at Aliwal North, Balmoral, Barberton, Belfast, Bethulie, Bloemfontein, Brandfort, Heidelberg, Heilbron, Howick, Irene, Kimberley, Klerksdorp, Kroonstad, Krugersdorp, Merebank, Middelburg, Norvalspont, Nylstroom, Pietermaritzburg, Pietersburg, Pinetown, Port Elizabeth, Potchefstroom, Springfontein, Standerton, Turffontein, Vereeniging, Volksrust, Vredefort and Vryburg. Aliwal North is a town on the Orange River, in central South Africa. ... Barberton, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa (25°47′S 31°03′E) is situated in the De Kaap Valley and is surrounded by the Mkhonjwa Mountains. ... Belfast is a small town in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa that is renowed for its excellent trout fishing conditions. ... Bethulie is a small cattle farming town in the Free State Province of South Africa. ... Coat of arms of Bloemfontein Bloemfontein (Dutch for fountain of flowers) is one of South Africas three capital cities, along with Pretoria and Cape Town. ... Brandfort is a small town in the Free State Province of South Africa. ... Heidelberg is a South African town situated at the foot of the Suikerbosrand (Sugarbush Ridge) next to the N3 highway, which connects Johannesburg and Durban. ... Heilbron is a small farming town in the Free State Province of South Africa which services the cattle, dairy, wheat, sunflower and maize industries. ... Location of Howick in KwaZulu-Natal Province Howick is a town located in the uMgungundlovu District of KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. ... Irene is a small town south of Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa. ... Kimberley is a town in South Africa, and the capital of the Northern Cape. ... Klerksdorp is a city and administrative district located in the North West Province (formerly Western Transvaal), South Africa. ... The town of Kroonstad, the third-largest town in Free State Province, South Africa lies two hours drive from Gauteng. ... Krugersdorp is a mining city in the West Rand of Gauteng, South Africa. ... There are two Middelburgs in South Africa, for the other Middelburg, Eastern Cape or see Middelburg (disambiguation). ... Modimolle (formerly known as Nylstroom) is a town located in the Waterberg in Limpopo Province of South Africa. ... Location of Pietermaritzburg in KwaZulu-Natal province Pietermaritzburg was founded in 1838. ... Polokwane (previously known as Pietersburg) is the capital of Limpopo Province (the province with the greatest increase in growth rate for 2003) in South Africa. ... Pinetown is an industrial town just inland from Durban in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. ... Port Elizabeth is a city in South Africa, situated in the Eastern Cape Province, at 33°58′ S 25°36′ E. The city is located on Algoa Bay, and is one of the major seaports in South Africa. ... Potchefstroom Flag Potchefstroom is a large academic town with the North-West University, situated on the banks of the Mooi River (literally pretty river), 120 km west-southwest of Johannesburg in the North West Province of South Africa. ... Springfontein is a small mixed farming town General in the Free State Province of South Africa. ... Standerton is a large commercial and agricultural town lying on the banks of the Vaal River in Mpumalanga, South Africa which specialises in cattle, dairy and maize farming. ... Turffontein is a suburb of Johannesburg, South Africa. ... Vereeniging is a city in Gauteng province, South Africa, with a population of more than 350,000. ... Volksrust is a town in the Mpumalanga Province, South Africa on the KwaZulu-Natal Province border. ... Vredefort is a small mixed farming town in the Free State Province of South Africa with cattle, groundnuts, sorghum, sunflowers and maize being farmed. ... Vryburg (free fort) is an large agricultural town situated in North West Province of South Africa. ...


Though they were not extermination camps, the women and children of Boer men who were still fighting were given smaller rations than others. The poor diet and inadequate hygiene led to endemic contagious diseases such as measles, typhoid and dysentery. Coupled with a shortage of medical facilities, this led to large numbers of deaths — a report after the war concluded that 27,927 Boer (of whom 22,074 were children under 16) and 14,154 black Africans had died of starvation, disease and exposure in the camps. In all, about 25% of the Boer inmates and 12% of the black African ones died (although recent research suggests that the black African deaths were underestimated and may have actually been around 20,000). Majdanek - crematorium Extermination camp (German Vernichtungslager) was the term applied to a group of death camps set up by Nazi Germany during World War II for the express purpose of killing the Jews of Europe, although members of some other groups whom the Nazis wished to exterminate, such as Roma... Boer is the Afrikaans (and Dutch) word for farmer which came to denote the descendants of the Afrikaans-speaking migrating farmers of the expanding eastern Cape frontier. ... Rationing is the controlled distribution of resources and scarce goods or services: it restricts how much people are allowed to buy or consume. ... Hygiene is the maintenance of healthy practices. ... This is about the disease typhoid fever. ... Dysentery is an illness involving severe diarrhea that is often associated with blood in the feces. ... A female child during the Nigerian-Biafran war of the late 1960s, shown suffering the effects of severe hunger and malnutrition. ... A disease is an abnormal condition of the body or mind that causes discomfort, dysfunction, or distress to the person afflicted or those in contact with the person. ... Exposure can be: A condition of poor health or death resulting from prolonged exposure to weather radiation poisoning Exposure of the skin to sunshine, etc. ...


In contrast to these figures, only around 3,000 Boer men were killed (in combat) during the Second Boer War. Boer is the Afrikaans (and Dutch) word for farmer which came to denote the descendants of the Afrikaans-speaking migrating farmers of the expanding eastern Cape frontier. ... Combatants British Empire Orange Free State, South African Republic Commanders Frederick Roberts later Lord Kitchener Christiaan Rudolf de Wet and Paul Kruger Casualties Military dead:22,000 Civilian dead:N/A Total dead:22,000 Military dead:6,500 Civilian dead:24,000 Total dead:30,500 The Second Boer...


A delegate of the South African Women and Children's Distress Fund, Emily Hobhouse, did much to publicise the distress of the inmates on her return to Britain after visiting some of the camps in the Orange Free State. Her fifteen-page report caused uproar, and led to a government commission, the Fawcett Commission, visiting camps from August to December 1901 which confirmed her report. They were highly critical of the running of the camps and made numerous recommendations, for example improvements in diet and provision of proper medical facilities. By February 1902 the annual death-rate dropped to 6.9 % and eventually to 2 %. Improvements made to the white camps were not as swiftly extended to the black camps. Hobhouse's pleas went mostly unheeded in the latter case. Emily Hobhouse (April 9, 1860—June 8, 1926) was a British welfare campaigner who is primarily remembered for shedding light on the abhorent conditions inside the British concentration camps built during the Second Boer War. ... Capital Bloemfontein Created 1854 Dissolved 1900 Official language Dutch (Afrikaans more common) The Orange Free State (Afrikaans: Oranje Vrystaat) was an independent country in southern Africa during the second half of the 19th century, and later a province in South Africa. ... Millicent Fawcett Dame Millicent Fawcett DBE (June 11, 1847 – August 5, 1929) was a British suffragist (as opposed to a suffragette, who were usually militantly violent) and an early feminist. ... 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Emily Hobhouse (April 9, 1860—June 8, 1926) was a British welfare campaigner who is primarily remembered for shedding light on the abhorent conditions inside the British concentration camps built during the Second Boer War. ...


Namibia (German South-West Africa)

During World War I, South African troops (then a part of the British Empire) invaded neighboring German South-West Africa. German settlers were rounded up and sent to concentration camps in Pretoria and later in Pietermaritzburg. Combatants Allies: Serbia, Russia, France, Romania, Belgium, British Empire, United States, Italy, and others Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead: 5 million Civilian deaths: 3 million Total of dead: 8 million Military dead: 4 million Civilian deaths: 3 million Total dead: 7 million The First... Flag of German South West Africa German South-West Africa (German: Deutsch-Südwestafrika, DSWA) was a colony of Germany from 1884 until 1915, when it was taken over by South Africa and administered as South-West Africa, finally becoming Namibia in 1990. ... City motto: Praestantia Praevaleat Pretoria (May Pretoria Be Pre-eminent In Excellence) Province Gauteng Area  - % water 1,644 km² 0. ... Location of Pietermaritzburg in KwaZulu-Natal province Pietermaritzburg was founded in 1838. ...


The Isle of Man

The British interned German and Austrian aliens that they rounded up after the start of World War II, many being held in Douglas on the Isle of Man. The vast majority of them were freed within six months, having been found to be "friendly aliens" (mostly Jews); examples include Hermann Bondi and Thomas Gold and members of the Amadeus Quartet. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Concentration camp. ... Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II... Location within the British Isles Douglas (Doolish in Manx) is the capital of the Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin) and its largest town. ... Professor Sir Hermann Bondi, KCB , FRS (1 November 1919–10 September 2005) was a British (formerly Austrian) mathematician and cosmologist. ... Thomas Gold (May 22, 1920 – June 22, 2004) was an Austrian astrophysicist, a professor of astronomy at Cornell University, and a member of the US National Academy of Sciences. ... The Amadeus Quartet was a world famous string quartet founded in 1947, with members Norbert Brainin (1923 - 2005), 1st violin Siegmund Nissel (b. ...


Cyprus

After World War II British efforts to prevent Jewish emigration into Palestine led to the construction of camps in Cyprus where up to 30,000 Holocaust survivors were held at any one time to prevent their entry into Palestine. Over time 50,000 people were imprisoned in the camps and over 2,000 children born there. After the creation of the state of Israel the British government continued to hold 8,000 Jews of 'military age' and 3,000 of their wives in order to prevent them joining the fighting. They were released in February 1949 (Source: N. Bogner, The Deportation Island: Jewish Illegal Immigrant Camps on Cyprus 1946-1948, Tel-Aviv 1991 in Hebrew). Map of the territory under the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Hebrew (עִבְרִית ‘Ivrit) is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by more than seven million people in Israel and Jewish communities around the world. ...


Kenya

During the 1954-60 Mau-Mau uprising in Kenya, camps were established to hold suspected rebels. It is unclear how many were held but estimates range up to 1.5 million - or practically the entire Kikuyu population. Between 130,000 and 300,000 are thought to have died as a result. Maltreatment is said to have included torture and summary executions. In addition as many as a million members of the Kikuyu tribe were subjected to ethnic cleansing. (Sources: . R. Edgerton, Mau Mau: An African Crucible, London 1990 page 180; C. Elkins,“Detention, Rehabilitation & the Destruction of Kikuyu Society”in Mau Mau and Nationhood, Editors Odhiambo and Lonsdale, Oxford 2003 pages 205-7; C. Elkins, "Britain's Gulag: The Brutal End Of Empire In Kenya", 2005). The Mau Mau Uprising was an insurgency by Kenyan rebels against the British colonial administration from 1952 to 1960. ... The KÄ©kÅ©yÅ© (otherwise spelled GÄ©kÅ©yÅ©) ethnic group is Kenyas most populous ethnic group. ... The KÄ©kÅ©yÅ© (otherwise spelled GÄ©kÅ©yÅ©) ethnic group is Kenyas most populous ethnic group. ...


Channel Islands

Alderney in the Channel Islands was the only place in the British Isles where German concentration camps were established during the Occupation of the Channel Islands. In January 1942, the occupying German forces established four camps, called Helgoland, Norderney, Borkum and Sylt (after the German North Sea islands), where captive Russians and other east Europeans were used as slave labour to build Atlantic Wall defences on the island. Around 460 prisoners died in the Alderney camps. Capital St Anne Status Part of Guernsey, Crown dependency of the UK Official language(s) English Head of Government Sir Norman Browse Population 2,400 Currency Alderney pound Alderney is also a suburb of Poole in Dorset, England, and a breed of cattle Alderney (French Aurigny, Auregnais Aoeurgny) is... The Channel Islands are a group of islands off the coast of Normandy, France, in the English Channel. ... As part of the Atlantic Wall, between 1940 and 1945 the occupying German forces and the Organisation Todt constructed fortifications round the coasts of the Channel Islands such as this observation tower at Les Landes, Jersey The Occupation of the Channel Islands refers to the Military occupation of the Channel... This article is about the year. ... Lager Helgoland was one of the four Nazi labour camps in Alderney in the Channel Islands. ... Lager Borkum was one of the four Nazi labour camps on Alderney in the Channel islands. ... Lager Sylt was the name of the concentration camp on Alderney in the Channel Islands between March 1943 and June 1944. ... The East Frisian Islands (German: Ostfriesische Inseln) are a chain of islands in the North Sea, off the coast of Lower Saxony, Germany. ... German coast artillery in the Pas-de-Calais area, with laborers at work on casemate. ...


Northern Ireland

During the Anglo-Irish War 12,000 Irishmen were held without trial. Between 1971 and 1976 the British had a policy of internment in Northern Ireland and used Long Kesh as an internment camp to house people believed by the government to be members of paramilitary organisations. An Irish War of Independence memorial in Dublin The Anglo-Irish War (also known as the Irish War of Independence) was a guerrilla campaign mounted against the British government in Ireland by the Irish Republican Army under the proclaimed legitimacy of the First Dáil, the extra-legal Irish parliament... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Concentration camp. ... Dieu et mon droit (motto) (French for God and my right)2 Northern Irelands location within the UK Main language English Other recognised languages Irish, Ulster Scots Capital and largest city Belfast First Minister Office suspended Secretary of State for Northern Ireland Peter Hain MP Area  - Total Ranked 4th... HM Prison Maze (known colloqually as The H Blocks, Long Kesh or The Maze) is a disused prison sited at the former RAF station at Long Kesh (it is still called Long Kesh by many Irish Republicans) near Lisburn, nine miles outside Belfast, in County Antrim, Northern Ireland. ...


Cambodia

Cambodia under the Pol Pot regime: see the article Democratic Kampuchea. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Kampuchea (Cambodia) Located on the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia , Kampuchea has emerged from 2 decades (10 years) of civil war & invasion from V- ietnam. ...


Canada

During World War II, Canada followed the U.S. lead in interning residents of Japanese and Italian ancestry. The Canadian government also interned citizens it deemed dangerous to national security. This included both fascists (including Canadians such as Adrien Arcand who had negotiated with Hitler to obtain positions in the government of Canada once Canada was conquered), Montreal mayor Camilien Houde (for denouncing conscription) and union organizers and other people deemed to be dangerous Communists. Such internment was made legal by the Defence of Canada Regulations, Section 21 of which read: Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... Adrien Arcand in 1933. ... Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ... City motto: Concordia Salus (Latin: Well-being through harmony) Province Quebec Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area  - % water 366. ... Camillien Houde (August 13, 1889 - September 11, 1958) was a mayor of Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Communism - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ...

The Minister of Justice, if satisfied that, with a view to preventing any particular person from acting in a manner prejudicial to the public safety or the safety of the State, it is necessary to do so, may, notwithstanding anything in these regulations, make an order [...] directing that he be detained by virtue of an order made under this paragraph, be deemed to be in legal custody.

There were internment camps near Petawawa, Ontario; Kananaskis, Alberta;and Hull, Quebec. Petawawa is a town located in the Canadian province of Ontario. ... Kananaskis is an improvement district (a type of rural municipal administrative unit) situated to the west of Calgary, Alberta, Canada in the foothills and front ranges of the Canadian Rockies. ... Hull is part of the city of Gatineau, Quebec, Canada. ...


See Dangerous Patriots: Canada's Unknown Prisoners of War, by William Repka and Kathleen Repka, New Star Books, Vancouver, 1982 (ISBN 0-919573-06-1 or ISBN 0-919573-07-X). This book is a collection of first-hand stories from Canadian political prisoners during World War Two.


Chile

Under Pinochet's dictatorship, the Santiago stadium served as a concentration camp for political opponents. General Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte1 (born November 25, 1915) was head of the military government that ruled Chile from 1973 to 1990. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Dictatorship. ... The snowcapped Andes are a Santiago landmark Santiago (Spanish: ) is Chiles capital and largest city. ...


Croatia

The Ustaše established concentration camps for Serbs. The UstaÅ¡e (often spelled Ustashe in English; singular UstaÅ¡a or Ustasha) was a Croatian organization put in charge of the Independent State of Croatia by the Axis Powers in 1941, in which they pursued Nazi policies. ...

Name of the camp Date of establishment Date of liberation Estimated number of prisoners Estimated number of deaths
Jasenovac August 23, 1941 April 22, 1945  59,188-700,000[1]
Stara Gradiška 1941 1945   
Pag 1941 None    8,500
  1. ^ These numbers vary widely, and were frequently manipulated by various sides during Yugoslavia's history, see Jasenovac concentration camp.
  2. ^ Benevolent Assimilation: The American Conquest of the Philippines, 1899-1903, Stuart Creighton Miller, (Yale University Press, 1982). p. 208

“Jasenovac” redirects here. ... This is the song that never ends yes it gos on and on my friends some people started singing it not knowing what it was they just started singing it forever just becauseThis is the song that never ends yes it gos on and on my friends some... For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1941 calendar). ... April 22 is the 112th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (113th in leap years). ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... Stara Gradiška was a Jasenovac subcamp established in 1941 near the main camp. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1941 calendar). ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... Pag (Latin Pagus, village, Italian Pago) is an island in northern Adriatic Sea, off the coast of Croatia. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1941 calendar). ... “Jasenovac” redirects here. ...

Finland

In the aftermath of the Finnish Civil War of 1918, some 75,000 enemy prisoners of war of the losing side and suspected Communists were incarcerated in camps. While 125 Communist prisoners were convicted of treason and executed, an estimated 12,000 died of disease and starvation and an unknown number lost their lives after release, some of them shot after return to their home villages. The Civil War in Finland was fought from January to May 1918, between the Reds (punaiset), i. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... In law, treason is the crime of disloyalty to ones nation or state. ...


When the Finnish Army during the Continuation War occupied East Karelia 19411944 that was inhabited by ethnically related Finnic Karelians (although it never had been a part of Finland — or before 1809 of Sweden-Finland), several concentration camps were set up for Russian civilians. The first camp was set up on 24 October 1941, in Petrozavodsk. The two largest groups were 6,000 Russian refugees and 3,000 inhabitants from the southern bank of River Svir forcibly evacuated because of the closeness of the front line. Around 4,000 of the prisoners perished due to malnourishment, 90% of them during the spring and summer 1942. The ultimate goal was to move the Russian speaking population to German-occupied Russia in exchange for any Finnic population from these areas, and also help to watch civilians. The Finnish Army ( Finnish: Maavoimat) is one of the branches of the Finnish Defence Forces. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... East Karelia and West Karelia with borders of 1939 and 1940/1947. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1941 calendar). ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ... Finnic peoples (Fennic, sometimes Baltic-Finnic) refers to a group of related ethnic groups and nations speaking Finnic languages (also known as Balto-Finnic languages). ... The Karelians is a name used to denote two related, yet different ethnic groups of Finnic-language speakers. ... The traditional lands of Sweden. ... October 24 is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 68 days remaining. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1941 calendar). ... Petrozavodsk (Russian: ; Karelian/Finnish: Petroskoi) is the capital of the Republic of Karelia, Russia, with a population of 266,160 (2002 Census). ...


Population in the Finnish camps:

December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1941 calendar). ... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... This article is about the year. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ...

France

Under Nazi occupation, the Natzweiler-Struthof camp, in Alsace, was one Nazi-run concentration camp on French soil during the Second World War -- the three departments of Alsace-Lorraine (Haut-Rhin, Bas-Rhin and Moselle) had been annexed and incorporated into the Third Reich. The French authorities also ran deportation camps such as the one at Drancy. Camps also existed in the Pyrenees, on the border with pro-Nazi Spain, one of which was called Camp De Gurs. Camp entrance Natzweiler-Struthof was a Nazi concentration camp located close to the Alsatian village of Natzwiller (German Natzweiler) in France about 50 km south west from the city of Strasbourg. ... Imperial Province of Elsaß-Lothringen Alsace-Lorraine (French: Alsace-Lorraine; German: Elsass-Lothringen) was a territory disputed between the nation states of France and Germany. ... The Drancy deportation camp was an infamous temporary prison camp in the city of Drancy, north of Paris, France. ... Central Pyrenees. ...


During France's occupation of Algeria, large numbers of Algerians were forced into "tent cities" and concentration camps both during the initial French invasion in 1830s, and particularly during the Algerian War of Independence. The Algerian War of Independence (1954–62) was a period of guerrilla strikes, maquis fighting, terrorism against civilians on both sides, and riots between the French army and colonists, or the colons as they were called, in French special département Algeria and the FLN (Front de Libération Nationale...


During the early part of the colonial period, camps were used mostly to forcibly remove Arabs, Berbers and Turks from fertile areas of land and replace them by primarily French, Spanish, and Maltese settlers. It has been estimated that from 1830 to 1900, between 15 and 25% of the Algerian population died in such camps.


During the Algerian War of Independence the populations of whole villages which were suspected to have supported the rebel FLN were incarcerated in such camps. The Algerian War of Independence (1954–62) was a period of guerrilla strikes, maquis fighting, terrorism against civilians on both sides, and riots between the French army and colonists, or the colons as they were called, in French special département Algeria and the FLN (Front de Libération Nationale... The National Liberation Front , (Arabic: Jabhat al-Taḩrīr al-Waţanī, French: Front de Libération Nationale aka FLN) is a socialist political party in Algeria. ...


Germany

Main article: Nazi concentration camps. See also: List of concentration camps of Nazi Germany, Holocaust Prior to and during World War II Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager or KZ) throughout the territory it controlled. ... The following is a list of Nazi German concentration camps. ... Concentration camp inmates during the Holocaust The Holocaust was Nazi Germanys systematic genocide (ethnic cleansing) of various ethnic, religious, national, and secular groups during World War II. Early elements include the Kristallnacht pogrom and the T-4 Euthanasia Program established by Hitler that killed some 200,000 people. ...

Buchenwald concentration camp
Buchenwald concentration camp
Major German concentration camps, 1944.
Major German concentration camps, 1944.

Concentration camps (Konzentrationslager or KZ) rose to notoriety during their use in Germany during the Nazi era. The general populace referred to them as Kah-Tzets (the initials KZ in German). The Nazi regime maintained concentration camps as labor camps and prisons since the beginning of their regime in 1933. After the beginning of the war, they also established extermination camps for the industrialized mass murder of the Jews of Europe, called the Holocaust, starting in 1941. Over three million Jews would die in these extermination camps, which included Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, and Auschwitz-Birkenau. The victims were primarily killed by gassing, usually in gas chambers, although many prisoners were murdered in mass shootings or perished from hard labor and a starvation diet. Jewish slave laborers at Buchenwald. ... Jewish slave laborers at Buchenwald. ... Image File history File links Majorcampseurope. ... Image File history File links Majorcampseurope. ... The term National Socialism has been used in self-description by a number of different political groups and ideologies, some of which have no connection with the Nazis; see National socialism (disambiguation). ... Ka-tzetnik (KZ-nik, Kazetnik, Katsetnik) is a Yiddish word for an inmate of a Nazi concentration camp. ... A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in penal labour. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Majdanek - crematorium Extermination camp (German Vernichtungslager) was the term applied to a group of death camps set up by Nazi Germany during World War II for the express purpose of killing the Jews of Europe, although members of some other groups whom the Nazis wished to exterminate, such as Roma... Concentration camp inmates during the Holocaust The Holocaust was Nazi Germanys systematic genocide (ethnic cleansing) of various ethnic, religious, national, and secular groups during World War II. Early elements include the Kristallnacht pogrom and the T-4 Euthanasia Program established by Hitler that killed some 200,000 people. ... Belzec was the first of the Nazi German extermination camps created for implementing Operation Reinhard during the Holocaust. ... Sobibór was a Nazi extermination camp that was part of Operation Reinhard. ... Treblinka is a small village in the Mazowieckie voivodship (province) of Poland. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Gas chamber at San Quentin State Prison A gas chamber is a means of execution whereby a poisonous gas is introduced into a hermetically sealed chamber. ...


Prisoners in Nazi concentration and labor camps were also treated horrifically, and many died: worked to death on short rations and in bad conditions, or killed if they became unable to work. Slave labor was used by many German companies, who established their own sub-camps. Guards were known to engage in target practice, using their prisoners as targets. During World War II, these concentration camps for "undesirables" were spread throughout Europe, with new camps being created near centers of dense "undesirable" populations, often focusing on areas with large populations of Jews, Polish intelligentsia, communists, or Roma. Most of the camps were located in the area of the General Government in occupied Poland. The transportation of prisoners was often carried out under horrifying conditions using rail freight cars, in which many died before they reached their destination. Concentration camps for Jews and other "undesirables" also existed in Germany itself, and while not specifically designed for systematic extermination, like the extermination camps, many concentration camp prisoners died because of harsh conditions or were executed. Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II... The Roma people (singular Rom; sometimes Rroma, Rrom), often referred to as Gypsies, are a heterogeneous ethnic group who live primarily in Southern and Eastern Europe, Western Asia, Latin America, southern states of North America and the Middle East. ... The General Government (in full General government for the occupied Polish areas, in German Generalgouvernement für die besetzten polnischen Gebiete) was the name given by Germany to the governing authority in Poland after its occupation by the Wehrmacht in September and October 1939. ... Majdanek - crematorium Extermination camp (German Vernichtungslager) was the term applied to a group of camps set up by Nazi Germany during World War II for the express purpose of killing the Jews of Europe, although members of some other groups whom the Nazis wished to exterminate, such as Roma (Gypsies...


It is estimated that up to ten million people died in Nazi concentration camps, of them six million were killed in the 15 larger ones.




Italy

Name of the camp Date of establishment Date of liberation Estimated number of prisoners Estimated number of deaths
Baranello near Campobasso        
Campagna near Salerno        
Casolli near Chieti        
Chiesanuova near Padua June 1942      
Cremona        
Ferramonti di Tarsia near Cozenza summer 1940 September 4, 1943 3,800  
Finale Emila near Modena        
Gonars near Palmanova March 1942 September 8, 1943 7,000 453; >500
Lipari        
Malo near Venice        
Molat        
Monigo near Treviso June 1942      
Montechiarugolo near Parma        
Ponza        
Potenza        
Rab (on the island of Rab) July 1942 September 11, 1943 15,000 2,000
Renicci di Anghiari, near Arezzo October 1942      
Sepino near Campobasso        
Treviso        
Urbisaglia        
Vestone        
Vinchiaturo, near Campobasso        
Visco, near Palmanova winter 1942      

Campobasso is the capital city of the Molise region in Italy. ... Campania is a region of Southern Italy, bordering on Lazio to the north-west, Molise to the north, Puglia to the north-east, Basilicata to the east, and the Tyrrhenian Sea to the west. ... Map of Italy showing Salerrno southeast of Naples Salerno is a town and a province capital in Campania, south-western Italy, located on the gulf of the same name on the Tyrrhenian Sea. ... Chieti is a city in central Italy, 200 km northeast of Rome. ... Chiesanuova is a minor municipality of San Marino. ... Location within Italy Tronco Maestro Riviera: a pedestrian walk along a section of the inland waterway or naviglio interno of Padua The city of Padua (Lat. ... This article is about the year. ... This article is about the city of Cremona. ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... September 4 is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years). ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... Modena (Mòdna in Modenese dialect) is a city and a province on the south side of the Po valley, in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. ... Gonars is a town with approx. ... Palmanova (Friulian: Palme) is a town in northeastern Italy, close to the border with Slovenia. ... This article is about the year. ... September 8 is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years). ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... Lipari Castle above the town of Lipari. ... Malo was a Latin based Rock and Roll group. ... Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venexia) , the city of canals, is the capital of the region of Veneto and of the province of Venice in Italy. ... Treviso is a town in the Veneto region of Italy. ... This article is about the year. ... Parma is a medieval city in the Italian region of Emilia-Romagna, with splendid architecture and a fine countryside around it. ... Ponza and the Pontine Islands. ... Potenza is a town and comune in the Southern Italian region of Basilicata. ... The Rab concentration camp was established during World War II in July 1942, when the Italians established a concentration camp near the village of Kampor on the island of Rab. ... Coat of arms The historic town center of Rab Rab (Italian Arbe) is an island and a town of the same name located just off the northern Croatian coast in the Adriatic Sea, today in the Primorje-Gorski Kotar county. ... This article is about the year. ... September 11 is the 254th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (255th in leap years). ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... Church of Santa Maria della Pieve Arezzo is an old city in central Italy, capital of the province of the same name, located in Tuscany. ... This article is about the year. ... Campobasso is the capital city of the Molise region in Italy. ... Treviso is a town in the Veneto region of Italy. ... Vestone is a commune in the province of Brescia, in Lombardy. ... This article is about the year. ...

People's Republic of China

Concentration camps in the People's Republic of China are called Laogai, which means "reform through labor". The communist-era camps began at least in the 1960s and were filled with anyone who had said anything critical of the government, or often just random people grabbed from their homes to fill quotas. The entire society was organized into small groups in which loyalty to the government was enforced, so that anyone with dissident viewpoints was easily identifiable for enslavement. These camps were modern slave labor camps, organized like factories. Laogai (勞改; pinyin: láo găi), which means reform through labor, is a slogan of the Chinese criminal justice system and has been used to refer to the use of prison labor in the Peoples Republic of China. ... A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in penal labour. ...


There are accusations that Chinese labor camp produce products are often sold in foreign countries with the profits going to the PRC government. Products include everything from green tea to industrial engines to coal dug from mines.


The use of prison labor is an interesting case study of the interaction between capitalism and prison labor. On the one hand, the downfall of socialism has reduced revenue to local governments increasing pressure for local governments to attempt to supplement their income using prison labor. On the other hand, prisoners do not make a good workforce, and the products produced by prison labor in China are of extremely low quality and have become unsellable on the open market in competition with products made by ordinary paid labor.


An insider's view from the 1950s to the 1990s is detailed in the books of Harry Wu, including Troublemaker and The Laogai. He spent almost all of his adult life as a prisoner in these camps for criticizing the government while he was a young student in college. He almost died several times, but eventually escaped to the US. Party officials have argued that he far overstates the present role of Chinese labor camps and ignores the tremendous changes that have occurred in China since then. Professor Harry Wu (in Chinese Wu Hongda 吳弘達) (born 1937) is an activist on human rights in the Peoples Republic of China. ... A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in penal labour. ...


See also: human rights in the People's Republic of China The situation of human rights in the Peoples Republic of China has been criticized by various sources, including other nations - particularly Western democracies - as well as international organizations, as being poor in many respects. ...


External Link: Report about products produced under forced labor (focuses on the persecution of Falun Gong)


Poland

Following the First World War it was erected concentration camps for German civilian population in the areas that became part of Poland, including camps Szczypiorno and Stralkowo. In the camps the inmates were abused and tortured.


After 1926 several other concentration camps were erected, not only for Germans, but also for Ukrainians and other minorities in Poland. It included camps Bereza-Kartuska and Brest-Litowsk. Official casualities for the camps are not known, however it has been estimated that many Ukrainians died. 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...


From the start of 1939 until the German invasion in september a number of more concentration camps for Germans, including Chodzen, were erected. Also German population were subject to mass arrest and violent pogroms, which led to thousands of Germans fleeing. In 1,131 places in Poznan/Posen and Pomerania German civilians were sent into marchs to concentration camps. Infamous is the pogrom against Germans in Bydgoszcz/Bromberg, known to many Germans as Bromberger Blutsonntag. Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot, a massive violent attack on a particular group; ethnic, religious or other, primarily characterized by destruction of their environment (homes, businesses, religious centers). ...


Following the Second World War the Soviet-installed Stalinist regime in Poland erected 1,255 concentrations camps for German civilians in the eastern parts of Germany that were occupied and annexed by Communist Poland. The inmates were mostly civilians that had not been able to flee the advancing Red Army or had not wanted to leave their homes. Often were entire villages including babies and small children sent to the concentrations camps, the only reason being they spoke German. Some of them were also Polish citizens. Many anticommunists were also sent to concentration camps. The death rate in the camps were between 20 and 50 %. Some of the most infamous concentration camps were Toszek/Tost, Lamsdorf, Potulice, Świętochłowice/Schwientochlowitz. Inmates in the camps were abused, tortured, maltreated, exterminated and deliberately given low food rations and epidemies were created. Some of the best known concentration camp commanders were Lola Potok, Czeslaw Geborski and Salomon Morel. Several of them, including Morel, were Jewish Communists. Morel is currently hiding in Israel, and has been charged for war crimes and crimes against humanity by Poland. Stalinism is a brand of political theory, and the political and economic system implemented by Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union. ... Zgoda concentration camp - a concentration camp in Communist Poland, operated in 1945. ... Salomon Morel, passport photo taken in 1993 Salomon (Solomon or Shlomo) Morel (born November 15, 1919 in Grabowo, Poland), a Polish Jew, was, between February and November 1945, the commander of the Communist Stalinist-era concentration camp Zgoda in ÅšwiÄ™tochÅ‚owice, Silesia, Poland and a member of the... A war crime is a punishable offense, under international law, for violations of the law of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... This article is in need of attention. ...


The American Red Cross, the US Senator Langer of North-Dacota, the British embassador Bentinck and the British prime minister Winston Churchill protested against the Polish concentration camps, and demanded that the Communist authorities in Soviet-occupied Poland respected the Geneva Conventions and international law, however internationals protests were ignored by the Communists.


At least between 60,000 and 80,000 German civilians were murdered in the Communist Polish concentration camps.


Russia and the Soviet Union

In Imperial Russia, labor camps were known under the name katorga. Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in penal labour. ... Katorga (ка́торга, from Greek: katergon (galley)) was a system of penal servitude in Imperial Russia. ...


In the Soviet Union, concentration camps were called simply camps, almost always plural ("lagerya"). These were used as forced labor camps, and were often filled with political prisoners. After Alexander Solzhenitsyn's book they have become known to the rest of the world as Gulags, after the branch of NKVD (state security service) that managed them. (In the Russian language, the term is used to denote the whole system, rather than individual camps.) A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in penal labour. ... Solzhenitsyn was exiled from the Soviet Union for his book The Gulag Archipelago. ... Gulag ( , Russian: ) is an acronym for Главное Управление Исправительно—Трудовых Лагерей и колоний, Glavnoye Upravleniye Ispravitelno-trudovykh Lagerey i kolonii, The Chief Directorate [or Administration] of Corrective Labour Camps and Colonies of the NKVD. Anne Applebaum, in her book Gulag: A History, explains: Literally, the word GULAG is an acronym, meaning Glavnoe Upravlenie Lagerei, or Main Camp... The NKVD (Narodnyi Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del )(Russian: НКВД, Народный комиссариат внутренних дел) or Peoples Commisariat for Internal Affairs was a government department which handled a number of the Soviet Unions affairs of state. ... Russian (Russian: русский язык, russkiy yazyk, ) is the most widely spoken language of Eurasia and the most widespread of the Slavic languages. ...


In addition to what is sometimes referred to as the GULAG proper (consisting of the "corrective labor camps") there were "corrective labor colonies", originally intended for prisoners with short sentences, and "special resettlements" of deported peasants. At its peak, the system held a combined total of 2,750,000 prisoners. The total number of people who passed through the camps is, of course, much larger.


There are records of reference to concentration camps by Soviet officials (including Lenin) as early as December 1917. While the primary purpose of Soviet camps was not mass extermination of prisoners, in many cases the outcome was death or permanent disabilities. The total documentable deaths in the corrective-labor system from 1934 to 1953 amount to 1,054,000, including political and common prisoners; this does not include nearly 800,000 executions of "counterrevolutionaries" outside the camp system. From 1932 to 1940, at least 390,000 peasants died in places of peasant resettlement; this figure may overlap with the above, but, on the other hand, it does not include deaths outside the 1932-1940 period, or deaths among non-peasant internal exiles. Indirect estimates by some authors state that as many as 40,000,000 Soviet civilians died in camps, starved, or were executed between 1917 and 1957.[citation needed] For example, in some uranium mines the average life expectancy of a prisoner, forced to mine radioactive ore, was as low as 6 months. During the war years 1941-1945 the life expectancy of a prisoner was even shorter.


After the WWII, some 3,000,000 German soldiers and civilians were sent to Soviet labor camps, as part of reparations by labor force. Only about 2,000,000 returned to Germany. Not by Their Own Will. ... Reparations refers to two distinct ideas: Reparations for slavery of groups or individuals War reparations: Payments from one country to another as compensation for starting a war under a peace treaty, such as those made by Germany to France under the Treaty of Versailles. ...


A special kind of forced labor, informally called sharashka, was for engineering and scientific labor. The famous Soviet rocket designer Sergey Korolev worked in a "sharashka", as did Lev Termen and many other prominent Russians. Solzhenitsyn's book The First Circle describes life in a sharashka. Sharashka (sometimes Sharaga or Sharazhka, Russian: ) was an informal name for secret research and development laboratories in the Soviet Gulag labor camp system. ... Korolev was key in the design and launch of Sputnik 1, the first ever artificial satellite Sergei Pavlovich Korolev (Серге́й Па́влович Королёв) (January 12, 1907 - January 14, 1966) was the head Soviet rocket engineer and designer during the space race, known only as the chief designer during his lifetime. ... A young Léon Theremin playing a theremin Léon Theremin (born Lev Sergeyevich Termen, Лев Сергеевич Термен in Russian) (August 15, 1896–November 3, 1993) was a Russian inventor, most famous for his invention of the theremin, one of the first electronic musical instruments. ... The First Circle (Ð’ круге первом, V kruge pervom) is a novel by Alexander Solzhenitsyn released in 1968, the title of which is based on a quotation from Dante. ...


An extensive List of Gulag camps is being compiled based on official sources. This enormous, but far from complete list enumerates sites of Soviet forced labor camps (corrective labor camps). Most of them served mining, construction, and timber works. ...


Serbia

  • Banjica concentration camp (near Belgrade)
  • Sajmište concentration camp (near Belgrade)
  • Crveni krst (in Niš)
  • Dulag 183 (in Šabac)
  • Svilara (Pančevo)
  • Paračin

Museum of Banjica concentration camp One of the concentration camps in Serbia. ... The Sajmište concentration camp was one of the complexes of German concentration camps in Serbia that were almost exclusive for Serbian Jews. ...

Slovakia

During the Second World War, the Slovak government made a small number (Novaky, Sered) of transit camps for Jewish citizens. They were transported to Auschwitz-Birkenau and Ravensbruck concentration camps. For German help with Aryanization of Slovakia, the Slovak government paid a fee of 500 Reichsmark per Jew. The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... View of the barracks at Ravensbrück Ravensbrück was a German concentration camp located 90 km north of Berlin. ...


Netherlands

During WWII, one of few official Nazi concentration camp complexes in western Europe located outside of Germany and Austria was near 's-Hertogenbosch, known in German as Herzogenbusch, see List of subcamps of Herzogenbusch. Still another one was camp Westerbork, which served as a transit camp (Durchgangslager) of Jews (Dutch and refugees) and Gypsies to extermination camps of Auschwitz and Sobibór. (Westerbork had been built in 1939 by the Dutch government for interning Jewish refugees.) Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II... The term National Socialism has been used in self-description by a number of different political groups and ideologies, some of which have no connection with the Nazis; see National socialism (disambiguation). ... s-Hertogenbosch (literally The Dukes Forest in Dutch; translated in French as Bois-le-Duc), unofficially also called Den Bosch, is a municipality in the Netherlands, the capital of the province of North Brabant. ... Below is the list of subcamps of Konzentrationslager Herzogenbusch complex (Herzogenbusch concentration camp), in Dutch known as Kamp Vught. ... This article is about the concentration camp. ... The Roma people (pronounced rahma, singular Rom, sometimes Rroma, and Rrom) along with the closely related Sinti people are commonly known as Gypsies in English, and as Tsigany in most of Europe. ... Auschwitz, in English, commonly refers to the Auschwitz concentration camp complex built near the town of Oświęcim, by Nazi Germany during World War II. Rarely, it may refer to the Polish town of Oświęcim (called by the Germans Auschwitz) itself. ... Sobibór was a Nazi extermination camp that was part of Operation Reinhard. ...


North Korea

Main article: Human rights in North Korea The human rights record of North Korea is extremely difficult to fully assess due to the secretive and closed nature of the country. ...

Location of Known Concentration Camps
North Province of Hamkyong-Life Imprisonment Zone
1. Onsong Changpyong Family Camp No. 12 (relocated in May 1987)
2. Chongsong Family Camp No. 13 (relocated in December 1990)
3. Hoeryong Family Camp No. 22
4. Chongjin Singles' Prison No. 25
5. Kyongsong Family Camp No. 11 (relocated in October 1989)
6. Hwasong Family Camp No. 16
South Province of Hamkyong
7. Yodok Offenders and Family Camp No. 15
 (sectors for re-education and life imprisonment)
North Province of Pyong'an
8. Chonma Family Camp No. 27 (relocated in November 1990)
South Province of Pyong'an
9. Kaechon Family Camp No. 14
10. Pyongyang Seungho Area Hwachon dong Offender's Camp No. 26 (relocated in January 1990)

North Korea is known to operate five concentration camps, currently accommodating a total of over 200,000 prisoners, though the only one that has allowed outside access is Camp #15 in Yodok, South Hamgyong Province. Once condemned as political criminals in North Korea, the defendant and his or her family are incarcerated in one of the camps without trial and cut off from all outside contact. Prisoners reportedly work 14 hour days at hard labor and/or ideological re-education. Starvation and disease are commonplace. Political criminals invariably receive life sentences, however their families are usually released after 3 year sentences, if they pass political examinations after extensive study. Yodok is a concentration camp in South Hamgyong Province, North Korea. ... South Hamgyŏng (Hamgyŏng-namdo) is a province of North Korea. ...


Concentration camps came into being in North Korea in the wake of the country's liberation from Japanese colonial rule at the end of World War II. Those persons considered "adversary class forces", such as landholders, Japanese collaborators, religious devotees and families of those who migrated to the South, were rounded up and detained in a large facility. Additional camps were established later in earnest to incarcerate political victims in power struggles in the late 1950s and 60s and their families and overseas Koreans who migrated to the North. The number of camps saw a marked increase later in the course of cementing the Kim Il Sung dictatorship and the Kim Jong-il succession. About a dozen concentration camps were in operation until the early 1990s, the figure of which is believed to have been curtailed to five today due to increasing criticism of the North's perceived human rights abuses from the international community and the North's internal situation. Kim Il-sung (April 15, 1912–July 8, 1994) was a Korean Communist politician and the ruler of the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (North Korea) from 1948 until his death. ... Kim Jong-il (born February 16, 1941) is the leader of North Korea. ...


Perhaps the most well-known depiction of life in the North Korean camps has been provided by Kang Chol-hwan in his memoir The Aquariums of Pyongyang. Kang Chol-Hwan is a defector from North Korea. ... Front cover of the United States edition of The Aquariums of Pyongyang. ...


United States

The first large-scale confinement of a specific ethnic group in detention centers began in the summer of 1838, when President Martin Van Buren ordered the U.S. Army to enforce the Treaty of New Echota (an Indian Removal treaty) by rounding up the Cherokee into prison camps before relocating them. Although these camps were not intended to be extermination camps, and there was no official policy to kill people, some Indians were raped and/or murdered by US soldiers. Many more died in these camps due to disease, which spread rapidly because of the close quarters and bad sanitary conditions: see the Trail of Tears. | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862), nicknamed Old Kinderhook, was the eighth President of the United States. ... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... The Treaty of New Echota was a removal treaty signed in New Echota, Georgia by officials of the United States government and several members of a faction within the Cherokee nation on December 29, 1835. ... Indian Removal was a nineteenth century policy of the government of the United States that sought to relocate American Indian (or Native American) tribes living east of the Mississippi River to lands west of the river. ... For other uses, see Cherokee (disambiguation). ... Majdanek - crematorium Extermination camp (German Vernichtungslager) was the term applied to a group of death camps set up by Nazi Germany during World War II for the express purpose of killing the Jews of Europe, although members of some other groups whom the Nazis wished to exterminate, such as Roma... Trail of Tears refers to the forced relocation of the Cherokee Native American tribe to the Western United States in 1838, which resulted in the deaths of an estimated 4,000 Cherokee Indians. ...


Throughout the remainder of the Indian Wars, various populations of Native Americans were rounded up, trekked across country and put into detention, some for as long as 27 years. Indian Wars is the name used by historians in the United States to describe a series of conflicts between the United States and Native American peoples (Indians) of North America. ...


On December 7, 1901, during the Philippine-American War, General J. Franklin Bell began a concentration camp policy in Batangas - everything outside the "dead lines" was systematically destroyed: humans, crops, domestic animals, houses, and boats. A similar policy had been quietly initiated on the island of Marinduque some months before.[2] Combatants United States The Philippines Commanders Elwell Stephen Otis Emilio Aguinaldo Strength 126,000 soldiers 80,000 soldiers Casualties 4,324 U.S. soldiers dead 2,840 wounded; 2,000 killed, dead, or wounded of the Philippine Constabulary 16,000 soldiers killed est. ... J. Franklin Bell (1856- January 1919) was Chief of Staff of the United States Army from 1906 to 1910. ... Batangas is a province of the Philippines located on the southwestern part of Luzon in the CALABARZON region. ... Marinduque is an island province of the Philippines located in the MIMAROPA region in Luzon. ...


Between 1935 and 1937, the National Park Service forcibly relocated 437 families from what is now Shenandoah National Park into "resettlements" administered by the Department of Agriculture's Resettlement Administration, then burned or removed their homes. The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ... Shenandoah National Park encompasses part of the Blue Ridge Mountains in the Piedmont region of Virginia. ... The U.S. Department of Agriculture, also called the Agriculture Department, or USDA, is a Cabinet department of the United States Federal Government. ...


During World Wars I and II, many people deemed to be a threat due to enemy connections were interned in the US. This included people not born in the U.S. and also U.S. citizens of Japanese (in WWII), Italian (in WWII), and German ancestry. In particular, over 100,000 Japanese and Japanese Americans and Germans and German-Americans were sent to camps such as Manzanar during the second World War. Some compensation for property losses was paid in 1948, and the U.S. government officially apologized for the internment in 1988, saying that it was based on "race prejudice, war hysteria, and a failure of political leadership", and paid reparations to former Japanese inmates who were still alive, while paying no reparations to interned Italians or Germans. Jerome Relocation Camp The Japanese American Internment refers to the forcible relocation of approximately 112,000 to 120,000 Japanese and Japanese Americans, 62 percent of whom were United States citizens, from the west coast of the United States during World War II to hastily constructed housing facilities called War... German Americans are common in the US. Light blue indicates counties that are predominately German ancestry. ... Manzanar, California. ...


Some critics have described the incarceration facility for detainees stated to be enemy combatants or associated with terrorism (but not formally accused, or subject to legal process) at Camp X-Ray in Guantánamo Bay as a concentration camp. No government, and few organizations, seem willing to use these words; for instance, Amnesty International has criticized the U.S. treatment of detainees, but does not refer to Camp X-Ray as a concentration camp. Camp X-Ray, shown here under construction, was a temporary holding facility for detainees held at U.S. Naval Base Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. ... Map of Cuba with location of Guantánamo Bay indicated. ... Amnesty International logo Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international, non-governmental organization with the stated purpose of promoting all the human rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international standards. ... Camp X-Ray, shown here under construction, was a temporary holding facility for detainees held at U.S. Naval Base Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. ...


In February 2006 a United Nations report called on the United States to immediately close the Guantánamo Bay facility, listing abuses and violations of human rights and of medical ethics, and saying that certain practices at the prison camp "must be assessed as amounting to torture" and go beyond what international law permits [3]. The U.S. rejected the report's findings[4].


Again in May 2006 a key U.N. panel joined European and United Nations leaders in urging the Bush administration to close its prison in Guantanamo Bay [and "black sites"], saying the indefinite detention of terror suspects there violates the world's ban on torture. [5]


See also

Concentration camp inmates during the Holocaust The Holocaust was Nazi Germanys systematic genocide (ethnic cleansing) of various ethnic, religious, national, and secular groups during World War II. Early elements include the Kristallnacht pogrom and the T-4 Euthanasia Program established by Hitler that killed some 200,000 people. ... Indian Removal was a nineteenth century policy of the government of the United States that sought to relocate American Indian (or Native American) tribes living east of the Mississippi River to lands west of the river. ... Jerome Relocation Camp The Japanese American Internment refers to the forcible relocation of approximately 112,000 to 120,000 Japanese and Japanese Americans, 62 percent of whom were United States citizens, from the west coast of the United States during World War II to hastily constructed housing facilities called War... Nazi concentration camp badges, made primarily of inverted triangles, were used in the concentration camps in the Nazi-occupied countries to identify the reason the prisoners had been placed there. ... The following is a list of Nazi German concentration camps. ... During the Nazi German occupation of Poland during World War II, a system of camps of various kinds was established across the country. ...

External links

  • Audio Testimony of Dr. Walter Ziffer Dr. Walter Ziffer, the last Holocaust survivor in Asheville, North Carolina as of April 11, 2004, discusses his interment in several camps on, as well as the theological implications of the Holocaust. Recording made in April 11th, 2004.
  • Nazi Killing and Atrocity Centers: Summaries
  • Long-Term Plan Sought For Terror Suspects - The Washington Post (January 1, 2005)
  • A global gulag to hide the war on terror's dirty secrets - The Guardian (January 14, 2005)
  • European Holocaust Memorial
  • Revealed: the gas chamber horror of North Korea's gulag - The Guardian (Feb. 1, 2004) (discusses Camp 22 in North Korea)
  • A Voice From North Korea Echoes in the White House - The New York Times (June 18, 2005)
  • Prison camps during Bosnian War
  • Gulag Museum

The Washington Post is the largest and oldest newspaper in Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... The New York Times is a newspaper published in New York City by Arthur O. Sulzberger Jr. ...

Notes

  • Alexander Jakowlew A Century of Violence in Soviet Russia, (Yale University Press, New Haven/London, 2002)
  • Ralf Stettner Archipel GULag, Stalins Zwangslager-Terrorinstrument und Wirtschaftsgigant, Schöningh, Paderborn 1996, ISBN 3506787543
  • Joel Kotek, Pierre Rigoulot Das Jahrhundert der Lager, Propyläen 2001, ISBN 3549071434, (Le siècle des Camps), ISBN 0297829955

  Results from FactBites:
 
Concentration Camps (3373 words)
Its leaders were sent to concentration camps and the organization was put under the control of the Nazi Party.
After this date extermination camps were established in the east that had the capacity to kill large numbers including Belzec (15,000 a day), Sobibor (20,000), Treblinka (25,000) and Majdanek (25,000).
One woman, distraught to the point of madness, flung herself at a British soldier who was on guard at the camp on the night that it was reached by the 11th Armoured Division; she begged him to give her some milk for the tiny baby she held in her arms.
Paul Rassinier on Buchenwald, Dora and the Jews: The Evolution of the German Concentration Camp System (4019 words)
A concentration camp, when it is completely set up, is a regular city which is isolated from the outside world which conceived it, which is surrounded by fences of electrified barbed wire, and which is guarded with special guards every fifty yards on platforms, armed to the teeth.
It did happen in wartime that the "news" for the concentration camp inmates was the same as that which the Germans were supposed to take as gospel, and that is why the newspapers were the same for both, but it was pure chance.
This Rapportführer-general communicated with the prison camp through the intermediary of his subordinates and the Lagerültester, or the doyen of the prisoners, who was responsible in general for the camp and who answered for its smooth running even with his life.
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