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Encyclopedia > Comradeship

Comrade is a term meaning "friend," "colleague," or "ally." The term originally carried a strong military connotation, and referred to a roommate. For the more specialised meaning of Connotation in semiotics, see connotation (semiotics). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with flatshare. ...

Contents

Political use

The term "comrade" (and its equivalent in other languages) usually means "a fellow socialist" or "a fellow Communist". Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ...


This usage was inspired by the French Revolution. Upon abolishing the titles of nobility, and the terms monsieur and madame (literally, "milord" and "milady"), the revolutionaries employed the term citoyen(ne) (meaning "citizen") to refer to each other. The deposed King Louis XVI, for instance, was referred to as Citoyen Louis Capet to emphasize his loss of privilege. The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... The word citizen may refer to: A person with a citizenship Citizen Watch Co. ... Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste de France (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then as King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ... The House of Capet includes any of the direct descendants of Robert the Strong. ...


When the socialist movement gained momentum in the mid-19th century, socialists began to look for an egalitarian alternative to terms like "Mister", "Miss", or "Missus". They chose "comrade" as their preferred term of address. In English, the first known use of the word with this meaning was in 1884 in the socialist magazine Justice. In French, the first use of the equivalent term, "camarade," among political leftists was in 1790.[1] Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal or level) is the moral doctrine that people should be treated as equals, in some respect. ...


Russian use

After the Russian Revolution, the Russian version of this term (товарищ, tovarishch) was championed by the Bolsheviks. The use of "comrade" soon became widespread among Communists worldwide (much more so than among socialists who were not supporters of the Communist International). This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... The Comintern (Russian: Коммунистический Интернационал, Kommunisticheskiy Internatsional – Communist International, also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organization founded in March 1919, in the midst of the war communism period (1918-1921), by Vladimir Lenin and the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik), which intended to fight by all available means, including...


During the Russian Civil War, the Tsarist White Russians used the word comrades (tovarishchi) as a derogatory term for their Bolshevik enemies, particularly those involved in the Red Army and the soviets. Western politicians and comedians sometimes humorously mock left-wing opponents by calling them "comrade." Combatants Red Army Latvian Riflemen White Army (Monarchists) Ukrainian Peoples Republic Green Army (Cossacks) Black Army (Anarchists) Blue Army (Peasants) Czechoslovak Legion Allied intervention Other anti-Bolshevik forces Commanders Leon Trotsky, Mikhail Tukhachevsky, Sergei Kamenev, Semyon Budyonny, Mikhail Frunze Alexander Antonov, Anton Denikin, Alexander Kolchak, Lavr Kornilov, Pyotr Wrangel... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... The term White Russian may refer to: A member of the White movement, which opposed the Bolsheviks after the October Revolution and fought against the Red Army during the Russian Civil War. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... A soviet (Russian: , IPA: , council[1]) originally was a workers local council in late Imperial Russia. ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition...


Because of its use by communists, the term is now strongly associated with communism, particularly the Marxist-Leninist, Stalinist and Trotskyist varieties, and the Soviet Union. The term can be affixed to titles to add a Soviet flavor (e.g. "Comrade Colonel"). The usage is fairly flexible. For instance, one might be referred to as Comrade Lenin or Comrade Chairman, or simply as Comrade. Overuse of the word is a common characteristic of communist stereotypes on television and in films. In reality, it was employed rarely, reserved mainly for formal or official settings, in largely the same way that terms like "Mister" and "Sir" are employed. The term is still widely used today by the armed forces—superior officers are normally addressed as "Comrade Colonel," "Comrade General," or the like. Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ... Joseph Stalin Stalinism is the political and economic system named after Joseph Stalin, who implemented it in the Soviet Union. ... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... For the 1996 Blur single, see Stereotypes (song). ... Film is a term that encompasses individual motion pictures, the field of film as an art form, and the motion picture industry. ...


Second common use of the term is simply a "friend", most often a schoolmate (as in 'he is my товарищ since high school'.)


Chinese usage

In Chinese, the translation of comrade is "同志" (Pinyin: tóng zhì), lit. meaning "(people with) the same spirit, goal, ambition, etc." It was best known for its widespread use in mainland China after the People's Republic of China was founded, for basically anyone. However, after the 1980s and the onset of China's market-oriented reforms, this term has been moving out of daily usage. It remains in use as a respectful term of public address among middle-aged Chinese and members of the Communist Party of China. Within the Communist Party, failure to address a fellow member as tóng zhì is seen as a subtle but unmistakable sign of disrespect and enmity. Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys constitution. ...


At party or civil meetings, the usage of the term has been retained. Officials often address each other as Tongzhi, and thus the usage here is not limited to Communist Party members alone. In addition, Tongzhi is the term of preference to address any national leader when their titles are not attached (i.e. Comrade Mao Zedong, comrade Deng Xiaoping etc.).


The Kuomintang (Nationalist Party) also has a long tradition of using the term comrade (同志) to refer to its members, usually as a noun rather than a title; for example, a KMT member would say "Mr. Zhang is a loyal and reliable comrade (同志)." The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung1-kuo2 Kuo2-min2-tang3) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China, now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in...


Due to the character "同" (meaning "same") and the fact that "同性恋" (tóng xìng lián) is the technical term corresponding to "homosexual" in English, Tongzhi has recently become a slang term meaning "gay". In some ways, Mandarin Chinese slang terms and insults resemble their English counterparts. ... This is a list of terms which are widely used today to refer to gay in different languages and which derive from concepts unrelated to homosexuality (e. ...


Southern Africa

In South Africa, comrade is associated with the liberation struggle more generally and the African National Congress in particular. The members of unions affiliated to the ANC through their union federation use the term comrade to refer to each other. Comrade can also be a way of describing someone who is an activist, although it has an association with the ANC and the struggle against apartheid or economic inequality.


In Zimbabwe, the term is only used to people who are affiliated to the ruling part, ZANU (PF) where the state media also use Cde as short for comrade. Members of the opposition mainly the MDC are oftenly referred by their names or Mr, Mrs or Prof. This is despite the fact that the population in general is not happy with it. The Zimbabwe African National Union - Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) has been the ruling political party in Zimbabwe since independence in 1980, led by Robert Mugabe, first as Prime Minister with the party simply known as ZANU, and then as President from 1988 after taking over ZAPU and renaming the party... MDC can stand for: Multiple Description Coding Major Diagnostic Category Mega-Damage Capacity, a measure of the toughness and structural integrity of armored vehicles in the Palladium Books role-playing system MetaData Coalition - see metadata (computing) Modification Detection Code Movement for Democratic Change - A Zimbabwean political party MDC - a hardcore...


German usage

In modern Germany the term Genosse is usually preferred over Kamerad by those on the political left. This is due to the association of the term with militarism as well as its use by the NSDAP during the Third Reich. Kamerad continues to be used today by those on the German far-right. Kamerad is also used in non-political situations such as within the Bundeswehr, among firemen and in schools for classmates (Klassenkamerad). Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. ... The Nazi swastika The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), better known as the NSDAP or the Nazi Party was a political party that was led to power in Germany by Adolf Hitler in 1933. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The Bundeswehr (German for Federal Defence Force;  ) is the name of the unified armed forces of Germany. ...


In other languages

  • In Albanian, the word shok (from Latin socius) was used within communist circles.
  • The Arabic word رفيق (Rafiq) (meaning friend) is used with the same political connotation as "comrade." The term is used both amongst Arab communists as well as within the Ba’ath movement. The term predates modern political usage, and is an Islamic male proper name. Iranian communists also use the exact term.
  • The Armenian word for Comrade is ընկեր ("unger") for boys and men, ընկերուհի ("ungerouhi") for girls and women. This word literally translates as "friend". The term is known to be used by members of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation when addressing to other members of the party. The term is also used by the Armenian Communist Party.
  • The Bulgarian word for Comrade is "другар" (drugar). It translates as friend or colleague. It can be applied to teachers as well.
  • The Croatian term which is equivalent to Comrade is drug, drugar and drugarica for females. In the period between World War II and Tito's death, it was applied to almost everybody: teachers, officials, etc. Today it is not used commonly, but it translates as "friend".
  • The Czech word for Comrade is soudruh, although the cognate kamarád is also seen. The latter translates as "friend".
  • The Dutch word is kameraad. And although it can be used to refer to communists or an acquaintance, it is used in dialects to appoint someone's friend.
  • The Esperanto word for Comrade is "kamarado" in the sense of a friend. The word "samideano", literally "same-thinker" is the equivalent of "Comrade" in the Communist sense.
  • The Finnish word is Toveri which literally translates as "buddy".
  • The Hungarian word for Comrade is elvtárs. Literally, elvtárs means "policy fellow". The term is used only for Communists - Socialists don't use it.
  • The Icelandic word for Comrade is félagi. It is used as a less intimate alternative to vinur (friend). It is also the word used for a "member" of club or association. When used as a title to precede a name (i.e. félagi Tító or félagi Dimitroff) it has a communist implication.
  • The Italian word for Comrade is compagno, meaning "fellow". It is seldom used in its political meaning, as it is seen as derogatory or stereotypical. The word camerata, meaning "roommate", is the fascist equivalent.
  • The Japanese word for Comrade is "同志 (dōshi)", the same word used in Chinese. The word is used to refer to like-minded persons and the usage is not necessarily limited by Communists, though the word is to some extent associated with Communism. The word should not be confused with a homonym "同士", which is a more commonly used postfix to show people sharing a certain property.
  • In Korean, a good equivalent of the word would be "동무(dongmu)", literally meaning "friend". Although the word was originally used by the Korean people all over the Korean Peninsula, people living south of the 38th Parallel begin avoiding using the word after a communist regime was set up in the north. In North Korea, the word replaced all prior social titles and earned a new meaning as "a fellow man fighting for the revolution". Today, usage of the word "동무" in South Korea could attract suspicious eyes from the public, as it has been stereotyped that only communists would use the word.
  • In Portugal and Brazil, the word is camarada, now being commonly employed to sarcastically refer to communists or supporters of the communist system (result of the overusage of the term in the post-revolutionary society). It is also prevalent in the army, and has been gaining popularity among nationalist movements.
  • In Romanian the exact translation is camarad which does not bear a political connotation, referring mainly to wartime allies and friends. The term used during the communist era was tovarăş, which is the same as the Russian word.
  • The Serbian word for Comrade is drug and is a regular word for 'friend'.
  • The Slovak word for Comrade is súdruh. Slovak language also knows a term "kamarát" too, but it is normally translated as a friend.
  • In Slovenia comrade is similar to the Russian translation - Tovariš, which incidentally can also mean "teacher".
  • In Spain, the word is compañero / compañera ("companion"); the term camarada ("companion", "friend") has also been used, but it's more associated with the communist tradition.
The standard form in Cuba is compañero / compañera, as it was in socialist Nicaragua and Chile. In some parts of Latin America, camarada is the more frequent word, except in Peru, where the term is commonly associated with Shining Path, members of social-democrat party APRA employ compañero to refer to fellow members of the party.
  • In Swahili, the equivalent word is ndugu for brother-in-arms, or dada for a female comrade.
  • The Swedish word is kamrat. Although it can be associated with communist lingo it may just as well be used to refer to a friend, a co-worker (arbetskamrat) or a classmate in school (klasskamrat or skolkamrat).
  • The Tamil word for Comrade is Thozhare (தோழரே) and is a regular word for 'friend'.
  • The Thai word sahai (สหาย) was used in the communist movement.
  • The Turkish word Yoldaş (literally co-traveller) has become used within the communist movement. In the climate of harsh anticommunist repression the word largely disappeared from common usage.
  • In the United States, the word "comrade" carries a very strong connotation of being associated with Communism, Marxism-Leninism, and the Soviet Union in general. Especially during the Cold War, to address someone as "comrade" marked either the speaker, person addressed, or both as suspected communist sympathizers. It is still used in its generic context by some American socialists, even strong anti-communists. It latterly is frequently used with humorous intent.

Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Baath Party symbol Party flag The Arab Socialist Baath Party (also spelled Bath or Baath; Arabic: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي Ḥizb al-Ba`ṯ al-`ArabÄ« al-IÅ¡tirāki) was founded in 1947 as a radical, secular Arab nationalist political party. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Foundation: 1890 Founders: Christapor Mikaelian, Stepan Zorian, Simon Zavarian Head: Hrant Markarian Ideology: Socialism,[1] Nationalism[2] International alignment: Socialist International[1] Colours: Red Seats: Armenia – 11 seats out of 131 Nagorno-Karabakh – 3 seats out of 33 Lebanon – 2 seats out of 128 Website: Partys Official Web Site... The Armenian Communist Party (Hayastani Komunistakan Kusaktsutyun) is a communist political party in Armenia. ... Josip Broz Tito (May 7, 1892 - May 4, 1980) was the ruler of Yugoslavia between the end of World War II and his death in 1980. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...   is the most widely spoken constructed international auxiliary language. ... Look up Buddy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Buddy may refer to: Friend Buddy (Looney Tunes), an animated cartoon character in the Warner Bros. ... Italian fascism (in Italian, fascismo) was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... The Korean Peninsula a. ... The 38th parallel north is a line of latitude that cuts across Asia, the Mediterranean and the United States. ... North Korea, officially the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK; Korean: Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk; Hangul: 조선민주주의인민공화국; Hanja: 朝鮮民主主義人民共和國), is a country in eastern Asia... Towarzysz (pancerny) in 1610-1630. ... Serbian (српски језик; srpski jezik) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... The Communist Party of Peru (Spanish: El Partido Comunista del Perú), more commonly known as the Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso), is a Maoist guerrilla organization in Peru that launched the internal conflict in Peru in 1980. ... APRA could refer to the: American Popular Revolutionary Alliance, a Peruvian political party Australian Prudential Regulation Authority Australasian Performing Rights Association This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Swahili (also called Kiswahili; see Kiswahili for a discussion of the nomenclature) is an agglutinative Bantu language widely spoken in East Africa. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... The Labour Party has been, since its founding in the early 20th century, the principal political party of the left in England, Scotland and Wales. ... Wirral Grammar School for Boys was founded in 1931, situated on Cross Lane, Bebington, on the Wirral. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...

References

  1. ^ "1790, sens polit." - Larousse Dictionnaire d'Étymologie, Paris, 2001.

 
 

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