FACTOID # 6: Michigan is ranked 22nd in land area, but since 41.27% of the state is composed of water, it jumps to 11th place in total area.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Computer programming

Computer programming (often shortened to programming or coding) is the process of writing, testing, debugging/troubleshooting, and maintaining the source code of computer programs. This source code is written in a programming language. The code may be a modification of an existing source or something completely new. The purpose of programming is to create a program that exhibits a certain desired behavior (customization). The process of writing source codes requires expertise in many different subjects, including knowledge of the application domain, specialized algorithms and formal logic. Programming may refer to: Computer programming; and its subfields: Music programming IC programming Mathematical programming (optimization) Category: ... Source code (commonly just source or code) is any series of statements written in some human-readable computer programming language. ... A computer program is a collection of instructions that describe a task, or set of tasks, to be carried out by a computer. ... A programming language is an artificial language that can be used to control the behavior of a machine, particularly a computer. ... Flowcharts are often used to graphically represent algorithms. ... Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ...

Software development process
Activities and steps
Requirements · Architecture
Design · Implementation
Testing · Deployment
Models
Agile · Cleanroom · Iterative · RAD
RUP · Spiral · Waterfall · XP · Scrum
Supporting disciplines
Configuration management
Documentation
Quality assurance (SQA)
Project management
User experience design
This box: view  talk  edit

Within software engineering, programming (the implementation) is regarded as one phase in a software development process. This does not cite any references or sources. ... In sytems and software engineering, requirements analysis encompasses those tasks that go into determining the requirements of a new or altered system, taking account of the possibly conflicting requirements of the various stakeholders, such as users. ... The software architecture of a program or computing system is the structure or structures of the system, which comprise software components, the externally visible properties of those components, and the relationships between them. ... Software design is the process that starts from a problem for which there is currently no acceptable (software) solution, and ends when such a solution has been created. ... Software testing is the process used to assess the quality of computer software. ... Software deployment is all of the activities that make a software system available for use. ... Agile software development is a conceptual framework for software engineering that promotes development iterations throughout the life-cycle of the project. ... The Cleanroom Software Engineering process is a software development process intended to produce software with a certifiable level of reliability. ... Iterative and Incremental development is a software development process developed in response to the weaknesses of the more traditional waterfall model. ... Rapid application development (RAD), is a software development process developed initially by James Martin in the 1980s. ... The Rational Unified Process (RUP) is an iterative software development process framework created by the Rational Software Corporation, a division of IBM since 2003. ... The spiral model is a software development process combining elements of both design and prototyping-in-stages, in an effort to combine advantages of top-down and bottom-up concepts. ... The waterfall model is a sequential software development model (a process for the creation of software) in which development is seen as flowing steadily downwards (like a waterfall) through the phases of requirements analysis, design, implementation, testing (validation), integration, and maintenance. ... Extreme Programming (or XP) is a software engineering methodology, the most prominent of several agile software development methodologies, prescribing a set of daily stakeholder practices that embody and encourage particular XP values (below). ... For other uses, see Scrum. ... Software Configuration Management (SCM) is part of configuration management (CM). ... Software documentation or source code documentation is written text that accompanies computer software. ... Software Quality Assurance (SQA) consists of a means of monitoring the software engineering processes and methods used to ensure quality. ... Project Management is the discipline of organizing and managing resources (e. ... User experience design is a subset of the field of experience design which pertains to the creation of the architecture and interaction models which impact a users perception of a device or system. ... Software engineering is the application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation, and maintenance of software. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...


There is an ongoing debate on the extent to which the writing of programs is an art, a craft or an engineering discipline.[1] Good programming is generally considered to be the measured application of all three, with the goal of producing an efficient and maintainable software solution (the criteria for "efficient" and "maintainable" vary considerably). The discipline differs from many other technical professions in that programmers generally do not need to be licensed or pass any standardized (or governmentally regulated) certification tests in order to call themselves "programmers" or even "software engineers".


Another ongoing debate is the extent to which the programming language used in writing programs affects the form that the final program takes. This debate is analogous to that surrounding the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis [2] in linguistics, that postulates that a particular language's nature influences the habitual thought of its speakers. Different language patterns yield different patterns of thought. This idea challenges the possibility of representing the world perfectly with language, because it acknowledges that the mechanisms of any language condition the thoughts of its speaker community. In linguistics, the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis (SWH) states that there is a systematic relationship between the grammatical categories of the language a person speaks and how that person both understands the world and behaves in it. ... For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ...

Contents

Programmers

Computer programmers are those who write computer software. Their job usually involves: A programmer or software developer is someone who programs computers, that is, one who writes computer software. ... A programmer or software developer is someone who programs computers, that is, one who writes computer software. ...

In sytems and software engineering, requirements analysis encompasses those tasks that go into determining the requirements of a new or altered system, taking account of the possibly conflicting requirements of the various stakeholders, such as users. ... Specification may refer to several different concepts: Specification (standards) refers to specific standards Specificatio - a legal concept Specification (regression) refers to the practice of translating theory into a regression model Category: ... The software architecture of a program or computing system is the structure or structures of the system, which comprise software components, the externally visible properties of those components, and the relationships between them. ... In computer programming, the word code refers to instructions to a computer in a programming language. ... A diagram of the operation of a typical multi-language, multi-target compiler. ... Software testing is the process used to assess the quality of computer software. ... In general terms, documentation is any communicable material (such as text, video, audio, etc. ... Digital integration is the idea that data or information on any given electronic device can be read or manipulated by another device using a standard format. ... In software engineering, software maintenance is the process of enhancing and optimizing deployed software (software release), as well as remedying defects. ...

Programming languages

Different programming languages support different styles of programming (called programming paradigms). The choice of language used is subject to many considerations, such as company policy, suitability to task, availability of third-party packages, or individual preference. Ideally, the programming language best suited for the task at hand will be selected. Trade-offs from this ideal involve finding enough programmers who know the language to build a team, the availability of compilers for that language, and the efficiency with which programs written in a given language execute. A programming language is an artificial language that can be used to control the behavior of a machine, particularly a computer. ... There are a lot of kinds of listing. ... A programming paradigm is a paradigmatic style of programming (compare with a methodology, which is a paradigmatic style of doing software engineering). ... A diagram of the operation of a typical multi-language, multi-target compiler. ...


Allen Downey, in his book How To Think Like A Computer Scientist, writes:

The details look different in different languages, but a few basic instructions appear in just about every language: input: Get data from the keyboard, a file, or some other device. output: Display data on the screen or send data to a file or other device. math: Perform basic mathematical operations like addition and multiplication. conditional execution: Check for certain conditions and execute the appropriate sequence of statements. repetition: Perform some action repeatedly, usually with some variation.

Many computer languages provide a mechanism to call functions provided by libraries. Provided the functions in a library follow the appropriate runtime conventions (eg, method of passing arguments), then these functions may be written in any other language.


History of programming

Wired plug board for an IBM 402 Accounting Machine.
Wired plug board for an IBM 402 Accounting Machine.

The earliest programmable machine (that is a machine whose behavior can be controlled by changes to a "program") was Al-Jazari's programmable humanoid robot in 1206. Al-Jazari's robot was originally a boat with four automatic musicians that floated on a lake to entertain guests at royal drinking parties. His mechanism had a programmable drum machine with pegs (cams) that bump into little levers that operate the percussion. The drummer could be made to play different rhythms and different drum patterns by moving the pegs to different locations.[3] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 229 KB) Summary IBM 402 w:plug-board, wiring side. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 229 KB) Summary IBM 402 w:plug-board, wiring side. ... This article is about devices that perform tasks. ... Diagram from The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices by al-Jazari. ... Hondas ASIMO, an example of a humanoid robot A humanoid robot is a robot with its overall appearance based on that of the human body. ... For other uses, see robot (disambiguation). ... Look up mechanism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up peg, Peg, PEG in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see CAM. Animation showing rotating cams and cam followers producing reciprocating motion. ... For the Portuguese town and parish, see Lever, Portugal. ... Percussion redirects here. ...


The Jacquard Loom, developed in 1801, is often quoted as a source of prior art. The machine used a series of pasteboard cards with holes punched in them. The hole pattern represented the pattern that the loom had to follow in weaving cloth. The loom could produce entirely different weaves using different sets of cards. The use of punched cards was also adopted by Charles Babbage around 1830, to control his Analytical Engine. Jacquard loom on display at Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester, England The Jacquard Loom is a mechanical loom, invented by Joseph Marie Jacquard in 1801, that has holes punched in pasteboard, each row of which corresponds to one row of the design. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... The clipboard is a software program that is used for short-term storage of data as it is transferred between documents or applications, via copy and paste operations. ... The punch card (or Hollerith card) is a recording medium for holding information for use by automated data processing machines. ... Babbage redirects here. ... The analytical engine, an important step in the history of computers, was the design of a mechanical general-purpose computer by the British professor of mathematics Charles Babbage. ...


This innovation was later refined by Herman Hollerith who, in 1896 founded the Tabulating Machine Company (which became IBM). He invented the Hollerith punched card, the card reader, and the key punch machine. These inventions were the foundation of the modern information processing industry. The addition of a plug-board to his 1906 Type I Tabulator allowed it to do different jobs without having to be rebuilt (the first step toward programming). By the late 1940s there were a variety of plug-board programmable machines, called unit record equipment, to perform data processing tasks (card reading). The early computers were also programmed using plug-boards. Herman Hollerith (February 29, 1860 – November 17, 1929) was an German-American statistician who developed a mechanical tabulator based on punched cards in order to rapidly tabulate statistics from millions of pieces of data. ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... International Business Machines Corporation (IBM, or colloquially, Big Blue) (NYSE: IBM) (incorporated June 15, 1911, in operation since 1888) is headquartered in Armonk, New York, USA. The company manufactures and sells computer hardware, software, and services. ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... Tabulating machine constructed by Hollerith The tabulating machine was a machine designed to assist in tabulations. ... IBM 029 keypunch. ... Plugboard. ... Year 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The 1940s decade ran from 1940 to 1949. ... Before the advent of electronic computers, data processing was performed using electromechanical devices called unit record equipment, electric accounting machines (EAM) or tabulating machines. ...

A box of punch cards with several program decks.
A box of punch cards with several program decks.

The invention of the Von Neumann architecture allowed computer programs to be stored in computer memory. Early programs had to be painstakingly crafted using the instructions of the particular machine, often in binary notation. Every model of computer would be likely to need different instructions to do the same task. Later assembly languages were developed that let the programmer specify each instruction in a text format, entering abbreviations for each operation code instead of a number and specifying addresses in symbolic form (e.g. ADD X, TOTAL). In 1954 Fortran, the first higher level programming language, was invented. This allowed programmers to specify calculations by entering a formula directly (e.g. Y = X*2 + 5*X + 9). The program text, or source, was converted into machine instructions using a special program called a compiler. Many other languages were developed, including ones for commercial programming, such as COBOL. Programs were mostly still entered using punch cards or paper tape. (See computer programming in the punch card era). By the late 1960s, data storage devices and computer terminals became inexpensive enough so programs could be created by typing directly into the computers. Text editors were developed that allowed changes and corrections to be made much more easily than with punch cards. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1401x1554, 742 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Computer programming Computer file ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1401x1554, 742 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Computer programming Computer file ... The punch card (or Hollerith card) is a recording medium for holding information for use by automated data processing machines. ... Design of the Von Neumann architecture For the robotic architecture also named after Von Neumann, see Von Neumann machine The von Neumann architecture is a computer design model that uses a single storage structure to hold both instructions and data. ... The terms storage (U.K.) or memory (U.S.) refer to the parts of a digital computer that retain physical state (data) for some interval of time, possibly even after electrical power to the computer is turned off. ... The binary numeral system, or base-2 number system, is a numeral system that represents numeric values using two symbols, usually 0 and 1. ... See the terminology section, below, regarding inconsistent use of the terms assembly and assembler. ... Fortran (previously FORTRAN[1]) is a general-purpose[2], procedural,[3] imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing. ... A diagram of the operation of a typical multi-language, multi-target compiler. ... COBOL (pronounced //) is a Third-generation programming language, and one of the oldest programming languages still in active use. ... A roll of punched tape Punched tape is an old-fashioned form of data storage, consisting of a long strip of paper in which holes are punched to store data. ... Punch card from a Fortran program. ... A data storage device is a device for recording (storing) information (data). ... A computer terminal is an electronic or electromechanical hardware device that is used for entering data into, and displaying data from, a computer or a computing system. ... Notepad is the standard text editor for Microsoft Windows A text editor is a piece of computer software for editing plain text. ...


As time has progressed, computers have made giant leaps in the area of processing power. This has brought about newer programming languages that are more abstracted from the underlying hardware. Although these more abstracted languages require additional overhead, in most cases the huge increase in speed of modern computers has brought about little performance decrease compared to earlier counterparts. The benefits of these more abstracted languages is that they allow both an easier learning curve for people less familiar with the older lower-level programming languages, and they also allow a more experienced programmer to develop simple applications quickly. Despite these benefits, large complicated programs, and programs that are more dependent on speed still require the faster and relatively lower-level languages with todays hardware. (The same concerns were raised about the original Fortran language.) In computer science, abstraction is a mechanism and practice to reduce and factor out details so that one can focus on a few concepts at a time. ... In computer science, overhead is generally considered any combination of excess or indirect computation time, memory, bandwidth, or other resources that are required to be utilized or expended to enable a particular goal. ...


Throughout the second half of the twentieth century, programming was an attractive career in most developed countries. Some forms of programming have been increasingly subject to offshore outsourcing (importing software and services from other countries, usually at a lower wage), making programming career decisions in developed countries more complicated, while increasing economic opportunities in less developed areas. It is unclear how far this trend will continue and how deeply it will impact programmer wages and opportunities. Offshore outsourcing is the practice of hiring an external organization to perform some business functions in a country other than the one where the products or services are actully developed or manufactured. ...


Modern programming

Quality requirements

Whatever the approach to the software development may be, the program must finally satisfy some fundamental properties; bearing them in mind while programming reduces the costs in terms of time and/or money due to debugging, further development and user support. Although quality programming can be achieved in a number of ways, following five properties are among the most relevant: When applied to software the adjective quality may apply to source code as seen by software developers, or to applications software as seen by the end-users of the software. ...

  • Efficiency: it is referred to the system resource consumption (computer processor, memory, slow devices, networks and to some extent even user interaction) which must be the lowest possible.
  • Reliability: the results of the program must be correct, which not only implies a correct code implementation but also reduction of error propagation (e.g. resulting from data conversion) and prevention of typical errors (overflow, underflow or zero division).
  • Robustness: a program must anticipate situations of data type conflict and all other incompatibilities which result in run time errors and stop the program. The focus of this aspect is the interaction with the user and the handling of error messages.
  • Portability: it should work as it is in any software and hardware environment, or at least without relevant reprogramming.
  • Readability: the purpose of the main program and of each subroutine must be clearly defined with appropriate comments and self explanatory choice of symbolic names (constants, variables, function names, classes, methods, ...).

In statistics, propagation of uncertainty (or propagation of error) is the effect of variables uncertainties (or errors) on the uncertainty of a function based on them. ...

Algorithmic complexity

The academic field and the engineering practice of computer programming are both largely concerned with discovering and implementing the most efficient algorithms for a given class of problem. For this purpose, algorithms are classified into orders using so-called Big O notation, O(n), which expresses resource use, such as execution time or memory consumption, in terms of the size of an input. Expert programmers are familiar with a variety of well-established algorithms and their respective complexities and use this knowledge to choose algorithms that are best suited to the circumstances. Flowcharts are often used to graphically represent algorithms. ... For other uses, see Big O. In computational complexity theory, big O notation is often used to describe how the size of the input data affects an algorithms usage of computational resources (usually running time or memory). ...


Methodologies

The first step in most formal software development projects is requirements analysis, followed by modeling, implementation, and failure elimination (debugging). There exist a lot of differing approaches for each of those tasks. One approach popular for requirements analysis is Use Case analysis. Debugging is a methodical process of finding and reducing the number of bugs, or defects, in a computer program or a piece of electronic hardware thus making it behave as expected. ... In sytems and software engineering, requirements analysis encompasses those tasks that go into determining the requirements of a new or altered system, taking account of the possibly conflicting requirements of the various stakeholders, such as users. ... A use case is a technique used in software and systems engineering to capture the functional requirements of a system. ...


Popular modeling techniques include Object-Oriented Analysis and Design (OOAD) and Model-Driven Architecture (MDA). The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a notation used for both OOAD and MDA. In object-oriented programming OOAD stands for object-oriented analysis and object-oriented design. ... Model-driven architecture (MDAâ„¢) is a software design approach launched by the Object Management Group (OMG)[1] in 2001. ... In the field of software engineering, the Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a standardized specification language for object modeling. ...


A similar technique used for database design is Entity-Relationship Modeling (ER Modeling). An Entity-relationship model is a relational schema database modeling method used to model a system and its requirements in a top-down approach. ...


Implementation techniques include imperative languages (object-oriented or procedural), functional languages, and logic languages. Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm that uses objects and their interactions to design applications and computer programs. ... This article is about the computer programming paradigm. ... Functional programming is a programming paradigm that treats computation as the evaluation of mathematical functions and avoids state and mutable data. ... Logic programming (which might better be called logical programming by analogy with mathematical programming and linear programming) is, in its broadest sense, the use of mathematical logic for computer programming. ...


Debugging is most often done with IDEs like Visual Studio, NetBeans, and Eclipse. Separate debuggers like gdb are also used. An integrated development environment (IDE), also known as integrated design environment and integrated debugging environment, is a programming environment that has been packaged as an application program,that assists computer programmers in developing software. ... Microsoft Visual Studio is a series of IDEs by Microsoft. ... NetBeans refers to both a platform for the development of Java desktop applications, and an integrated development environment (IDE) developed using the NetBeans Platform. ... Eclipse is an open-source software framework written primarily in Java. ... The GNU Debugger, usually called just GDB, is the standard debugger for the GNU software system. ...


Measuring language usage

It is very difficult to determine what are the most popular of modern programming languages. Some languages are very popular for particular kinds of applications (e.g., COBOL is still strong in the corporate data center, often on large mainframes, FORTRAN in engineering applications, and C in embedded applications), while some languages are regularly used to write many different kinds of applications. COBOL (pronounced //) is a Third-generation programming language, and one of the oldest programming languages still in active use. ... For other uses, see Mainframe. ... Fortran (also FORTRAN) is a statically typed, compiled, programming language originally developed in the 1950s and still heavily used for scientific computing and numerical computation half a century later. ... C is a general-purpose, block structured, procedural, imperative computer programming language developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie at the Bell Telephone Laboratories for use with the Unix operating system. ...


Methods of measuring language popularity include: counting the number of job advertisements that mention the language[4], the number of books teaching the language that are sold (this overestimates the importance of newer languages), and estimates of the number of existing lines of code written in the language (this underestimates the number of users of business languages such as COBOL).


Debugging

Debugging is a very important task in the software development process, because an erroneous program can have significant consequences for its users. Some languages are more prone to some kinds of faults because their specification does not require compilers to perform as much checking as other languages. Use of a static analysis tool can help detect some possible problems. Debugging is a methodical process of finding and reducing the number of bugs, or defects, in a computer program or a piece of electronic hardware thus making it behave as expected. ... A diagram of the operation of a typical multi-language, multi-target compiler. ... This article is about the statistical technique. ...


See also

For a more comprehensive list, see the List of computer programming topics. ... Computer programming is a subfield of computer science. ... Punch card from a Fortran program. ... A hello world program is a computer program that prints out Hello, World! on a display device. ... Software engineering is the application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation, and maintenance of software. ...

References

  1. ^ Paul Graham (2003). "Hackers and Painters". Retrieved on 2006-08-22.
  2. ^ Kenneth E. Iverson, the originator of the APL programming language, believed that the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis applied to computer languages (without actually mentioning the hypothesis by name). His Turing award lecture, "Notation as a tool of thought", was devoted to this theme, arguing that more powerful notations aided thinking about computer algorithms. Iverson K.E.,"Notation as a tool of thought", Communications of the ACM, 23: 444-465 (August 1980).
  3. ^ A 13th Century Programmable Robot (University of Sheffield).
  4. ^ Survey of Job advertisements mentioning a given language>

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Kenneth Eugene Iverson (17 December 1920, Camrose, Alberta, Canada – 19 October 2004, Toronto, Ontario, Canada) was a computer scientist most notable for developing the APL programming language in 1957. ... APL (for A Programming Language) is an array programming language based on a notation invented in 1957 by Kenneth E. Iverson while at Harvard University. ... The A.M. Turing Award is given annually by the Association for Computing Machinery to a person selected for contributions of a technical nature made to the computing community. ... The University of Sheffield is a research university, located in Sheffield in South Yorkshire, England. ...

External links

Wikibooks
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of
Wikibooks
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of
Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Computer programming - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1236 words)
Computer programming (often simply programming or coding) is the craft of writing a set of commands or instructions that can later be compiled and/or interpreted and then inherently transformed to an executable that an electronic machine can execute or "run".
Another early use of computer programs was made using a soldering iron and a large number of vacuum tubes (later transistors).
C# is an object-oriented programming language developed by Microsoft as part of their.NET initiative, and later approved as a standard by ECMA and ISO.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m