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Encyclopedia > Computer printer

A computer printer, or more commonly a printer, produces a hard copy (permanent human-readable text and/or graphics) of documents stored in electronic form, usually on physical print media such as paper or transparencies. Many printers are primarily used as local computer peripherals, and are attached by a printer cable to a computer which serves as a document source. Some printers, commonly known as network printers, have built-in network interfaces (typically wireless or Ethernet), and can serve as a hardcopy device for any user on the network. Individual printers are often designed to support both local and network connected users at the same time. Hard Copy was a tabloid news infotainment magazine show similar to Inside Edition and A Current Affair. ... Human-readable refers to a representation of information that can be naturally read by humans. ... Write redirects here. ... Graphic redirects here. ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ... For an account of the words periphery and peripheral as they are used in biology, sociology, politics, computer hardware, and other fields, see the periphery disambiguation page. ... Printer cable refers to the cable that carries data between a computer and a printer. ... A computer network is an interconnection of a group of computers. ... Ethernet is a large, diverse family of frame-based computer networking technologies that operate at many speeds for local area networks (LANs). ... Look up network, networking in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In addition, many modern printers can directly interface to electronic media such as memory sticks or memory cards, or to image capture devices such as digital cameras, scanners; some printers are combined with a scanners and/or fax machines in a single unit. Printers that include non-printing features are sometimes called Multi-Function Printers (MFP) or Multi-Function Devices (MFD). A 2GB Sony High Speed Memory Stick PRO Duo with MagicGate support. ... Four major types of memory cards (from left to right: CompactFlash, Memory Stick, Secure Digital, and xD. A memory card or flash memory card is a solid-state electronic flash memory data storage device used with digital cameras, handheld and Mobile computers, telephones, music players, video game consoles, and other... Look up digital camera in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In computing, a scanner is a device that analyzes images, printed text, or handwriting, or an object (such as an ornament) and converts it to a digital image. ...


A printer which is combined with a scanner can function as a photocopier if so designed. Most MFPs include printing, scanning, and copying among their features. A small, much-used Xerox copier in a high school library. ...


Printers are designed for low-volume, short-turnaround print jobs; requiring virtually no setup time to achieve a hard copy of a given document. However, printers are generally slow devices (30 pages per minute is considered fast; and many consumer printers are far slower than that), and the cost-per-page is relatively high.


In contrast, the printing press (which serves much the same function), is designed and optimized for high-volume print jobs such as newspaper print runs--printing presses are capable of hundreds of pages per minute or more, and have an incremental cost-per-page which is a fraction of that of printers. The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ...


The printing press remains the machine of choice for high-volume, professional publishing. However, as printers have improved in quality and performance, many jobs which used to be done by professional print shops are now done by users on local printers; see desktop publishing. Print Shop is a basic desktop publishing software package developed in the early 1980s by Brøderbund. ... Adobe InDesign CS2, one of many popular desktop publishing applications. ...


The world's first computer printer was a 19th century mechanically driven apparatus invented by Charles Babbage for his Difference Engine. Babbage redirects here. ... Part of Babbages Difference engine, assembled after his death by Babbages son, using parts found in his laboratory. ...


In 2007, a study revealed that toner-based printers produced pollution as harmful as that from cigarettes. [1] Unlit filtered cigarettes. ...

Contents

Printing technology

Printers are routinely classified by the underlying print technology they employ; numerous such technologies have been developed over the years.


The choice of print engine has a substantial effect on what jobs a printer is suitable for, as different technologies are capable of different levels of image/text quality, print speed, low cost, noise; in addition, some technologies are inappropriate for certain types of physical media (such as carbon paper or transparencies). A sheet of carbon paper, coating side down. ... Overhead projector in operation, with a transparency being flashed. ...


Another aspect of printer technology that is often forgotten is resistance to alteration: liquid ink such as from an inkjet head or fabric ribbon becomes absorbed by the paper fibers, so documents printed with liquid ink are more difficult to alter than documents printed with toner or solid inks, which do not penetrate below the paper surface.


Checks should either be printed with liquid ink or on special "check paper with toner anchorage".[2] For similar reasons carbon film ribbons for IBM Selectric typewriters bore labels warning against using them to type negotiable instruments such as checks. The machine-readable lower portion of a check, however, must be printed using MICR toner or ink. Banks and other clearing houses employ automation equipment that relies on the magnetic flux from these specially printed characters to function properly. The invention of a printer is awesome. I hate writing so printing makes things easier. Bold textBold textBold textBold textMagnetic Ink Character Recognition, or MICR, colloquially pronounced or sometimes , is a character recognition technology adopted mainly by the banking industry to facilitate the processing of checks. ...


Modern print technology

The following printing technologies are routinely found in modern printers, as of April 2006: 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Toner-based printers

Main article: Laser printer

Toner-based printers work using the Xerographic principle that is at work in most photocopiers: by adhering toner to a light-sensitive print drum, then using static electricity to transfer the toner to the printing medium to which it is fused with heat and pressure. 1993 Apple LaserWriter Pro 630 laser printer A laser printer is a common type of computer printer that rapidly produces high quality text and graphics on plain paper. ... Chester F. Carlson Xerography (or Electrophotography) is a photocopying technique developed by Chester Carlson in 1938 and patented on October 6, 1942. ... A small, much-used Xerox copier in a high school library. ... A color toner bottle Toner is a powder used in laser printers and photocopiers to form the text and images on the printed paper. ...


The most common type of toner-based printer is the laser printer, which uses precision lasers to cause adherence. Laser printers are known for high quality prints, good print speed, and a low (Black and White) cost-per-copy; they are the most common printer for many general-purpose office applications. They are far less commonly used as consumer printers due to a high initial cost. 1993 Apple LaserWriter Pro 630 laser printer A laser printer is a common type of computer printer that rapidly produces high quality text and graphics on plain paper. ... In Wikipedia, precision has the following meanings: In engineering, science, industry and statistics, precision characterises the degree of mutual agreement among a series of individual measurements, values, or results - see accuracy and precision. ... For other uses, see Laser (disambiguation). ...


Laser printers are available in both color and monochrome varieties.


Another toner based printer is the LED printer which uses an array of LEDs instead of a laser to cause toner adhesion to the print drum. LED printers are identical in principle to laser printers except for the light source used. ... External links LEd Category: TeX ...


Recent research has also indicated that Laser printers emit potentially dangerous ultrafine particles, possibly causing health problems associated with respiration. [3] The degree of particle emissions varies with age, model and design of each printer but is generally proportional to the amount of toner required. Furthermore, a well ventilated workspace would allow such ultrafine particles to disperse thus reducing the health side effects.


Liquid inkjet printers

Main article: Inkjet printer

Inkjet printers spray very small, precise amounts (usually a few picolitres) of ink onto the media. These droplets of ink will carry a slight electrical charge. The placement of the ink on the page is then determined by the charge of a cathode and electrode between which the ink moves towards the paper. Inkjet printing (and the related bubble-jet technology) are the most common consumer print technology; as high-quality inkjet printers are inexpensive to produce. An Epson inkjet printer Inkjet printers are a type of computer printer that operates by propelling tiny droplets of liquid ink onto paper. ... An Epson inkjet printer Inkjet printers are a type of computer printer that operates by propelling tiny droplets of liquid ink onto paper. ... Atomization (British English: atomisation) is conversion of bulk liquid into a spray or mist (i. ... The litre (or liter in US) is a metric unit of volume. ... An ink is a liquid containing various pigments and/or dyes used for coloring a surface to render an image or text. ...


Virtually all modern inkjet printers are color devices; some, known as photo printers, include extra pigments to better reproduce the color gamut needed for high-quality photographic prints (and are additionally capable of printing on photographic card stock, as opposed to plain office paper). A photo printer is a printer (usually an inkjet printer) that is specifically designed to print high quality digital photos on photo paper. ... In computer graphics, the gamut, or color gamut, is a certain complete subset of colors. ...


Inkjet printers consist of nozzles that produce very small ink bubbles that turn into tiny droplets of ink. The dots formed are the size of tiny pixels. Ink-jet printers can print high quality text and graphics. They are also almost silent in operation. Inkjet printers have a much lower initial cost than do laser printers, but have a much higher cost-per-copy, as the ink needs to be frequently replaced.


In addition, consumer printer manufacturers have adapted a business model similar to that employed by manufacturers of razors; the printers themselves are frequently sold below cost, and the ink is then sold at a high markup. The razor and blades business model (also called the bait and hook model or the tied products model) works by selling a master product at a subsidised price, and making the profit on high margin consumables that are essential to the use of the master product. ... Collection of Modern Safety Razors - Gillette Fusion Power, Gillette M3Power, Mach3 Turbo Champion, Schick Quattro Chrome, Schick Quattro Power, Gillette Mach3, Gillette Sensor, Schick Xtreme3, Schick Xtreme SubZero, and Schick Xtreme3 Disposables A razor is an edge tool primarily used in shaving. ...


Various legal and technological means are employed to try and force users to only purchase ink from the manufacturer (thus leading to vendor lock-in); however there is a thriving aftermarket for such things as third-party ink cartridges (new or refurbished) and refill kits. In economics, vendor lock-in, also known as proprietary lock-in, customer lock-in, lock-in is where a customer is dependent on a vendor for products and services and cannot move to another vendor without substantial switching costs, real and/or perceived. ... An inkjet refill kit is a set of tools and a certain amount of ink used to refill ink cartridges. ...


Inkjet printers are also far slower than laser printers. Inkjet printers also have the disadvantage that pages must be allowed to dry before being aggressively handled; premature handling can cause the inks (which are adhered to the page in liquid form) to run.


Solid ink printers

Main article: Solid ink

Solid Ink printers, also known as phase-change printers, are a type of thermal transfer printer. They use solid sticks of CMYK colored ink (similar in consistency to candle wax), which are melted and fed into a piezo crystal operated print-head. The printhead sprays the ink on a rotating, oil coated drum. The paper then passes over the print drum, at which time the image is transferred, or transfixed, to the page. A Xerox Phaser 8500 tray with solid ink. ... A Xerox Phaser 8500 tray with solid ink. ... Thermal transfer Barcode Printers Barcode Printers typically come in fixed sizes of 4 inches, 6 inches or 8 inches wide. ... Cyan, magenta, yellow, and key (black) CMYK (or sometimes YMCK) is a subtractive color model used in color printing. ...


Solid ink printers are most commonly used as color office printers, and are excellent at printing on transparencies and other non-porous media. Solid ink printers can produce excellent results. Acquisition and operating costs are similar to laser printers. Drawbacks of the technology include high power consumption and long warm-up times from a cold state. A Xerox Phaser 8500 tray with solid ink. ...


Also, some users complain that the resulting prints are difficult to write on (the wax tends to repel inks from pens), and are difficult to feed through Automatic Document Feeders, but these traits have been significantly reduced in later models. In addition, this type of printer is only available from one manufacturer, Xerox, manufactured as part of their Xerox Phaser office printer line. Previously, solid ink printers were manufactured by Tektronix, but Tek sold the printing business to Xerox in 2001 For other uses, see Pen (disambiguation). ... In Multifunction or all-in-one printers, Automatic Document Feeder, or ADF is a feature which takes several pages and feeds the paper one page at a time into the scanner, allowing the user to scan (and thereby copy, print, or fax) multiple-page documents without having to manually replace... Xerox Corporation (NYSE: XRX) (name pronounced ) is a global document management company, which manufactures and sells a range of color and black-and-white printers, multifunction systems, photo copiers, digital production printing presses, and related consulting services and supplies. ... Xerox Phaser is a line of color and black and white printers produced and sold by Xerox. ... Tektronix is a United States corporation that is currently a major presence in the test, measurement, and measuring industry. ...


Dye-sublimation printers

Main article: Dye-sublimation printer

A dye-sublimation printer (or dye-sub printer) is a printer which employs a printing process that uses heat to transfer dye to a medium such as a plastic card, paper or canvas. The process is usually to lay one color at a time using a ribbon that has color panels. Dye-sub printers are intended primarily for high-quality color applications, including color photography; and are less well-suited for text. While once the province of high-end print shops, dye-sublimation printers are now increasingly used as dedicated consumer photo printers. Samsung SPP-2040 working. ... A canvas print (also known as a stretched canvas) is an image printed onto canvas, which is then framed and displayed. ...


Inkless printers

Inkless printers use paper with colorless dye crystals embedded between the two outer layers of the paper. When the printer is turned on, heat from the drum causes the crystals to colorize at different rates and become visible. The technology was worked on by Zink Imaging and is now available (2007). Because of the way it prints, the printer can be as small as a business card, the images are waterproof, and in fact, one product slated for release by Zink Imaging is a digital camera with a printer built into it. Xerox is also working on an inkless printer which will use a special reusable paper coated with a few micrometres of UV light sensitive chemicals. The printer will use a special UV light bar which will be able to write and erase the paper. As of early 2007 this technology is still in development and the text on the printed pages can only last between 16-24 hours before fading [4]. Xerox Corporation (NYSE: XRX) (name pronounced ) is a global document management company, which manufactures and sells a range of color and black-and-white printers, multifunction systems, photo copiers, digital production printing presses, and related consulting services and supplies. ...


Obsolete and special-purpose printing technologies

The following technologies are either obsolete, or limited to special applications though most were, at one time, in widespread use. Among these types are impact printers and pen-based plotters.


Thermal printers work by selectively heating regions of special heat-sensitive paper. These printers are limited to special-purpose applications such as cash registers and the printers in ATMs and gasoline dispensers. They are also used in some older inexpensive fax machines. A thermal printer (or direct thermal printer) produces a printed image by selectively heating coated thermochromic paper, or thermal paper as it is commonly known, when the paper passes over the thermal print head. ... Outdoor ATMs may be free-standing, like this kiosk, or built into the side of banks or other buildings An automatic teller machine, automated teller machine (ATM) or cash machine is an electronic device that allows a banks customers to make cash withdrawals and check their account balances without... A gas pump is a machine at a gas station that is used to put gasoline in vehicles. ...


Impact printers rely on a forcible impact to transfer ink to the media, similar to the action of a typewriter. All but the dot matrix printer rely on the use of formed characters, letterforms that represent each of the characters that the printer was capable of printing. In addition, most of these printers were limited to monochrome printing in a single typeface at one time, although bolding and underlining of text could be done by overstriking, that is, printing two or more impressions in the same character position. Impact printers varieties include, Typewriter-derived printers, Teletypewriter-derived printers, Daisy wheel printers, Dot matrix printers and Line printers. Dot matrix printers remain in common use in businesses where multi-part forms are printed, such as car rental service counters. For other uses, see Force (disambiguation). ... Did you mean? decal Population transfer Manhattan Transfer List of Latin words with English derivatives Transfer (movie) Electron transfer Fare transfer A technique in propaganda This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Mechanical desktop typewriters, such as this Underwood Five, were long time standards of government agencies, newsrooms, and sales offices. ... A dot matrix printer or impact matrix printer refers to a type of computer printer with a print head that runs back and forth on the page and prints by impact, striking an ink-soaked cloth ribbon against the paper, much like a typewriter. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Pen-based plotters were an alternate printing technology once common in engineering and architectural firms. Pen-based plotters rely on contact with the paper (but not impact, per se), and special purpose pens that are mechanically run over the paper to create text and images.


Only plotters, dot matrix printers, and certain line printers were capable of printing graphics.


Typewriter-derived printers

Several different computer printers were simply computer-controllable versions of existing electric typewriters. The Friden Flexowriter and IBM Selectric typewriter were the most-common examples. The Flexowriter printed with a conventional typebar mechanism while the Selectric used IBM's well-known "golf ball" printing mechanism. In either case, the letter form then struck a ribbon which was pressed against the paper, printing one character at a time. The maximum speed of the Selectric printer (the faster of the two) was 15.5 characters per second. The Friden Flexowriter was a teleprinter based on a 1940s IBM product that was spun off as an independent company and later sold to the Friden Corp. ... IBM Selectric The IBM Selectric typewriter (occasionally known as the IBM Golfball typewriter) is an influential electric typewriter design. ... The Friden Flexowriter was a teleprinter based on a 1940s IBM product that was spun off as an independent company and later sold to the Friden Corp. ... IBM Selectric The IBM Selectric typewriter (occasionally known as the IBM Golfball typewriter) is an influential electric typewriter design. ...


Teletypewriter-derived printers

Main article: Teleprinter

The common teleprinter could easily be interfaced to the computer and became very popular except for those computers manufactured by IBM. Some models used a "typebox" that was positioned (in the X- and Y-axes) by a mechanism and the selected letter from was struck by a hammer. Others used a type cylinder in a similar way as the Selectric typewriters used their type ball. In either case, the letter form then struck a ribbon to print the letterform. Most teleprinters operated at ten characters per second although a few achieved 15 CPS. Teletype machines in World War II A teleprinter (teletypewriter, teletype or TTY for TeleTYpe/TeleTYpewriter) is a now largely obsolete electro-mechanical typewriter which can be used to communicate typed messages from point to point through a simple electrical communications channel, often just a pair of wires. ... Teletype machines in World War II A teleprinter (teletypewriter, teletype or TTY for TeleTYpe/TeleTYpewriter) is a now largely obsolete electro-mechanical typewriter which can be used to communicate typed messages from point to point through a simple electrical communications channel, often just a pair of wires. ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ...


Daisy wheel printers

Main article: Daisy wheel printer

Daisy-wheel printers operate in much the same fashion as a typewriter. A hammer strikes a wheel with petals (the daisy wheel), each petal containing a letter form at its tip. The letter form strikes a ribbon of ink, depositing the ink on the page and thus printing a character. By rotating the daisy wheel, different characters are selected for printing. A daisy wheel printer is a type of computer printer that produces high-quality type, and is often referred to as a letter-quality printer (this in contrast to high-quality dot-matrix printers, capable of near-letter-quality, or NLQ, output). ... Mechanical desktop typewriters, such as this Underwood Five, were long time standards of government agencies, newsrooms, and sales offices. ... An ink is a liquid containing various pigments and/or dyes used for coloring a surface to render an image or text. ...


These printers were also referred to as letter-quality printers because, during their heyday, they could produce text which was as clear and crisp as a typewriter (though they were nowhere near the quality of printing presses). The fastest letter-quality printers printed at 30 characters per second. The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ...


Dot-matrix printers

Main article: Dot matrix printer

In the general sense many printers rely on a matrix of pixels, or dots, that together form the larger image. However, the term dot matrix printer is specifically used for impact printers that use a matrix of small pins to create precise dots. The advantage of dot-matrix over other impact printers is that they can produce graphical images in addition to text; however the text is generally of poorer quality than impact printers that use letterforms (type). A dot matrix printer or impact matrix printer refers to a type of computer printer with a print head that runs back and forth on the page and prints by impact, striking an ink-soaked cloth ribbon against the paper, much like a typewriter. ... For the square matrix section, see square matrix. ... This article is about the picture element. ... Dot can refer to several different characters: full stop, or period, primarily used in writing to end a sentence. ... A dot matrix printer or impact matrix printer refers to a type of computer printer with a print head that runs back and forth on the page and prints by impact, striking an ink-soaked cloth ribbon against the paper, much like a typewriter. ... Look up pin in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Graphic design is the applied art of arranging image and text to communicate a message. ...

A Tandy 1000 HX with a Tandy DMP-133 dot-matrix printer.
A Tandy 1000 HX with a Tandy DMP-133 dot-matrix printer.

Dot-matrix printers can be broadly divided into two major classes: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1207x682, 74 KB) This is a Tandy 1000 HX that I owned a number of years ago. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1207x682, 74 KB) This is a Tandy 1000 HX that I owned a number of years ago. ... The Tandy 1000 was a line of more or less IBM PC compatible home computer systems produced by the Tandy Corporation for sale in its Radio Shack chain of stores. ...

Dot matrix printers can either be character-based or line-based (that is, a single horizontal series of pixels across the page), referring to the configuration of the print head. A dot matrix printer or impact matrix printer refers to a type of computer printer with a print head that runs back and forth on the page and prints by impact, striking an ink-soaked cloth ribbon against the paper, much like a typewriter. ... A stored energy printer is a type of computer printer that uses the energy stored in a spring or magnetic field to push a hammer through a ribbon to print a dot. ... A computer printer is a computer peripheral device that produces a hard copy (permanent human-readable text and/or graphics, usually on paper) from data stored in a computer connected to it. ...


At one time, dot matrix printers were one of the more common types of printers used for general use - such as for home and small office use. Such printers would have either 9 or 24 pins on the print head. 24-pin print heads were able to print at a higher quality. Once the price of inkjet printers dropped to the point where they were competitive with dot matrix printers, dot matrix printers began to fall out of favor for general use.


Some dot matrix printers, such as the NEC P6300, can be upgraded to print in color. This is achieved through the use of a four-color ribbon mounted on a mechanism (provided in an upgrade kit that replaces the standard black ribbon mechanism after installation) that raises and lowers the ribbons as needed. Color graphics are generally printed in four passes at standard resolution, thus slowing down printing considerably. As a result, color graphics can take up to four times longer to print than standard monochrome graphics, or up to 8-16 times as long at high resolution mode.


Dot matrix printers are still commonly used in low-cost, low-quality applications like cash registers, or in demanding, very high volume applications like invoice printing. The fact that they use an impact printing method allows them to be used to print multi-part documents using carbonless copy paper (like sales invoices and credit card receipts), whereas other printing methods are unusable with paper of this type. Dot-matrix printers are now (as of 2005) rapidly being superseded even as receipt printers. Antique crank-operated cash register This article is about the cash register. ... An invoice or bill is a commercial document issued by a seller to a buyer, indicating the products, quantities and agreed prices for products or services with which the seller has already provided the buyer. ... Carbonless copy paper or NCR (no carbon required) is an alternative to carbon paper. ...


Line printers

Main article: Line printer

Line printers, as the name implies, print an entire line of text at a time. Three principal designs existed. In drum printers, a drum carries the entire character set of the printer repeated in each column that is to be printed. In chain printers (also known as train printers), the character set is arranged multiple times around a chain that travels horizontally past the print line. In either case, to print a line, precisely timed hammers strike against the back of the paper at the exact moment that the correct character to be printed is passing in front of the paper. The paper presses forward against a ribbon which then presses against the character form and the impression of the character form is printed onto the paper. Fragment of lineprinter cylinder with the type of % The line printer is a form of high speed impact printer in which one line of type is printed at a time. ...


Comb printers represent the third major design. These printers were a hybrid of dot matrix printing and line printing. In these printers, a comb of hammers printed a portion of a row of pixels at one time (for example, every eighth pixel). By shifting the comb back and forth slightly, the entire pixel row could be printed (continuing the example, in just eight cycles). The paper then advanced and the next pixel row was printed. Because far less motion was involved than in a conventional dot matrix printer, these printers were very fast compared to dot matrix printers and were competitive in speed with formed-character line printers while also being able to print dot-matrix graphics.


Line printers were the fastest of all impact printers and were used for bulk printing in large computer centres. They were virtually never used with personal computers and have now been replaced by high-speed laser printers.


The legacy of line printers lives on in many computer operating systems, which use the abbreviations "lp", "lpr", or "LPT" to refer to printers. An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer and provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. ...


Pen-based plotters

Main article: Plotter

A plotter is a vector graphics printing device which operates by moving a pen over the surface of paper. Plotters have been (and still are) used in applications such as computer-aided design, though they are being replaced with wide-format conventional printers (which nowadays have sufficient resolution to render high-quality vector graphics using a rasterized print engine). It is commonplace to refer to such wide-format printers as "plotters", even though such usage is technically incorrect. For other uses, see Plot. ... Example showing effect of vector graphics versus raster graphics. ... CADD and CAD redirect here. ...


Other printers

A number of other sorts of printers are important for historical reasons, or for special purpose uses:

A digital minilab is a computer printer that uses traditional chemical photographic processes to make prints of digital images. ... Until the advent of digital photographic processes, the sole meaning of photographic paper was paper coated with light-sensitive chemicals. ... The VT52 was a CRT-based computer terminal produced by Digital Equipment Corporation during the late 1970s. ... A spark printer uses a special paper coated with a layer of aluminium over a black backing, which is printed on by using a pulsing current onto the paper via two styli that move across on a moving belt at high speed. ... ZX81 logo The Sinclair ZX81 home computer, released by Sinclair Research in 1981, was the follow up to the companys ZX80. ... A typical barcode printer This image has an uncertain copyright status and is pending deletion. ... Wikipedia encoded in Code 128 Wikipedia encoded in Code 93 Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia encoded in the DataMatrix 2D barcode For the taxonomic method, see DNA barcoding. ...

Printing mode

The data received by a printer may be:

  1. a string of characters
  2. a bitmapped image
  3. a vector image

Some printers can process all three types of data, others not. Computer files can be divided into two broad categories: binary and text. ... Imagine the smiley face in the top left corner as an RGB bitmap image. ... Example showing effect of vector graphics versus raster graphics. ...

  • Daisy wheel printers can handle only plain text data or rather simple point plots.
  • Plotters typically process vector images.
  • Modern printing technology, such as laser printers and inkjet printers, can adequately reproduce all three. This is especially true of printers equipped with support for PostScript and/or PCL; which includes the vast majority of printers produced today.

Today it is common to print everything (even plain text) by sending ready bitmapped images to the printer, because it allows better control over formatting.  Many printer drivers do not use the text mode at all, even if the printer is capable of it. A daisy wheel printer is a type of computer printer that produces high-quality type, and is often referred to as a letter-quality printer (this in contrast to high-quality dot-matrix printers, capable of near-letter-quality, or NLQ, output). ... For other uses, see Plot. ... 1993 Apple LaserWriter Pro 630 laser printer A laser printer is a common type of computer printer that rapidly produces high quality text and graphics on plain paper. ... An Epson inkjet printer Inkjet printers are a type of computer printer that operates by propelling tiny droplets of liquid ink onto paper. ... For the literary term, see Postscript. ... A page description language (PDL) is a language that describes the appearance of a printed page in a higher level than an actual output bitmap. ... In computers, a printer driver or a print processor is a piece of software that converts the data to be printed to the form specific to a printer. ...


Monochrome, color and photo printers

Main article: Photo printer

A monochrome printer can only produce an image consisting of one color, usually black. A monochrome printer may also be able to produce various tones of that color, such as a grey-scale. A photo printer is a printer (usually an inkjet printer) that is specifically designed to print high quality digital photos on photo paper. ... A photograph of a sign in grayscale The same photograph in black and white Monochrome comes from the two Greek words mono (μωνο, meaning one), and chroma (χρωμα, meaning surface or the color of the skin). A monochromatic object has a single color. ... Look up image in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... This article is about the color. ... In computing, a grayscale or greyscale digital image is an image in which the value of each pixel is a single sample. ...


A color printer can produce images of multiple colors.


A photo printer is a color printer that can produce images that mimic the color range (gamut) and resolution of photographic methods of printing. Many can be used autonomously (without a computer), with a memory card or USB connector. A photo printer is a printer (usually an inkjet printer) that is specifically designed to print high quality digital photos on photo paper. ... In color reproduction, including computer graphics and photography, the gamut, or color gamut (pronounced ), is a certain complete subset of colors. ... In color reproduction, including computer graphics and photography, the gamut, or color gamut (pronounced ), is a certain complete subset of colors. ... Image resolution describes the detail an image holds. ... For other uses, see Photograph (disambiguation). ... Autonomy is the condition of something that does not depend on anything else. ... Four major types of memory cards (from left to right: CompactFlash, Memory Stick, Secure Digital, and xD. A memory card or flash memory card is a solid-state electronic flash memory data storage device used with digital cameras, handheld and Mobile computers, telephones, music players, video game consoles, and other... Note: USB may also mean upper sideband in radio. ...


The printer manufacturing business

Often the razor and blades business model is applied. That is, a company may sell a printer at cost, and make profits on the ink cartridge, paper, or some other replacement part. This has caused legal disputes regarding the right of companies other than the printer manufacturer to sell compatible ink cartridges. The razor and blades business model (also called the bait and hook model or the tied products model) works by selling a master product at a subsidised price, and making the profit on high margin consumables that are essential to the use of the master product. ... An ink cartridge is a replaceable component of an ink jet printer that contains the ink (and sometimes the print-head itself) that is spread on paper during printing. ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ... In jurisprudence and law, a right is the legal or moral entitlement to do or refrain from doing something or to obtain or refrain from obtaining an action, thing or recognition in civil society. ... Manufacturing is the transformation of raw materials into finished goods for sale, or intermediate processes involving the production or finishing of semi-manufactures. ... The term compatibility has the following meanings: In telecommunication, the capability of two or more items or components of equipment or material to exist or function in the same system or environment without mutual interference. ...


Printing speed

The speed of early printers was measured in units of characters per second. More modern printers are measured in pages per minute. These measures are used primarily as a marketing tool, and are not well standardised. Usually pages per minute refers to sparse monochrome office documents, rather than dense pictures which usually print much more slowly. PPM are most of the time referring to A4 paper in Europe and letter paper in the US, resulting in a 5-10% difference. A comparison of different paper sizes A4 is a standard paper size, defined by the international standard ISO 216 as 210×297 mm (roughly 8. ...


Forensic identification

Similar to forensic identification of typewriters, computer printers and copiers can be traced down by imperfections in their output. The mechanical tolerances of the toner and paper feed mechanisms cause banding, which contain information about the individual device's mechanical properties. It is sometimes possible to identify the manufacturer and brand, but in some cases the individual printer can be identified from a set of known ones by comparing their outputs. [5] [6] Forensic identification is the application of forensic science and technology to identify specific objects from the traces they leave, often at a crime scene. ... Mechanical desktop typewriters, such as this Underwood Five, were long time standards of government agencies, newsrooms, and sales offices. ... A small, much-used Xerox copier in a high school library. ... Banding is the procedure where rubber bands are tied around the veins which are bleeding, thereby cutting off the bleeding at those points. ...


Some high-quality color printers and copiers steganographically embed their identification code into the printed pages, as fine and almost invisible patterns of yellow dots. The sources identify Xerox and Canon as companies doing this [7] [8]. The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) has investigated[9] this issue and documented how the Xerox DocuColor printer's serial number, as well as the date and time of the printout, are encoded in a repeating 8×15 dot pattern in the yellow channel. EFF is working to reverse engineer additional printers. This article is about hidden messages. ... Xerox Corporation (NYSE: XRX) (name pronounced ) is a global document management company, which manufactures and sells a range of color and black-and-white printers, multifunction systems, photo copiers, digital production printing presses, and related consulting services and supplies. ... Canon Inc. ... EFF Logo The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) is an international non-profit advocacy and legal organization based in the United States with the stated purpose of being dedicated to preserving free speech rights such as those protected by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution in the context of... EFF Logo The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) is an international non-profit advocacy and legal organization based in the United States with the stated purpose of being dedicated to preserving free speech rights such as those protected by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution in the context of...


See also

In Multifunction or all-in-one printers, Automatic Document Feeder, or ADF is a feature which takes several pages and feeds the paper one page at a time into the scanner, allowing the user to scan (and thereby copy, print, or fax) multiple-page documents without having to manually replace... Duplex printing is a feature of computer printers that allows the automatic printing of a sheet of paper on both sides. ... A graphical output device is a computer output device that produces visual material. ... The Internet Printing Protocol or IPP, defines a standard protocol for printing as well as managing print jobs, media size, resolution, and so forth. ... Cups may refer to: the Common Unix Printing System cup as a drinking vessel, a unit of volume, etc. ... Mobile Imaging and Printing Consortium is a non-profit industry association formed to promote the usage of mobile devices with digital cameras, particularly camera phones, and the printing of photographs taken with them. ... An MFP (Multi Function Printer/Product/Peripheral), multifunctional, all-in-one (AiO), or mopier (Multiple Optical coPIER) or Multifunction Device (MFD), is an office machine that includes the following functionality in one physical body, so as to have a smaller footprint in a home or small-business setting (the SoHo... PictBridge is an industry standard from the Camera & Imaging Products Association (CIPA) for direct printing. ... For other uses, see Plot. ... For the literary term, see Postscript. ... PostScript Printer Description (PPD) files are created by vendors to describe the entire set of features and capabilities available for their PostScript printers. ... Printer Command Language, more commonly referred to as PCL, is a Page description language (PDL) developed by HP as a printer protocol and has become a de facto industry standard. ... In computers, a printer driver or a print processor is a piece of software that converts the data to be printed to the form specific to a printer. ... In computer science, spooling refers to process of communicating data to another program by placing it in a temporary working area, where the other program can access it at some later point in time. ... A virtual printer is a piece of computer software whose user interface and API resemble that of a printer driver, but which is not connected with a physical computer printer. ... GDI is short for Graphics Device Interface, and is one of the three core components or subsystems of Microsoft Windows. ...

Notes

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ Abagnale, Frank (2007). Protection Against Check Fraud. abagnale.com. Retrieved on 2007-06-27.

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