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Encyclopedia > Computer networking
Network cards such as this one can transmit data and receive at high rates over various types of network cables. This card is a 'Combo' card which supports three cabling standards.

Computer networking is the engineering discipline concerned with communication between computer systems or devices. Networking, routers, routing protocols, and networking over the public Internet have their specifications defined in documents called RFCs.[1] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A network card, network adapter or NIC (network interface controller) is a piece of computer hardware designed to allow computers to communicate over a computer network. ... “Computer Networks” redirects here. ... Engineering is the design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Look up device in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For Wikipedia requests for checkuser, see WP:RFCU. // RFC, a three letter initialism, may refer to: Returned for Collection, a billing term indicating insufficient funds for an account ReliabilityFirst Corporation Reconstruction Finance Corporation, a former United States Government agency Royal Flying Corps, a branch of the British military during World...


Communicating computer systems constitute a computer network and these networks generally involve at least two devices capable of being networked with at least one usually being a computer. The devices can be separated by a few meters (e.g. via Bluetooth) or nearly unlimited distances (e.g. via the Internet[2]). Computer networking is sometimes considered a sub-discipline of telecommunications, and sometimes of computer science, information technology and computer engineering. Computer networks rely heavily upon the theoretical and practical application of these scientific and engineering disciplines. “Computer Networks” redirects here. ... Bluetooth logo This article is about the electronic protocol named after Harald Bluetooth Gormson. ... Telecommunication involves the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... Information and communication technology spending in 2005 Information technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. ... Computer engineering (also called electronic and computer engineering) is a discipline that combines elements of both electrical engineering and computer science. ...


A computer network is any set of computers or devices connected to each other. Examples of networks are the Internet, or a small home local area network (LAN) with two computers connected with standard networking cables connecting to a network interface card in each computer. All modern aspects of the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) are computer-controlled, and telephony increasingly runs over the Internet Protocol, although not necessarily the public Internet. Local area network scheme A local area network (LAN) is a computer network covering a small geographic area, like a home, office, or group of buildings. ... A transitional network card with both BNC Thinnet (left) and Twisted pair (right) connectors. ... The public switched telephone network (PSTN) is the network of the worlds public circuit-switched telephone networks, in much the same way that the Internet is the network of the worlds public IP-based packet-switched networks. ... In telecommunication, Telephony encompasses the general use of equipment to provide voice communication over distances. ... The Internet Protocol (IP) is a data-oriented protocol used for communicating data across a packet-switched internetwork. ...

Contents

Views of Networks

Users and network administrators often have different views of their networks. Often, users that share printers and some servers form a workgroup, which usually means they are in the same geographic location and are on the same LAN. A community of interest has less of a connotation of being in a local area, and should be thought of as a set of arbitrarily located users who share a set of servers, and possibly also communicate via peer-to-peer technologies. A computer network is a system for communication among two or more computers. ... A community-of-interest network (COIN) is a communications network built to service a community with a common goal or set of interests. ... A peer-to-peer (or P2P) computer network is a network that relies on the computing power and bandwidth of the participants in the network rather than concentrating it in a relatively few servers. ...


Network administrators see networks from both physical and logical perspectives. The physical perspective involves geographic locations, physical cabling, and the network elements (e.g., routers, bridges and application layer gateways that interconnect the physical media. Logical networks, called, in the TCP/IP architecture, subnets , map onto one or more physical media. For example, a common practice in a campus of buildings is to make a set of LAN cables in each building appear to be a common subnet, using virtual LAN (VLAN) technology. Cisco 1800 Router ERS-8600 In simple layman terms, a router is a device that determines the proper path for data to travel between different networks. ... A network bridge connects multiple network segments at the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI model. ... In the context of computer networking, an application-level gateway [1] (also known as ALG or application layer gateway) consists of a security component that augments a firewall or NAT employed in a computer network. ... The word subnet may refer to: An abbreviation for subnetwork A mathematical net. ... A virtual LAN, commonly known as a vLAN or as a VLAN, is a method of creating independent logical networks within a physical network. ...


Both users and administrators will be aware, to varying extents, of the trust and scope characteristics of a network. Again using TCP/IP architectural terminology, an intranet is a community of interest under common administration, usually in the same enterprise. An extranet creates a community of interest that spans multiple enterprises and usually involves multiple administrators, but is not accessible by arbitrary users of the public Internet. An intranet is a private computer network that uses Internet protocols, network connectivity, and possibly the public telecommunication system to securely share part of an organizations information or operations with its employees. ... An extranet is a private network that uses Internet protocols, network connectivity, and possibly the public telecommunication system to securely share part of an organizations information or operations with suppliers, vendors, partners, customers or other businesses. ...


Informally, the Internet is the set of users, enterprises,and content providers that are interconnected by Internet Service Providers (ISP). From an engineering standpoint, the Internet is the set of subnets, and aggregates of subnets, which share the registered IP address space and exchange information about the reachability of those IP addresses using the Border Gateway Protocol. Typically, the human-readable names of servers are translated to IP addresses, transparently to users, via the directory function of the Domain Name System (DNS). An Internet Service Provider (ISP) is a business or organization that offers users access to the Internet and related services. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is the core routing protocol of the Internet. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ...


Over the Internet, there can be business-to-business (B2B), business-to-consumer (B2C) and [[ Consumer-to-consumer electronic commerce | consumer-to-consumer (C2C)]] communications. Especially when money or sensitive information is exchanged, the communications are apt to be secured by some form of communications security mechanism. Intranets and extranets can be securely superimposed onto the Internet, without any access by general Internet users, using secure Virtual Private Network (VPN) technology. External Links International Chamber of E-Commerce: e-commerce store/catalog, point-n-click website builder, e-business tools & services ... Business-to-consumer (B2C), also business-to-customer, describes activities of commercial organizations serving the end consumer with products and/or services. ... Communications security (COMSEC): Measures and controls taken to deny unauthorized persons information derived from telecommunications and ensure the authenticity of such telecommunications. ... A virtual private network (VPN) is a communications network tunneled through another network, and dedicated for a specific network. ...


History

Before the advent of computer networks that were based upon some type of telecommunications system, communication between calculation machines and early computers was performed by human users by carrying instructions between them. Many of the social behavior seen in today's Internet was demonstrably present in nineteenth-century telegraph networks, and arguably in even earlier networks using visual signals. [3] Copy of the original phone of Alexander Graham Bell at the Musée des Arts et Métiers in Paris Telecommunication is the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ... The history of computing is longer than the history of computing hardware and modern computing technology and includes the history of methods intended for pen and paper or for chalk and slate, with or without the aid of tables. ... Telegraphy (from the Greek words tele = far away and grapho = write) is the long distance transmission of written messages without physical transport of letters, originally over wire. ...


In September 1940 George Stibitz used a teletype machine to send instructions for a problem set from his Model K at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire to his Complex Number Calculator in New York and received results back by the same means. Linking output systems like teletypes to computers was an interest at the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) when, in 1962, J.C.R. Licklider was hired and developed a working group he called the "Intergalactic Network", a precursor to the ARPANet. George Stibitz George Robert Stibitz (April 20, 1904 – January 31, 1995) is internationally recognized as a father of the modern digital computer. ... Teletype machines in World War II A teleprinter (teletypewriter, teletype or TTY) is a now largely obsolete electro-mechanical typewriter which can be used to communicate typed messages from point to point through a simple electrical communications channel, often just a pair of wires. ... Dartmouth College is a private, coeducational university located in Hanover, New Hampshire, in the United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Concord Largest city Manchester Area  Ranked 46th  - Total 9,359 sq mi (24,239 km²)  - Width 68 miles (110 km)  - Length 190 miles (305 km)  - % water 3. ... NY redirects here. ... The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of new technology for use by the military. ... Joseph Carl Robnett Licklider (March 11, 1915 - June 26, 1990), known simply as J.C.R. or Lick is one of the most important figures in computer science and general computing history. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... ARPANET logical map, March 1977. ...


In 1964, researchers at Dartmouth developed the Dartmouth Time Sharing System for distributed users of large computer systems. The same year, at MIT, a research group supported by General Electric and Bell Labs used a computer (DEC's PDP-8) to route and manage telephone connections. The Dartmouth Timesharing System, or DTSS for short, was the first large-scale time-sharing system to be implemented successfully. ... Mapúa Institute of Technology (MIT, MapúaTech or simply Mapúa) is a private, non-sectarian, Filipino tertiary institute located in Intramuros, Manila. ... This article is about the American company. ... Bell Laboratories (also known as Bell Labs and formerly known as AT&T Bell Laboratories and Bell Telephone Laboratories) was the main research and development arm of the United States Bell System. ... A PDP-8 on display at the Smithsonians National Museum of American History in Washington, D.C.. This example is from the first generation of PDP-8s, built with discrete transistors and later known as the Straight 8. ...


Throughout the 1960s Leonard Kleinrock, Paul Baran and Donald Davies independently conceptualized and developed network systems which used datagrams or packets that could be used in a packet switched network between computer systems. Leonard Kleinrock and the first IMP. source: (http://www. ... Paul Baran (born 1926) was one of the developers of packet-switched networks along with Donald Davies and Leonard Kleinrock. ... Donald Davies Donald Watts Davies CBE FRS (June 7, 1924 – May 28, 2000) was a British computer scientist who was a co-inventor of packet switching (and originator of the term), along with Paul Baran and Leonard Kleinrock in the US. Just prior to Davies death, he contested Kleinrocks... A packet is the fundamental unit of information carriage in all modern computer networks. ... In computer networking and telecommunications, packet switching is a communications paradigm in which packets (messages or fragments of messages) are individually routed between nodes, with no previously established communication path. ...


The first widely used PSTN switch that used true computer control was the Western Electric 1ESS switch, introduced in 1965. The Number One Electronic Switching System was the first large scale Stored Program Control (SPC) telephone exchange or Electronic Switching System in the Bell System, entering service in the late 1960s. ...


In 1969 the University of California at Los Angeles, SRI (in Stanford), University of California at Santa Barbara, and the University of Utah were connected as the beginning of the ARPANet network using 50 kbit/s circuits. Commercial services using X.25, an alternative architecture to the TCP/IP suite, were deployed in 1972. The University of California, Los Angeles, popularly known as UCLA, is a public, coeducational university situated in the neighborhood of Westwood within the city of Los Angeles. ... The University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) is a coeducational public university located in Santa Barbara County, California. ... The University of Utah (also The U or the U of U or the UU), located in Salt Lake City, is the flagship public research university in the state of Utah, and one of 10 institutions that make up the Utah System of Higher Education. ... ARPANET logical map, March 1977. ... X.25 is an ITU-T standard protocol suite for wide area networks using leased lines, the phone or ISDN system as the networking hardware. ... The Internet protocol suite is the set of communications protocols that implement the protocol stack on which the Internet runs. ...


Computer networks, and the technologies needed to connect and communicate through and between them, continue to drive computer hardware, software, and peripherals industries. This expansion is mirrored by growth in the numbers and types of users of networks from the researcher to the home user. Computer hardware is the physical part of a computer, including the digital circuitry, as distinguished from the computer software that executes within the hardware. ... Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ... For an account of the words periphery and peripheral as they are used in biology, sociology, politics, computer hardware, and other fields, see the periphery disambiguation page. ...


Today, computer networks are the core of modern communication. The scope of communication has increased significantly in the past decade and this boom in communications would not have been possible without the progressively advancing computer network.


Networking methods

Networking is a complex part of computing that makes up most of the IT Industry. Without networks, almost all communication in the world would cease to happen. It is because of networking that telephones, televisions, the internet, etc. work.


One way to categorize computer networks are by their geographic scope, although many real-world networks interconnect Local Area Networks (LAN) via Wide Area Networks (WAN). These two (broad) types are: Local area network scheme A local area network (LAN) is a computer network covering a small geographic area, like a home, office, or group of buildings. ... A wide area network or WAN is a computer network covering a broad geographical area. ...


Local Area Network (LAN)

A Local Area Network is a network that spans a relatively small space and provides services to a small amount of people. Depending on the amount of people that use a Local Area Network, a peer-to-peer or client-server method of networking may be used. A peer-to-peer network is where each client shares their resources with other workstations in the network. Examples of peer-to-peer networks are: Small office networks where resource use is minimal and a home network. A client-server network is where every client is connected to the server and each other. Client-server networks use servers in different capacities. These can be classified into two types: Single-service servers, where the server performs one task such as file server, print server, etc.; while other servers can not only perform in the capacity of file servers and print servers, but they also conduct calculations and use these to provide information to clients (Web/Intranet Server). Computers are linked via Ethernet Cable, can be joined either directly (one computer to another), or via a network hub that allows multiple connections.


Historically, LANs have featured much higher speeds than WANs. This is not necessarily the case when the WAN technology appears as Metro Ethernet, implemented over optical transmission systems. A Metro Ethernet is a computer network based on the Ethernet standard covering a metropolitan area. ... Fiber-optic communication is a method of transmitting information from one place to another by sending light through an optical fiber. ...


Wide Area Network (WAN)

A Wide Area Network is a network where a wide variety of resources are deployed across a large domestic area or internationally. An example of this is a multinational business that uses a WAN to interconnect their offices in different countries. The largest and best example of a WAN is the Internet, which is the largest network in the world. The PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) also is an extremely large network that is converging to use Internet technologies, although not necessarily through the public Internet. The public switched telephone network (PSTN) is the concatenation of the worlds public circuit-switched telephone networks, in much the same way that the Internet is the concatenation of the worlds public IP-based packet-switched networks. ...


A Wide Area Network involves communication through the use of a wide range of different technologies. These technologies include Point-to-Point WANs such as Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) and High-Level Data Link Control (HLDC), Frame Relay, ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) and Sonet (Synchronous Optical Network). The difference between the WAN technologies is based on the switching capabilities they perform and the speed at which sending and receiving bits of information (data) occur. Point-to-Point telecommunications is most recently (2003) referenced regarding wireless data communications for Internet or Voice over IP via radio frequencies in the multi-gigahertz range. ... In the context of computer networking, frame relay consists of an efficient data transmission technique used to send digital information quickly and cheaply in a relay of frames to one or many destinations from one or many end-points. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Synchronous Optical Networking, commonly known as SONET, is a standard for communicating digital information over optical fiber. ...


For more information on WANs, read articles on Frame Relay, ATM and Sonet. WAN MEANS WHAT A NOOB BY ZACH THE GOOSE EPPS AKA FOUNDER OF WAN Look up wan in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In the context of computer networking, frame relay consists of an efficient data transmission technique used to send digital information quickly and cheaply in a relay of frames to one or many destinations from one or many end-points. ... ATM or atm could refer to: Asynchronous Transfer Mode, a telecommunications protocol Actun Tunichil Muknal, Cave in Belize Adobe Type Manager, typeface management software from Adobe Systems Advanced Traffic Management and Arterial Traffic Management, terms used in the Intelligent Transportation System industry Air Traffic Management (includes air traffic control, air... Synchronous Optical Networking, commonly known as SONET, is a standard for communicating digital information over optical fiber. ...


Wireless Networks (WLAN, WWAN)

A wireless network is basically the same as a LAN or a WAN but there are no wires between hosts and servers. The data is transferred over sets of radio transceivers. These types of networks are beneficial when it is too costly or inconvenient to run the necessary cables. For more information, see Wireless LAN and Wireless wide area network The notebook is connected to the wireless access point using a PC card wireless card. ... WWAN, which stands for Wireless Wide Area Network, is a form of wireless network. ...


In order for communication to take place between computers, mediums must be used. These mediums include Protocols, Physical Routers and Ethernet, etc. This is covered by Open Systems Interconnection which comprises all the processes that make information transport possible. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The network topology defines the way in which computers, printers, and other devices are connected. A network topology describes the layout of the wire and devices as well as the paths used by data transmissions. Commonly referred to as a linear bus, all the devices on a bus topology are connected by one single cable.


Suggested topics

See the List of suggested topics for computer networking research. List of suggested topics for computer networking research. ...


References

  1. ^ The Internet Standards Process -- Revision 3, RFC 2026, S. Bradner, October 1996.
  2. ^ Interplanetary Internet, 2000 Third Annual International Symposium on Advanced Radio Technologies, A. Hooke,September 2000
  3. ^ The Victorian Internet,T. Standage,1998
  • Larry Peterson, Computer Networks (ISBN 1-55860-832-X).
  • Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Computer Networks (ISBN 0-13-349945-6).
  • Important publications in computer networks
  • Vinton G. Cerf "Software: Global Infrastructure for the 21st Century"

Andrew S. Tanenbaum Dr. Andrew Stuart Andy Tanenbaum (sometimes called ast)[1] (born 1944) is a professor of computer science at the Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam in the Netherlands. ... This is a list of important publications in computer science, organized by field. ... Vinton G. Cerf (born June 23, 1943) is commonly referred to as the father of the Internet. During his tenure from 1976 to 1982 with the United States Department of Defenses Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), Cerf played a key role leading the development of Internet and Internet-related...

External links

The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Computer Network (1270 words)
A computer network is a group of computers connected to one another in a manner similar to the way telephones are connected.
ACC maintains several computer networks, each consisting of hundreds of computers connected to one another.
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Computer networking - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (399 words)
Computer networking is the scientific and engineering discipline concerned with communication between computer systems.
Computer networking is sometimes considered a sub-discipline of telecommunications.
Computer networks may be implemented using a variety of protocol stack architectures, computer buses or combinations of media and protocol layers, incorporating one or more of:
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