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Encyclopedia > Computer mouse
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Operating a mechanical mouse.
1: Pulling the mouse turns the ball.
2: X and Y rollers grip the ball and transfer movement.
3: Optical encoding disks include light holes.
4: Infrared LEDs shine through the disks.
5: Sensors gather light pulses to convert to X and Y velocities.

A mouse is a handheld pointing device for computers, involving a small object fitted with one or more buttons and shaped to sit naturally under the hand. The underside of the mouse houses a device that detects the mouse's motion relative to the flat surface on which it sits. The mouse's 2D motion is typically translated into the motion of a pointer on the display. (Do not confuse the pointer with a cursor.) Mouse Created in Adobe Illustrator and Photoshop Elements by Jeremy Kemp, 2/10/05 Background info from http://computer. ... Mouse Created in Adobe Illustrator and Photoshop Elements by Jeremy Kemp, 2/10/05 Background info from http://computer. ... An Apple pro mouse A pointing device is any hardware component that allows a user to input spatial data to a computer. ... We usually define computer as a device or machine for processing information according to a program — a compiled list of instructions. ... Nineteen inch (48 cm) CRT computer monitor A computer display, monitor or screen is a computer peripheral device capable of showing still or moving images generated by a computer and processed by a graphics card. ... Cursor is a term that frequently refers to a feature of a computer user interfaces. ...


It is called a mouse primarily because the cord on early models resembled the rodent's tail, and also because the motion of the pointer on the screen can be mouse-like. In popular usage, the plural can be either mice or mouses.

Contents


History of mouse engineering

The first computer mouse
The first computer mouse
The first computer mouse held by inventor Douglas Engelbart showing the wheels which directly contact the working surface.
The first computer mouse held by inventor Douglas Engelbart showing the wheels which directly contact the working surface.
Early mouse patents. (left to right) Opposing track wheels by Englebart, 11/70, 3541541. Ball and wheel by Rider, 9/74, 3835464. Ball and two rollers with spring by Opocentsky, 10/76, 3987685.
Enlarge
Early mouse patents. (left to right) Opposing track wheels by Englebart, 11/70, 3541541. Ball and wheel by Rider, 9/74, 3835464. Ball and two rollers with spring by Opocentsky, 10/76, 3987685.
An Apple Macintosh Plus's Mouse, 1986
An Apple Macintosh Plus's Mouse, 1986
The Logitech iFeel optical mouse uses a red LED to project light onto the tracking surface.
The Logitech iFeel optical mouse uses a red LED to project light onto the tracking surface.
Under a Microsoft Optical Wheel Mouse
Under a Microsoft Optical Wheel Mouse
Two wireless computer mice, with scroll wheels
Two wireless computer mice, with scroll wheels


The mouse was invented by Douglas Engelbart of Stanford Research Institute in 1963 after extensive usability testing. It was also called the "bug", but eventually "bug" was dropped in favor of "mouse." It was one of several experimental pointing devices developed for Engelbart's oN-Line System ( NLS), which was both a hardware and software system. The other devices were designed to exploit other body movements — for example, head-mounted devices attached to the chin or nose — but ultimately, the mouse won out because of its simplicity and convenience. The First Computer Mouse http://www. ... The First Computer Mouse http://www. ... The first computer mouse underside view held by inventor Douglas Engelbart found using a google image search. ... Douglas Engelbart Dr. Douglas C. Engelbart (born January 30, 1925 in Oregon) is an American inventor of Norwegian descent. ... Download high resolution version (882x276, 40 KB)mouse patents File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (882x276, 40 KB)mouse patents File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Logitech iFeel Optical Mouse shining Photo by Jeremy Kemp, 2/13/05 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Logitech iFeel Optical Mouse shining Photo by Jeremy Kemp, 2/13/05 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Under an optical mouse File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Under an optical mouse File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Two wireless computer mice, with scroll wheels. ... Two wireless computer mice, with scroll wheels. ... Douglas Engelbart Dr. Douglas C. Engelbart (born January 30, 1925 in Oregon) is an American inventor of Norwegian descent. ... SRI International is one of the worlds largest contract research institutions. ... 1963 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Usability testing is a means for measuring how well people can use some human-made object (such as a web page, a computer interface, a document, or a device) for its intended purpose, i. ... The NLS workstation showing the CRT display, keyboard, pushbuttons, and mouse NLS, or the oNLine System, was a revolutionary computer collaboration system designed by Douglas Engelbart and the researchers at the Augmentation Research Center (ARC) at the Stanford Research Institute (SRI) during the 1960s. ...


The first mouse was bulky, and used two gear wheels perpendicular to each other: the rotation of each wheel was translated into motion along one axis in the plane. Engelbart received patent US3541541 on November 17, 1970 for an "X-Y Position Indicator For A Display System". At the time, Engelbart intended that users would continuously hold the mouse in one hand, and type on a five-key chord keyset with the other. A coordinate axis is one of a set of vectors that defines a coordinate system. ... A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a state to a person for a fixed period of time in exchange for the regulated, public disclosure of certain details of a device, method, process or substance (known as an invention) which is new, inventive and useful. ... November 17 is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece. ... 1970 was a common year starting on Thursday. ...


A later variation on the mouse, invented in the early 1970s by Bill English at Xerox PARC, replaced the external wheels with a single ball which could rotate in any direction. The ball's motion, in turn, was detected using perpendicular wheels housed on the interior of the mouse's body. This variant of the mouse resembled an inverted trackball, and was the predominant form used with personal computers throughout the 1980s and 1990s. The Xerox PARC group also settled on the modern technique of using both hands to type on a full-size QWERTY keyboard and grabbing the mouse as needed. 1970 was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Bill English is a computer engineer who contributed to the development of the computer mouse while working for Doug Engelbart at SRI. He left SRI in 1971 and headed to Xerox Parc where managed the Office Systems Research Group. ... Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) was a flagship research division of the Xerox Corporation, based in Palo Alto, California, USA, which essentially created the modern personal computer paper paradigm. ... Logitech Marble Mouse Trackball A trackball is a pointing device consisting of a ball housed in a socket containing sensors to detect rotation of the ball about two axes—like an upside-down mouse, but with the ball sticking out more. ... // Events and trends The 1980s marked an abrupt shift towards more conservative lifestyles after the momentous cultural revolutions which took place in the 60s and 70s and the definition of the AIDS virus in 1981. ... // Events and trends The 1990s are generally classified as having moved slightly away from the more conservative 1980s, but otherwise retaining the same mindset. ...


Modern computer mice took form at the École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) under the inspiration of Professor Jean-Daniel Nicoud and the hands of engineer and watchmaker André Guignard. A spin-off of EPFL, Logitech, launched the first popular mice. The École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) is the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne in Switzerland (French speaking part of Switzerland). ... Picture of the miniCeline ultralight aircraft by Jean-Daniel Nicoud. ... Look up Engineer on Wiktionary, the free dictionary An engineer is someone who practices the profession of engineering – a person who uses scientific knowledge to solve practical problems using technology. ... A watchmaker is one who primarily repairs watches, although historically this person also made watches. ... André Guignard is a Swiss engineer and watchmaker. ... Logitech (NASDAQ: LOGI) (SWX: LOGN), founded in Apples, Vaud, Switzerland in 1981 with company headquarters in Fremont, California is an industry leader in the personal peripheral market. ...


Optical mice

In a separate line of evolution, the optical mouse detected movement using an optical sensor on its underside, paired with a light-emitting diode to illuminate the surface. Early optical mice, such as those invented by Steve Kirsch of Mouse Systems Corporation, could only be used on a special metallic surface (mouse pad) imprinted with a grid of fine blue and grey lines. As computing power grew cheaper, it became possible to embed more powerful special-purpose image processing chips in the mouse. This advance enabled the mouse to detect the relative motion of the mouse on a wide variety of surfaces (and in turn translating the movement of the mouse over the surface into the movement of the pointer), eliminating the need for a special mouse pad. This advance paved the way for widespread adoption of optical mice. Optoelectronics is the study and application of electronic devices that interact with light. ... Red, pure green, and blue LEDs. ... Steve Kirsch Steven T. Kirsch invented and owns a patent on the optical mouse. ... Mouse Systems Corporation, formerly Rodent Associates, was founded in 1982 by Steve Kirsch, inventor of the optical mouse. ... Categories: Computer stubs ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Optical Microscope image of an integrated circuit showing defects in the aluminium layer deposition. ...


Modern surface-independent optical mice work by using a sensor to take successive pictures of the surface the mouse is operating on. Most of these mice use LEDs to illuminate the surface that is being tracked; LED optical mice are often mislabeled as 'Laser Mice', probably due to the red LED which is used in almost all optical mice, but lasers are becoming more common in usage, as they allow greater precision in movement detection. Changes between one frame and the next are processed by the image processing part of the chip and translated into movement on the two axes. For example, the Agilent Technologies ADNS-2610 optical mouse sensor will process 1512 frames per second: each frame is a rectangular array of 18*18 pixels, and each pixel can sense 64 different levels of gray. A sensor is a technological device or biological organ that detects, or senses, a signal or physical condition and chemical compounds. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Optical Microscope image of an integrated circuit showing defects in the aluminium layer deposition. ... A coordinate axis is one of a set of vectors that defines a coordinate system. ... A pixel (a contraction of picture element) is one of the many tiny dots that make up the representation of a picture in a computers memory. ...


Demand for advances in optical mouse technology comes in large part from competitive FPS gamers, who prefer more accurate mice for more accurate aiming. Doom, one of the games that defined the first-person shooter genre. ...


Optical versus mechanical mice

Optical mice supporters claim they work better than mechanical mice, require no maintenance and last longer due to fewer moving parts.


Mechanical mice supporters, on the other hand, claim that optical mice cannot track on glossy and transparent surfaces. Mice with less image processing power also have problems tracking extremely fast movement, though high-end mice track at 40 inches per second and faster. Also, maintenance on a broken mechanical mouse is much simpler, usually just a simple cleaning. However, optical mice do not normally require any maintenance.


Perhaps the strongest argument for mechanical mice is their low power usage for use in wireless settings. A wireless mechanical mouse may only draw 5mA or less of electrical current, whereas an optical mouse typically draws 25mA to power an LED or laser diode. Older optical wireless mice can draw even more current. This can result in severely reduced autonomy and frequent battery changes, making them unsuitable for continuous work. In electricity, current is the rate of flow of charges, usually through a metal wire or some other electrical conductor. ... Various light-emitting diodes (5 mm reds, 3 mm greens and yellows) A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor device that emits incoherent monochromatic light when electrically biased in the forward direction. ... A laser diode is a laser where the active medium is a semiconductor p-n junction similar to that found in a light-emitting diode. ... Autonomy is the condition of something that does not depend on anything else. ...


Optomechanical mice optically detect movements of the ball, whereas optical mice detect movement of the surface.


Laser mice

In 2004, Logitech, along with Agilent Technologies, introduced the laser mouse with its MX 1000 model. This mouse utilizes a small laser instead of the normal LED found in other optical mice. The new technology can increase the detail of the image taken by the mouse. The companies claim that this leads to a 20x increase in the sensitivity to the surface features used for navigation compared to conventional optical mice. Gamers have complained that the MX 1000 does not immediately respond to movement after it is picked up, moved, and then put down on the mouse pad. However, newer revisions of the mouse do not seem to suffer from this problem. 2004(MMIV) is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Logitech (NASDAQ: LOGI) (SWX: LOGN), founded in Apples, Vaud, Switzerland in 1981 with company headquarters in Fremont, California is an industry leader in the personal peripheral market. ... Agilent Technologies (NYSE: A) is the actual descendant of the instrument company founded by Bill Hewlett and Dave Packard in 1939. ... Laser (US Air Force) A LASER (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) is an optical device which uses a quantum mechanical effect called stimulated emission (discovered by Einstein while researching the photoelectric effect) in order to generate a coherent beam of light from a lasing medium of controlled purity...


Buttons

In contrast to the motion sensing mechanism, the mouse's buttons have changed little, varying mostly in shape, number, and placement. Engelbart's very first mouse had a single button; this was soon increased to three. Commercial mice usually had between one and three buttons, although in the late 1990s some mice sprouted five or more. // Events and trends The 1990s are generally classified as having moved slightly away from the more conservative 1980s, but otherwise retaining the same mindset. ...


Most popular are mice with two buttons. The most common purpose for the second button is to invoke a contextual menu in the computer's software user interface, which contains options specifically tailored to the interface element over which the mouse was positioned. This is used by the popular Microsoft Windows operating system in its default configuration, as well as many others. The primary mouse button is located on the left hand side of the mouse. Microsoft Windows is a range of operating environments for personal computers and servers. ...


On systems with three buttons on the mouse, pressing the center button (a "middle click") is often used as a convenience to map the action to a commonly used action, or a macro. In the X Window System, middle clicking pastes the contents of the primary buffer at the pointer's position. Many two-button mice are therefore configured to emulate a three-button mouse by clicking both the right and left buttons simultaneously. Middle-clicks are often used as a spare button in case a function is not easily allocated. In computing, the X Window System (commonly X11 or X) is a windowing system for bitmap displays. ... This article is about emulation in computer science. ...


Additional buttons

Mice have sometimes been built with extensive arrays of buttons, ranging from five to more. Depending on the user's preferences, the extra buttons might allow forward and backward web navigation, or scrolling through a browser's history. As with similar features in keyboards, however, these functions may not be supported by all software. The additional buttons are generally more useful in computer games, where quick and easy access to a wide variety of functions (for example, weapon-switching in first-person shooters) can be very beneficial. Because mouse buttons can be mapped to virtually any function, keystroke, application or switch, they can make working with such a mouse not only more efficient, but also easier to use. A computer keyboard is a peripheral modelled after the typewriter keyboard. ... A computer game is a game composed of a computer-controlled virtual universe that players interact with in order to achieve a defined goal or set of goals. ... Doom, one of the games that defined the first-person shooter genre. ...


Douglas Engelbart's view of the optimal number of buttons was "as many as possible". The prototype that popularised the idea of three buttons as standard had that number only because "we couldn't find anywhere to fit any more switches". Douglas Engelbart Dr. Douglas C. Engelbart (born January 30, 1925 in Oregon) is an American inventor of Norwegian descent. ...


Wheels

One major innovation in mouse buttons was the scroll wheel: a small wheel, with its axis oriented parallel to the mousing surface, that could be rotated "up" or "down" to provide immediate one-dimensional input. Usually, this input was translated into "scrolling" up or down within the currently selected window. This is especially helpful in navigating a long document. The scroll wheel can often be pressed straight down, replacing the third (center) button. Doing so often activates autoscrolling in the Windows operating system if an application supports it. Some newer mouse models allow horizontal as well as vertical scrolling. Some designs make use of a "rocker" button instead of a wheel – a pivoting button that can be pressed at the top or bottom simulating up and down respectively. The wheel can also be used with some software applications to zoom in and out, by holding down the Control key (Ctrl) on the keyboard and scrolling either up or down. Applications that implement this functionality include Microsoft Word, Internet Explorer, and Mozilla Firefox. A window is a visual area, usually rectangular in shape, containing some kind of user interface, displaying the the output of and allowing input for one of a number of simultaneously running computer processes. ... In computing, a Control key is a key, which when pressed in conjunction with another key, will perform a special operation. ... Microsoft Word is a word processing application from Microsoft. ... Internet Explorer, abbreviated IE or MSIE is a proprietary web browser made by Microsoft and currently available as part of Microsoft Windows. ... Firefox redirects here. ...


A more advanced form of the mouse wheel is the "tilt-wheel", commonly found on some of the higher-end Logitech and Microsoft mice. Tilt wheels are essentaily conventional mouse wheels that have been modified with a pair of sensors articulated to the tilting mechanism. These sensors are mapped, by default, to left-right scrolling.


In 2005 the Apple Mighty Mouse introduced a third variety of built-in scrolling device. The "scroll ball" is essentially a small trackball embedded in the upper surface of the mouse, and is used like a wheel but in two dimensions. Apple Computer, Inc. ... Mighty Mouse (Credit: Apple) The Mighty Mouse is the first multi-button mouse manufactured and sold by Apple Computer. ... Logitech Marble Mouse Trackball A trackball is a pointing device consisting of a ball housed in a socket containing sensors to detect rotation of the ball about two axes—like an upside-down mouse, but with the ball sticking out more. ...


Connectivity

A Bluetooth mouse.
A Bluetooth mouse.

Like all input devices, mice need some connection to the host computer in order to transmit their input. Typical mice use a thin electrical cord (e.g. an RS-232C, PS/2, ADB or USB cable) for this purpose. It was most likely the combination of the tail-like cord, size, and shape which led the mouse's inventors to name it as such. Cordless mice use wireless communication to transmit data via infrared, radio or Bluetooth. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1788x2096, 1315 KB) A Bluetooth mouse. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1788x2096, 1315 KB) A Bluetooth mouse. ... This article is about the Bluetooth wireless specification. ... RS-232 (also referred to as EIA RS-232C or V.24) is a standard for serial binary data interchange between a DTE (Data terminal equipment) and a DCE (Data communication equipment). ... The Personal System/2 or PS/2 was IBMs second generation of personal computers. ... Apple Desktop Bus (or ADB) is a bit-serial computer bus for connecting low-speed devices to computers. ... [[Image:of the two Type B USB connectors, mini and full size, side and front view, compared with a U.S. 5¢ piece (nickel) in both images for scale. ... Image of a small dog taken in mid-infrared (thermal) light (false color) Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength longer than visible light, but shorter than microwave radiation. ... This article is about the Bluetooth wireless specification. ...


Common button uses

There are several methods of input using a mouse aside from the most basic moving of the device to make the pointer move. A mouse click is the action of pressing (i.e. 'clicking') a button on a mouse in order to trigger an action, usually in the context of a graphical user interface (GUI) (pressing an onscreen 'button' by 'clicking' on it) or computer game (to fire a gun in a first-person shooter). The reason for the clicking noise made is due to the specific switch technology used nearly universally in computer mice. This switch is called a micro switch or cherry switch and uses a stiff but flexible metal strip that is bent to actuate the switch. The bending of the metal makes a snapping or clicking noise in the same way as the safety button on the lids of vacuum packaged jars to indicate they have been opened. As to why the clicking sound is used, researchers have found that an audible feedback, when depressing a button, in addition to the tactile feedback, gives a better response from the user.


Single clicking

This is the most common method of distinguishing mouse based input. On single-button mice this involves using the mouse's one button. On multiple-button mice, it involves any of the buttons and is usually characterized by which button is pushed (e.g. left-clicking, right-clicking). See point-and-click. Point and click describes the simple action of a computer user moving a cursor to a certain location on a screen (point) and then clicking a mouse button, usually the left one (click), or other pointing device. ...


Double-click

A double-click occurs when the user presses the button twice in quick succession. This usually triggers an action separate from that of a single-click. For example, in the Macintosh Finder, a user may single-click to select a file, and double-click to open that file. Usability studies have found that the double-click can be confusing and hard to use — for example, users with poor motor skills may not perform the second click soon enough after the first, causing the action to be registered as two single clicks rather than a double click. (Ironically, the double-click was introduced because the previous solution — separate mouse buttons for separate actions — was also found to be confusing in user studies.) Most multiple-button mice allow setting one button to emit a double-click on a single press. Modern operating systems allow users to set the maximum interval in which the two clicks need to be made to register as a double-click. Mouse properties in GNOME, with a setting for double-click speed A double-click is the act of pressing a computer mouse button twice quickly without moving the mouse. ... The Finder is the default application program run by the Macintosh operating system that is responsible for the overall user-management of files, disks, network volumes and the launching of other applications. ...


Triple-click

A triple click occurs when the user presses the button three times in quick succession. This also triggers an action separate from that of a single-click. It is most commonly seen in word processors to select a whole paragraph and web browsers to select a whole line of text.


Chords

A chord occurs when two or more mouse buttons are pressed at the same time. It is rarely used in standard interfaces. The X Windows system has an option to emulate a middle mouse button with the simultaneous click of the left and right mouse buttons. Mouse chording is the capability of performing actions when multiple mouse buttons are held down, much like a chorded keyboard. ...


Click-and-drag

Once a user has clicked on an object, they can often "drag" the object by continuing to hold down a mouse button whilst moving the mouse.


Mouse gestures

Main article: Mouse gestures A spiral mouse gesture in the computer game Black and White. ...


A mouse gesture is a way of combining mouse movements with clicks, which the software then recognizes as a specific command.


Tactile mice

In 2000, Logitech introduced the tactile mouse, which contained a small actuator that made the mouse vibrate. Such a mouse could be used to augment user interfaces with haptic feedback, such as giving feedback when crossing a window boundary. This article is about the year 2000. ... Logitech (NASDAQ: LOGI) (SWX: LOGN), founded in Apples, Vaud, Switzerland in 1981 with company headquarters in Fremont, California is an industry leader in the personal peripheral market. ... An actuator is the mechanism by which an agent acts upon an environment. ... Haptic means pertaining to the technology of touch. ...


Other unusual variants have included a mouse that is held freely in the hand, rather than on a flat surface, and detects six dimensions of motion (the three spatial dimensions, plus rotation on three axes). It was marketed for business presentations when the speaker is standing or walking around. So far, these mouse exotica have not achieved widespread popularity.


Mouse speed

Mouse speed is often expressed as DPI (Dots Per Inch). The DPI is the number of pixels the mouse cursor will move when the mouse is moved one inch. Mouse acceleration/deceleration are software tricks that can be used to make a cursor go faster or slower than its DPI.


A less common unit, the Mickey is a measure of distance reported by a mouse. It is not a traditional unit of measurement because it indicates merely the number of "dots" reported in a particular direction. Only when combined with the DPI of the mouse does it become an indication of actual distance moved. In the absence of acceleration, the Mickey corresponds to the number of pixels moved on the computer screen. Mickey is a common name for males. ... Measurement is the determination of the size or magnitude of something. ... Mickey is a common name for males. ...


Additionally, operating systems traditionally apply acceleration, referred to as ballistics to the motion reported by the mouse. For example, versions of Windows prior to Windows XP doubled reported values above a configurable threshold, and then optionally doubled them again above a second configurable threshold. These doublings were applied separately in the X and Y directions, resulting in very nonlinear response. In Windows XP and many OS versions for Apple Macintosh computers, a smoother ballistics calculation is used that compensates for screen resolution and has better linearity. It has been suggested that Forensic ballistics be merged into this article or section. ... 1. ... As of 2005, Windows XP is the current client version of the Microsoft Windows operating system. ... To do: 20th century mathematics chaos theory, fractals Lyapunov stability and non-linear control systems non-linear video editing See also: Aleksandr Mikhailovich Lyapunov Dynamical system External links http://www. ... As of 2005, Windows XP is the current client version of the Microsoft Windows operating system. ... The iMac G5, Apples flagship consumer desktop. ... It has been suggested that Forensic ballistics be merged into this article or section. ...


Accessories

Mousepad

Main Article: Mousepad
The most popular mouse accessory available, it is used with most mice. It provides a smooth surface for the mouse to move across, as many desks are not suitable and hard wood or plastic surfaces wear down mouse feet covers faster. Specialized hard mousepads are made for gamers. Some optical mice do not require a mouse pad, as they are designed to use directly over a wood surface. A mousepad is practically required when using balled mice, because the ball requires the extra friction of the mousepad to roll smoothly. Many mousepads feature designs, such as the logo of a company. Optical mouse on a mousepad A mousepad (or mouse mat) is a surface for enhancing the movement of a computer mouse. ...


Mouse feet covers

Mouse feet covers are made out of teflon and are placed over the mouse feet. This makes the mouse glide with less resistance over the mousing surface.


Cord managers

Accessories for managing the cord of a mouse come in different forms, but they all help manage the cord on corded mice, so it doesn't get in the way. Wireless mice, of course, need no such accessory.


Gel wrist pad

A gel wrist pad is a soft pad that goes under the wrist, either a separate item or joined to the mousepad, to provide padding. The padding provides for a more natural angle of the wrist, aimed to reduce fatigue and excessive strain. Gel wrist pads are also avaliable for keyboards.


Mice in the marketplace

In the 1970s, Xerox PARC included mice with its Xerox Star. Later, inspired by the Star, Apple Computer released the Apple Lisa, which also used a mouse. However, neither the Star nor the Lisa were commercially successful. Only with the release of the Apple Macintosh in 1984 did the mouse first see widespread use. This article provides extensive lists of events and significant personalities of the 1970s. ... Xerox Star 8010 The Xerox Star workstation, officially known as the 8010 Star Information System was introduced by Xerox Corporation in 1981. ... Apple Computer, Inc. ... Apple Lisa The Apple Lisa was a revolutionary personal computer designed at Apple Computer during the early 1980s. ... The iMac G5, Apples flagship consumer desktop. ... 1984 is a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Macintosh design was influential, and its success led many other vendors to begin producing mice or including them with their other computer products. The widespread adoption of graphical user interfaces in the 1980s and 1990s made mice indispensable for computer use. By 2000, Dataquest estimated that US$1.5 billion worth of mice were sold annually worldwide. // Events and trends The 1980s marked an abrupt shift towards more conservative lifestyles after the momentous cultural revolutions which took place in the 60s and 70s and the definition of the AIDS virus in 1981. ... // Events and trends The 1990s are generally classified as having moved slightly away from the more conservative 1980s, but otherwise retaining the same mindset. ... This article is about the year 2000. ...


Alternative mice

Apart from the regular mouse that is operated by the hands, other mouse variants exist. These cater to those who have a repetitive strain injury or wrist injury resulting from excessive mouse usage or to people who feel uncomfortable with traditional designs. Some of these include: Repetitive strain injury, also called repetitive stress injury or typing injury, is an occupational overuse syndrome affecting muscles, tendons and nerves in the arms and upper back. ... In human anatomy, the wrist is the flexible and narrower connection between the forearm and the hand. ...

  • Trackball - user moves a ball mounted in a fixed base.
  • Mini-mouse - a small egg-sized mouse optimized for portability (often used with laptop computers).
  • Camera mouse - a camera tracks the head movement and moves the onscreen cursor.
  • Natural pointers track the dot on a person's head and move the cursor accordingly. They are more precise than the above.
  • Palm mouse - held in the palm and operated with only 2 buttons; the movements across the screen correspond to a feather touch, and pressure increases the speed of movement.
  • Foot mouse - a mouse variant for those who don't wish to use the hands or the head; instead footclicks are used.
  • Joy-Mouse - A cross between a joystick at a mouse, the joy mouse is held in an up-right position like a joystick but moved like a normal mouse. The thumb usually controls the clicking on a two-way button on the top of the mouse.

Logitech Marble Mouse Trackball A trackball is a pointing device consisting of a ball housed in a socket containing sensors to detect rotation of the ball about two axes—like an upside-down mouse, but with the ball sticking out more. ... Joystick elements: 1. ...

Applications of mice in user interfaces

Usually, the mouse is used to control the motion of a cursor in two dimensions in a graphical user interface. Objects, such as files, programs, or actions, can be selected from a list of names, but, alternatively, are often represented visually by pictures called icons and buttons; the mouse cursor can be used to select or activate items by moving the cursor over the name or picture and pressing one of the mouse buttons. For example, a text file might be represented by a picture of a piece of notebook paper, and clicking on this icon might cause a text editing program to open the file in a new window. (See also point-and-click.) Cursor is a term that frequently refers to a feature of a computer user interfaces. ... Point and click describes the simple action of a computer user moving a cursor to a certain location on a screen (point) and then clicking a mouse button, usually the left one (click), or other pointing device. ...


Mice can also be used gesturally — that is, a stylized motion of the mouse cursor itself can be used as a form of input. In a gestural interface, a particular "gesture" (stylized motion) may be mapped to an action: for example, in a drawing program, moving the mouse in a rapid "x" motion over a shape might delete the shape. A spiral mouse gesture in the computer game Black and White. ...


Gestural interfaces are rarer, and often harder to use, than plain pointing and clicking, because they require more fine motor control of the user. However, a few gestural conventions have become widespread, including the drag-and-drop gesture, in which: Drag-and-drop refers to the act of (or support for the act of) clicking on a virtual object and dragging it to, or onto, another virtual object. ...

  • the user presses the mouse button while the mouse cursor is over an object,
  • then holds down the button while moving the cursor to a different location,
  • and finally releases the mouse button.

This motion is commonly used to move the item from one location to another — the item is "dragged" from its old location and "dropped" in its new one. For example, a user might drag and drop a picture of a file from a folder onto a picture of a trash can, indicating that the file should be deleted.


Other uses of the mouse's input are common in special application domains. In interactive three-dimensional graphics, the mouse's motion is often directly translated into changes in the virtual camera's orientation. For example, in the Quake computer game, the mouse is usually used to control the direction in which the player's "head" faces: moving the mouse up will cause the player to look up, revealing the view above the player's head. The rewrite of this article is being devised at Talk:3D computer graphics/Temp. ... For an overview of the Quake game franchise go to Quake series. ...


When mice have more than one button, software may assign different functions to each button. Often, the leftmost button on the mouse will select items, and the rightmost button will bring up a menu of alternative actions applicable to that item. For example, on platforms with more than one button, the Mozilla web browser will follow a link in response to a left button click, will bring up a menu of alternative actions for that link in response to a right button click, and will often open the link in a new tab or window in response to a click with the middle mouse button. Mozilla is a computer term that has had many different uses, though all of them have been related to Netscape Communications Corporation and its related application software. ... Definition A tab in graphical user interfaces is a typically rectangular small box (usually containing a text label or graphical icon) associated with a view pane. ... A window is a visual area, usually rectangular in shape, containing some kind of user interface, displaying the the output of and allowing input for one of a number of simultaneously running computer processes. ...


One, two or three mouse buttons?

A one button Apple pro mouse. (More Apple mice)
A one button Apple pro mouse. (More Apple mice)

The issue of whether a mouse should have exactly one button or more than one has attracted a surprising amount of controversy. From the first Macintosh onward, Apple always shipped computers with a single-button mouse, whereas most other platforms used a multi-button mouse. Apple and its advocates claim that single-button mice are more efficient, and that multi-button mice are confusing for novice users. The Macintosh user interface was designed so that all functions were available with a single button mouse. Apple's Human Interface Guidelines still specify that all functions need be available with a single button mouse. However, X Window System applications, which Mac OS X can also run, were designed with the use of 2 or even 3 button mice in mind, causing even simple operations like "cut and paste" to become awkward. Mac OS X natively supports multi-button mice, so many users do choose to use third-party mice on their Macintoshes. On August 2, 2005, Apple introduced their Mighty Mouse multi-button mouse which has four independently programmable buttons and a 360-degree Scroll Ball with adjustable scrolling which can be used to scroll in any direction. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... In computing, the X Window System (commonly X11 or X) is a windowing system for bitmap displays. ... Mac OS X (pronounced Mac OS Ten) is the latest version of the Macintosh operating system, and is designed and developed by Apple Computer to run on their Macintosh line of personal computers. ... In computing, cut and paste is a user-interface paradigm for a means of moving text (typically plain text) or other data from a source to a destination. ... August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ... 2005(MMV) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mighty Mouse (Credit: Apple) The Mighty Mouse is the first multi-button mouse manufactured and sold by Apple Computer. ...


Advocates of multiple-button mice point out that the lack of additional mouse buttons often leads to clumsy workarounds in interfaces where more than one action may be useful for a given object. Even Macintosh computers occassional see the need for simulating a second mouse button by requiring the user to hold ctrl while clicking. Model showing the current redevelopment of the Kings Cross area with the Channel Tunnel Rail Link terminal behind the barrel vaulted St Pancras Station on the left. ...


Furthermore, "press-and-hold" techniques are a common workaround on systems with one-button mice. In a press-and-hold, the user presses and holds the single button, and after a certain period, the button press is not perceived as a single click but as a separate action. On Macintosh platforms, Netscape used press-and-hold to substitute for a second mouse button. This has two drawbacks: first, as with double-clicking, a slow user may press-and-hold inadvertently. Second, the user must wait while the software detects that the click is actually a press-and-hold, or their press might be interpreted as a single click. Furthermore, the remedies for these two drawbacks conflict with each other: the longer the lag time, the more the user must wait; and the shorter the lag time, the more likely it is that some user will accidentally press-and-hold when meaning to click. Netscape Navigator, also known simply as Netscape, was a proprietary web browser that was widely used. ...


Finally, the user may be required to hold down a key on the keyboard while pressing the button (otherwise known as mouse chording). This has the disadvantage that it requires that both the user's hands be engaged. It also requires that the user do two actions on completely separate devices in concert, that is, pressing a key on the keyboard while pressing a button on the mouse. This can be a very daunting task for a disabled user. Studies have found all of the above less usable than additional mouse buttons for experienced users. Today, many widely used Macintosh software packages, including web browsers and graphics editing programs, use one or more of the above workarounds. Critics of single-button mice point to these facts as evidence that mice should have more than one button. A computer keyboard is a peripheral modelled after the typewriter keyboard. ... Mouse chording is the capability of performing actions when multiple mouse buttons are held down, much like a chorded keyboard. ... A web browser is a software application that enables a user to display and interact with HTML documents hosted by web servers or held in a file system. ...


Most machines running Unix or a Unix-like operating system run the X Window System which almost always requires a three button mouse. In X, the buttons are numbered by convention. This allows user instructions to apply to mice or pointing devices that do not use conventional button placement. For example a left handed user may reverse the buttons, usually with a software setting. With non-conventional button placement user directions that say "left mouse button" or "right mouse button" are confusing. The ground-breaking Xerox Parc Alto and Dorado computers from the mid-1970s used three-button mice and each button was assigned a color. Red was used for the left (or primary) button, yellow for the middle (secondary) and blue for the right (meta or tertiary). This naming-convention lives on in some SmallTalk environments such as Squeak and can be less confusing than the right, middle and left designations. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Unix-like. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Unix. ... In computing, an operating system (OS) is the system software responsible for the direct control and management of hardware and basic system operations. ... In computing, the X Window System (commonly X11 or X) is a windowing system for bitmap displays. ... Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) was a flagship research division of the Xerox Corporation, based in Palo Alto, California, USA, which essentially created the modern personal computer paper paradigm. ... A Xerox Alto Computer System The Xerox Alto, developed at Xerox PARC in 1973, was the first personal computer and the first computer to use the desktop metaphor and graphical user interface (GUI). ... 1970 was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Red is a color at the lowest frequencies of light discernible by the human eye. ... Yellow is the color of light with a wavelength between 565 nm and 590 nm. ... For other uses, see Blue (disambiguation) Blue is one of the three primary additive colors; blue light has the shortest wavelength range (about 420-490 nanometres) of the three primary colors. ... Smalltalk is an object-oriented, dynamically typed, reflective, programming language designed at Xerox PARC by Alan Kay, Dan Ingalls, Ted Kaehler, Adele Goldberg, and others during the 1970s. ... The Squeak programming language is a Smalltalk implementation, derived directly from Smalltalk-80, by Smalltalks originators, so it is object-oriented, and reflective. ...


Newer mice have a scroll wheel between two buttons where pressing the scroll wheel acts as a middle mouse button (button two). In addition, mice with five or even more buttons can be useful in several environments. Microsoft's Intellimouse is the most well known of these mice, but other brands do exist and are often preferred due to the bulk of some Intellimice. The extra buttons are most frequently used in browsing the web or navigating with a file browser. The middle button is the scroll wheel. ... A file manager is a software tool that provides a user interface to work with computer files. ...


Mice in gaming

Mice are often used as an interface for computer games, and sometimes for video games. They are often used in combination with keyboards. The mouse is often cited as an a major advantage for computer games in video games vs. computer games arguments. Games, like most other forms of media, may be categorized into genres based on gameplay, atmosphere, and various other factors. ... A computer keyboard is a peripheral modelled after the typewriter keyboard. ...


First-person shooters

A combination of mouse and keyboard is a popular way to play first-person shooter (FPS) games. The X axis of the mouse is used for looking left and right, while the Y axis is used for looking up and down. The left mouse button is usually for primary fire. Many gamers prefer this over a gamepad or joystick because it allows them to turn quickly and have greater accuracy. The right button is often used for secondary fire of the selected gun, if the game supports multiple fire modes. A scroll wheel is used for changing weapons. On most FPS games, these functions may also be assigned to thumb buttons. A keyboard is usually used for movement (for example, w, a, s and d, or simply known as wasd, for forward, backward, strafe leftward and strafe rightward) and other functions like changing posture etc. Since the mouse is used for aiming, a mouse that tracks movement accurately will give a player an advantage over players with less accurate mice. Doom, one of the games that defined the first-person shooter genre. ... Categories: Computer and video game stubs | Input devices | Computer and video game terminology ... Joystick elements: 1. ...


Invert mouse setting

In many games, such as first or third person shooters, there is a setting called "invert mouse" or similar. It allows the user to look downward by moving the mouse forward, and upward by moving the mouse backward (the opposite of the default setting). This control system is similar to aircraft control sticks, where pulling back causes pitch up and pushing forward causes pitch down — this control configuration is also typically mimicked in computer joysticks. Joystick elements: 1. ...


After id Software's Doom, the game that popularized FPS games, but which only supported keyboard controls, competitor 3D Realms' Duke Nukem 3D was one of the first games that supported mouse controls. It and other games using the game's Build engine had inverted mouse controls by default. The "invert" feature actually made the mouse behave like what we now regard as normal. Soon after id Software released Quake which introduced the invert feature as we know it now. Other games made using the Quake engine were released and kept this feature. Probably because of the overall greater popularity of Quake this became the current standard. id Software is a computer game developer based in Mesquite, Texas, a suburb of Dallas. ... Doom is a computer game developed by id Software in 1993, and is one of the seminal titles in the first-person shooter genre. ... Corporate logo of 3D Realms 3D Realms is a computer game developer based in Garland, Texas and founded in July 1994 as a division of Apogee Software. ... Duke Nukem 3D is a first-person shooter developed by 3D Realms and released on January 29, 1996 by Apogee Software, featuring the adventures of Duke Nukem, based on a character that had appeared in earlier platform games by the company: Duke Nukem and Duke Nukem II. // Synopsis Murderous aliens... Duke Nukem 3D is one of the most famous games that used the Build engine. ... Zombies attacking the player. ... The Quake engine is the engine that runs Quake. ...


See also

Logitech Marble Mouse Trackball A trackball is a pointing device consisting of a ball housed in a socket containing sensors to detect rotation of the ball about two axes—like an upside-down mouse, but with the ball sticking out more. ... SpaceBall is a 6 degrees of freedom input device developed by 3DConnexion. ... Touchpad and a pointing stick on a Laptop A touchpad is an input device commonly used in laptop computers. ... Trackpoint and Touchpad The pointing stick (trademarked by IBM as the TrackPoint) is a pointing device for laptops invented by research scientist Ted Selker and equips IBMs line of ThinkPad laptops (now made by Lenovo). ... In human-computer interaction, computer accessibility refers to the usability of a computer system by people with disabilities. ... Optical mouse on a mousepad A mousepad (or mouse mat) is a surface for enhancing the movement of a computer mouse. ... A Footmouse is a type of computer mouse that gives the users the ability to move the cursor and click the buttons with their feet. ... A spiral mouse gesture in the computer game Black and White. ... Repetitive strain injury, also called repetitive stress injury or typing injury, is an occupational overuse syndrome affecting muscles, tendons and nerves in the arms and upper back. ...

Further reading

  • Alex Soojung-Kim Pang, Of Mice and Zen: Product Design and Invisible Innovation (pdf format)

Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed by Adobe Systems for representing documents in a manner that is independent of the original application software, hardware, and operating system used to create those documents. ...

External links

  • The Earliest Computer Mouses
    • The Xerox Alto Mouse
  • Primary Material on the Apple Mouse
  • How Computer Mice Work
  • Optical Mice and how they Work (pdf format)
  • Optical Mouse technology review: Tech specs on current optical mice
  • the House of Mouse (Gaming)
  • A review of a modern laser-based mouse: the MX1000

Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed by Adobe Systems for representing documents in a manner that is independent of the original application software, hardware, and operating system used to create those documents. ...

References


  Results from FactBites:
 
Mouse (computing) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5419 words)
The name "mouse", coined at the Stanford Research Institute, derives from the resemblance of early models (which had a cord attached to the rear part of the device, suggesting the idea of a tail) to the common small rodent of the same name.
This variant of the mouse resembled an inverted trackball and was the predominant form used with personal computers throughout the 1980s and 1990s.
Mouse foot covers (or foot pads) are made from low-friction or polished plastic.
Mouse (disambiguation) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (162 words)
A mouse is a type of rodent, particularly of the genus Mus.
Mouse (set theory), a small model of set theory with nice properties
In discussions of copyright extension, "the Mouse" refers to Mickey Mouse.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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