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Encyclopedia > Computer chess
1990s Pressure-sensory Chess Computer with LCD screen
1990s Pressure-sensory Chess Computer with LCD screen

The idea of creating a chess-playing machine dates back to the eighteenth century. Around 1769, the chess playing automaton called The Turk became famous before being exposed as a hoax. Before the development of digital computing, serious trials based on automatons such as El Ajedrecista of 1912, were too complex and limited to be useful for playing full games of chess. The field of mechanical chess research languished until the advent of the digital computer in the 1950s. Since then, chess enthusiasts and computer engineers have built, with increasing degrees of seriousness and success, chess-playing machines and computer programs. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 209 KB) Summary Photo of Radio Shack Chess Computer 2150L. Photographer releases all rights worldwide. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 209 KB) Summary Photo of Radio Shack Chess Computer 2150L. Photographer releases all rights worldwide. ... For other uses, see Chess (disambiguation). ... 1769 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Canard Digérateur of Jacques de Vaucanson, hailed in 1739 as the first automaton capable of digestion. ... An engraving of the Turk from Karl Gottlieb von Windischs 1784 book Inanimate Reason The Turk was a famous hoax that purported to be a chess-playing machine. ... A hoax is an attempt to trick an audience into believing that something false is real. ... For the IEEE magazine see Computer (magazine). ... Gonzalo Torres y Quevedo showing his automaton to Norbert Weiner. ... Computer Engineering (also sometimes called Computer Systems Engineering) is a specialised discipline that combines electrical engineering and computer science. ...


Chess-playing computers are now available at a very low cost. There are many programs such as Crafty, Fruit and GNU Chess that can be downloaded from the Internet for free, and yet play a game that with the aid of virtually any modern personal computer, can defeat most master players under tournament conditions. Top commercial programs like Shredder or Fritz have surpassed even world champion caliber players at blitz and short time controls. As of February 2007, Rybka is top-rated in many rating lists such CCRL, CEGT, SSDF, SCCT, and CSS rating lists [1] and has won many recent official computer chess tournaments such as CCT 8 and 9 [2], 2006 Dutch Open Computer Championship [3], the 16th IPCCC [4], and the 15th World Computer Chess Championship. Crafty is a term used in World Of Warcraft to describe someone who plays the game 24/7 - sometimes longer. ... Fruit is a chess engine developed by Fabien Letouzey. ... GNU Chess is a computer program for playing chess. ... Shredder is a very strong chess program developed in Germany by Stefan Meyer-Kahlen in 1993. ... Fritz 8 - end of game between Fritz and Fruit 2. ... Blitz chess (also known as speed chess or blitzkrieg chess) is a game of chess where each side is given very little time to make all of their moves. ... A time control is imposed on the tournament play of almost all two-player board games to ensure that neither player delays the game or gains an unfair advantage by thinking for an unduly long time. ... February 2007 is the second month of the year. ... Rybka is a computer chess engine by International Master Vasik Rajlich. ... Chess Engines Grand Tournament, also known as CEGT, is one of the best known organizations that test computer chess software by playing chess programs against one another and producing a rating list. ... The Swedish Chess Computer Association (Svenska schackdatorföreningen (SSDF) in Swedish) is an organization that tests computer chess software by playing chess programs against one another and producing a rating list. ... World Computer Chess Championship (WCCC) is an annual event where computer chess engines compete against each other. ...

Chessmaster 10th edition running on Windows XP
Chessmaster 10th edition running on Windows XP
3-D board, Fritz 8
3-D board, Fritz 8

Contents

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1036x519, 95 KB) Summary Image of Chessmaster 10th edition taken on 1/07/06. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1036x519, 95 KB) Summary Image of Chessmaster 10th edition taken on 1/07/06. ... Chessmaster is a chess playing computer program, mentor and analyzer by Ubisoft. ... Windows XP is a line of operating systems developed by Microsoft for use on general-purpose computer systems, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, and media centers. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1202x595, 109 KB) Summary Image of Fritz 8 chess program taken on January 7, 2006. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1202x595, 109 KB) Summary Image of Fritz 8 chess program taken on January 7, 2006. ...

Motivation

The prime motivations for computerized chess playing have been solo entertainment (allowing players to practice and to amuse themselves when no human opponents are available), as aids to chess analysis, for computer chess competitions, and as research to provide insights into human cognition. For the first two purposes computer chess has been a phenomenal success — going from the earliest real attempts to programs which challenge the best human players took less than fifty years. We can say that chess play is not an intractable problem to modern computing. Look up Cognition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Complexity theory is part of the theory of computation dealing with the resources required during computation to solve a given problem. ...


However, to the surprise and disappointment of many, chess has taught us little about building machines that offer human-like intelligence, or indeed do anything except play excellent chess[citation needed]. For this reason, computer chess, (as with other games, like Scrabble) is no longer of great academic interest to researchers in artificial intelligence, and has largely been replaced by more intuitive games such as Go as a testing paradigm[citation needed]. Chess-playing programs essentially explore huge numbers of potential future moves by both players and apply a relatively simple evaluation function to the positions that result, whereas computer Go challenges programmers to consider conceptual approaches to play. The verb to scrabble also means to scratch, scramble or scrape about: see Wiktionary:scrabble. ... Bold text[[Link title]] “AI” redirects here. ... Go is a strategic East Asian board game for two players. ... An evaluation function, also known as heuristic evaluation function or static evaluation function by game-playing programs to estimate the value or goodness of a position in the minimax algorithm. ... Computer go is the field of artificial intelligence (AI) dedicated to creating a computer program that plays go, an ancient board game. ...


Brute force versus selective search

Claude Shannon

The first paper on the subject by Claude Shannon, published in 1950 before anyone had programmed a computer to play chess, successfully predicted the two main possible search strategies which would be used, which he labeled 'Type A' and 'Type B' (Shannon 1950). Image File history File links Shannon. ... Image File history File links Shannon. ... Claude Shannon Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30, 1916 – February 24, 2001), an American electrical engineer and mathematician, has been called the father of information theory, and was the founder of practical digital circuit design theory. ... 1990s Pressure-sensory Chess Computer with LCD screen The idea of creating a chess-playing machine dates back to the eighteenth century. ...


Type A programs would use a "brute force search" approach, examining every possible position for a fixed number of moves using the minimax algorithm. Shannon believed this would be impractical for two reasons. In computer science, a brute-force search consists of systematically enumerating every possible solution of a problem until a solution is found, or all possible solutions have been exhausted. ... “Minmax” redirects here. ...


First, with approximately thirty moves possible in a typical real-life position, he expected that searching the approximately 306 (over 700,000,000) positions involved in looking three moves ahead for both side (six plies) would take about sixteen minutes, even in the "very optimistic" case that the chess computer evaluated a million positions every second. (It took about forty years to achieve this speed.) In chess, ply refers to a half-move: one turn of one of the players. ...


Second, it ignored the problem of quiescence, trying to only evaluate a position that is at the end of an exchange of pieces or other important sequence of moves ('lines'). He expected that adapting type A to cope with this would greatly increase the number of positions needing to be looked at and slow the program down still further.


Instead of wasting processing power examining bad or trivial moves, Shannon suggested that type B programs would use a "strategic AI (Artificial Intelligence)" approach to solve this problem by only looking at a few good moves for each position. This would enable them to look further ahead ('deeper') at the most significant lines in a reasonable time. Bold text[[Link title]] “AI” redirects here. ...


Adriaan de Groot interviewed a number of chess players of varying strengths, and concluded that both masters and beginners look at around forty to fifty positions before deciding which move to play. What makes the former much better players is that they use pattern recognition skills built from experience. This enables them to examine some lines in much greater depth than others by simply not considering moves they can assume to be poor. Adriaan de Groot, a Dutch chess master and psychologist conducted some of the most famous chess experiments of all time in the 1940s-60. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Pattern recognition is a field within the area of machine learning. ...


More evidence for this being the case is the way that good human players find it much easier to recall positions from genuine chess games, breaking them down into a small number of recognizable sub-positions, than completely random arrangements of the same pieces. In contrast, poor players have the same level of recall for both.


The problem with type B is that it relies on the program being able to decide which moves are good enough to be worthy of consideration ('plausible') in any given position and this proved to be a much harder problem to solve than speeding up type A searches with superior hardware.


One of the few chess grandmasters to devote himself seriously to computer chess was former World Chess Champion Mikhail Botvinnik, who wrote several works on the subject. He also held a doctorate in Electrical engineering. Working with relatively primitive hardware available in the Soviet Union in the early 1960s, Botvinnik had no choice but to investigate software move selection techniques; at the time only the most powerful computers could achieve much beyond a three-ply full-width search, and Botvinnik had no such machines. In 1965 Botvinnik was a consultant to the ITEP team in a US-Soviet computer chess match (see Kotok-McCarthy). The title International Grandmaster is awarded to superb chess players by the world chess organization FIDE. It is a lifetime title, in chess literature usually abbreviated as GM or IGM (this is in contrast to WGM for Woman Grandmaster and IM for International Master). ... The 1984 World Chess Championship was between Anatoly Karpov (left) and Garry Kasparov (right). ... Mikhail Moiseyevich Botvinnik (IPA: ; Russian: ) (August 17 [O.S. August 4] 1911 - May 5, 1995) was a Russian International Grandmaster and long-time World Champion of chess. ... A chess board. ...


One milestone was the abandonment of type B in 1973 by the team from Northwestern University responsible for the Chess series of programs, who had won the first three ACM Computer Chess Championships (1970-72). The resulting program, Chess 4.0, won that year's championship and its successors went on to come second in both the 1974 ACM Championship and that year's inaugural World Computer Chess Championship, before winning the ACM Championship again in 1975, 1976 and 1977. For other uses, see Northwestern. ... Chess was a pioneering chess program from the 1970s, authored by Larry Atkin and David Slate at Northwestern University. ... The Association for Computing Machinery, or ACM, was founded in 1947 as the worlds first scientific and educational computing society. ... World Computer Chess Championship (WCCC) is an annual event where computer chess engines compete against each other. ... World Computer Chess Championship (WCCC) is an annual event where computer chess engines compete against each other. ...


One reason they gave for the switch was that they found it less stressful during competition, because it was difficult to anticipate which moves their type B programs would play, and why. They also reported that type A was much easier to debug in the four months they had available and turned out to be just as fast: in the time it used to take to decide which moves were worthy of being searched, it was possible just to search all of them.


In fact, Chess 4.0 set the paradigm that was and still is followed essentially by all modern Chess programs today. Chess 4.0 type programs won out for the simple reason that their programs simply played better chess. Such programs did not try to mimic human thought processes, but relied on full width alpha-beta and negascout searches. Most such programs (including all modern programs today) also included a fairly limited selective part of the search based around quiescence searches, and usually extensions and pruning (particularly null move pruning from the 1990s onwards) which were triggered based on certain conditions in an attempt to weed out or reduce obviously bad moves (history moves) or to investigate interesting nodes (e.g. check extensions, passed pawns on seventh rank, etc). Extension and pruning triggers have to be used very carefully however. Over extend and the program wastes too much time looking at uninteresting positions. If too much is pruned, there is a risk cutting out interesting nodes. Chess programs differ in terms of how and what types of pruning and extension rules are included as well as in the evaluation function. Some programs are believed to be more selective than others (for example Deep Blue was known to be less selective than most commercial programs because they could afford to do more complete full width searches), but all have a base full width search as a foundation and all have some selective components (Q-search, pruning/extensions). Alpha-beta pruning is a search algorithm that reduces the number of nodes that need to be evaluated in the search tree by the minimax algorithm. ... NegaScout or Principal Variation Search is a minimax algorithm faster than alpha-beta pruning. ... Whites b, c, and e pawns are passed. ... This page explains commonly used terms in chess in alphabetical order. ... Kasparov vs. ...


Though such additions meant that the program did not truly examine every node within its search depth (so it would not be truly brute force in that sense), the rare mistakes due to these selective search was found to be worth the extra time it saved because it could search deeper. In that way Chess programs can get the best of both worlds.


Furthermore, technological advances by orders of magnitude in processing power have made the brute force approach far more incisive than was the case in the early years. The result is that a very solid, tactical AI player aided by some limited positional knowledge built in by the evaluation function and pruning/extension rules began to match the best players in the world. It turned out to produce excellent results, at least in the field of chess, to let computers do what they do best (calculate) rather than coax them into imitating human thought processes and knowledge. In 1997 Deep Blue defeated World Champion Garry Kasparov, marking the first time a computer has defeated a reigning world chess champion in standard time control. Kasparov vs. ... Garry Kimovich Kasparov (IPA: ; Russian: ) (born April 13, 1963, in Baku, Azerbaijan SSR) (now Azerbaijan) is a Russian chess grandmaster, former World Chess Champion, writer and political activist. ...


Computers versus humans

However for a long time in the 1970s and 1980s it remained an open question whether any Chess program would ever be able to defeat the expertise of top humans. In 1968, International Master David Levy made a famous bet that no chess computer would be able to beat him within ten years. He won his bet in 1978 by beating Chess 4.7 (the strongest computer at the time), but acknowledged then that it would not be long before he would be surpassed. In 1989, Levy was crushed by the computer Deep Thought in an exhibition match. The title International Master is awarded to outstanding chess players by the world chess organization FIDE. The title is open to both men and women. ... David Neil Lawrence Levy (b. ... Chess was a pioneering chess program from the 1970s, authored by Larry Atkin and David Slate at Northwestern University. ... Deep Thought was a computer designed to play chess. ...

Kasparov vs. Deep Blue

Deep Thought, however, was still considerably below World Championship Level, as the then reigning world champion Garry Kasparov demonstrated in two sterling wins in 1989. It wasn't until a 1996 match with IBM's Deep Blue that Kasparov lost his first game to a computer at tournament time controls in Deep Blue - Kasparov, 1996, Game 1. This game was, in fact, the first time a reigning world champion had lost to a computer using regular time controls. However, Kasparov regrouped to win three and draw two of the remaining five games of the match, for a convincing victory. Image File history File links Garry Kasparov playing Deep Blue in 1997. ... Image File history File links Garry Kasparov playing Deep Blue in 1997. ... Garry Kimovich Kasparov (IPA: ; Russian: ) (born April 13, 1963, in Baku, Azerbaijan SSR) (now Azerbaijan) is a Russian chess grandmaster, former World Chess Champion, writer and political activist. ... International Business Machines Corporation (IBM, or colloquially, Big Blue) (NYSE: IBM) (incorporated June 15, 1911, in operation since 1888) is headquartered in Armonk, New York, USA. The company manufactures and sells computer hardware, software, and services. ... Kasparov vs. ... Deep Blue - Kasparov, 1996, Game 1 is a famous chess game. ... In chess, a draw is one of the possible outcomes of a game, the others being a win for white and a win for black. ...


In May 1997, an updated version of Deep Blue defeated Kasparov 3½-2½ in a return match. The latter claimed that IBM had cheated by using a human player during the game to increase the strategic strength of the computer. A documentary mainly about the confrontation was made in 2003, titled Game Over: Kasparov and the Machine. IBM keeps a web site of the event. While not an official world championship, the outcome of the match is often taken to mean that the strongest player in the world is a computer.[citation needed] Such a claim is open to strong debate, as a truly fair human-machine match is difficult to arrange. Seen as unfair is that human players must win their title in tournaments which pit them against a diverse set of opponents' styles, while computers are occasionally optimized for the current opponent.[citation needed] Also, unlike the human opponent, computers have access to huge databases for opening and end play.

Image:chess_zhor_26.png
Image:chess_zver_26.png
a8 b8 c8 d8 e8 f8 g8 h8
a7 b7 c7 d7 e7 f7 g7 h7
a6 b6 c6 d6 e6 f6 g6 h6
a5 b5 c5 d5 e5 f5 g5 h5
a4 b4 c4 d4 e4 f4 g4 h4
a3 b3 c3 d3 e3 f3 g3 h3
a2 b2 c2 d2 e2 f2 g2 h2
a1 b1 c1 d1 e1 f1 g1 h1
Image:chess_zver_26.png
Image:chess_zhor_26.png
The final position of Game One,

Deep Blue vs. Kasparov 1996 Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ...


IBM dismantled Deep Blue after the match and it has not played since. However, other "Man vs. Machine" matches continue to be played.


With increasing processing power, Chess programs running on regular workstations began to rival top flight players. In 1998, Rebel 10 defeated Viswanathan Anand who at the time was ranked second in the world, by a score of 5-3. However most of those games were not played at normal time controls. Out of the eight games, four were blitz games (five minutes plus five seconds Fischer delay (see time control) for each move) these Rebel won 3-1. Then two were semi-blitz games (fifteen minutes for each side) which Rebel won as well (1½-½). Finally two games were played as regular tournament games (forty moves in two hours, one hour sudden death) here it was Anand who won ½-1½ [5]. At least in fast games computers played better than humans but at classical time controls - at which a player's rating is determined - the advantage was not so clear. REBEL was a world champion chess program developed by Ed Schröder. ... This article uses algebraic notation to describe chess moves. ... Blitz chess (also known as speed chess or blitzkrieg chess) is a game of chess where each side is given very little time to make all of their moves. ... A time control is imposed on the tournament play of almost all two-player board games to ensure that neither player delays the game or gains an unfair advantage by thinking for an unduly long time. ...


In the early 2000s, commercially available programs such as Junior and Fritz were able to draw matches against former world champion Garry Kasparov and former "classical" world champion Vladimir Kramnik. Junior is a computer chess program authored by the Israeli programmers Amir Ban and Shay Bushinsky. ... Fritz 8 - end of game between Fritz and Fruit 2. ... Garry Kimovich Kasparov (IPA: ; Russian: ) (born April 13, 1963, in Baku, Azerbaijan SSR) (now Azerbaijan) is a Russian chess grandmaster, former World Chess Champion, writer and political activist. ... Vladimir Borisovich Kramnik (Russian: ) (born June 25, 1975) is a Russian chess grandmaster and the current World Chess Champion. ...


In October 2002, Vladimir Kramnik and Deep Fritz competed in the eight-game Brains in Bahrain match, which ended in a draw. Kramnik won games 2 and 3 by "conventional" anti-computer tactics - play conservatively for a long-term advantage the computer is not able to see in its game tree search. Fritz, however, won game 5 after a severe blunder by Kramnik. Game 6 was described by the tournament commentators as "spectacular." Kramnik, in a better position in the early middlegame, tried a piece sacrifice to achieve a strong tactical attack, a strategy known to be highly risky against computers who are at their strongest defending against such attacks. True to form, Fritz found a watertight defense and Kramnik's attack petered out leaving him in a bad position. Kramnik resigned the game, believing the position lost. However, post-game human and computer analysis has shown that the Fritz program was unlikely to have been able to force a win and Kramnik effectively sacrificed a drawn position. The final two games were draws. Given the circumstances, most commentators still rate Kramnik the stronger player in the match. Vladimir Borisovich Kramnik (Russian: ) (born June 25, 1975) is a Russian chess grandmaster and the current World Chess Champion. ... Deep Fritz is a multi-processor version of the computer chess engine Fritz written by Frans Morsch and Mathias Feist. ... In October 2002, Vladimir Kramnik and Deep Fritz competed in the eight-game Brains in Bahrain computer chess match, which ended in a draw. ... In chess, the middlegame refers to the portion of the game that happens immediately after the opening (usually the first move after the procession of moves that make up a standard opening) and blends somewhat with the endgame. ...


In January 2003, Garry Kasparov played Junior, another chess computer program, in New York. The match ended 3-3. Garry Kimovich Kasparov (IPA: ; Russian: ) (born April 13, 1963, in Baku, Azerbaijan SSR) (now Azerbaijan) is a Russian chess grandmaster, former World Chess Champion, writer and political activist. ... Junior is a computer chess program authored by the Israeli programmers Amir Ban and Shay Bushinsky. ... This article is about the state. ...


In November 2003, Garry Kasparov played X3D Fritz. The match ended 2-2. Garry Kimovich Kasparov (IPA: ; Russian: ) (born April 13, 1963, in Baku, Azerbaijan SSR) (now Azerbaijan) is a Russian chess grandmaster, former World Chess Champion, writer and political activist. ... X3D Fritz is the version of the chess playing program Fritz which in November 2003 played a four game match against world number one Grandmaster Garry Kasparov. ...

Grandmaster Michael Adams

In 2005, Hydra, a dedicated chess computer with custom hardware and sixty-four processors and also winner of the 14th IPCCC in 2005, crushed seventh-ranked Michael Adams 5½-½ in a six-game match (though Adams' preparation was far less thorough than Kramnik's for the 2002 series). Some commentators [6] believe that Hydra will ultimately prove clearly superior to the very best human players, or if not its direct successor will. Image File history File links Michael_Adams_grandmaster. ... Image File history File links Michael_Adams_grandmaster. ... Hydra is a chess machine, designed by a team with Dr. Christian Chrilly Donninger, Ulf Lorenz, GM Christopher Lutz and Muhammad Nasir Ali. ... Michael Adams (born November 17, 1971 in Truro, Cornwall, England) is an International Grandmaster of chess. ...


In November-December 2006, World Champion Vladimir Kramnik played Deep Fritz. This time the computer won, the match ended 2-4. Vladimir Borisovich Kramnik (Russian: ) (born June 25, 1975) is a Russian chess grandmaster and the current World Chess Champion. ... Deep Fritz is a multi-processor version of the computer chess engine Fritz written by Frans Morsch and Mathias Feist. ...


Endgame tablebases

Main article: Endgame tablebase

Computers have been used to analyze some chess endgame positions completely. Such endgame databases are generated in advance using a form of retrograde analysis, starting with positions where the final result is known (e.g. where one side has been mated) and seeing which other positions are one move away from them, then which are one move from those etc. Ken Thompson, perhaps better known as the key designer of the UNIX operating system, was a pioneer in this area. A typical interface for querying a tablebase. ... EndGame is the name of a 1997 story arc of the Sonic the Hedgehog comic book published by published by Archie Comics. ... Black to move. ... Ken Thompson Kenneth Thompson (born February 4, 1943) is a pioneer of computer science notable for his contributions to the development of the C programming language and the UNIX operating system. ... Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®) is a computer operating system originally developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ... // An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer. ...


Endgame play had long been one of the great weaknesses of chess programs because of the depth of search needed, with some otherwise master-level programs being unable to win in positions that even intermediate human players would be able to force a win.


The results of the computer analysis sometimes surprised people. In 1977 Thompson's Belle chess machine used the endgame tablebase for a king and rook against king and queen and was able to draw that theoretically lost ending against several masters (see Philidor position#Queen versus rook). This was despite not following the usual strategy to delay defeat by keeping the defending king and rook close together for as long as possible. Asked to explain the reasons behind some of the program's moves, Thompson was unable to do so beyond saying the program's database simply evaluated its moves as best it could. Staunton chess pieces, left to right: pawn, rook, knight, bishop, queen, and king. ... A rook (♖ ♜,borrowed from Persian رخ rokh, Sanskrit roth, chariot) is a piece in the strategy board game of chess. ... Queen. ... Philidors position is an important chess endgame. ...


Most grandmasters declined to play against the computer in the queen versus rook endgame, but Walter Browne accepted the challenge. A queen versus rook position was set up in which the queen can win in thirty moves, with perfect play. Browne was allowed 2½ hours to play fifty moves, otherwise a draw would be claimed under the fifty move rule. After forty-five moves, Browne agreed to a draw, being unable to force checkmate or win the rook within the next five moves. In the final position, Browne was still seventeen moves away from checkmate, but not quite that far away from winning the rook. Browne studied the endgame, and played the computer again a week later in a different position in which the queen can win in thirty moves. This time, he captured the rook on the fiftieth move, giving him a winning position (Levy & Newborn 1991:144-48), (Nunn 2002:49). The title Grandmaster is awarded to world-class chess masters by the world chess organization FIDE. Apart from World Champion, Grandmaster is the highest title a chess player can attain. ... Walter Browne (born 1949) is a chess player. ... The fifty move rule in chess states that a player can claim a draw if no capture has been made and no pawn has been moved in the last fifty consecutive moves. ... 1990s Pressure-sensory Chess Computer with LCD screen The idea of creating a chess-playing machine dates back to the eighteenth century. ... 1990s Pressure-sensory Chess Computer with LCD screen The idea of creating a chess-playing machine dates back to the eighteenth century. ...


Other positions, long believed to be won, turned out to take more moves against perfect play to actually win than were allowed by chess's fifty move rule. As a consequence, for some years the official laws of chess were changed to extend the number of moves allowed in these endings. After a while, the law reverted back to fifty moves in all positions — more such positions were discovered, complicating the rule still further, and it made no difference in human play, as they could not play the positions perfectly. The fifty move rule in chess states that a player can claim a draw if no capture has been made and no pawn has been moved in the last fifty consecutive moves. ...


Over the years, other endgame database formats have been released including the Edward Tablebases, the De Koning Endgame Database (released in 2002) and the Nalimov Endgame Tablebases which is the current standard supported by most chess programs such as Rybka, Shredder or Fritz. All endgames with five or fewer pieces have been analyzed completely. Of endgames with six men all positions have been analyzed except for positions with five pieces against a lone king [7]. Some seven-piece endgames, have been analyzed by Marc Bourzutschky and Yakov Konoval [8]. In all of these endgame databases it is assumed that castling is no longer possible. This article is about computing. ... Eugene Nalimov (born 1965 in Novosibirsk, former U.S.S.R.) is a chess programmer and Microsoft employee. ... Rybka is a computer chess engine by International Master Vasik Rajlich. ... Shredder is a very strong chess program developed in Germany by Stefan Meyer-Kahlen in 1993. ... Fritz 8 - end of game between Fritz and Fruit 2. ...


The databases are generated by storing in memory the values of positions which have been encountered so far, and using these results to lop off the ends of the search trees if they arise again. Although the number of possible games after a number of moves rises exponentially with the number of moves, the number of possible positions with a few pieces is exponential only in the number of pieces — and effectively limited however many end game moves are searched. The simple expediency of remembering the value of all previously reached positions means that the limiting factor in solving end games is simply the amount of memory available in the computer. While computer memory sizes are increasing exponentially, there is no reason why end games of increasing complexity should not continue to be solved.


A computer using these databases will, upon reaching a position in them, be able to play perfectly, and immediately determine whether the position is a win, loss or draw, plus the fastest or longest way of getting to that result. Knowledge of whether a position is a win, loss or draw is also helpful in advance since this can help the computer avoid or head towards such positions depending on the situation.


Endgame databases featured prominently in 1999, when Kasparov played an exhibition match on the Internet against the Rest of the World. A seven piece Queen and pawn endgame was reached with the World Team fighting to salvage a draw. Eugene Nalimov helped by generating the six piece ending tablebase where both sides had two Queens which was used heavily to aid analysis by both sides. Kasparov versus The World was a game of chess played in 1999 over the Internet. ... Queen. ... Initial placement of the pawns. ... Eugene Nalimov (born 1965 in Novosibirsk, former U.S.S.R.) is a chess programmer and Microsoft employee. ...


Computer chess implementation issues

GNU Chess 5.07 on WinBoard 4.2.7
GNU Chess 5.07 on WinBoard 4.2.7

Developers of chess-playing computer system must decide on a number of fundamental implementation issues. These include Image File history File links Winboard_4. ... Image File history File links Winboard_4. ... GNU Chess is a computer program for playing chess. ... Windows port of Xboard XBoard, also known as WinBoard on Microsoft operating systems, is a free graphical user interface client compatible with various chess server programs such as GNU Chess or Internet Chess Servers. ...

  • Board representation (how a single position is represented in data structures).
  • Search techniques (how to identify the possible moves and select the most promising ones for further examination),
  • Leaf evaluation (how to evaluate the value of a board position, if no further search will be done from that position).

Implementors also need to decide if they will use endgame databases or other optimizations, and often implement common de facto chess standards. In computer chess software developers must choose a data structure to represent chess positions. ...


Board representations

The data structure used to represent each chess position is key to the performance of move generation and position evaluation. Methods include pieces stored in an array ("mailbox" and "0x88"), piece positions stored in a list ("piece list"), collections of bit-sets for piece locations ("bitboards"), and huffman coded positions for compact long-term storage. In computer chess software developers must choose a data structure to represent chess positions. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In computer science and information theory, Huffman coding is an entropy encoding algorithm used for lossless data compression. ...


Search techniques

Computer chess programs consider chess moves as a game tree. In theory, they examine all moves, then all counter-moves to those moves, then all moves countering them, and so on, where each individual move by one player is called a "ply". This evaluation continues until it reaches a certain maximum search depth or the program determines that a final "leaf" position has been reached (e.g. checkmate). In game theory, a game tree is a directed graph whose nodes are positions in a game and whose edges are moves. ...


A naive implementation of this approach, however, could only search to a small depth in a practical amount of time, so various methods have been devised to greatly speed the search for good moves.


For more information, see:

“Minmax” redirects here. ... Alpha-beta pruning is a search algorithm that reduces the number of nodes that need to be evaluated in the search tree by the minimax algorithm. ... In computer chess, the killer heuristic is a technique for improving the efficiency of alpha-beta pruning. ... Iterative deepening depth-first search or IDDFS is a state space search strategy in which a depth-limited search is run repeatedly, increasing the depth limit with each iteration until it reaches , the depth of the shallowest goal state. ... In computer chess programs, the null-move heuristic is a heuristic technique used to enhance the speed of the alpha-beta pruning algorithm. ... Late Move Reduction (LMR) is a non-game specific search method which attempts to examine a game search tree more efficiently. ...

Leaf evaluation

For most chess positions, computers cannot look ahead to all final possible positions. Instead, they must look ahead a few ply and then evaluate the final board position. The algorithm that evaluates final board positions is termed the "evaluation function", and these algorithms are often vastly different between different chess programs. An evaluation function, also known as heuristic evaluation function or static evaluation function by game-playing programs to estimate the value or goodness of a position in the minimax algorithm. ...


Evaluation functions typically evaluate positions in hundredths of a pawn, and consider material value along with other factors affecting the strength of each side. When counting up the material for each side, typical values for pieces are 1 point for a pawn, 3 points for a knight or bishop, 5 points for a rook, and 9 points for a queen. (See chess piece point value.) By convention, a positive evaluation favors White, and a negative evaluation favors Black. Initial placement of the pawns. ... The knight moves in an L shape. ... A bishop (♗♝) is a piece in the board game of chess. ... A rook (♖ ♜,borrowed from Persian رخ rokh, Sanskrit roth, chariot) is a piece in the strategy board game of chess. ... Queen. ... In chess, the chess pieces are often assigned certain point values as a heuristic that help determine how valuable a piece is strategically. ...


The king is sometimes given an arbitrary high value such as 200 points (Shannon's paper) or 1,000,000,000 points (1961 USSR program) to ensure that a checkmate outweighs all other factors (Levy & Newborn 1991:45). Evaluation functions take many factors into account, such as pawn structure, the fact that a pair of bishops are usually worth more, centralized pieces are worth more, and so on. The protection of kings is usually considered, as well as the phase of the game (opening, middle or endgame). Staunton chess pieces, left to right: pawn, rook, knight, bishop, queen, and king. ... Claude Shannon Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30, 1916 – February 24, 2001), an American electrical engineer and mathematician, has been called the father of information theory, and was the founder of practical digital circuit design theory. ... 1990s Pressure-sensory Chess Computer with LCD screen The idea of creating a chess-playing machine dates back to the eighteenth century. ... An evaluation function, also known as heuristic evaluation function or static evaluation function by game-playing programs to estimate the value or goodness of a position in the minimax algorithm. ...


See Claude Elwood Shannon for a description of his early paper about a chess-playing program. Claude Shannon Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30, 1916 – February 24, 2001), an American electrical engineer and mathematician, has been called the father of information theory, and was the founder of practical digital circuit design theory. ...


Using endgame databases

Main article: Endgame tablebase

Some computer chess operators have pointed out that endgame tablebases have the potential to weaken performance strength in chess computers if incorrectly used. Because some positions are analyzed as forced wins for one side, the program will avoid the losing side of positions at all costs. However, many endgames are forced wins only with flawless play, where even a slight error would produce a different result. Consequently, most modern engines will play many endgames well enough on their own. A symptom of this problem is that computers may resign too early because they see that they are being forced into a position that is theoretically dead lost (although they may be thirty or more moves away from the end of the game, and most human opponents would find it hard to win in that time). This observation is only relevant when a computer program is in a situation where it has a choice between two losing moves, one of which is actually more difficult for the opponent, but leads to a tablebase position with a known value, and is hence of very minor importance. A typical interface for querying a tablebase. ... A typical interface for querying a tablebase. ...


The Nalimov tablebases do not consider the fifty move rule, under which a game where fifty moves pass without a capture or pawn move can be claimed to be a draw by either player. This results in the tablebase returning results such as "Forced mate in sixty-six moves" in some positions which would actually be drawn because of the fifty move rule. However, a correctly programmed engine does know about the fifty move rule, and in any case if using an endgame tablebase will choose the move that leads to the quickest win (even if it would fall foul of the fifty move rule with perfect play). If playing an opponent not using a tablebase, such a choice will give good chances of winning within fifty moves. The fifty move rule in chess states that a player can claim a draw if no capture has been made and no pawn has been moved in the last fifty consecutive moves. ...


One reason for this is that if the rules of chess were to be changed once more, giving more time to win such positions, it will not be necessary to regenerate all the tablebases. It is also very easy for the program using the tablebases to notice and take account of this 'feature'.


The Nalimov tablebases, which use state-of-the-art compression techniques, require 7.05 GB of hard disk space for all five-piece endings. To cover all the six-piece endings requires approximately 1.2 terabyte. It is estimated that seven-piece tablebases will require more storage capacity than will be available in the foreseeable future.[citation needed] This article is about the unit of measurement. ... This article is about a measurement term for data storage capacity. ...


It is surprising, but easily verified, that without an endgame tablebase even otherwise very strong chess engines may fail to find a winning plan even in endings with six or fewer pieces, when they need more moves than the calculation horizon to achieve a checkmate, a win of material or the advance of a pawn. Many endings require more moves than their calculation horizon.


Other optimizations

Many other optimizations can be used to make chess-playing programs stronger. For example, transposition tables are used to record positions that have been previously evaluated, to save recalculation of them. Refutation tables record key moves that "refute" what appears to be a good move; these are typically tried first in variant positions (since a move that refutes one position is likely to refute another). Opening books aid computer programs by giving common openings that are considered good play (and good ways to counter poor openings). In computer chess and other computer games, transposition tables are used to speed up the search of the game tree. ...


Of course, faster hardware and additional processors can improve chess-playing program abilities, and some systems (such as Deep Blue) use specialized chess hardware instead of solely software implementations. Kasparov vs. ...


Standards

Computer chess programs usually support a number of common de facto standards. Nearly all of today's programs can read and write game moves as Portable Game Notation (PGN), and can read and write individual positions as Forsyth-Edwards Notation (FEN). Older chess programs often only understood long algebraic notation, but today users expect chess programs to understand standard algebraic chess notation. Portable Game Notation (.PGN) is a computer-processable format for recording chess games (both the moves and related data); many chess programs recognize this extremely popular format due to its accessibility by ordinary ascii editors, including word processors capable of importing and exporting plain ascii. ... Forsyth-Edwards Notation (FEN) is a standard notation for describing a particular board position of a Chess game. ... Chessboard notation Algebraic chess notation is used to record and describe the moves in a game of chess. ... Chessboard notation Algebraic chess notation is used to record and describe the moves in a game of chess. ...


Most computer chess programs are divided into an engine (which computes the best move given a current position) and a user interface. Most engines are separate programs from the user interface, and the two parts communicate to each other using a public communication protocol. The most popular protocol is the Xboard/Winboard Communication protocol. Another open alternate chess communication protocol is the Universal Chess Interface. By dividing chess programs into these two pieces, developers can write only the user interface, or only the engine, without needing to write both parts of the program. (See also List of chess engines.) Windows port of Xboard XBoard, also known as WinBoard on Microsoft operating systems, is a free graphical user interface client compatible with various chess server programs such as GNU Chess or Internet Chess Servers. ... The Universal Chess Interface (UCI) is an open communication protocol that enables a chess program’s engine to communicate with its user interface. ... A chess engine is a computer program that can play the game of chess, it can also refer not just to a program, but to a whole hardware machine. ...


Playing strength versus computer speed

It has been estimated that doubling the computer speed gains approximately fifty to seventy ELO points in playing strength (Levy and Newborn 1991:192). Chess Go The Elo rating system is a method for calculating the relative skill levels of players in two-player games such as chess and Go. ...


However, this applies mainly to computer-vs-computer matches, and not to computer-vs-human matches.[citation needed]


Other chess software

There are several other forms of chess-related computer software, including the following: It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Computer program. ...

  • Chess game viewers allow players to view a pre-recorded game on a computer. Most chess-playing programs can be also used for this purpose, but some special-purpose software exists.
  • Chess instruction software is designed to teach chess.
  • Chess databases are systems which allow the searching of a large library of historical games. Shane's Chess Information Database (Scid) is a good example of a chess database. Scid[4] may be used under Microsoft Windows, UNIX, Linux and Mac OS X. There are also commercial databases, such as Chessbase and Chess Assistant[5] for Windows and ExaChess[6] for Mac OSX.
  • Software for handling chess problems

Shanes Chess Information Database (SCID) is a popular free UNIX, Windows, Linux, and Mac database application for viewing and maintaining databases of chess games. ... “Windows” redirects here. ... Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®) is a computer operating system originally developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... Mac OS X (IPA: ) is a line of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... ChessBase is the dominant commercial database program for storing and searching records of games of chess. ... Software for chess problems is a category of software intended for handling chess problems, usually distinct from chess playing and analyzing programs. ...

Advanced chess

Advanced Chess is a form of chess developed in 1998 by Kasparov where a human plays against another human, and both have access to computers to enhance their strength. The resulting "advanced" player was argued by Kasparov to be stronger than a human or computer alone, although this has not been proven. Advanced Chess (sometimes called cyborg chess or centaur chess) is a relatively new form of chess, first introduced by grandmaster Garry Kasparov, with the objective of a human player and a computer chess program playing as a team against other such pairs. ...


Computer chess theorists

Well-known computer chess theorists include:

David N L Levy (b. ... Dr. Robert (Bob) Hyatt is an Associate Professor of Computer science at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. ... Crafty is a term used in World Of Warcraft to describe someone who plays the game 24/7 - sometimes longer. ... Hans Jack Berliner (born January 27, 1929) Professor of Computer Science at Carnegie Mellon University, is a former World Correspondence Chess Champion. ... Claude Shannon Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30, 1916 – February 24, 2001), an American electrical engineer and mathematician, has been called the father of information theory, and was the founder of practical digital circuit design theory. ...

The future of computer chess

One potentially fruitful field of research is in distributed computation, where many computers are joined together through the Internet and are each tasked with a small section of the overall search tree to analyse. The leading project is the ChessBrain project, which gained a world record in 2004 for the largest number of computers ever playing a game of chess simultaneously (2,070).


Solving chess

The prospects of completely solving chess are generally considered to be rather remote. It is widely conjectured that there is no computationally inexpensive method to solve chess even in this very weak sense, and hence the idea of solving chess in the stronger sense of obtaining a practically usable description of a strategy for perfect play for either side seems unrealistic today. However, it should be noted that neither has it been proven that no computationally cheap way of determining the best move in a chess position exists, nor has it even been proven mathematically that a traditional alpha-beta-searcher running on present-day computing hardware could not solve the initial position in an acceptable amount of time. The difficulty in proving the latter lies in the fact that, while the number of board positions that could happen in the course of a chess game is huge (on the order of 1040[9]), it is hard to rule out with mathematical certainty the possibility that the initial position allows either side to force a mate or a three-fold repetition after relatively few moves, in which case the search tree might encompass only a very small subset of the set of possible positions. Still, it can certainly be said that nothing indicates a practical possibility of solving chess at present in any sense of the word. A two player game can be solved on several levels [1] [2]: Ultra-weak In the weakest sense, solving a game means proving whether the first player will win, lose, or draw from the initial position, given perfect play on both sides. ... In chess, the threefold repetition rule states that a player can claim a draw if the same position occurs three times, or will occur after their next move, with the same player to move, and with each player having the same set of legal moves each time, including the right...


Chronology of computer chess

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a6 b6 c6 d6 e6 f6
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Los Alamos chess. This simplified version of chess was played in 1956 by the MANIAC I computer.
  • 1769, Wolfgang von Kempelen builds the Automaton Chess-Player, in what becomes one of the greatest hoaxes of its period.
  • 1868, Charles Hooper presented the Ajeeb automaton — which also had a human chess player hidden inside.
  • 1912, Leonardo Torres y Quevedo builds a machine that could play King and Rook versus King endgames.
  • 1948, Norbert Wiener's book Cybernetics describes how a chess program could be developed using a depth-limited minimax search with an evaluation function.
  • 1950, Claude Shannon publishes "Programming a Computer for Playing Chess", one of the first papers on the problem of computer chess.
  • 1951, Alan Turing develops on paper the first program capable of playing a full game of chess.

[10] [11] Image File history File links Chess_z6hor_26. ... Image File history File links Chess_z6ver_26. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links This image is used in the standard chess diagram template. ... Image File history File links Chess_z6ver_26. ... Image File history File links Chess_z6hor_26. ... Los Alamos chess Los Alamos chess (or anti-clerical chess) is a chess variant played on 6x6 board without bishops. ... The MANIAC I (Mathematical Analyzer, Numerical Integrator, and Computer), an early computer built by Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, was based on the Institute for Advanced Study (IAS) architecture developed by John von Neumann. ... Wolfgang von (de Pámánd) Kempelen or Ján Vlk Kempelen or Farkas Kempelen (born 23 January 1734 in Pressburg (today Bratislava), died 26 March 1804 in Vienna) was an author and inventor, who became most famous for his construction of the Mechanical Turk, which was a first-class... An engraving of the Turk from Karl Gottlieb von Windischs 1784 book Inanimate Reason The Turk was a famous hoax that purported to be a chess-playing machine. ... Ajeeb was a chess-playing automaton, created by Charles Hooper (a cabinet maker), first presented at the Royal Polytechnical Institute in 1868. ... Leonardo Torres y Quevedo (28 December 1852 – 18 December 1936), usually Leonardo Torres Quevedo in Spanish-speaking countries, was a Spanish engineer and mathematician of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. ... Norbert Wiener Norbert Wiener (November 26, 1894, Columbia, Missouri – March 18, 1964, Stockholm Sweden) was an American theoretical and applied mathematician. ... An evaluation function, also known as heuristic evaluation function or static evaluation function by game-playing programs to estimate the value or goodness of a position in the minimax algorithm. ... Claude Shannon Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30, 1916 – February 24, 2001), an American electrical engineer and mathematician, has been called the father of information theory,[1] and was the founder of practical digital circuit design theory. ... Alan Mathison Turing, OBE, FRS (23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English mathematician, logician, and cryptographer. ...

Los Alamos chess Los Alamos chess (or anti-clerical chess) is a chess variant played on 6x6 board without bishops. ... The MANIAC I (Mathematical Analyzer, Numerical Integrator, and Computer), an early computer built by Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, was based on the Institute for Advanced Study (IAS) architecture developed by John von Neumann. ... John McCarthy (born September 4, 1927, in Boston, Massachusetts, sometimes known affectionately as Uncle John McCarthy), is a prominent computer scientist who received the Turing Award in 1971 for his major contributions to the field of Artificial Intelligence. ... BESM BESM (БЭСМ) is the name of a series of Russian mainframe computers. ... A chess board. ... “MIT” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... The entrance to ITEP (?) ITEP (Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics; Russian Институт теоретической и экспериментальн&#1086... “Stanford” redirects here. ... A chess board. ... Richard D. Greenblatt is an American programmer. ... In computer chess and other computer games, transposition tables are used to speed up the search of the game tree. ... World Computer Chess Championship (WCCC) is an annual event where computer chess engines compete against each other. ... Kaissa (Russian: ) was a chess program developed in Soviet Union in the 1960s. ... World Computer Chess Championship (WCCC) is an annual event where computer chess engines compete against each other. ... The International Computer Games Association (ICGA) was founded as the International Computer Chess Association (ICCA) in 1977 by computer chess programmers to organise championship events for computer programs and to facilitate the sharing of technical knowledge via the ICCA Journal. ... Chess was a pioneering chess program from the 1970s, authored by Larry Atkin and David Slate at Northwestern University. ... World Computer Chess Championship (WCCC) is an annual event where computer chess engines compete against each other. ... Cray Blitz was a computer chess program written by Robert Hyatt. ... Ken Thompson Kenneth Thompson (born February 4, 1943) is a pioneer of computer science notable for his contributions to the development of the C programming language and the UNIX operating system. ... Belle was the name of a chess computer developed by J. H. Condon and Ken Thompson in the early 1980s. ... High tech refers to high technology, technology that is at the cutting-edge and the most advanced currently available. ... Hans Jack Berliner (born January 27, 1929) Professor of Computer Science at Carnegie Mellon University, is a former World Correspondence Chess Champion. ... The title Grandmaster is awarded to world-class chess masters by the world chess organization FIDE. Apart from World Champion, Grandmaster is the highest title a chess player can attain. ... Arnold Sheldon Denker (February 20, 1914 – January 2, 2005) was an American chess player. ... Deep Thought was a computer designed to play chess. ... Anthony John Miles (April 23, 1955 – November 12, 2001) was an English chess player. ... Mikhail Tal (Latvian: ; Russian: , Mikhail Nekhemievich Tal, IPA: ) (November 9, 1936–June 28, 1992) was a Soviet-Latvian chess player, and the eighth World Chess Champion. ... Samuel Herman (Sammy) Reshevsky (born Szmul Rzeszewski, November 26, 1911, Ozorków, (then German Empire, today Poland) - died April 4, 1992, New York, USA) was a leading American chess Grandmaster. ... Walter Browne (born 1949) is a chess player. ... Ernst Franz Grünfeld (November 21, 1893 – April 3, 1962), chess player specializing in opening theory and author, was for a brief period after the First World War one of the strongest chess players in the world. ... Mikhail Gurevich playing the Cambridge Springs Defence for Bundesliga club side SG Porz Mikhail Naumovich Gurevich (born February 22, 1959 in Kharkov, USSR) is a Russian chess player residing since 2005 in Turkey. ... Bent Larsen Bent Larsen (born March 4, 1935) is a Danish chess player. ... Chess Go The Elo rating system is a method for calculating the relative skill levels of players in two-player games such as chess and Go. ... Garry Kimovich Kasparov (IPA: ; Russian: ) (born April 13, 1963, in Baku, Azerbaijan SSR) (now Azerbaijan) is a Russian chess grandmaster, former World Chess Champion, writer and political activist. ... The Commodore 64 was one of the most popular microcomputers of its era, and is the best selling home computer of all time. ... The ChessMachine was a chess computer sold between 1991 and 1995 by TASC (The Advanced Software Company). ... World Computer Chess Championship (WCCC) is an annual event where computer chess engines compete against each other. ... For other uses, see Mainframe. ... A supercomputer is a computer that led the world (or was close to doing so) in terms of processing capacity, particularly speed of calculation, at the time of its introduction. ... Kasparov vs. ... Garry Kimovich Kasparov (IPA: ; Russian: ) (born April 13, 1963, in Baku, Azerbaijan SSR) (now Azerbaijan) is a Russian chess grandmaster, former World Chess Champion, writer and political activist. ... Vladimir Borisovich Kramnik (Russian: ) (born June 25, 1975) is a Russian chess grandmaster and the current World Chess Champion. ... Deep Fritz is a multi-processor version of the computer chess engine Fritz written by Frans Morsch and Mathias Feist. ... Deep Junior is a computer chess program authored by the Israeli programmers Amir Ban and Shay Bushinsky. ... X3D Fritz is the version of the chess playing program Fritz which in November 2003 played a four game match against world number one Grandmaster Garry Kasparov. ... Hydra is a chess machine, designed by a team with Dr. Christian Chrilly Donninger, Ulf Lorenz, GM Christopher Lutz and Muhammad Nasir Ali. ... Michael Adams (born November 17, 1971 in Truro, Cornwall, England) is an International Grandmaster of chess. ... Hydra is a chess machine, designed by a team with Dr. Christian Chrilly Donninger, Ulf Lorenz, GM Christopher Lutz and Muhammad Nasir Ali. ... Deep Junior is a computer chess program authored by the Israeli programmers Amir Ban and Shay Bushinsky. ... Fritz 8 - end of game between Fritz and Fruit 2. ... Veselin Topalov (IPA: ; Bulgarian: ) (born 15 March 1975) is a Bulgarian chess grandmaster and former FIDE world champion. ... Ruslan Ponomariov (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ) (born October 11, 1983) is a Ukrainian chess player and former FIDE world champion. ... Sergey Karjakin (Ukrainian: Сергій Карякін; Russian: Сергей Карякин) (born January 12, 1990 in Kramatorsk) of Ukraine became the youngest chess grandmaster in history at the age of 12 years and 7 months. ... Chess Go The Elo rating system is a method for calculating the relative skill levels of players in two-player games such as chess and Go. ... Vladimir Borisovich Kramnik (Russian: ) (born June 25, 1975) is a Russian chess grandmaster and the current World Chess Champion. ... Deep Fritz is a multi-processor version of the computer chess engine Fritz written by Frans Morsch and Mathias Feist. ...

See also

Advanced Chess (sometimes called cyborg chess or centaur chess) is a relatively new form of chess, first introduced by grandmaster Garry Kasparov, with the objective of a human player and a computer chess program playing as a team against other such pairs. ... Arimaa is a two-player abstract strategy board game that can be played using the same equipment as chess. ... Chess Engines Grand Tournament, also known as CEGT, is one of the best known organizations that test computer chess software by playing chess programs against one another and producing a rating list. ... A chess engine is a computer program that can play the game of chess. ... One of 960 possible starting positions. ... Computer go is the field of artificial intelligence (AI) dedicated to creating a computer program that plays go, an ancient board game. ... The Computer Olympiads are a multi-games event taking place every year in which computer programs compete against each other. ... An Internet chess server (ICS) is a server to facilitate the play, discussion, and viewing of chess over the Internet. ... The Swedish Chess Computer Association (Svenska schackdatorföreningen (SSDF) in Swedish) is an organization that tests computer chess software by playing chess programs against one another and producing a rating list. ... World Computer Chess Championship (WCCC) is an annual event where computer chess engines compete against each other. ...

Notes

  1. ^ compurtechess.org.uk, Swedish Chess Computer Association Rating List, Husvankempen, Sedatchess, computerschach.de
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ Rybkachess.com
  4. ^ [2]
  5. ^ http://www.rebel.nl/anand.htm
  6. ^ http://www.chessbase.com/newsdetail.asp?newsid=2476
  7. ^ http://kd.lab.nig.ac.jp/chess/tablebases-online/
  8. ^ http://www.xs4all.nl/~timkr/chess2/diary_16.htm
  9. ^ The size of the state space and game tree for chess were first estimated in Claude Shannon (1950). "Programming a Computer for Playing Chess". Philosophical Magazine 41 (314).  Shannon gave estimates of 1043 and 10120 respectively, smaller than the estimates in the Game complexity table, which are from Victor Allis's thesis. See Shannon number for details.
  10. ^ Chess, a subsection of chapter 25, Digital Computers Applied to Games, of Faster than Thought, ed. B. V. Bowden, Pitman, London (1953). Online http://www.turingarchive.org/browse.php/B/7
  11. ^ [3] A game played by Turing's chess algorithm

Claude Shannon Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30, 1916 – February 24, 2001), an American electrical engineer and mathematician, has been called the father of information theory,[1] and was the founder of practical digital circuit design theory. ... Combinatorial game theory has several ways of measuring game complexity. ... L. Victor Allis is a Dutch computer expert who works to find better ways of developing artificial intelligence. ... The Shannon number, 1078, is an estimation of the game-tree complexity of chess. ...

References

  • Levy, David & Monty Newborn (1991), How Computers Play Chess, Computer Science Press, ISBN 0-7167-8121-2
  • Nunn, John (2002), Secrets of Pawnless Endings, Gambit Publications, ISBN 1-901983-65-X
  • Shannon, Claude E. (1950), "Programming a Computer for Playing Chess", Philosophical Magazine Ser.7, Vol. 41(314)
  • Mastering the Game: A History of Computer Chess at Computer History Museum
  • Bill Wall's Computer Chess History Timeline

David Neil Lawrence Levy (b. ... John Denis Martin Nunn (born April 25, 1955) is an English chess player and mathematician. ... Claude Shannon Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30, 1916 – February 24, 2001), an American electrical engineer and mathematician, has been called the father of information theory, and was the founder of practical digital circuit design theory. ...

External links

  • History of computer chess
  • Defending Humanity's Honor, an article by Tim Krabbé about "anti-computer style" chess
  • Computer-Chess Club - Bulletin board where professional authors discuss their programs
  • A guide to Endgame Tablebases
  • Omid David Tabibi's Computer Chess Publications
  • GameDev.net -- Chess Programming by François-Dominic Laramée
  • Colin Frayn's Computer Chess Theory Page
  • "How REBEL Plays Chess" by Ed SchröderPDF (268 KiB)
  • "Play chess with God" - Play chess against Ken Thompson's endgame database
  • "http://www.top-5000.nl/" - Ed Schröder's Big collection of computer chess programs, and technical papers
  • "Overtom Computer Chess Museum" - Online computer chess museum and blog
  • Media
    • The History of Computer Chess: An AI Perspective. Watch Full Lecture - WMV 183MB | Google Video featuring Murray Campbell (IBM Deep Blue Project), Edward Feigenbaum, David Levy, John McCarthy, and Monty Newborn. at Computer History Museum
    • The History of Computer Chess Video (2 hour video - series of lectures)
    • The History of Computer Chess: An AI Perspective (2 hour video)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Computer chess - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4557 words)
The prime motivations for computerized chess playing have been solo entertainment (allowing players to practice and to amuse themselves when no human opponents are available), as aids to chess analysis, for computer chess competitions, and as research to provide insights into human cognition.
For this reason, computer chess, (as with other games, like scrabble) is no longer of great academic interest to researchers in artificial intelligence, and has largely been replaced by more intuitive games such as Go as a testing paradigm.
Advanced Chess is a form of chess developed in 1998 by Kasparov where a human plays against another human, and both have access to computers to enhance their strength.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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